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Sample records for human enterocyte-like ht-29

  1. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

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    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29

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    Zhung-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (109 cfu/mL and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups (p < 0.05, which therefore led to the inference that the BCRC17010 strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (109 cfu/mL demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (p < 0.05, causing harm to the HT-29 cell membrane; further, after an 8-h co-culture with the HT-29 cells, it induced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO from the HT-29 cells. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus on the Growth of Human Colonic Carcinoma Cell Line HT-29.

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    Chen, Zhung-Yuan; Hsieh, You-Miin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus cells and supernatants on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Our study results indicated that the PM153 strain exhibits the best adhesion ability and the highest survival in the gastrointestinal tract simulation experiment. Furthermore, after an 8-h co-culture of PM153 and HT-29 cells, the PM153 strain can induce the secretion of nitric oxide from the HT-29 cells. In addition, after the co-culture of the BCRC17010 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) and HT-29 cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the HT-29 cells was 1.19, which showed a significant difference from the other control and LAB groups ( p strain exerts a pro-apoptotic effect on the HT-29 cells. Upon co-culture with HT-29 cells for 4, 8 and 12 h, the BCRC14625 strain (10⁸ cfu/mL) demonstrated a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity ( p strains have ability to inhibit the growth of the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29 Bax/Bcl-2 pathway or NO production. In summary, we demonstrated that the BCRC17010 strain, good abilities of adhesion and increased LDH release, was the best probiotic potential for inhibition of HT-29 growth amongst the seven LAB strains tested in vitro.

  4. Methanolic extracts of Uncaria rhynchophylla induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

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    Jo, Kyung-Jin; Cha, Mi-Ran; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoon, Mi-Young; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we report the anticancer activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts, a Rubiaceae plant native to China. Traditionally, Uncaria rhynchophylla has been used in the prevention and treatment of neurotoxicity. However, the cytotoxic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla against human colon carcinoma cells has not, until now, been elucidated. We found that the methanolic extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (URE) have cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells. The URE showed highly cytotoxic effects via the MTT reduction assay, LDH release assay, and colony formation assay. As expected, URE inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the methanolic URE of the 500 microg/ml showed 15.8% inhibition against growth of HT-29 cells. It induced characteristic apoptotic effects in HT-29 cells, including chromatin condensation and sharking occurring 24 h when the cells were treated at a concentration of the 500 microg/ml. The activation of caspase-3 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were detected over the course of apoptosis induction. These results indicate that URE contains bioactive materials with strong activity, and is a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells.

  5. Effect of sulindac sulfide on metallohydrolases in the human colon cancer cell line HT-29.

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    Hector Guillen-Ahlers

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7, a metallohydrolase involved in the development of several cancers, is downregulated in the Apc(Min/+ colon cancer mouse model following sulindac treatment. To determine whether this effect is relevant to the human condition, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were treated with sulindac and its metabolites, and compared to results obtained from in vivo mouse studies. The expression of MMP7 was monitored. The results demonstrated that sulindac sulfide effectively downregulated both MMP7 expression and activity. Furthermore, activity-based proteomics demonstrated that sulindac sulfide dramatically decreased the activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in HT-29 cells as reflected by a decrease in the level of its product, leukotriene B4. This study demonstrates that the effect of sulindac treatment in a mouse model of colon cancer may be relevant to the human counterpart and highlights the effect of sulindac treatment on metallohydrolases.

  6. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline; Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. ► TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. ► BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  7. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

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    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abujamra, Ana Lucia [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schwartsmann, Gilberto [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  8. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by undifferentiated and differentiated HT29 human colonic cancer cells.

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    Simon-Assmann, P; Bouziges, F; Daviaud, D; Haffen, K; Kedinger, M

    1987-08-15

    Among the extracellular matrix components which have been suggested to be involved in developmental and neoplastic changes are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To try to correlate their amount and nature with the process of enterocytic differentiation, we studied glycosaminoglycan synthesis of human colonic adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cell line) by [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate incorporation. Enterocytic differentiation of the cells obtained in a sugar-free medium (for review, see A. Zweibaum et al. In: Handbook of Physiology. Intestinal Transport of the Gastrointestinal System, in press, 1987) resulted in a marked increase in total incorporation of labeled precursors (20-fold for [3H]glucosamine, 4.5-fold for [35S]sulfate) as well as in uronic acid content (5-fold); most of the synthesized GAGs were found associated with the cell pellet. Chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis of the labeled GAGs revealed that undifferentiated cells synthesized and secreted hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and one class of chondroitin sulfate. Differentiation of HT29 cells because associated with the synthesis of an additional class of chondroitin sulfate (CS4) concomitant to a decrease in heparan sulfate which is no longer found secreted in the medium. Furthermore, the charge density of this latter GAG component varied as assessed by a shift of its affinity on ion-exchange chromatography.

  9. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

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    Negoro, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takayama, Kazuo [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Keihanshin Consortium for Fostering the Next Generation of Global Leaders in Research (K-CONNEX), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nagamoto, Yasuhito [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Sakurai, Fuminori [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Regulatory Sciences for Oligonucleotide Therapeutics, Clinical Drug Development Project, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tachibana, Masashi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: mizuguch@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  10. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  11. Geoditin A Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis on Human Colon HT29 Cells

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    Wing-Keung Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoditin A, an isomalabaricane triterpene isolated from the marine sponge Geodia japonica, has been demonstrated to dissipate mitochondrial membrane potential, activate caspase 3, decrease cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and induce apoptosis of leukemia cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear [1]. In this study, we found fragmentation of Golgi structure, suppression of transferrin receptor expression, production of oxidants, and DNA fragmentation in human colon cancer HT29 cells after treatment with geoditin A for 24 h. This apoptosis was not abrogated by chelation of intracellular iron with salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH, but suppressed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a thiol antioxidant and GSH precursor, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of geoditin A is likely mediated by a NAC-inhibitable oxidative stress. Our results provide a better understanding of the apoptotic properties and chemotherapeutical potential of this marine triterpene.

  12. Purine-Metabolizing Ectoenzymes Control IL-8 Production in Human Colon HT-29 Cells

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    Fariborz Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-8 (IL-8 plays key roles in both chronic inflammatory diseases and tumor modulation. We previously observed that IL-8 secretion and function can be modulated by nucleotide (P2 receptors. Here we investigated whether IL-8 release by intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, a cancer cell line, is modulated by extracellular nucleotide metabolism. We first identified that HT-29 cells regulated adenosine and adenine nucleotide concentration at their surface by the expression of the ectoenzymes NTPDase2, ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and adenylate kinase. The expression of the ectoenzymes was evaluated by RT-PCR, qPCR, and immunoblotting, and their activity was analyzed by RP-HPLC of the products and by detection of Pi produced from the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and AMP. In response to poly (I:C, with or without ATP and/or ADP, HT-29 cells released IL-8 and this secretion was modulated by the presence of NTPDase2 and adenylate kinase. Taken together, these results demonstrate the presence of 3 ectoenzymes at the surface of HT-29 cells that control nucleotide levels and adenosine production (NTPDase2, ecto-5′-nucleotidase and adenylate kinase and that P2 receptor-mediated signaling controls IL-8 release in HT-29 cells which is modulated by the presence of NTPDase2 and adenylate kinase.

  13. Bacterial invasion of HT29-MTX-E12 monolayers: effects of human breast milk.

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    Hall, Tim; Dymock, David; Corfield, Anthony P; Weaver, Gillian; Woodward, Mark; Berry, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The supramucosal gel, crucial for gut barrier function, might be compromised in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Breast milk is associated with a reduced incidence of NEC. We compared the effects of human breast milk (BM) versus a neonatal formula, Nutriprem 1 (FF), on adherence, internalisation, and penetration of NEC-associated Escherichia coli through monolayers of mucus producing intestinal cells, HT29-MTX-E12 (E12). E12 cells were grown to confluence on membranes permeable to bacteria. E. coli, reference strain and isolated from a NEC-affected intestine, were cultured in LB broth, labelled with fluorescein and biotinylated. Bacteria were suspended in tissue culture medium (TC) or mixtures of TC with BM or FF and applied to the E12 cultures. Bacterial numbers were assessed by fluorescence. DyLight 650-labelled neutravidin, which cannot cross cell membrane, evaluated extracellular bacteria. Fluorescence of basolateral medium was measured to quantify translocation. Bacterial concentrations were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. After 1h exposure, E12 cultures adhered or internalised more NEC-derived bacteria than standard strain E. coli and more suspended in FF than BM (Pmilk was associated with relatively less adhesion and internalisation of NEC-associated E. coli to mucus covered E12s compared to formula milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

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    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  15. Mechanisms underlying apoptosis-inducing effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

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    Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-02-17

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0-60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway.

  16. Synergistic inhibitory effects of curcumin and 5-fluorouracil on the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29.

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    Du, Boyu; Jiang, Liping; Xia, Quan; Zhong, Laifu

    2006-01-01

    The synergistic effect of combination treatment with COX-2 inhibitors and chemotherapy may be another promising therapy regimen in the future treatment of colorectal cancer. Curcumin, a major yellow pigment in turmeric which is used widely all over the world, inhibits the growth of human colon cancer cell line HT-29 significantly and specifically inhibits the expression of COX-2 protein. However, the worldwide exposure of populations to curcumin raised the question of whether this agent would enhance or inhibit the effects of chemotherapy. In this report, we evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin and a traditional chemotherapy agent, 5-FU, against the proliferation of a human colon cancer cell line (HT-29). The combination effect was quantitatively determined using the method of median-effect principle and the combination index. The inhibition of COX-2 expression after treatment with the curcumin-5-FU combination was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. The IC(50) value in the HT-29 cells for curcumin was 15.9 +/- 1.96 microM and for 5-FU it was 17.3 +/- 1.85 microM. When curcumin and 5-FU were used concurrently, synergistic inhibition of growth was quantitatively demonstrated. The level of COX-2 protein expression was reduced almost 6-fold after the combination treatment. Our results demonstrate synergism between curcumin and 5-FU at higher doses against the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. This synergism was associated with the decreased expression of COX-2 protein. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with commensal bacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus salivarius), or with Salmonella typhimurium, its flagellin, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, or Mycobacterium smegmatis for varying times. In some studies, HT-29 cells were pre-treated with a commensal strain for 2 hr prior to infection or flagellin stimulation. CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. Conversely, B. infantis, L. salivarius or M. smegmatis did not activate NF-kappaB or augment CCL20 or IL-8 production. Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the data indicate that M. paratuberculosis may mediate mucosal damage and that B. infantis can exert immunomodulatory effects on IECs that mediate host responses to flagellin and flagellated enteric pathogens.

  18. Milk fat globule membrane isolate induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

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    Zanabria, Romina; Tellez, Angela M; Griffiths, Mansel; Corredig, Milena

    2013-02-01

    A native milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) isolate obtained from raw milk was assessed for its anticarcinogenic capacity using a colon cancer cell line (HT-29). To prevent microbial contamination and eliminate the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the milk used for MFGM isolation, the milk was obtained from the mammary glands of cows using a catheter. Cell proliferation assays demonstrated a reduction of exponentially growing cancer cells of up to 53%, expressed as DNA synthesis (BrdU test), after 72 h stimulation with 100 μg of MFGM protein per mL. Using a similar MFGM concentration, the sulforhodamine B assay resulted in 57% reduction of cell density after 48 h incubation. This bioactivity was comparable to that of known anticancer drugs, 0.1 mM melphalan and 20 μM C2-ceramide, which achieved a cell division reduction of 25 and 40%, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. The toxic effect of the MFGM extracts on HT-29 cells was confirmed by the significant reduction in lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) by the residual viable cells. An increase of caspase-3 activity (up to 26%) led to the conclusion that MFGM has an apoptotic effect on HT-29 cancer cells.

  19. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin exert antitumor activities on human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) by activating various signaling pathways.

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    Jiang, Rulan; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present at high concentrations in milk. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a peptide fragment generated by pepsin proteolysis of bovine lactoferrin (bLf). LfcinB consists of amino acid residues 17-41 proximal to the N-terminus of bLf and a disulfide bond between residues 19 and 36, forming a loop. Both bLf and LfcinB have been demonstrated to have antitumor activities. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in developed countries. We hypothesized that bLf and LfcinB exert antitumor activities on colon cancer cells (HT-29) by triggering various signaling pathways. bLf and LfcinB significantly induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells but not in normal human intestinal epithelial cells, as revealed by the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. The LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay showed that both bLf and LfcinB reduced the viability of HT-29 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated that bLf, cyclic LfcinB, and linear LfcinB exerted antitumor activities by differentially activating diverse signaling pathways, including p53, apoptosis, and angiopoietin signaling. Immunoblotting results confirmed that both bLf and LfcinBs increased expression of caspase-8, p53, and p21, critical proteins in tumor suppression. These results provide valuable information regarding bLf and LfcinB for potential clinical applications in colon cancer therapy.

  20. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Abd Ghafar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β-sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  1. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells in SCID mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fang; Chen, Yung-Liang; Lee, Mei-Hui; Shih, Yung-Luen; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Su-Tso; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as 'Cogumelo do Sol' in Brazil, or 'Himematsutake' in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses and is now considered one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. This study is the first tumor growth model to evaluate the amelioratory effect of ABM extract using HT-29 human colon cancer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Forty SCID mice were inoculated with HT-29 cells to induce tumor formation and were then divided into four groups. All the four groups (control, low, medium and high concentration treatment) of mice were separately orally administered 0 mg, 1.125 mg, 4.5 mg or 45 mg ABM extract daily. After six weeks of treatment, 8 out of the 40 mice had not survived including one mouse which scored +++ (tumor up to 15 mm diameter) and four mice which scored ++++ (tumor over 15 mm diameter) in the control group and three mice which scored ++++ on the low-dose ABM treatment. After high- or medium-dose treatment, all ten mice in each group survived. The oral administration of ABM does not prevent tumor growth, as shown by increased tumor mass, but compared with the control group, the tumor mass seems to grow more slowly depending on the ABM dose.

  2. Effect of carrageenans alone and in combination with casein or lipopolysaccharide on human epithelial intestinal HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E V; Kuz'mich, A S; Byankina, A O; Yermak, I M

    2017-10-01

    The research described here was focused on the effect on human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers of sulfated red algal polysaccharides (κ-, λ-, and κ/β-carrageenans) alone and in combination with casein or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HT-29 cells were investigated under normal and stress conditions; stress was induced by exposure to ethanol. Cell viability was monitored with a real-time system. The change in binding properties of negatively sulfated red algal polysaccharides assessed by the measurement of free carrageenans in mixtures with casein or McCoy's 5 A culture medium by means of toluidine blue O. Low sulfate content and the presence of 3,6-anhydogalactose are prerequisites for the recovery of ethanol-exposed HT-29 cells by carrageenans. Analysis of carrageenan binding ability confirmed that casein and LPS should affect carrageenan activity. Whether the combined action of the mucin-containing layer and carrageenans or the action of carrageenans alone was responsible for enhanced cell viability under stress conditions induced by ethanol is a subject for further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2843-2850, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Morusin induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-κB activity in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-C.; Won, S.-J.; Chao, C.-L.; Wu, F.-L.; Liu, H.-S.; Ling Pin; Lin, C.-N.; Su, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Morusin is a pure compound isolated from root bark of Morusaustralis (Moraceae). In this study, we demonstrated that morusin significantly inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. Apoptosis induced by morusin was characterized by accumulation of cells at the sub-G 1 phase, fragmentation of DNA, and condensation of chromatin. Morusin also inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK-α, IKK-β and IκB-α, increased expression of IκB-α, and suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its DNA binding activity. Dephosphorylation of NF-κB upstream regulators PI3K, Akt and PDK1 was also displayed. In addition, activation of caspase-8, change of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 were observed at the early time point. Downregulation in the expression of Ku70 and XIAP was exhibited afterward. Caspase-8 or wide-ranging caspase inhibitor suppressed morusin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of morusin in HT-29 cells may be via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-κB

  4. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  5. Sp1 is a transcription repressor to stanniocalcin-1 expression in TSA-treated human colon cancer cells, HT29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Alice Y S; Yeung, B H Y; Ching, L Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) was a target of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and was involved in trichostatin A (TSA) induced apoptosis in the human colon cancer cells, HT29. In this study, we reported that the transcriptional factor, specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in association with retinoblastoma (Rb) repressed STC1 gene transcription in TSA-treated HT29 cells. Our data demonstrated that, a co-treatment of the cells with TSA and Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin A (MTM) led to a marked synergistic induction of STC1 transcript levels, STC1 promoter (1 kb)-driven luciferase activity and an increase of apoptotic cell population. The knockdown of Sp1 gene expression in TSA treated cells, revealed the repressor role of Sp1 in STC1 transcription. Using a protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA), an increase of Sp1 hyperphosphorylation and so a reduction of its transcriptional activity, led to a significant induction of STC1 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that Sp1 binding on STC1 proximal promoter in TSA treated cells. The binding of Sp1 to STC1 promoter was abolished by the co-treatment of MTM or OKA in TSA-treated cells. Re-ChIP assay illustrated that Sp1-mediated inhibition of STC1 transcription was associated with the recruitment of another repressor molecule, Rb. Collectively our findings identify STC1 is a downstream target of Sp1. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Carcino-embryonic antigen in monitoring the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma tumour cells SK-CO-1 and HT-29 in vitro and in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Fogh, J M; Sehested-Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    A set of experimental model systems were designed to investigate (a) the inter-relationship between growth of two human cancer cell lines (SK-CO-1, HT-29) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) kinetics; and (b) whether neoplastic growth or CEA concentration is modulated by human growth hormone (hGH...

  7. Aqueous Fraction of Nephelium ramboutan-ake Rind Induces Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Nephelium ramboutan-ake (pulasan rind in selected human cancer cell lines. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate and aqueous of N. ramboutan-ake inhibited the growth of HT-29, HCT-116, MDA-MB-231, Ca Ski cells according to MTT assays. The N. ramboutan-ake aqueous fraction (NRAF was found to exert the greatest cytotoxic effect against HT-29 in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence of apoptotic cell death was revealed by features such as chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. The result from a TUNEL assay strongly suggested that NRAF brings about DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. Phosphatidylserine (PS externalization on the outer leaflet of plasma membranes was detected with annexin V-FITC/PI binding, confirming the early stage of apoptosis. The mitochondrial permeability transition is an important step in the induction of cellular apoptosis, and the results clearly suggested that NRAF led to collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential in HT-29 cells. This attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm was accompanied by increased production of ROS and depletion of GSH, an increase of Bax protein expression, and induced-activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-9. These combined results suggest that NRAF induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

  8. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Yves-Jacques

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The absorptive and goblet cells are the main cellular types encountered in the intestine epithelium. The cell lineage Caco-2 is a model commonly used to reproduce the features of the bowel epithelium. However, there is a strong debate regarding the value of Caco-2 cell culture to mimick in vivo situation. Indeed, some authors report in Caco-2 a low paracellular permeability and an ease of access of highly diffusible small molecules to the microvilli, due to an almost complete lack of mucus. The HT29-5M21 intestinal cell lineage is a mucin-secreting cellular population. A co-culture system carried out in a serum-free medium and comprising both Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells was developed. The systematic use of a co-culture system requires the characterization of the monolayer under a given experimental procedure. Results In this study, we investigated the activity and localization of the alkaline phosphatase and the expression of IAP and MUC5AC genes to determine a correlation between these markers and the cellular composition of a differentiated monolayer obtained from a mixture of Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells. We observed that the culture conditions used (serum-free medium did not change the phenotype of each cell type, and produced a reproducible model. The alkaline phosphatase expression characterizing Caco-2 cells was influenced by the presence of HT29-5M21 cells. Conclusion The culture formed by 75% Caco-2 and 25% HT29-5M21 produce a monolayer containing the two main cell types of human intestinal epithelium and characterized by a reduced permeability to macromolecules.

  9. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollevaux, Géraldine; Devillé, Christelle; El Moualij, Benaïssa; Zorzi, Willy; Deloyer, Patricia; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Peulen, Olivier; Dandrifosse, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Background The absorptive and goblet cells are the main cellular types encountered in the intestine epithelium. The cell lineage Caco-2 is a model commonly used to reproduce the features of the bowel epithelium. However, there is a strong debate regarding the value of Caco-2 cell culture to mimick in vivo situation. Indeed, some authors report in Caco-2 a low paracellular permeability and an ease of access of highly diffusible small molecules to the microvilli, due to an almost complete lack of mucus. The HT29-5M21 intestinal cell lineage is a mucin-secreting cellular population. A co-culture system carried out in a serum-free medium and comprising both Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells was developed. The systematic use of a co-culture system requires the characterization of the monolayer under a given experimental procedure. Results In this study, we investigated the activity and localization of the alkaline phosphatase and the expression of IAP and MUC5AC genes to determine a correlation between these markers and the cellular composition of a differentiated monolayer obtained from a mixture of Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells. We observed that the culture conditions used (serum-free medium) did not change the phenotype of each cell type, and produced a reproducible model. The alkaline phosphatase expression characterizing Caco-2 cells was influenced by the presence of HT29-5M21 cells. Conclusion The culture formed by 75% Caco-2 and 25% HT29-5M21 produce a monolayer containing the two main cell types of human intestinal epithelium and characterized by a reduced permeability to macromolecules. PMID:16670004

  10. Characterization of four clones derived from human adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, and analysis of their response to sodium butyrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štokrová, Jitka; Šloncová, Eva; Sovová, Vlasta; Kučerová, Dana; Žíla, Vojtěch; Turečková, Jolana; Vojtěchová, Martina; Korb, Jan; Tuháčková, Zdena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2006), s. 559-565 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5052302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : adenocarcinoma * HT29 cell line * ultrastructure analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  11. Luffa echinata Roxb. Induces Human Colon Cancer Cell (HT-29 Death by Triggering the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER were investigated. The methanolic extract of LER inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29 in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and caused a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells. In addition, obvious shrinkage and destruction of the monolayer were observed in LER-treated cells, but not in untreated cells. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of HT-29 cells with various concentrations indicated that LER extracts inhibited the cellular proliferation of HT-29 cells via G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. The Reactive oxygen species (ROS level determination revealed that LER extracts induced apoptotic cell death via ROS generation. In addition, LER treatment led to a rapid drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP as a decrease in fluorescence. The transcripts of several apoptosis-related genes were investigated by RT-PCR analysis. The caspase-3 transcripts of HT-29 cells significantly accumulated and the level of Bcl-XL mRNA was decreased after treatment with LER extract. Furthermore, the ratio of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis genes (Bax and Bcl-2 was sharply increased from 1.6 to 54.1. These experiments suggest that LER has anticancer properties via inducing the apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which provided the impetus for further studies on the therapeutic potential of LER against human colon carcinoma.

  12. Induction of G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrests by the dietary compound 3,3'-diindolylmethane in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM, an indole derivative produced in the stomach after the consumption of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, has been demonstrated to exert anti-cancer effects in both in vivo and in vitro models. We have previously determined that DIM (0 – 30 μmol/L inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DIM on cell cycle progression in HT-29 cells. Methods HT-29 cells were cultured with various concentrations of DIM (0 – 30 μmol/L and the DNA was stained with propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis. [3H]Thymidine incorporation assays, Western blot analyses, immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays for cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK and cell division cycle (CDC2 were conducted. Results The percentages of cells in the G1 and G2/M phases were dose-dependently increased and the percentages of cells in S phase were reduced within 12 h in DIM-treated cells. DIM also reduced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion. DIM markedly reduced CDK2 activity and the levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins (Rb and E2F-1, and also increased the levels of hypophosphorylated Rb. DIM reduced the protein levels of cyclin A, D1, and CDK4. DIM also increased the protein levels of CDK inhibitors, p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIPI. In addition, DIM reduced the activity of CDC2 and the levels of CDC25C phosphatase and cyclin B1. Conclusion Here, we have demonstrated that DIM induces G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells, and this effect may be mediated by reduced CDK activity.

  13. Induction of G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrests by the dietary compound 3,3'-diindolylmethane in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ju; Lim, Do Young; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-05-29

    3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), an indole derivative produced in the stomach after the consumption of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, has been demonstrated to exert anti-cancer effects in both in vivo and in vitro models. We have previously determined that DIM (0 - 30 micromol/L) inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DIM on cell cycle progression in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were cultured with various concentrations of DIM (0 - 30 micromol/L) and the DNA was stained with propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis. [3H]Thymidine incorporation assays, Western blot analyses, immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays for cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cell division cycle (CDC)2 were conducted. The percentages of cells in the G1 and G2/M phases were dose-dependently increased and the percentages of cells in S phase were reduced within 12 h in DIM-treated cells. DIM also reduced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion. DIM markedly reduced CDK2 activity and the levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins (Rb) and E2F-1, and also increased the levels of hypophosphorylated Rb. DIM reduced the protein levels of cyclin A, D1, and CDK4. DIM also increased the protein levels of CDK inhibitors, p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27KIPI. In addition, DIM reduced the activity of CDC2 and the levels of CDC25C phosphatase and cyclin B1. Here, we have demonstrated that DIM induces G1 and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in HT-29 cells, and this effect may be mediated by reduced CDK activity.

  14. Lichen secondary metabolites are responsible for induction of apoptosis in HT-29 and A2780 human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačkorová, M; Jendželovský, R; Kello, M; Bačkor, M; Mikeš, J; Fedoročko, P

    2012-04-01

    Lichens are a known source of approximately 800 unique secondary metabolites, many of which play important ecological roles, including regulating the equilibrium between symbionts. However, only a few of these compounds have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro cancer models. Moreover, the mechanisms of biological activity of lichen secondary metabolites on living cells (including cancer cells) are still almost entirely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of four lichen secondary metabolites (parietin, atranorin, usnic acid and gyrophoric acid) on A2780 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. We found that usnic acid and atranorin were more effective anti-cancer compounds when compared to parietin and gyrophoric acid. Usnic acid and atranorin were capable of inducing a massive loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential, along with caspase-3 activation (only in HT-29 cells) and phosphatidylserine externalization in both tested cell lines. Induction of both ROS and especially RNS may be responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds. Based on the detection of protein expression (PARP, p53, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, Bax, p38, pp38) we found that usnic acid and atranorin are activators of programmed cell death in A2780 and HT-29, probably through the mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of apoptosis by tomato using space mutation breeding in human colon cancer SW480 and HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiahui; Yang, Bin; Feng, Pan; Li, Duo; Zhu, Jiajin

    2010-03-15

    As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning the functional characteristics of tomatoes using space mutation breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-colon cancer effect of tomatoes M1 and M2 using space mutation breeding. In the present study, obvious anti-cancer activity was shown with tomato juice of M1 and M2 and their parent CK treatment in colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 in cell growth inhibition. In addition, SW480 cells were more sensitive to M1 and M2 than HT-29 cells in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, M1 and M2 induced cell cycle arrest both in G0-G1 and G2/M phases. These data suggest that consumption of tomato using space mutation breeding may provide benefits to inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, tomato production using space mutation breeding may be a good candidate for development as a dietary supplement in drug therapy for colon cancer.

  16. A redox-based mechanism for induction of interleukin-1 production by nitric oxide in a human colonic epithelial cell line (HT29-Cl.16E).

    OpenAIRE

    Vallette, G; Jarry, A; Branka, J E; Laboisse, C L

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), characterized by alternative redox states, i.e. nitrosonium ion (NO+) and nitric oxide (NO.) respectively, on intracellular interleukin-1 (IL-1) production, by a human colonic epithelial cell line (HT29-Cl.16E). SNP was able to induce intracellular IL-1 alpha production up to 10 h incubation, in a dose-dependent manner. Several experiments provide evidence that the NO+ redox form, and n...

  17. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  18. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Induces Apoptosis via Reduction of COX-2 Expression in TPA-Induced HT-29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Shin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA is one of the bioactive compounds found in cheonggukjang, a fast-fermented soybean paste widely utilized in Korean cooking. PGA is reported to have a number of beneficial health effects, and interestingly, it has been identified as a possible anti-cancer compound through its ability to promote apoptosis in cancer cells, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our findings demonstrate that PGA inhibits the pro-proliferative functions of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, a known chemical carcinogen in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. This inhibition was accompanied by hallmark apoptotic phenotypes, including DNA fragmentation and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and caspase 3. In addition, PGA treatment reduced the expression of genes known to be overexpressed in colorectal cancer cells, including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Lastly, PGA promoted activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMPK in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PGA treatment enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, in part by modulating the activity of the COX-2 and AMPK signaling pathways. These anti-cancer functions of PGA make it a promising compound for future study.

  19. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 secretes a bioactive kisspeptin that inhibits proliferation and migration of human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Angdi; Zuo, Fanglei; Yu, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2016-06-10

    Proteinaceous bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals are most conveniently administered orally. However, the facing problems are the side effects of proteolytic degradation and denaturation in the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been verified to be a promising delivery vector for susceptible functional proteins and drugs. KiSS-1 peptide, a cancer suppressor, plays a critical role in inhibiting cancer metastasis and its activity has been confirmed by direct administration. However, whether this peptide can be functionally expressed in LAB and exert activity on cancer cells, thus providing a potential alternative administration manner in the future, has not been demonstrated. A recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain NZ9000-401-kiss1 harboring a plasmid containing the gene of the tumor metastasis-inhibiting peptide KiSS1 was constructed. After optimization of the nisin induction conditions, the recombinant strain efficiently secreted KiSS1 with a maximum detectable amount of 27.9 μg/ml in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle medium. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and would healing assays, respectively, indicated that the secreted KiSS1 peptide remarkably inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, the expressed KiSS1 was shown to induce HT-29 cell morphological changes, apoptosis and reduce the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) at both mRNA and protein levels. A recombinant L. lactis NZ9000-401-kiss1 successfully expressing the human kiss1 was constructed. The secreted KiSS1 peptide inhibited human HT-29 cells' proliferation and migration probably by invoking, or mediating the cell-apoptosis pathway and by down regulating MMP-9 expression, respectively. Our results suggest that L. lactis is an ideal cell factory for secretory expression of tumor metastasis-inhibiting peptide KiSS1, and the KiSS1-producing L. lactis strain may serve as a new tool for cancer therapy in

  20. Goniothalamin prevents the development of chemically induced and spontaneous colitis in rodents and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon tumor cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa, E-mail: vendramini.debora@gmail.com [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Alcaide, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Talero, Elena; Ávila-Román, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Mauriño, Sofia [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Seville (Spain); Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, João Ernesto de [Chemical, Biological and Agricultural Pluridisciplinary Research Center (CPQBA), University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Motilva, Virginia [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most incident type of cancer worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for colon cancer development are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus therapies focusing on IBD treatment have great potential to be used in cancer prevention. Nature has been a source of new therapeutic and preventive agents and the racemic form of the styryl-lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has been shown to be a promising antiproliferative agent, with gastroprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. As inflammation is a well-known tumor promoter, the major goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and preventive potentials of GTN on chemically induced and spontaneous colitis, as well as the cytotoxic effects of GTN on a human colon tumor cell line (HT-29). GTN treatments inhibited TNBS-induced acute and chronic colitis development in Wistar rats, reducing myeloperoxidase levels and inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa. In spontaneous-colitis using IL-10 deficient mice (C57BL/6 background), GTN prevented colitis development through downregulation of TNF-α, upregulation of SIRT-1 and inhibition of proliferation (PCNA index), without signs of toxicity after three months of treatment. In HT-29 cells, treatment with 10 μM of GTN induced apoptosis by increasing BAX/BCL2, p-JNK1/JNK1, p-P38/P38 ratios as well as through ROS generation. Caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation also occurred, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, culminating in PARP-1 cleavage. Together with previous data, these results show the importance of GTN as a pro-apoptotic, preventive and therapeutic agent for IBD and highlight its potential as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer. - Highlights: • Goniothalamin (GTN) inhibits the development of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. • Moreover, GTN prevents the development of spontaneous colitis in IL-10 deficient mice. • This activity relies on downregulation of TNF-α and upregulation of SIRT-1 expression

  1. Crataegus azarolus Leaves Induce Antiproliferative Activity, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human HT-29 and HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Pinon, Aline; Limami, Youness; Simon, Alain; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Limited success has been achieved in extending the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a strong need for novel agents in the treatment and prevention of CRC. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract in HCT-116 and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, we attempted to investigate the signaling pathways that should be involved in its cytotoxic effect. The Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced growth inhibitory effect was associated with DNA fragmentation, sub-G1 peak, loss of mitochondrial potential, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus induced the cleavage of caspase-8. It has no effect on steady-state levels of total Bcl-2 protein. Whereas Bax levels decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in both tested cell lines. Taken together, these findings confirm the involvement of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death induced by ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus was accompanied by an enhancement of the p21 expression but not through p53 activation in human colorectal cancer cells. The above-mentioned data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced apoptosis in CRC. Therefore, this compound should be a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of CRC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with a cytotoxic daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative bioconjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Natalie Schreier

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a new approach for the treatment of cancer, which provides increased selectivity and decreased systemic toxicity. We have recently developed a promising drug delivery system, in which the anticancer drug daunorubicin (Dau was attached via oxime bond to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III derivative used as a targeting moiety (Glp-His-Trp-Lys(Ac-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(Da  = Aoa-Pro-Gly-NH2; Glp = pyroglutamic acid, Ac = acetyl; Aoa = aminooxyacetyl. This bioconjugate exerted in vitro cytostatic/cytotoxic effect on human breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, as well as significant in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effect on colon carcinoma bearing mice. In our previous studies, H-Lys(Dau = Aoa-OH was identified as the smallest metabolite produced in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate, which was able to bind to DNA in vitro. To get a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of the bioconjugate, changes in the protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with the bioconjugate or free daunorubicin were investigated by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Our results indicate that several metabolism-related proteins, molecular chaperons and proteins involved in signaling are differently expressed after targeted chemotherapeutic treatment, leading to the conclusion that the bioconjugate exerts its cytotoxic action by interfering with multiple intracellular processes.

  3. A redox-based mechanism for induction of interleukin-1 production by nitric oxide in a human colonic epithelial cell line (HT29-Cl.16E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallette, G; Jarry, A; Branka, J E; Laboisse, C L

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), characterized by alternative redox states, i.e. nitrosonium ion (NO+) and nitric oxide (NO.) respectively, on intracellular interleukin-1 (IL-1) production, by a human colonic epithelial cell line (HT29-Cl.16E). SNP was able to induce intracellular IL-1 alpha production up to 10 h incubation, in a dose-dependent manner. Several experiments provide evidence that the NO+ redox form, and not the free radical NO., is implicated in the IL-1 alpha production: (i) SIN-1, devoid of any NO+ character, led to a very weak IL-1 production as compared with SNP; (ii) the reductive action of a thiol such as cysteine on NO+ led to a dose-dependent increase in NO, concentration, measured as NO2-/NO3- accumulation, and to large decrease in IL-1 production. Dibutyryl cGMP had no effect on IL-1 production, this finding supporting the concept that a cGMP-independent pathway is involved in the intracellular signalling of NO+. Together these results point out that NO, depending on its redox form, is able to modulate IL-1 production in cultured colonic epithelial cells. PMID:8546706

  4. A combination of indol-3-carbinol and genistein synergistically induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and progression of autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Hirotsuna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemopreventive effects of dietary phytochemicals on malignant tumors have been studied extensively because of a relative lack of toxicity. To achieve desirable effects, however, treatment with a single agent mostly requires high doses. Therefore, studies on effective combinations of phytochemicals at relatively low concentrations might contribute to chemopreventive strategies. Results Here we found for the first time that co-treatment with I3C and genistein, derived from cruciferous vegetables and soy, respectively, synergistically suppressed the viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells at concentrations at which each agent alone was ineffective. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of a caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the combination effectively inhibited phosphorylation of Akt followed by dephosphorylation of caspase-9 or down-regulation of XIAP and survivin, which contribute to the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the co-treatment also enhanced the induction of autophagy mediated by the dephosphorylation of mTOR, one of the downstream targets of Akt, whereas the maturation of autophagosomes was inhibited. These results give rise to the possibility that co-treatment with I3C and genistein induces apoptosis through the simultaneous inhibition of Akt activity and progression of the autophagic process. This possibility was examined using inhibitors of Akt combined with inhibitors of autophagy. The combination effectively induced apoptosis, whereas the Akt inhibitor alone did not. Conclusion Although in vivo study is further required to evaluate physiological efficacies and toxicity of the combination treatment, our findings might provide a new insight into the development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention against malignant tumors using dietary phytochemicals.

  5. Comprehensive and Holistic Analysis of HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor-Bearing Nude Mouse Model: Interactions Among Fractions Derived From the Chinese Medicine Formula Tian Xian Liquid in Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Annballaw Bridget; Cheung, Ho Pan; Lin, Li-Zhu; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lao, Lixing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing

    2017-09-01

    The Chinese medicine formula Tian Xian Liquid (TXL) has been used clinically for cancer therapy in China for more than 25 years. However, the comprehensive and holistic effects of its bioactive fractions for various antitumor therapeutic effects have not been unraveled. This is the first study to scientifically elucidate the holistic effect of Chinese medicine formula for treating colon cancer, hence allowing a better understanding of the essence of Chinese medicine formula, through the comparison of the actions of TXL and its functional constituent fractions, including ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU), and aqueous (WA) fractions. Tissue-specific proliferative/antiproliferative effects of these fractions on human colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells and splenocytes were studied by using the MTT assay. Their modulations on the expression of markers of antiproliferation, antimetastasis, reversion of multidrug resistance in treated HT-29 cells were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and their modulations in a xenografted nude mouse model were examined by Western blot analysis. Results revealed that EA fraction slightly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, but tissue-specifically exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on splenocytes. On the contrary, only TXL and BU fraction tissue-specifically contributed to the proliferation of splenocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells. WA fraction exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on HT-29 cells and also the strongest inhibitory action on tumor size in the nude mouse model in our previous study. In the HT-29 model, TXL and WA fraction exerted the most pronounced effect on upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein; TXL, and EA and WA fractions exerted the effect on downregulation of G1 phase cell cycle protein, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein; EA and BU fractions exerted the most prominent anti-invasive effect on anti-invasion via downregulation of MMP-1 m

  6. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a β 1 - and β 2 -selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of β-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an α7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and DβH expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on α7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and β-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role α7-nAChR and β-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer

  7. Biogenic Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger JX556221 Against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengzheng, Wang; Jiazhi, Wen; Shuangjiang, Chen; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Umar, Ahmad

    2018-05-01

    Nanobiotechnology has emerged as a promising technology to develop new therapeutically active nanomaterials. The present study was aimed to biosynthesize AgNPs extracellularly using Aspergillus niger JX556221 fungal extract and to evaluate their anticancer potential against colon cancer cell line, HT-29. UV-visible spectral characterization of the synthesized AgNPs showed higher absorption peak at 440 nm wavelength. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the monodispersed nature of synthesized AgNPs occurring in spherical shape with a size in the range of 20-25 nm. Further, characterization using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the face-centred cubic crystalline structure of metallic AgNPs. FTIR data revealed the occurrence of various phytochemicals in the cell free fungal extract which substantiated the fungal extract mediated AgNPs synthesis. The cytotoxic effect of AgNPs was studied by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results evidenced the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on HT-29 cell lines in a dose dependent manner. The highest activity was found at 100 μg/ml concentration after 24 h of incubation. Use of propidium iodide staining examination method confirmed the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs through inducing cell apoptosis. AgNPs cytotoxicity was found to be through elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase-3 activation resulting in induced apoptosis. Therefore, this research finding provides an insight towards the development of novel anticancer agents using biological sources.

  8. Micropropagation effect on the anti-carcinogenic activitiy of polyphenolics from Mexican oregano (Poliomintha glabrescens Gray) in human colon cancer cells HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Enrique; Noratto, Giuliana D; García-Lara, Silverio; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2013-06-01

    Phenolic extracts obtained from spices are known to have anti-carcinogenic activities but little is known about the effect of micropropagation on these beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of flavonoid-enriched extracts (FEE) from the leaves of wild (WT), in vitro (IN), and ex vitro (EX) grown oregano plants in colon cancer cells HT-29 and the non-cancer cells CCD-18Co. Cell proliferation of HT-29 cells was reduced to 50 % by WT, IN, and EX at concentrations of 4.01, 1.32, and 4.84 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L, respectively. In contrast, in CCD-18Co cells, higher concentrations were required for the same cytotoxic effect. At 6 mg GAE/L, WT and IN reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated control cells to 59.89 and 59.43 %, respectively, and EX to 73.89 %. The mRNA of Caspase-3 was increased 1.53-fold when cells were treated with 4 mg GAE/L of IN extract, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) mRNA increased 2.55 and 1.53 fold, respectively. Results on protein expression corroborated the apoptotic effects with a significant decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression for all treatments but more remarkable for EX that also showed the most intense signal of BAX. Overall, FEE extracts derived from micropropagation had increased pro-apoptotic effects, however extracts from the in vitro plants produced more efficacy at the transcriptional level while extracts from the ex vitro plant were superior at the traductional level.

  9. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin 8 in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29 by Spore Probiotics: B. coagulans and B. subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Masoumeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Naji, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics are used as a treatment for different intestinal disorders. They confer health benefits by different ways. This study was aimed to investigate immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus probiotic spores on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model for the study of colonization of purified spores (Bacillus subtilis (natto) and B. coagulans) and their anti-inflammatory effects. MTT assay and trypan blue staining were used for the detection of optimal concentration of the purified spores and LPS. Pre-treatment assay was done by treatment of the cells with the purified spores for 2 h, followed by challenges with LPS for 3 and 18 h. Post-treatment assay was done by initial treatment of the cells with LPS for 18 h, followed by the spores for 3 and 6 h. Levels of IL-8 secretion and its mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and relative Q real-time PCR. Our results showed similar rates of adherence to intestinal epithelial cells by the spore probiotics, while displaying no cytotoxic effect. In the pre-treatment assay, a significant decrease in IL-8, at both protein and mRNA levels, was measured for B. coagulans spores after the addition of LPS, which was higher than those observed for Bacillus subtilis (natto) spores. In the post-treatment assay, while Bacillus subtilis (but not B. coagulans) diminished the LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels after 3 h of incubation, the inhibitory effect was not constant. In conclusion, ability of Bacillus spore probiotics for adherence to intestinal epithelial cell and their anti-inflammatory effects, through interference with LPS/IL-8 signaling, was shown in this study. Further studies are needed to characterize responsible bacterial compounds associated with these effects.

  10. 1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl Ethanone-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in G1/G0 in HT-29 Cells Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ma Lay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanone (DMHE was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl fruits and the structure confirmed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. This compound was tested on the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT (method of transcriptional and translational cell proliferation assay. The results of MTT assay showed that DMHE exhibited good cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but no cytotoxic effect on the MRC-5 cell line after 72 h incubation. Morphological features of apoptotic cells upon treatment by DMHE, e.g., cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, were examined by an inverted and phase microscope. Other features, such as chromatin condension and nuclear fragmentation were studied using acridine orange and propidium iodide staining under the fluorescence microscope. Future evidence of apoptosis/necrosis was provided by result fromannexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining revealed the percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, necrotic and live cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis showed G0/G1 arrest in a time-dependent manner. A western blot analysis indicated that cell death might be associated with the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax PUMA. However, the anit-apotptic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were also found to increase in a time-dependent manner. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak was not observed.

  11. Inhibition of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HT-29 colon cancer cells by rice-produced recombinant human insulin-like growth binding protein-3 (rhIGFBP-3.

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    Stanley C K Cheung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional molecule which is closely related to cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metabolism and senescence. It combines with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I to form a complex (IGF-I/IGFBP-3 that can treat growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS and reduce insulin requirement in patients with diabetes. IGFBP-3 alone has been shown to have anti-proliferation effect on numerous cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reported here an expression method to produce functional recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3 in transgenic rice grains. Protein sorting sequences, signal peptide and endoplasmic reticulum retention tetrapeptide (KDEL were included in constructs for enhancing rhIGFBP-3 expression. Western blot analysis showed that only the constructs with signal peptide were successfully expressed in transgenic rice grains. Both rhIGFBP-3 proteins, with or without KDEL sorting sequence inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (65.76 ± 1.72% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.05; 50.84 ± 1.97% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.01 respectively and HT-29 colon cancer cells (65.14 ± 3.84% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 and 54.7 ± 9.44% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 respectively when compared with wild type rice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated the feasibility of producing biological active rhIGFBP-3 in rice using a transgenic approach, which will definitely encourage more research on the therapeutic use of hIGFBP-3 in future.

  12. Short communication: Antiproliferative effect of wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented foods on HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Y F; Zhang, L W; Yi, H X; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, W Q; Han, X; Du, M; Jiao, Y H; Wang, S M

    2010-06-01

    In vitro studies, animal models, epidemiology, and human intervention studies provide evidence that some lactic acid bacteria can reduce the risk of certain cancers. In this study, heat-killed bacterial cells, genomic DNA, and cell wall of 7 wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented foods in western China were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity on colonic cancer cell line HT-29 by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The heat-killed bacterial cells, genomic DNA, and cell wall of the 7 strains exhibited direct antiproliferative activities against HT-29 cells. Among the strains, the cellular components of Lactobacillus coryniformis ssp. torquens T3L exerted marked antiproliferative activities against HT-29 cells. The maximum inhibition rates of HT-29 cells by the heat-killed bacterial cells (1x10(7) cfu/mL), cell wall (20 microg of protein/mL) and genomic DNA (100 microg/mL) of L. coryniformis ssp. torquens T3L were 30, 44.9, and 35.9%, respectively. The results indicate that the heat-killed bacterial cells, cell wall, and genomic DNA of the 7 wild Lactobacillus strains could inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Title of paper: the induction of P-53 independent programmed cell death (apoptosis) with ionizing radiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstock, A. Wm.; Gill, Misha; Hess, Suzanne M.; Fisher, Robert W.; Leadon, Steven A.; Tepper, Joel E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) as a cellular response to cancer therapy such as radiation or chemotherapy is the subject of much study, and manipulation of the apoptotic response in tumor cells may be valuable in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Both p53 dependent and independent apoptotic pathways have been identified; p53 is mutated in at least 50 % of human cancers and a majority of radiation resistant tumors contain p53 mutations. This study is designed to examine the induction of programmed cell death in a human colon carcinoma cell line that possesses two mutated p53 alleles. Ionizing radiation alone, or in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), were used to elicit the apoptotic response. This study will focus on whether these treatments can induce a significant apoptotic response in cells that have mutated p53 alleles. Materials and Methods: HT-29 cells were assessed for clonogenic survival after being plated at a variety of densities, and treated with single graded doses of radiation (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 Gy) either alone or immediately prior to a 24 hour exposure to 5-FU (2 ug/ml). The extent of radiation and 5-FU-induced apoptosis was determined in the HT-29 cell line after single doses of 0, 2, 5, and 10 Gy either alone or immediately prior to a 24 hour incubation in 5-FU (2 ug/ml). Three separate assays were used to evaluate the apoptotic response. Cells undergoing apoptosis undergo gross morphological changes including a condensation of chromatin, membrane blebbing, and an eventual release of membrane bound cytoplasmic fragments. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to visualize some of these morphological changes. Another characteristic of the apoptotic response is the activation of an endonuclease that cleaves DNA into specific fragments. Accordingly, an ELISA cell death assay (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis IN) was used to quantitate cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA

  14. TFF3-dependent resistance of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT-29/B6 to apoptosis is mediated by miR-491-5p regulation of lncRNA PRINS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanisch, Carlos; Sharbati, Jutta; Kutz-Lohroff, Barbara; Huber, Otmar; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a double-edged cytokine associated with pathogenesis of inflammatory-related cancers being also able to induce cancer cell death. In the process of tumour development or metastasis, cancer cells can become resistant to TNF-?. In trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpressing colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29/B6), we observed enhanced resistance against TNF-?/interferon gamma-induced apoptosis. TFF3 is a secreted small peptide that supports intestinal tissue re...

  15. Metabolism and apoptotic properties of elevated ceramide in HT29(rev) cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, R J; Klappe, K; Hoekstra, D; Kok, J W

    1998-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we elevated cellular Cer levels in human colon-carcinoma (HT29(rev)) cells by incubating the cells in the presence of bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) or, alternatively, in the presence of C2-Cer, a short-chain

  16. Bifidobacterium breve - HT-29 cell line interaction: modulation of TNF-α induced gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesten, R J; Schuren, F H J; Willemsen, L E M; Vriesema, A; Knol, J; De Vos, W M

    2011-06-01

    To provide insight in the molecular basis for intestinal host-microbe interactions, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to cells of Bifidobacterium breve. To select an appropriate test system reflecting inflammatory conditions, the responsiveness to TNF-α was compared in T84, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. The highest TNF-α response was observed in HT-29 cells and this cell line was selected for exposure to the B. breve strains M-16V, NR246 and UCC2003. After one hour of bacterial pre-incubation followed by two hours of additional TNF-α stimulation, B. breve M-16V (86%), but to a much lesser extent strains NR246 (50%) or UCC2003 (32%), showed a strain-specific reduction of the HT-29 transcriptional response to the inflammatory treatment. The most important functional groups of genes that were transcriptionally suppressed by the presence of B. breve M-16V, were found to be involved in immune regulation and apoptotic processes. About 54% of the TNF-α induced genes were solely suppressed by the presence of B. breve M-16V. These included apoptosis-related cysteine protease caspase 7 (CASP7), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), amyloid beta (A4) precursor proteinbinding family A member 1 (APBA1), NADPH oxidase (NOX5), and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). The extracellular IL-8 concentration was determined by an immunological assay but did not change significantly, indicating that B. breve M-16V only partially modulates the TNF-α pathway. In conclusion, this study shows that B. breve strains modulate gene expression in HT-29 cells under inflammatory conditions in a strain-specific way.

  17. The effects of Bifidobacterium breve on immune mediators and proteome of HT29 cells monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Arboleya, Silvia; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium.

  18. The Effects of Bifidobacterium breve on Immune Mediators and Proteome of HT29 Cells Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium.

  19. Cell Free DNA of Tumor Origin Induces a 'Metastatic' Expression Profile in HT-29 Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Fűri

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells in malignant conditions release DNA into the extracellular compartment. Cell free DNA of tumor origin may act as a ligand of DNA sensing mechanisms and mediate changes in epithelial-stromal interactions.To evaluate and compare the potential autocrine and paracrine regulatory effect of normal and malignant epithelial cell-related DNA on TLR9 and STING mediated pathways in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and normal fibroblasts.DNA isolated from normal and tumorous colonic epithelia of fresh frozen surgically removed tissue samples was used for 24 and 6 hour treatment of HT-29 colon carcinoma and HDF-α fibroblast cells. Whole genome mRNA expression analysis and qRT-PCR was performed for the elements/members of TLR9 signaling pathway. Immunocytochemistry was performed for epithelial markers (i.e. CK20 and E-cadherin, DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a and NFκB (for treated HDFα cells.Administration of tumor derived DNA on HT29 cells resulted in significant (p<0.05 mRNA level alteration in 118 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05, including overexpression of metallothionein genes (i.e. MT1H, MT1X, MT1P2, MT2A, metastasis-associated genes (i.e. TACSTD2, MACC1, MALAT1, tumor biomarker (CEACAM5, metabolic genes (i.e. INSIG1, LIPG, messenger molecule genes (i.e. DAPP, CREB3L2. Increased protein levels of CK20, E-cadherin, and DNMT3a was observed after tumor DNA treatment in HT-29 cells. Healthy DNA treatment affected mRNA expression of 613 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05, including increased expression of key adaptor molecules of TLR9 pathway (e.g. MYD88, IRAK2, NFκB, IL8, IL-1β, STING pathway (ADAR, IRF7, CXCL10, CASP1 and the FGF2 gene.DNA from tumorous colon epithelium, but not from the normal epithelial cells acts as a pro-metastatic factor to HT-29 cells through the overexpression of pro-metastatic genes through TLR9/MYD88 independent pathway. In contrast, DNA derived from healthy colonic epithelium induced TLR9 and STING signaling

  20. Screening of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli able to antagonise the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile upon intestinal epithelial HT29 monolayer

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    Lorena eValdés-Varela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic pathogen inhabiting the human gut, often being the aetiological agent of infections after a microbiota dysbiosis following, for example, an antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infections (CDI constitute a growing health problem with increasing rates of morbidity and mortality at groups of risk, such as elderly and hospitalized patients, but also in populations traditionally considered low-risk. This could be related to the occurrence of virulent strains which, among other factors, have high-level of resistance to fluoroquinolones, more efficient sporulation and markedly high toxin production. Several novel intervention strategies against CDI are currently under study, such as the use of probiotics to counteract the growth and/or toxigenic activity of C. difficile.In this work, we have analysed the capability of twenty Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, from human intestinal origin, to counteract the toxic effect of C. difficile LMG21717 upon the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29. For this purpose, we incubated the bacteria together with toxigenic supernatants obtained from C. difficile. After this co-incubation new supernatants were collected in order to quantify the remnant A and B toxins, as well as to determine their residual toxic effect upon HT29 monolayers. To this end, the real time cell analyser (RTCA model, recently developed in our group to monitor C. difficile toxic effect, was used. Results obtained showed that strains of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium breve were able to reduce the toxic effect of the pathogen upon HT29, the RTCA normalized cell-index values being inversely correlated with the amount of remnant toxin in the supernatant. The strain B. longum IPLA20022 showed the highest ability to counteract the cytotoxic effect of C. difficile acting directly against the toxin, also having the highest capability for removing the toxins from the clostridial

  1. HT-29 and Caco-2 Reporter Cell Lines for Functional Studies of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

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    Giuliana Mastropietro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NF-κB is a transcription factor which plays a key role in regulating biological processes. In response to signals, NF-κB activation occurs via phosphorylation of its inhibitor, which dissociates from the NF-κB dimer allowing the translocation to the nucleus, inducing gene expression. NF-κB activation has direct screening applications for drug discovery for several therapeutic indications. Thus, pathway-specific reporter cell systems appear as useful tools to screen and unravel the mode of action of probiotics and natural and synthetic compounds. Here, we describe the generation, characterization, and validation of human epithelial reporter cell lines for functional studies of NF-κB activation by different pro- and anti-inflammatory agents. Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were transfected with a pNF-κB-hrGFP plasmid which contains the GFP gene under the control of NF-κB binding elements. Three proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and LPS were able to activate the reporter systems in a dose-response manner, which corresponds to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, the reporter cell lines were validated using lactic acid bacteria and a natural compound. We have established robust Caco-2-NF-κB-hrGFP and HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter cell lines which represent a valuable tool for primary screening and identification of bacterial strains and compounds with a potential therapeutic interest.

  2. Dietary compounds that induce cancer preventive phase 2 enzymes activate apoptosis at comparable doses in HT29 colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlin, W G; Cai, J; DeLong, M J; Patten, E J; Jones, D P

    1999-10-01

    Dietary agents that induce glutathione S-transferases and related detoxification systems (Phase 2 enzyme inducers) are thought to prevent cancer by enhancing elimination of chemical carcinogens. The present study shows that compounds of this group (benzyl isothiocyanate, allyl sulfide, dimethyl fumarate, butylated hydroxyanisole) activated apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT29) cells in culture over the same concentration ranges that elicited increases in enzyme activity (5-25, 25-100, 10-100, 15-60 micromol/L, respectively). Pretreatment of cells with sodium butyrate, an agent that induces HT29 cell differentiation, resulted in parallel increases in Phase 2 enzyme activities and induction of apoptosis in response to the inducers. Cell death characteristics included apoptotic morphological changes, appearance of cells at sub-G1 phase on flow cytometry, caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL-positive staining. The results suggest that dietary Phase 2 inducers may protect against cancer by a mechanism distinct from and in addition to that associated with enhanced elimination of carcinogens. If this occurs in vivo, diets high in such compounds could eliminate precancerous cells by apoptosis at time points well after initial exposure to chemical mutagens and carcinogens.

  3. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  4. Troglitazone induced apoptosis via PPARγ activated POX-induced ROS formation in HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lv, XiaoWen; Shi, JiePing; Hu, XiaoSong; DU, YuGuo

    2011-08-01

    In order to investigate the potential mechanisms in troglitazone-induced apoptosis in HT29 cells, the effects of PPARγ and POX-induced ROS were explored. [3- (4, 5)-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V and PI staining using FACS, plasmid transfection, ROS formation detected by DCFH staining, RNA interference, RT-PCR & RT-QPCR, and Western blotting analyses were employed to investigate the apoptotic effect of troglitazone and the potential role of PPARγ pathway and POX-induced ROS formation in HT29 cells. Troglitazone was found to inhibit the growth of HT29 cells by induction of apoptosis. During this process, mitochondria related pathways including ROS formation, POX expression and cytochrome c release increased, which were inhibited by pretreatment with GW9662, a specific antagonist of PPARγ. These results illustrated that POX upregulation and ROS formation in apoptosis induced by troglitazone was modulated in PPARγ-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the inhibition of ROS and apoptosis after POX siRNA used in troglitazone-treated HT29 cells indicated that POX be essential in the ROS formation and PPARγ-dependent apoptosis induced by troglitazone. The findings from this study showed that troglitazone-induced apoptosis was mediated by POX-induced ROS formation, at least partly, via PPARγ activation. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and adhesion to HT-29 cells inhibition of Gram-negatives by Bifidobacterium longum BB536 e Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inturri, R; Stivala, A; Furneri, P M; Blandino, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inhibitory effect of supernatants of broth cultures of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against Gram-negative strains (uropathogens, enteropathogens and a reference strain). Moreover, in vitro protection of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against pathogen adhesion to HT-29 cell line, was investigated. The inhibitory activity was performed by the agar diffusion test and in vitro antagonistic activity against pathogen adhesion to human epithelial intestinal HT-29 cells was performed using standardized culture techniques. The study showed that B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, individually and in combination have inhibitory activity against the majority of the Gram negative strains tested. Furthermore, the results showed that both probiotic strains have a good capacity to inhibit pathogenic adhesion to HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 to inhibit pathogenic adhesion increased when they were used in combination. The combination of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 showed inhibitory activity against Gram-negatives and an improved ability to reduce their adhesion properties and to compete with them. The simultaneous presence of the two-probiotic strains could promote competitive mechanisms able to reduce the adhesion properties of pathogen strains and have an important ecological role within the highly competitive environment of the human gut.

  6. Oral and fecal Campylobacter concisus strains perturb barrier function by apoptosis induction in HT-29/B6 intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Hans Linde Nielsen

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus infections of the gastrointestinal tract can be accompanied by diarrhea and inflammation, whereas colonization of the human oral cavity might have a commensal nature. We focus on the pathophysiology of C. concisus and the effects of different clinical oral and fecal C. concisus strains on human HT-29/B6 colon cells. Six oral and eight fecal strains of C. concisus were isolated. Mucus-producing HT-29/B6 epithelial monolayers were infected with the C. concisus strains. Transepithelial electrical resistance (R(t and tracer fluxes of different molecule size were measured in Ussing chambers. Tight junction (TJ protein expression was determined by Western blotting, and subcellular TJ distribution was analyzed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Apoptosis induction was examined by TUNEL-staining and Western blot of caspase-3 activation. All strains invaded confluent HT-29/B6 cells and impaired epithelial barrier function, characterized by a time- and dose-dependent decrease in R(t either after infection from the apical side but even more from the basolateral compartment. TJ protein expression changes were sparse, only in apoptotic areas of infected monolayers TJ proteins were redistributed. Solely the barrier-forming TJ protein claudin-5 showed a reduced expression level to 66±8% (P<0.05, by expression regulation from the gene. Concomitantly, Lactate dehydrogenase release was elevated to 3.1±0.3% versus 0.7±0.1% in control (P<0.001, suggesting cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, oral and fecal C. concisus strains elevated apoptotic events to 5-fold. C. concisus-infected monolayers revealed an increased permeability for 332 Da fluorescein (1.74±0.13 vs. 0.56±0.17 10(-6 cm/s in control, P<0.05 but showed no difference in permeability for 4 kDa FITC-dextran (FD-4. The same was true in camptothecin-exposed monolayers, where camptothecin was used for apoptosis induction.In conclusion, epithelial barrier dysfunction by oral and

  7. Cytotoxic activity of isolated constituents from leaves of Premna serratifolia on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines

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    Mahesh Biradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Premna serratifolia (Syn: Premna integrifolia is an important medicinal herb known as “Agnimantha” in Ayurveda and traditionally used for anticancer activity. The objective of present study was to isolate the cytotoxic phytoconstituents from the n-hexane soluble fraction of P. serratifolia leaf extract. Unsaponifiable portion of n-hexane soluble fraction was subjected to silica based column chromatography. The major constituents present in all the sub-fractions were identified by TLC and phytochemical tests. Two constituents were isolated and they were purified. Sub-fractions with isolates were tested for cytotoxic effect by BSL bioassay. Two isolates were found to be active and which were tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 for their cytotoxicity. Among two isolates, one compound has shown significant cytotoxicity. From the results we conclude that the plant isolates showed cytotoxicity against selected human cancer cell lines.

  8. Antiproliferative activity of tea catechins associated with casein micelles, using HT29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratifar, S; Meckling, K A; Corredig, M

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols display anticancer activities in many organ sites by using different experimental models in rodents and in cultured cell lines in vitro. The present study tested the ability of casein micelles to deliver biologically active concentrations of polyphenols to HT-29 colon cancer cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea, was used as the model molecule, as it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells. In the present work, we hypothesized that due to the binding of caseins with EGCG, casein micelles may be an ideal platform for the delivery of this bioactive molecule and that the binding would not affect the bioaccessibility of EGCG. The cytotoxicity and proliferation behavior of HT-29 colon cancer cells when exposed to free EGCG was compared with that of nanoencapsulated EGCG in casein micelles of skim milk. Epigallocatechin gallate-casein complexes were able to decrease the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells, demonstrating that bioavailability may not be reduced by the nanoencapsulation. As casein micelles may act as protective carriers for EGCG in foods, it was concluded that nanoencapsulation of tea catechins in casein micelles may not diminish their antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells compared with free tea catechins. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of AMPK signaling cascade in capsaicin-induced apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kwak, Dong Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Park, Ock Jin

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated during ATP-depleting metabolic states, such as hypoxia, heat shock, oxidative stress, and exercise. As a highly conserved heterotrimeric kinase that functions as a major metabolic switch to maintain energy homeostasis, AMPK has been shown to exert as an intrinsic regulator of mammalian cell cycle. Moreover, AMPK cascade has emerged as an important pathway implicated in cancer control. In this article, we have investigated the effects of capsaicin on apoptosis in relation to AMPK activation in colon cancer cell. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis was revealed by the presence of nucleobodies in the capsaicin-treated HT-29 colon cancer cells. Concomitantly, the activation of AMPK and the increased expression of the inactive form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were detected in capsaicin-treated colon cancer cells. We showed that both capsaicin and 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR), an AMPK activator possess the AMPK-activating capacity as well as apoptosis-inducing properties. Evidence of the association between AMPK activation and the increased apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by capsaicin treatment, and further findings of the correlation of the activated AMPK and the elevated apoptosis by cotreatment of AICAR and capsaicin support AMPK as an important component of apoptosis, as well as a possible target of cancer control.

  10. Cellular Homeostasis and Antioxidant Response in Epithelial HT29 Cells on Titania Nanotube Arrays Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiatul Basria SMN Mydin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell growth and proliferative activities on titania nanotube arrays (TNA have raised alerts on genotoxicity risk. Present toxicogenomic approach focused on epithelial HT29 cells with TNA surface. Fledgling cell-TNA interaction has triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrests and initiates DNA damage surveillance checkpoint, which possibly indicated the cellular stress stimuli. A profound gene regulation was observed to be involved in cellular growth and survival signals such as p53 and AKT expressions. Interestingly, the activation of redox regulator pathways (antioxidant defense was observed through the cascade interactions of GADD45, MYC, CHECK1, and ATR genes. These mechanisms furnish to protect DNA during cellular division from an oxidative challenge, set in motion with XRRC5 and RAD50 genes for DNA damage and repair activities. The cell fate decision on TNA-nanoenvironment has been reported to possibly regulate proliferative activities via expression of p27 and BCL2 tumor suppressor proteins, cogent with SKP2 and BCL2 oncogenic proteins suppression. Findings suggested that epithelial HT29 cells on the surface of TNA may have a positive regulation via cell-homeostasis mechanisms: a careful circadian orchestration between cell proliferation, survival, and death. This nanomolecular knowledge could be beneficial for advanced medical applications such as in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutics.

  11. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Lizárraga, Daneida; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A

    2011-01-01

    Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the activation of p53. Thus we propose

  12. Utilization of solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced delivery of curcumin in cocultures of HT29-MTX and Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Anilda; Gülseren, Ibrahim; Corredig, Milena

    2013-09-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have shown potential for encapsulation, protection and delivery of lipophilic functional components. In this study, we have investigated the capabilities of SLN to deliver a hydrophobic polyphenol compound, curcumin, in a coculture system of absorptive Caco-2 and mucus secreting HT29-MTX cells. The cells were grown on transport filters to mimic the human intestinal epithelium. Because of the hydrophobic nature of curcumin, its delivery to the basolateral compartment is expected to take place via a paracellular route. The changes in curcumin concentration in various compartments (i.e., apical, basolateral, mucus, and cell lysates) were evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Two SLN systems were prepared with different emulsifying agents. The encapsulation of curcumin in SLN caused enhanced delivery compared to unencapsulated curcumin. In addition, SLN showed enhanced delivery compared to emulsion droplets containing liquid soy oil. The SLN were retained on the apical mucosal layer to a greater extent than emulsion droplets. The presence of SLN did not affect the integrity of the cellular junctions, as indicated by the TEER values, and the route of transport of the solid particles was simple diffusion, with permeability rates of about 7 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). Approximately 1% of total curcumin was delivered to the basolateral compartment, suggesting that most of the curcumin was absorbed and metabolized by the cell.

  13. The effect of milk fat globules on adherence and internalization of Salmonella Enteritidis to HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Griffiths, M; Khursigara, C M; Corredig, M

    2012-12-01

    Milk fat globules were extracted from bovine and goat milk and incubated with HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells to assess the attachment and internalization of Salmonella Enteritidis. Because the expression of bacterial adhesins is highly affected by the presence of antibiotic, the attachment was studied with and without antibiotic in the cell growth medium. Although no inhibitory effect of the fat globules was observed in the presence of the antibiotic, milk fat globules significantly inhibited the binding and internalization of Salmonella in medium free of antibiotic. The fat globules from both bovine and goat milk markedly reduced bacterial binding and invasion compared with controls, and the cells treated with goat milk-derived fat globules demonstrated greater protective properties than those derived from bovine milk. The effect of heat treatment on bovine fat globules was also investigated, and it was shown that the fat globules from heated milk had a higher degree of inhibition than those from unheated milk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Uncaria tomentosa Extract on Apoptosis Triggered by Oxaliplatin Exposure on HT29 Cells

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    Liliane Z. de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The use of herbal products as a supplement to minimize the effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment requires further attention with respect to the activity and toxicity of chemotherapy. Uncaria tomentosa extract, which contains oxindole alkaloids, is one of these herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Uncaria tomentosa extract modulates apoptosis induced by chemotherapy exposure. Materials and Methods. Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cells were grown in the presence of oxaliplatin and/or Uncaria tomentosa extract. Results. The hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, with an increase in the percentage of Annexin positive cells, an increase in caspase activities, and an increase of DNA fragments in culture of the neoplastic cells. Moreover, antioxidant activity may be related to apoptosis. Conclusion. Uncaria tomentosa extract has a role for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. Further studies evaluating these beneficial effects with other chemotherapy drugs are recommended.

  15. Necrosis - the dominant form of cell death after phototoxicity impact of hypericin in colon adenocarcinoma cells HT29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikes, J.; Kleban, J.; Sackova, V.; Solar, P.; Fedorocko, P.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutical approach for the treatment of malignant as well as non-malignant disorders based on administration of nontoxic/weakly toxic photosensitive compound and its activation with light. Hypericin, one of the promising photosensitizers, is known to induce apoptosis with high efficiency in various cell line models. However, here we report the prevalence of necrosis in colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells exposed to an extensive range of PDT doses evoked by variations in two variables - hypericin concentration and light dose. Necrosis was the principal mode of cell death despite different PDT doses and the absence of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression. It is likely that the mutation in p53 plays a crucial role in cell death signaling in HT-29. Data indicating proliferation shifting in HT29 cells, incidence of cell death (apoptosis, necrosis and secondary necrosis) and comparison of cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activity of HT29 with HeLa cells are presented. (authors)

  16. LA-12 overcomes confluence-dependent resistance of HT-29 colon cancer cells to Pt (II) compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindlerová, Lenka; Foltinová, V.; Vaculová, Alena; Horváth, Viktor; Souček, Karel; Sova, P.; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 1183-1188 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : LA-12 * resistance * HT-29 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2010

  17. Oral and Fecal Campylobacter concisus Strains induce Barrier dysfunction by Apoptosis in HT-29/B6 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Nielsen, Henrik Ib; Ejlertsen, Tove

    in Ussing chambers. Tight junction (TJ) protein expression was determined by Western blotting, and subcellular TJ distribution was analyzed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Apoptosis induction was examined by TUNEL-staining and Western blot of caspase-3 activation. All strains invaded confluent HT-29...

  18. Adrenaline promotes cell proliferation and increases chemoresistance in colon cancer HT29 cells through induction of miR-155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Jun; Bai, Danna; Yang, Xia; Lu, Xiaozhao; Xu, Lijuan; Lu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adrenaline increases colon cancer cell proliferation and its resistance to cisplatin. ► Adrenaline activates NFκB in a dose dependent manner. ► NFκB–miR-155 pathway contributes to cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Recently, catecholamines have been described as being involved in the regulation of cancer genesis and progression. Here, we reported that adrenaline increased the cell proliferation and decreased the cisplatin induced apoptosis in HT29 cells. Further study found that adrenaline increased miR-155 expression in an NFκB dependent manner. HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 had a higher cell growth rate and more resistance to cisplatin induced apoptosis. In contrast, HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 inhibitor displayed decreased cell proliferation and sensitivity to cisplatin induced cell death. In summary, our study here revealed that adrenaline–NFκB–miR-155 pathway at least partially contributes to the psychological stress induced proliferation and chemoresistance in HT29 cells, shedding light on increasing the therapeutic strategies of cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Adrenaline promotes cell proliferation and increases chemoresistance in colon cancer HT29 cells through induction of miR-155

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Jun [Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Bai, Danna [Department of Cardiology, 323 Hospital of PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Yang, Xia [Department of Teaching and Medical Administration, Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Lu, Xiaozhao [Department of Nephrology, The 323 Hospital of PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Lijuan, E-mail: 13609296272@163.com [Department of Nephrology, The 323 Hospital of PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lu, Jianguo, E-mail: lujianguo029@yahoo.com.cn [Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline increases colon cancer cell proliferation and its resistance to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline activates NF{kappa}B in a dose dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway contributes to cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Recently, catecholamines have been described as being involved in the regulation of cancer genesis and progression. Here, we reported that adrenaline increased the cell proliferation and decreased the cisplatin induced apoptosis in HT29 cells. Further study found that adrenaline increased miR-155 expression in an NF{kappa}B dependent manner. HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 had a higher cell growth rate and more resistance to cisplatin induced apoptosis. In contrast, HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 inhibitor displayed decreased cell proliferation and sensitivity to cisplatin induced cell death. In summary, our study here revealed that adrenaline-NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway at least partially contributes to the psychological stress induced proliferation and chemoresistance in HT29 cells, shedding light on increasing the therapeutic strategies of cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Efecto citotóxico del extracto metanólico de tres ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sobre líneas celulares HeLa y HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de compuestos naturales con actividad citotóxica y antitumoral es una de las prioridades actuales de la lucha contra el cáncer; motivo por el cual el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la actividad citotóxica de los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos negro, morado y amarillo de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca sobre las líneas celulares HeLa (Human Epithelial Carcinoma y HT-29 (Human Colon Adenocarcinoma. Se determinó que la concentración inhibitoria del 50% del crecimiento celular (IC50 para la línea celular HT-29, con los ecotipos negro, morado y amarillo fue de 8,32 mg/ml, 9,28 mg/ml y 0,487 mg/ml respectivamente, mientras que para la línea celular HeLa fue de 2,4 mg/ml, 1,93 mg/ml y 0,66 mg/ml respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se evaluó un EM del ecotipo amarillo con dos años de almacenamiento (10 ºC determinándose como IC50 4,29 mg/ml para HT-29 y 4,17 mg/ml para HeLa. Se concluye que el efecto citotóxico del ecotipo amarillo sobre HT-29 y HeLa fue superior al mostrado por los ecotipos negro y morado; que la línea celular más sensible a los ecotipos amarillo, negro y morado es HeLa, y que el EM del ecotipo amarillo conservó sus propiedades citotóxicas pese al tiempo de almacenamiento, aunque éstas disminuyeron.

  1. Catabolism of neurotensin by neural (neuroblastoma clone N1E115) and extraneural (HT29) cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checler, F.; Amar, S.; Kitabgi, P.; Vincent, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) was inactivated by differentiated neuroblastoma and HT29 cells were characterized. In both cell lines, the sites of primary cleavages of NT were Pro7-Arg8, Arg8-Arg9 and Pro10-Tyr11 bonds. The cleavage at the Pro7-Arg8 bond was totally inhibited by N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Prolyl-Prolinal and therefore resulted from the action of proline endopeptidase. This peptidase also contributed in a major way to the cleavage at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond. However the latter breakdown was partly due to an NT-degrading neutral metallopeptidase. Finally, we demonstrated the involvement of a recently purified rat brain soluble metalloendopeptidase at the Arg8-Arg9 site by the use of its specific inhibitor N-[1(R,S)-carboxy-2-Phenylethyl]-alanylalanylphenylalanine-p-amino benzoate. The secondary processing of NT degradation products revealed differences between HT29 and N1E115 cells. Angiotensin converting enzyme was shown to degrade NT1-10 and NT1-7 in N1E115 cells but was not detected in HT29 cells. A post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activity converted NT9-13 into NT11-13 in HT29 cells but not in N1E115 cells. Finally, bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidases rapidly broke down NT11-13 to Tyr in both cell lines. Models for the inactivation of NT in HT29 and N1E115 cells are proposed and compared to that previously described for purified rat brain synaptic membranes

  2. Differential modulation of enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells after exposure to short-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malago, J.J.; Koninkx, J.F.J.G.; Douma, P.M.; Dirkzwager, A.; Veldman, K.T.; Hendriks, H.G.C.J.M.; Dijk, van J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The response of intestinal epithelial cells to short-chain fatty acids, which are increasingly used as food additives, was investigated. Human small intestinal epithelial cell model Caco-2 cells were exposed to formate, propionate and butyrate to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism,

  3. Chemopreventive Potential of Powdered Red Wine Pomace Seasonings against Colorectal Cancer in HT-29 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; García Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-01-11

    This study evaluates the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic actions of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (Sk-S, seedless; W-S, whole; Sd-S, seeds). In vitro gastrointestinal digested and colonic fermented fractions of the seasonings were used as cell treatments. Phenolic acids from Sk-S showed the highest bioaccessibility in the small intestine, whereas polyphenols contained in Sd-S might be the most fermentable in the colon. Dietary fiber from Sk-S was the best substrate for short chain fatty acids production by gut microbiota. Colon cancerous (HT-29) cell viability was inhibited by 50% (IC 50 values) at treatment concentrations ranging from 845 (Sk-S) to 1085 (Sd-S) μg/mL prior digestion, but all digested fractions exhibited similar antiproliferative activities (mean IC 50 = 814 μg/mL). Oxidative DNA damage in cells was also attenuated by the treatments (200 μg/mL, 24 h preincubation), with all colonic fermented fractions displaying similar genoprotective action. These results suggest the potential of red wine pomace seasonings as chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer.

  4. DNA Tetrahedron Delivery Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Junen

    2017-08-01

    As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry. No cytotoxicity was induced by DNA tetra, but the cellular uptake ratio increased obviously resulting from the DNA tetra-facilitated penetration through cellular membrane. Accordingly, folic acid-DNA tetra-Dox markedly increased the antitumor efficiency with increased apoptosis levels. In details, 100 μM was the effective concentration and a 6-h incubation period was needed for apoptosis induction. In conclusion, nano-sized DNA tetrahedron was a safe and effective delivery system for Dox and correspondingly enhanced the anticancer efficiency.

  5. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dänicke Sven

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29. Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride, respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43, 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11 contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8, compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6. Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular

  6. Arsenic downregulates tight junction claudin proteins through p38 and NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cell line, HT-29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Hee; Seok, Jin Sil; Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid that often is found in foods and drinking water. Human exposure to arsenic is associated with the development of gastrointestinal problems such as fluid loss, diarrhea and gastritis. Arsenic is also known to induce toxic responses including oxidative stress in cells of the gastrointestinal track. Tight junctions (TJs) regulate paracellular permeability and play a barrier role by inhibiting the movement of water, solutes and microorganisms in the paracellular space. Since oxidative stress and TJ damage are known to be associated, we examined whether arsenic produces TJ damage such as downregulation of claudins in the human colorectal cell line, HT-29. To confirm the importance of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced TJ damage, effects of the antioxidant compound (e.g., N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) were also determined in cells. HT-29 cells were treated with arsenic trioxide (40 μM, 12 h) to observe the modified expression of TJ proteins. Arsenic decreased expression of TJ proteins (i.e., claudin-1 and claudin-5) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) whereas pretreatment of NAC (5–10 mM, 1 h) attenuated the observed claudins downregulation and TEER. Arsenic treatment produced cellular oxidative stress via superoxide generation and lowering glutathione (GSH) levels, while NAC restored cellular GSH levels and decreased oxidative stress. Arsenic increased phosphorylation of p38 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, while NAC attenuated these intracellular events. Results demonstrated that arsenic can damage intestinal epithelial cells by proinflammatory process (oxidative stress, p38 and NF-κB) which resulted in the downregulation of claudins and NAC can protect intestinal TJs from arsenic toxicity.

  7. Luteolin inhibits the colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Meng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulating effect of luteolin on colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods: Colon cancer HT-29 cells were cultured and randomly divided into two groups, control group were treated with serum-free medium without drugs and LUT group were treated with serum-free medium containing luteolin. After 24 h of treatment, cells were collected to extract RNA, and then fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation genes, migration genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. Results: After 24 h of luteolin treatment, Lrig1, TSPYL5, Bim, SOX15 and DLC1 mRNA expression in LUT group were significantly higher than those in control group while RPS15a, Bad, TRPV5, TRPV6, PLD2, IBP, SphK1, FAK, Vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA expression were significantly lower than those in control group. Conclusion: Luteolin has inhibiting effect on colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  8. Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on the growth of MNP-treated HT29 colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulou, K.; Makridis, A.; Maniotis, N.; Karypidou, N.; Myrovali, E.; Samaras, T.; Angelakeris, M.; Chlichlia, K.; Kalogirou, O.

    2018-04-01

    Recent investigations have attempted to understand and exploit the impact of magnetic field-actuated internalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the proliferation rate of cancer cells. Due to the complexity of the parameters governing magnetic field-exposure though, individual studies to date have raised contradictory results. In our approach we performed a comparative analysis of key parameters related to the cell exposure of cancer cells to magnetic field-actuated MNPs, and to the magnetic field, in order to better understand the factors affecting cellular responses to magnetic field-stimulated MNPs. We used magnetite MNPs with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and studied the proliferation rate of MNPs-treated versus untreated HT29 human colon cancer cells, exposed to either static or alternating low frequency magnetic fields with varying intensity (40-200 mT), frequency (0-8 Hz) and field gradient. All three parameters, field intensity, frequency, and field gradient affected the growth rate of cells, with or without internalized MNPs, as compared to control MNPs-untreated and magnetic field-untreated cells. We observed that the growth inhibitory effects induced by static and rotating magnetic fields were enhanced by pre-treating the cells with MNPs, while the growth promoting effects observed in alternating field-treated cells were weakened by MNPs. Compared to static, rotating magnetic fields of the same intensity induced a similar extend of cell growth inhibition, while alternating fields of varying intensity (70 or 100 mT) and frequency (0, 4 or 8 Hz) induced cell proliferation in a frequency-dependent manner. These results, highlighting the diverse effects of mode, intensity, and frequency of the magnetic field on cell growth, indicate that consistent and reproducible results can be achieved by controlling the complexity of the exposure of biological samples to MNPs and external magnetic fields, through monitoring crucial experimental parameters. We

  9. Glycosylation-related gene expression in HT29-MTX-E12 cells upon infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Michael T; Gupta, Ananya; Naughton, Julie A; Kane, Marian; Clyne, Marguerite; Joshi, Lokesh

    2017-10-07

    To identify glycosylation-related genes in the HT29 derivative cell line, HT29-MTX-E12, showing differential expression on infection with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ). Polarised HT29-MTX-E12 cells were infected for 24 h with H. pylori strain 26695. After infection RNA was isolated from both infected and non-infected host cells. Sufficient infections were carried out to provide triplicate samples for microarray analysis and for qRT-PCR analysis. RNA was isolated and hybridised to Affymetrix arrays. Analysis of microarray data identified genes significantly differentially expressed upon infection. Genes were grouped into gene ontology functional categories. Selected genes associated with host glycan structure (glycosyltransferases, hydrolases, lectins, mucins) were validated by real-time qRT-PCR analysis. Infection of host cells was confirmed by the isolation of live bacteria after 24 h incubation and by PCR amplification of bacteria-specific genes from the host cell RNA. H. pylori do not survive incubation under the adopted culture conditions unless they associate with the adherent mucus layer of the host cell. Microarray analysis identified a total of 276 genes that were significantly differentially expressed ( P < 0.05) upon H. pylori infection and where the fold change in expression was greater than 2. Six of these genes are involved in glycosylation-related processes. Real-time qRT-PCR demonstrated significant downregulation (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) of the mucin MUC20. REG4 was heavily expressed and significantly downregulated (3.1-fold, P < 0.05) upon infection. Gene ontology analysis was consistent with previous studies on H. pylori infection. Gene expression data suggest that infection with H. pylori causes a decrease in glycan synthesis, resulting in shorter and simpler glycan structures.

  10. Interaction of cruciferin-based nanoparticles with Caco-2 cells and Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Wu, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the potential of Cruciferin/Calcium (Cru/Ca) and Cruciferin/Chitosan (Cru/Cs) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. For this purpose, Cru/Ca and Cru/Cs nanoparticles were developed through cold gelation of Cruciferin, a major canola protein, and in interaction with calcium and chitosan, respectively. The extent and rate of particle uptake in Caco-2 cells and Caco-2/HT29 co-culture was then evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy as well as flow cytometry. Through pre-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayer with specific endocytosis inhibitors, the mechanism of cell uptake was investigated. Our results showed that the uptake of negatively-charged Cru/Ca particles to be ∼3 times higher than positively-charged Cru/Cs ones by Caco-2 cells. Presence of mucus secreted by HT29 cells in their co-culture with Caco-2 had negligible influence on the uptake and transport of both particles. In contrast to Cru/Ca particles which were dissociated in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions, digestion of Cru/Cs particles resulted in 6- and 2-fold increase in the cellular uptake and transport of encapsulated coumarin in the latter particles, respectively. While the presence of mucus in Caco-2/HT29 co-culture caused 40-50% decrease of cellular uptake and transport for coumarin encapsulated in digested Cru/Cs particles, it had no significant effect on the cell uptake and transport of coumarin associated with Cru/Ca particles after digestion. Energy-dependent mechanisms were the dominant mechanism for uptake of both undigested and digested particles. Therefore, in Caco-2/HT29 co-culture which closely simulated intestinal epithelial cells, undigested Cru/Ca and Cru/Cs particles had the ability to penetrate mucus layers, while digested Cru/Cs particles showed mucoadhesive property, and digested Cru/Ca particles were dissociated. Our results points to a potential for cruciferin based nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. The long-term objective of

  11. Green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera extract and their biomedical applications: Cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles against HT-29 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilarasi, A Angel; Vijaya, J Judith; Kaviyarasu, K; Maaza, M; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, L John

    2016-11-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera plant extract has been reported in the present study as they are cost effective and ecofriendly, moreover this paper records that the nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles prepared from green method shows better cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity. The NiO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The formation of a pure nickel oxide phase was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles was single crystalline having face centered cubic phase and has two intense photoluminescence emissions at 305.46nm and 410nm. The formation of nano- and micro-structures was confirmed by HRTEM. The in-vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability of human cancer cell HT-29 (Colon Carcinoma cell lines) and antibacterial studies against various bacterial strains were studied with various concentrations of nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared from Moringa oleifera plant extract. MTT assay measurements on cell viability and morphological studies proved that the synthesized NiO nanoparticles posses cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and the various zones of inhibition (mm), obtained revealed the effective antibacterial activity of NiO nanoparticles against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mucus interactions with liposomes encapsulating bioactives: Interfacial tensiometry and cellular uptake on Caco-2 and cocultures of Caco-2/HT29-MTX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Arranz, Elena; Guri, Anilda; Corredig, Milena

    2017-02-01

    Structuring of delivery matrices in foods aquires careful designing for optimal delivery and subsiquent absorption of the beneficial compounds in the gut. There has been quite improvement in mimicking digestion and absorption in vitro but as of yet little is understood on mucus interference in nutrient absorption Therefore in this study interactions of human intestinal mucus with milk and soy phospholipids liposomes carring hydrophilic (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) or hydrophobic (β-carotene) bioactive molecules were investigated. Liposomes of about 100nm were obtained using microfluidization and their behaviour with the human intestinal mucus were evaluated using drop shape tensiometry. The chemistry of the liposomes (milk or soy) and the encapsulated bioactive structure can affect the viscoelastic behaviour of the complex itself. Empty or loaded liposomes were differently interacting with the mucus at the interface. Mucus-liposomes interactions were also studied using cell cultures, Caco-2 (without mucus) and cocultures Caco-2/HT29-MTX (mucus producing). The interaction of mucus layer with liposomes was at some extent aligned with rheological studies. This work demonstrated that delivery systems may interact with the mucosal surface of intestinal cells, and in vitro approaches allow for screening of such interactions. These highlights could help us in carefully designing the delivery systems and moreover choosing the right carrier and/or bioactive that does not jeopardize the optimal delivery of the bioactive structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of beta-carotene-rich tomato lycopene beta-cyclase ( tlcy-b) on cell growth inhibition in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozza, Paola; Bellovino, Diana; Simone, Rossella; Boninsegna, Alma; Cellini, Francesco; Monastra, Giovanni; Gaetani, Sancia

    2009-07-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (tlcy-b) tomatoes, obtained by modulating carotenogenesis via genetic engineering, contain a large amount of beta-carotene, as clearly visible by their intense orange colour. In the present study we have subjected tlcy-b tomatoes to an in vitro simulated digestion and analysed the effects of digestate on cell proliferation. To this aim we used HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells, grown in monolayers, as a model. Digested tomatoes were diluted (20 ml, 50 ml and 100 ml/l) in culture medium and added to the cells for different incubation times (24 h, 48 h and 72 h). Inhibition of cell growth by tomato digestate was dose-dependent and resulted from an arrest of cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 and G2/M phase and by apoptosis induction. A down-regulation of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression was observed. We also found that heat treatment of samples before digestion enhanced beta-carotene release and therefore cell growth inhibition. To induce with purified beta-carotene solubilised in tetrahydrofuran the same cell growth inhibition obtained with the tomato digestate, a higher amount of the carotenoid was necessary, suggesting that beta-carotene micellarised during digestion is utilised more efficiently by the cells, but also that other tomato molecules, reasonably made available during digestion, may be present and cooperate with beta-carotene in promoting cell growth arrest.

  14. In vitro study of the effects of radio frequency generated for plasma in neoplastic cells HT-29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrighetto, Daniela; Dornelles, Eduardo Bortoluzzi; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Manica da; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an in vitro irradiation cell system with controllable irradiation intensities of 27 MHz produced by an argon plasma column with variable amplitude modulation in the 100-700 kHz range. This paper presents and discusses a proposed experiment, with toxicity analysis (DNA Picogreen®) and cell viability (MTT assay) in the radiation-induced HT-29 cell line (colon adenocarcinoma). The data allow us to observe that cellular toxicity effects may occur with exposure to fields produced by argon plasma with intensities on the order of at least 3.2 W / cm2 and exposure times above 3.5 hours continuously. An analysis of cell populations for cell toxicity tests using the Student's t-test did not show significant changes (p 0.34). Cytotoxic effects due to the destruction of cell wall by heating the samples were not detected in any of the tests

  15. Control de la diferenciación celular in vitro en células HT-29 de cáncer colorectal

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo de las Casas, Clara de la Caridad

    2005-01-01

    La línea celular HT-29 M6 es una línea tumoral humana derivada de adenocarcinoma de colon, con capacidad de diferenciación in vitro hacia un fenotipo mucosecretor, obtenida por selección con 10-7 M y 10-6 M de metotrexato, en tratamientos sucesivos, de la línea parental indiferenciada HT-29 (Lesuffleur T, et al, 1990). Nosotros utilizamos esta línea celular como modelo para estudiar el proceso de diferenciación in vitro que ocurre de manera espontánea durante el crecimiento hacia confluencia....

  16. In vitro study of alpha 2-adrenoceptor turnover and metabolism using the adenocarcinoma cell line HT29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.; Taouis, M.; Galitzky, J.

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis rate of the receptor was studied in postconfluent HT29 cells, when its density expressed as fmol/mg of cell membrane protein is constant, by following the recovery of the receptor binding capacity after blockade with the non-reversible alpha-adrenergic antagonist benextramine. Study of the inhibition of [ 3 H]yohimbine and [ 3 H]UK-14,304 binding showed that benextramine was a more potent antagonist at alpha 2-adrenoceptor than phenoxybenzamine. The incubation of intact HT29 cells for 30 min in the presence of 10(-5) M benextramine irreversibly blocked more than 95% of the alpha 2-adrenoceptors and totally suppressed the inhibitory effect of UK-14,304 on cyclic AMP production. The blockade appeared specific, since benextramine effects were prevented by alpha 2-adrenergic agents. Moreover, neither vasoactive intestinal polypeptide responsiveness nor other tested aspects of the regulation of the adenylate cyclase was altered by the treatment. Study of the time course of receptor recovery after irreversible blockade indicated that alpha 2-adrenoceptors reappeared in the cells with a monoexponential kinetic. The linearization of the repopulation curve obtained with the labeled antagonist [ 3 H]yohimbine allowed the determination of the rate constant for receptor degradation (k = 0.0268 +/- 0.0025 hr-1) and the rate of receptor synthesis (6.91 +/- 0.64 fmol/mg of cell membrane protein/hr) corresponding to the synthesis of about 500 receptors/cell/hr. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor half-life was 26 +/- 3 hr. Measurement of the biological effects associated to the alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation during the course of receptor recovery indicated a relationship between the number of cell receptors and the percentage of inhibition of the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by forskolin

  17. Downregulation of CD147 expression by RNA interference inhibits HT29 cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Xu, Yeqiong; Gao, Tianyi; Song, Guoqi; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Wang, Shukui

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of CD147 silencing on HT29 cell proliferation and invasion. We constructed a novel short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector pYr-mir30-shRNA. The plasmid was transferred to HT29 cells. The expression of CD147, MCT1 (lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 1) and MCT4 (lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 4) were monitored by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. The MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activities were determined by gelatin zymography assay, while the intracellular lactate concentration was determined by the lactic acid assay kit. WST-8 assay was used to determine the HT29 cell proliferation and the chemosensitivity. Invasion assay was used to determine the invasion of HT29 cells. In addition, we established a colorectal cancer model, and detected CD147 expression in vivo. The results showed that the expression of CD147 and MCT1 was significantly reduced at both mRNA and protein levels, and also the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was reduced. The proliferation and invasion were decreased, but chemosensitivity to cisplatin was increased. In vivo, the CD147 expression was also significantly decreased, and reduced the tumor growth after CD147 gene silencing. The results demonstrated that silencing of CD147 expression inhibited the proliferation and invasion, suggesting CD147 silencing might be an adjuvant gene therapy strategy to chemotherapy.

  18. Kynurenine promotes the goblet cell differentiation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells by modulating Wnt, Notch and AhR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Hung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Eun-Jin; Kim, Da-Jeong; Hwang, Won-Bhin

    2018-04-01

    Various amino acids regulate cell growth and differentiation. In the present study, we examined the ability of HT-29 cells to differentiate into goblet cells in RPMI and DMEM which are largely different in the amounts of numerous amino acids. Most of the HT-29 cells differentiated into goblet cells downregulating the stem cell marker Lgr5 when cultured in DMEM, but remained undifferentiated in RPMI. The goblet cell differentiation in DMEM was inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 which is the initial enzyme in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (KN) pathway, whereas tryptophan and KN induced goblet cell differentiation in RPMI. The levels of Notch1 and its activation product Notch intracytoplasmic domain in HT-29 cells were lower in DMEM than those in RPMI and were increased by 1-MT in both media. HT-29 cells grown in both media expressed β-catenin at the same level on day 2 when goblet cell differentiation was not observed. β-catenin expression, which was increased by 1-MT in both media, was decreased by KN. DMEM reduced Hes1 expression while enhancing Hath1 expression. Finally, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation moderately induced goblet cell differentiation. Our results suggest that KN promotes goblet cell differentiation by regulating Wnt, Notch, and AhR signals and expression of Hes1 and Hath1.

  19. In vitro study of the effects of radio frequency generated for plasma in neoplastic cells HT-29; Estudo in vitro dos efeitos da radiofrequencia gerada por plasmas em celulas neoplasicas HT-29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrighetto, Daniela; Dornelles, Eduardo Bortoluzzi; Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Manica da; Lüdke, Everton, E-mail: daniela.andrighetto@hotmail.com, E-mail: dornellesedu@gmail.com, E-mail: ibmcruz@hotmail.com, E-mail: evertonludke@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (BRazil)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an in vitro irradiation cell system with controllable irradiation intensities of 27 MHz produced by an argon plasma column with variable amplitude modulation in the 100-700 kHz range. This paper presents and discusses a proposed experiment, with toxicity analysis (DNA Picogreen®) and cell viability (MTT assay) in the radiation-induced HT-29 cell line (colon adenocarcinoma). The data allow us to observe that cellular toxicity effects may occur with exposure to fields produced by argon plasma with intensities on the order of at least 3.2 W / cm2 and exposure times above 3.5 hours continuously. An analysis of cell populations for cell toxicity tests using the Student's t-test did not show significant changes (p <0.05) in the amount of DNA released by the action of radiofrequency, although it has been found that cell viability (MTT) is not significantly altered by long exposures to radiation induced plasma RF signals in 27 MHz (p> 0.34). Cytotoxic effects due to the destruction of cell wall by heating the samples were not detected in any of the tests.

  20. Bifidobacterium breve - HT-29 cell line interaction: modulation of TNF-a induced gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, R.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Knol, J.

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight in the molecular basis for intestinal host-microbe interactions, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to cells of Bifidobacterium breve. To select an appropriate test system reflecting inflammatory

  1. Bifidobacterium breve-HT-29 cell line interaction: Modulation of TNF-a induced gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, R.J.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Vriesema, A.; Knol, J.; Vos, W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight in the molecular basis for intestinal host-microbe interactions, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to cells of Bifidobacterium breve. To select an appropriate test system reflecting inflammatory

  2. Reparative properties of the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis (Chinese caterpillar mushroom) using HT29 cell culture and rat gastric damage models of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchbank, Tania; Ojobo, Ehighale; Playford, Christopher J; Playford, Raymond J

    2011-05-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is a traditional Chinese medicine and health food used to support many organ systems. It is commercially produced by cultivation in a liquid medium or on a solid (grain/potato) phase. We tested the effects of hot water extracts of liquid-phase and solid-phase commercially grown CS on its ability to influence proliferation (using Alamar blue, an oxidation/reduction indicator), migration (serial-wounded monolayer photomicroscopy), invasion through collagen gel (fluorometric assay) and indomethacin-induced apoptosis (active caspase-3 colorimetric assay) of human colon cancer HT29 cells. An in vivo study used a rat gastric damage model (indomethacin 20 mg/kg and 4 h restraint with oral administration). The CS extract stimulated cell proliferation threefold when added at 10 μg/ml (P < 0·01). Cell migration increased by 69 % and invasion by 17 % when CS was added at 5 mg/ml (P < 0·01). The results also showed that 93 % of the pro-proliferative activity was soluble in ethanol, whereas pro-migratory activity was divided (61:49) into both ethanol-soluble and ethanol-insoluble sub-fractions. Indomethacin-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of CS. CS reduced the amount of gastric injury by 63 % when administered orally at 20 mg/ml (P < 0·01), the results being similar to using the potent cytoprotective agent epidermal growth factor at 25 μg/ml (83 % reduction). We conclude that both methods of cultivated CS possess biological activity when analysed using a variety of gut models of injury and repair. Functional foods, such as CS, could provide a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of injury to the bowel.

  3. Rottlerin Inhibits ROS Formation and Prevents NFκB Activation in MCF-7 and HT-29 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maioli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rottlerin, a polyphenol isolated from Mallotus Philippinensis, has been recently used as a selective inhibitor of PKC δ, although it can inhibit many kinases and has several biological effects. Among them, we recently found that Rottlerin inhibits the Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB, activated by either phorbol esters or H2O2. Because of the redox sensitivity of NFκB and on the basis of Rottlerin antioxidant property, we hypothesized that Rottlerin could prevent NFκB activation acting as a free radicals scavenger, as other natural polyphenols. The current study confirms the antioxidant property of Rottlerin against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH in vitro and against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and by menadione in culture cells. We also demonstrate that Rottlerin prevents TNFα-dependent NFκB activation in MCF-7 cells and in HT-29 cells transfected with the NFκB-driven plasmid pBIIX-LUC, suggesting that Rottlerin can inhibit NFκB via several pathways and in several cell types.

  4. Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells by extracts from isothiocyanates-rich varieties of Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Deulofeu, Ramon; Molina, Rafael; Ballesta, Antonio; Kensler, Thomas W; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    Among the vegetables with anti-carcinogenic properties, members of the genus Brassica are the most effective at reducing the risk of cancer. This property may be explained by their principle bioactive compounds, isothiocyanates (ITCs). The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of ITCs in extracts from vegetables of the Brasssica genus and assay them for potency of induction of apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29). ITCs were determined by the cyclocondensation assay with 1,2-benzenedithiol and induction of apoptosis by assessment of cell viability, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Purple cabbage extract showed the highest ITC concentration per gram, fresh weight, followed by black cabbage and Romanesco cauliflower. At ITC concentrations of 7.08 microg/mL these extracts decreased cell viability and induced caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation at 48h. Brussels sprouts showed the strongest effects on cell viability and caspase-3 activity. Varieties of Brassica Oleracea are rich sources of ITCs that potently inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells by inducting apoptosis. All the extracts showed anticancer activity at ITC concentrations of between 3.54 to 7.08 mug/mL, which are achievable in vivo. Our results showed that ITC concentration and the chemopreventive responses of plant extracts vary among the varieties of Brassica Oleracea studied and among their cultivars.

  5. Cyclin D1 negatively regulates the expression of differentiation genes in HT-29 M6 mucus-secreting colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Clara; Mayol, Xavier

    2009-08-28

    HT-29 M6 colon cancer cells differentiate to a mucus-secreting phenotype in culture. We found that the pattern of cyclin D1 expression in HT-29 M6 cells did not correlate with instances of cell proliferation but was specifically induced during a dedifferentiation process following disaggregation of epithelial cell layers, even under conditions that did not allow cell cycle reentrance. Interestingly, ectopic expression of cyclin D1 in differentiated cells led to the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of differentiation gene promoters, such as the mucin MUC1. We thus propose that the overexpression of cyclin D1 found in colon cancer favours tumour dedifferentiation as one mechanism of tumour progression.

  6. Cetuximab improves AZD6244 antitumor activity in colorectal cancer HT29 cells in vitro and in nude mice by attenuating HER3/Akt pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Xiao, He; Jin, Feng; Li, Mengxia; Luo, Jia; Wang, Ge

    2018-07-01

    The present study investigated the molecular mechanism by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab enhances the antitumor activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor AZD6244 in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. HT29 cells were treated with AZD6244 plus cetuximab and then subjected to the following assays: Cell Counting kit-8, BrdU-incorporation, flow cytometric cell cycle distribution and apoptosis analysis, western blot analysis, and nude mouse xenografts. The combination of AZD6244 and cetuximab significantly reduced HT29 cell viability and proliferation compared with AZD6244 alone. The combination treatment reduced the IC 50 value from 108.12±10.05 to 28.45±1.92 nM. AZD6244 and cetuximab also induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and reduced S phase (88.53% vs. 93.39%, P=0.080; 8.73% vs. 4.24%, P=0.082, respectively). Combination of AZD6244 with cetuximab significantly induced tumor cells apoptosis (14.61% vs. 8.99%, P=0.046). Inhibition of EGFR activity using cetuximab partially abrogated the feedback-activation of phosphorylated receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erB-3 (p-HER3) and p-AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT), as well as prevented reactivation of p-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) conferred by AZD6244 treatment. Combination of AZD6244 and cetuximab also inhibited HT29 cell xenograft growth in nude mice and suppressed HER3 and p-AKT levels in xenografts. The EGFR inhibitor cetuximab enhanced the antitumor activity of the MEK inhibitor AZD6244 in colorectal cells in vitro and in vivo . Co-inhibition of MEK and EGFR may be a promising treatment strategy in colorectal cancers.

  7. Ellagitannins from pomegranate ameliorates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in rats while enhancing its chemotoxicity against HT-29 colorectal cancer cells through intrinsic apoptosis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Lam, Kar Ho; Feng, Yibin; Xu, Kai; Sze, Stephen C W; Tang, Chi Wai; Leung, George P H; Lee, Calvin Kai-Fai; Shi, Jun; Yang, Zhijun; Li, Sheng-Tao; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Zhang, Yanbo

    2018-06-19

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a deleterious disease causing millions of death annually. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a first-line chemotherapy for CRC, but chemoresistance and gastrointestinal mucositis limit its efficacy. Polyphenol-rich foods are increasingly popular due to their potential beneficial role in cancer. Ellagitannins is a group of phenolic compounds commonly found in pomegranate, strawberries, raspberries, etc. The objective of this study was to explore whether ellagitannins from pomegranate (PETs) could ameliorate 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis and enhance its efficacy against CRC. The results showed that PETs (100 mg/kg) counteracted 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. The number of apoptotic cells per crypt was reduced from 1.50±0.21 to 0.85±0.18 (P<0.05). Moreover, PETs induced HT-29 CRC cell death through intrinsic apoptosis as demonstrated by dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, and cleavage of caspase 9 and caspase 3. PETs and 5-FU combination treatments exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells with a weighted combination index of 0.3494. PETs (80 µg/mL) and 5-FU (40 µg/mL) treatments for 48 h induced 14.03±0.76% and 16.42±1.15% of HT-29 cells to undergo apoptosis while the combination treatment further increased apoptosis cells to 34.00±1.54% (P<0.05). Combination treatment of the cells also enhanced S phase cell cycle arrest as compared with PETs or 5-FU monotherapy (P<0.05). These results suggest that dietary ellagitannins from pomegranate could alleviate intestinal mucositis in rats induced by 5-FU while enhancing its toxicity against HT-29 cells through potentiation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

  8. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 μmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  9. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-08-01

    The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 µmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway.

  10. Regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hui Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulatory effect of evodiamine on the malignant biological behaviors and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29. Methods: Colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and divided into blank control group and evodiamine group, and after different treatment, cell viability, proportion of different cell cycle as well as the contents of VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3, MMP14, Wnt and β-catenin were detected. Results: (1 Cell viability: MTT value of evodiamine group was significantly lower than that of blank control group; (2 Cell cycle: proportion of both S phase and G2/M phase of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group, and proportion of G0/ G1 phase was higher than that of blank control group; (3 VEGF and MMP contents: VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, MMP3 and MMP14 contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group; (4 Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway: Wnt and β-catenin contents of evodiamine group were lower than those of blank control group. Conclusion: Evodiamine can inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and down-regulate the expression of VEGF and MMP, and the effect may be achieved by inhibiting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  11. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  12. Curcumin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via the activation of reactive oxygen species-independent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Smad4 and p53 mutated colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ayushi; Kasinathan, Akiladdevi; Ganesan, Ramamoorthi; Balasubramanian, Akhila; Bhaskaran, Jahnavi; Suresh, Samyuktha; Srinivasan, Revanth; Aravind, K B; Sivalingam, Nageswaran

    2018-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol compound that has various pharmacological activities such as antiproliferative and cancer-preventive activities on tumor cells. Indeed, the role reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by curcumin on cell death and cell proliferation inhibition in colon cancer is poorly understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that curcumin-induced ROS may promote apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in colon cancer. To test this hypothesis, the apoptosis-inducing potential and cell cycle inhibition effect of ROS induced by curcumin was investigated in Smd4 and p53 mutated HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. We found that curcumin treatment significantly increased the level of ROS in HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, curcumin treatment markedly decreased the cell viability and proliferation potential of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, generation of ROS and inhibitory effect of curcumin on HT-29 cells were abrogated by N-acetylcysteine treatment. In addition, curcumin treatment did not show any cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells. Furthermore, curcumin-induced ROS generation caused the DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and cell nuclear shrinkage and significantly increased apoptotic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HT-29 cells. However, pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine inhibited the apoptosis-triggering effect of curcumin-induced ROS in HT-29 cells. In addition, curcumin-induced ROS effectively mediated cell cycle inhibition in HT-29 cells. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that curcumin induces ROS independent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells that carry mutation on Smad4 and p53. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Hyaluronic acid–nimesulide conjugates as anticancer drugs against CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian YS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available You-Sin Jian,1 Ching-Wen Chen,1 Chih-An Lin,2 Hsiu-Ping Yu,1 Hua-Yang Lin,3 Ming-Yuan Liao,1 Shu-Huan Wu,1 Yan-Fu Lin,1 Ping-Shan Lai1,2,4,5 1Department of Chemistry, 2PhD Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 3Preclinical Development Research Department, Holy Stone Healthcare Co., Ltd., Taipei, 4Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Nanotechnology, 5Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: Carrier-mediated drug delivery systems are promising therapeutics for targeted delivery and improved efficacy and safety of potent cytotoxic drugs. Nimesulide is a multifactorial cyclooxygenase 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, antipyretic and potent anticancer properties; however, the low solubility of nimesulide limits its applications. Drugs conjugated with hyaluronic acid (HA are innovative carrier-mediated drug delivery systems characterized by CD44-mediated endocytosis of HA and intracellular drug release. In this study, hydrophobic nimesulide was conjugated to HA of two different molecular weights (360 kDa as HA with high molecular weight [HAH] and 43kDa as HA with low molecular weight [HAL] to improve its tumor-targeting ability and hydrophilicity. Our results showed that hydrogenated nimesulide (N-[4-amino-2-phenoxyphenyl]methanesulfonamide was successfully conjugated with both HA types by carbodiimide coupling and the degree of substitution of nimesulide was 1%, which was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance 400 MHz and total correlation spectroscopy. Both Alexa Fluor® 647 labeled HAH and HAL could selectively accumulate in CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal tumor area in vivo, as observed by in vivo imaging system. In the in vitro cytotoxic test, HA–nimesulide conjugate displayed >46% cell killing ability at a nimesulide concentration of 400 µM in HT-29 cells, whereas

  14. Behavior of LASL-made graphite, ZrC, and ZrC-containing coated particles in irradiation tests HT-28 and HT-29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiswig, R.D.; Wagner, P.; Hollabaugh, C.M.; White, R.W.; O'Rourke, J.A.; Davidson, K.V.; Schell, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Three types of materials, extruded graphite, hot-pressed ZrC, and particles with ZrC coatings, were irradiated in ORNL High Fluence Isotope Reactor Irradiation tests HT-28 and HT-29. The ZrC seemed unaffected. The graphite changed in dimensions, x-ray diffraction parameters, and thermal conductivity. The four types of coated particles tested all resisted the irradiation well, except one set of particles with double-graded C-ZrC-C coats. Overall, the results were considered encouraging for use of ZrC and extruded graphite fuel matrices. 16 fig

  15. Interaction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sodium butyrate during apoptosis in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Lojek, Antonín; Kozubík, Alois

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2005), s. 40-51 ISSN 1436-6207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/01/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : colon cancer * diet * butyrate Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.257, year: 2005

  16. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as ? -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars...

  17. Protective effect of surface layer proteins isolated from four Lactobacillus strains on hydrogen-peroxide-induced HT-29 cells oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin-Bin; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Kang, Ting-Ting; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidant effect of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) and their mechanism. We investigated four SLPs which were extracted from L. casei zhang, L. rhamnosus, L. gasseri and L. acidophilus NCFM respectively using LiCl. The protective effect of SLPs on H 2 O 2 -induced HT-29 cells oxidative injury was investigated. As results, SLPs (100μg/mL) could significantly mitigate HT-29 cells cytotoxicity, improve the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), decrease the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), compared with H 2 O 2 -induced group (Pproteins of caspase-3 and caspase-9 (Pcells induced by H 2 O 2 , and the mechanism could be attributed to SLPs' ability to enhance the activity of the intracellular antioxidant enzyme system, reduce ROS accumulation and to inhibit apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Discerning apical and basolateral properties of HT-29/B6 and IPEC-J2 cell layers by impedance spectroscopy, mathematical modeling and machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmid

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in partial resistances of epithelial barriers in vitro is a challenging and time-consuming task in physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that electrical properties of epithelial barriers can be estimated reliably by combining impedance spectroscopy measurements, mathematical modeling and machine learning algorithms. Conventional impedance spectroscopy is often used to estimate epithelial capacitance as well as epithelial and subepithelial resistance. Based on this, the more refined two-path impedance spectroscopy makes it possible to further distinguish transcellular and paracellular resistances. In a next step, transcellular properties may be further divided into their apical and basolateral components. The accuracy of these derived values, however, strongly depends on the accuracy of the initial estimates. To obtain adequate accuracy in estimating subepithelial and epithelial resistance, artificial neural networks were trained to estimate these parameters from model impedance spectra. Spectra that reflect behavior of either HT-29/B6 or IPEC-J2 cells as well as the data scatter intrinsic to the used experimental setup were created computationally. To prove the proposed approach, reliability of the estimations was assessed with both modeled and measured impedance spectra. Transcellular and paracellular resistances obtained by such neural network-enhanced two-path impedance spectroscopy are shown to be sufficiently reliable to derive the underlying apical and basolateral resistances and capacitances. As an exemplary perturbation of pathophysiological importance, the effect of forskolin on the apical resistance of HT-29/B6 cells was quantified.

  19. The apoptotic effects of Brucea javanica fruit extract against HT29 cells associated with p53 upregulation and inhibition of NF-κB translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri E

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elham Bagheri,1 Fatemeh Hajiaghaalipour,2 Shaik Nyamathulla,1 Nur’Ain Salehen3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Brucea javanica (L. Merr. is a plant from the genus Brucea, which is used in local traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Recent studies revealed an impressive anticancer efficiency of B. javanica extract in different types of cancer cells.Purpose: In this study, we have investigated the cytotoxic effects of the B. javanica hexane, ethanolic extracts against colon cancer cells. HT29 colon cells were selected as an in vitro cancer model to evaluate the anticancer activity of B. javanica ethanolic extract (BJEE and the possible mechanisms of action that induced apoptosis.Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5,-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, lactate dehydrogenase, acridine orange/propidium iodide, and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate assays were performed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptosis validation of BJEE on cancer cells. Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, caspase activities, nucleus factor-κB activity, and gene expression experiments was done to investigate the potential mechanisms of action in the apoptotic process.Results: The results obtained from this study illustrated the significant antiproliferative effect of BJEE on colorectal cancer cells, with a concentration value that inhibits 50% of the cell growth of 25±3.1 µg/mL after 72 h of treatment. MTT assay demonstrated that the BJEE is selectively toxic to cancer cells, and BJEE induced cell apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 along with modulation of apoptosis-related proteins such as Fas, CD40, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligands

  20. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  1. RNA sequencing supports distinct reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways of apoptosis by high and low size mass fractions of Bay leaf (Lauris nobilis) in HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Annabelle L; Ververis, Katherine; Sayakkarage, Dheeshana; Khan, Abdul W; Rafehi, Haloom; Ziemann, Mark; Loveridge, Shanon J; Lazarus, Ross; Kerr, Caroline; Lockett, Trevor; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C; Bennett, Louise E

    2015-08-01

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) in mammalian cancer and HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells have been previously attributed to effects of polyphenolic and essential oil chemical species. Recently, we demonstrated differentiated growth-regulating effects of high (HFBL) versus low molecular mass (LFBL) aqueous fractions of bay leaf and now confirm by comparative effects on gene expression, that HFBL and LFBL suppress HT-29 growth by distinct mechanisms. Induction of intra-cellular lesions including DNA strand breakage by extra-cellular HFBL, invoked the hypothesis that iron-mediated reactive oxygen species with capacity to penetrate cell membrane, were responsible for HFBL-mediated effects, supported by equivalent effects of HFBL in combination with γ radiation. Activities of HFBL and LFBL were interpreted to reflect differentiated responses to iron-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring either outside or inside cells. In the presence of LFBL, apoptotic death was relatively delayed compared with HFBL. ROS production by LFBL mediated p53-dependent apoptosis and recovery was suppressed by promoting G1/S phase arrest and failure of cellular tight junctions. In comparison, intra-cellular anti-oxidant protection exerted by LFBL was absent for extra-cellular HFBL (likely polysaccharide-rich), which potentiated more rapid apoptosis by producing DNA double strand breaks. Differentiated effects on expression of genes regulating ROS defense and chromatic condensation by LFBL versus HFBL, were observed. The results support ferrous iron in cell culture systems and potentially in vivo, can invoke different extra-cellular versus intra-cellular ROS-mediated chemistries, that may be regulated by exogenous, including dietary species.

  2. Formation of hydrogen peroxide in cell culture media by apple polyphenols and its effect on antioxidant biomarkers in the colon cell line HT-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellion, Phillip; Olk, Melanie; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2009-10-01

    Beneficial health effects of diets containing fruits have partly been attributed to polyphenols which display a spectrum of bioactive effects, including antioxidant activity. However, polyphenols can also exert prooxidative effects in vitro. In this study, polyphenol-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation was determined after incubation of apple juice extracts (AEs) and polyphenols in cell culture media. Effects of extracellular H(2)O(2 )on total glutathione (tGSH; =GSH + GSSG) and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of HT-29 cells were studied by coincubation +/- catalase (CAT). AEs ( > or =30 microg/mL) significantly generated H(2)O(2) in DMEM, depending on their composition. Similarly, H(2)O(2) was measured for individual apple polyphenols/degradation products (phenolic acids > epicatechin, flavonols > dihydrochalcones). Highest concentrations were generated by compounds bearing the o-catechol moiety. H(2)O(2) formation was found to be pH dependent; addition of CAT caused a complete decomposition of H(2)O(2) whereas superoxide dismutase was less/not effective. At incubation of HT-29 cells with quercetin (1-100 microM), generated H(2)O(2) slightly contributed to antioxidant cell protection by modulation of tGSH- and ROS-level. In conclusion, H(2)O(2) generation in vitro by polyphenols has to be taken into consideration when interpreting results of such cell culture experiments. Unphysiologically high polyphenol concentrations, favoring substantial H(2)O(2 )formation, are not expected to be met in vivo, even under conditions of high end nutritional uptake.

  3. Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Analhuda Abdullah; Sani, Nur Fathiah Abdul; Murad, Noor Azian; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29. The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined. The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

  4. Inhibition of CD147 expression by RNA interference reduces proliferation, invasion and increases chemosensitivity in cancer stem cell-like HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Liu, Xian; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Cho, William C; Wang, Shukui

    2015-10-01

    The association between CD147 and cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides a new angle for cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of CD147 in colorectal CSCs. The Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector was used to isolate CSCs and pYr-mir30-shRNA was used to generate short hairpin RNA (shRNA) specifically for CD147. After RNA interference (RNAi), CD147 was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, and its biological functions were assessed by MTT and invasion assays. The results showed that the differentiation of isolated CSC-like HT-29 cells was blocked and these cells were highly positive for CD44 and CD147. RNAi-mediated CD147 silencing reduced the expression of CD147 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the activities of proliferation and invasion were decreased obviously in CSCs. Knockdown of CD147 increased the chemosensitivity of CSC-like cells to gemcitabine, cisplatin, docetaxel at 0.1, 1 and 10 µM respectively, however, there was no significant difference among the three groups to paclitaxel at 10 µM. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD147 plays an important role in colorectal CSCs and might be regarded as a novel CSC-specific targeted strategy against colorectal cancer.

  5. Phenolic composition of selected herbal infusions and their anti-inflammatory effect on a colonic model in vitro in HT-29 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Herrera-Carrera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some herbal infusions used in folk medicine in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were evaluated. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were analyzed on the lyophilized aqueous crude extracts (LACE of arnica (Aster gymnocephalus, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, cumin (Cominum cyminum, desert resurrection plant (DRP (Selaginella lepidophylla, laurel (Listea glaucescens, marjoram (Origanum majorana, mint (Mentha spicata, salvilla (Buddleia scordioides and yerbaniz (Tagetes lucida. Total phenolic content ranged from 8.0 to 70.7 μg GAE/mg for DRP and laurel respectively. Major phenolic compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The IC50 determined by the degradation of the deoxy-d-ribose ranged from 2,452.53 to 5,097.11 μg/mL. The cytoprotective effect of the LACE alone and on indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in HT-29 cells was tested. The tetrazolium dye MTT assay was performed in concentrations of 0.125–10 mg/mL allowing choosing the lowest concentration for this experimentation. Inflammation markers were measured by Western blotting. None of the extracts inhibited COX-1 by themselves; however, it was observed that extracts have a modulation effect over COX-2, TNFα, NFκB, and IL-8. By the decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, it follows that salvilla, chamomile, and laurel show promising anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. The effects of TNF-alpha and inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on human colon HT-29 cells depend on differentiation status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaříková, Martina; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Souček, Karel; Kozubík, Alois

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2004), s. 23-31 ISSN 0301-4681 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/01/0419; GA ČR GP524/02/P051; GA AV ČR IBS5004009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : colon cancer * cell differentiation * TNF-alpha Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.481, year: 2004

  7. Role of Caveolin 1, E-Cadherin, Enolase 2 and PKCalpha on resistance to methotrexate in human HT29 colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selga, Elisabet; Morales Torres, Christina; Noé, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    , a list of 3-fold differentially expressed genes with a p-value multiple testing correction (Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate) was generated. RT-Real-time PCR was used to validate the expression levels of selected genes and copy-number was determined by qPCR. Functional......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is one of the earliest cytotoxic drugs used in cancer therapy, and despite the isolation of multiple other folate antagonists, methotrexate maintains its significant role as a treatment for different types of cancer and other disorders. The usefulness of treatment...

  8. In vitro differentiation of HT-29 M6 mucus-secreting colon cancer cells involves a trychostatin A and p27(KIP1)-inducible transcriptional program of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Clara; Lloreta, Josep; Real, Francisco X; Mayol, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    Tumor cell dedifferentiation-such as the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial tumors-is associated with tumor progression. To better understand the mechanisms that maintain carcinoma cells in a differentiated state, we have dissected in vitro differentiation pathways in the mucus-secretor HT-29 M6 colon cancer cell line, which spontaneously differentiates in postconfluent cultures. By lowering the extracellular calcium concentration to levels that prevent intercellular adhesion and epithelial polarization, our results reveal that differentiation is calcium-dependent and involves: (i) a process of cell cycle exit to G(0) and (ii) the induction of a transcriptional program of differentiation gene expression (i.e., mucins MUC1 and MUC5AC, and the apical membrane peptidase DPPIV). In calcium-deprived, non-differentiated postconfluent cultures, differentiation gene promoters are repressed by a trichostatin A (TSA)-sensitive mechanism, indicating that loss of gene expression by dedifferentiation is driven by histone deacetylases (HDAC). Since TSA treatment or extracellular calcium restoration allow gene promoter activation to similar levels, we suggest that induction of differentiation is one mechanism of HDAC inhibitor antitumor action. Moreover, transcriptional de-repression can also be induced in non-differentiating culture conditions by overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1), which is normally induced during spontaneous differentiation. Since p27(KIP1) downregulation in colon cancer is associated with poor prognosis independently of tumor cell division rates, we propose that p27 (KIP1) may prevent tumor progression by, at least in part, enhancing the expression of some differentiation genes. Therefore, the HT-29 M6 model allows the identification of some basic mechanisms of cancer cell differentiation control, so far revealing HDAC and p27(KIP1) as key regulatory factors of differentiation gene expression.

  9. Pectic oligosaccharide structure-function relationships: prebiotics, inhibitors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 adhesion and reduction of Shiga toxin cytotoxicity in HT29 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing, food-contaminating Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major health concern. Plant-derived pectin and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) that are abundant in biomass have been considered as prebiotics and for the protection of humans from Stx intoxication. Five structurally differ...

  10. Musa paradisiaca inflorescence induces human colon cancer cell death by modulating cascades of transcriptional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K B, Arun; Madhavan, Aravind; T R, Reshmitha; Thomas, Sithara; Nisha, P

    2018-01-24

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, and diet plays an important role in the etiology of CRC. Traditional medical practitioners in many South Asian countries use plantain inflorescence to treat various gastro-intestinal ailments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of extracts of inflorescence of Musa paradisiaca against HT29 human colon cancer cells and elucidate the mechanism of these effects by studying the modulation of cascades of transcriptional events. In vitro assays depicted that methanol extract of Musa paradisiaca inflorescence (PIMET) was cytotoxic to HT29 cells. PIMET induced DNA damage and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Expression studies showed that PIMET pretreatment upregulates pro-apoptotic Bcl2 and downregulates anti-apoptotic Bax proteins. Different assays showed that the deregulation of pro/antiapoptotic proteins reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production; moreover, it enhances cytochrome c release, which triggers the apoptotic pathway, and further cleaves caspase 3 and PARP proteins, resulting in apoptosis. Changes in the protein expression profile of HT29 cells after PIMET treatment were analyzed using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. PIMET treatment significantly altered the expression of HT29 protein; interestingly, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein was also downregulated. Alteration in the expression of this protein has significant effects, leading to HT29 cell death.

  11. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of γ-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G 2 /M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  12. κ-Carrageenan Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion by Stimulating the Bcl10-NF-κB Pathway in HT-29 Cells and Aggravates C. freundii-Induced Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dietary usage of carrageenan as common food additive has increased observably over the last 50 years. But there is substantial controversy about its safety. Methods. We investigated whether the κ-carrageenan could enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression by studying its actions on the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. The aggravating effect of κ-carrageenan on Citrobacter freundii DBS100-induced intestinal inflammation was also investigated in a mouse model. Results. Our data show that κ-carrageenan pretreatment promoted LPS-induced IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells. Although CD14, MD-2, and TLR4 were upregulated, the binding of LPS was not enhanced. However, the pathway of Bcl10-NF-κB was triggered. Interestingly, κ-carrageenan competitively blocked the binding of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with κ-carrageenan for one week previous to gavage with C. freundii DBS100 markedly aggravated weight loss, mortality, and colonic damage. The secretion of cytokines was unbalanced and the ratio of Tregs was decreased significantly. In addition, κ-carrageenan, together with C. freundii DBS100, enhanced the transcription and secretion of TLR4 and NF-κB. Conclusions. κ-Carrageenan can synergistically activate LPS-induced inflammatory through the Bcl10-NF-κB pathway, as indicated by its aggravation of C. freundii DBS100-induced colitis in mice. General Significance. Our results suggest that κ-carrageenan serves as a potential inflammatory agent that magnifies existing intestinal inflammation.

  13. Pleiotropic effects of cancer cells' secreted factors on human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-toub, Mashael; Almusa, Abdulaziz; Almajed, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    cells' secreted factors as represented by a panel of human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231); prostate (PC-3); lung (NCI-H522); colon (HT-29) and head & neck (FaDu)) on the biological characteristics of MSCs. METHODS: Morphological changes were assessed using fluorescence microscopy......, but not from MCF7 and HT-29, developed an elongated, spindle-shaped morphology with bipolar processes. In association with phenotypic changes, genome-wide gene expression and bioinformatics analysis revealed an enhanced pro-inflammatory response of those MSCs. Pharmacological inhibitions of FAK and MAPKK...

  14. The EspF N-Terminal of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933w Imparts Stronger Toxicity Effects on HT-29 Cells than the C-Terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Du, Yanli; Hua, Ying; Fu, Muqing; Niu, Cong; Zhang, Bao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Qiwei; Wan, Chengsong

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 EspF is an important multifunctional protein that destroys the tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells and promotes host cell apoptosis. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We knocked out the espF sequence (747 bp, Δ espF ), N-terminal sequence (219 bp, Δ espF N ), and C-terminal sequence (528 bp, Δ espF C ) separately using the pKD46-mediated λ Red homologous recombination system. Then, we built the corresponding complementation strains, namely, Δ espF/pespF , Δ espF N /pespF N , and Δ espF C /pespF C by overlap PCR, which were used in infecting HT-29 cells and BALB/C mice. The level of reactive oxygen species, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, inflammatory factors, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and animal mortality were evaluated by DCFH-DA, double staining of Annexin V-FITC/PI, JC-1 staining, ELISA kit, and a mouse assay. The wild-type (WT), Δ espF , Δ espF/pespF , Δ espF C , Δ espF C /pespF C , Δ espF N , and Δ espF N /pespF N groups exhibited apoptotic rates of 68.3, 27.9, 64.9, 65.7, 73.4, 41.3, and 35.3% respectively, and mean TNF-α expression levels of 428 pg/mL, 342, 466, 446, 381, 383, and 374 pg/mL, respectively. In addition, the apoptotic rates and TNF-α levels of the WT, Δ espF/pespF , and Δ espF C were significantly higher than that of Δ espF , Δ espF N , Δ espF C /pespF C , and Δ espF N /pespF N group ( p < 0.05). The N-terminal of EspF resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, TNF-α secretion, ROS generation, mitochondria apoptosis, and pathogenicity in BalB/c mice. In conclusion, the N-terminal domain of the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 EspF more strongly promotes apoptosis and inflammation than the C-terminal domain.

  15. The EspF N-Terminal of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933w Imparts Stronger Toxicity Effects on HT-29 Cells than the C-Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 EspF is an important multifunctional protein that destroys the tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells and promotes host cell apoptosis. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We knocked out the espF sequence (747 bp, ΔespF, N-terminal sequence (219 bp, ΔespFN, and C-terminal sequence (528 bp, ΔespFC separately using the pKD46-mediated λ Red homologous recombination system. Then, we built the corresponding complementation strains, namely, ΔespF/pespF, ΔespFN/pespFN, and ΔespFC/pespFC by overlap PCR, which were used in infecting HT-29 cells and BALB/C mice. The level of reactive oxygen species, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, inflammatory factors, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER, and animal mortality were evaluated by DCFH-DA, double staining of Annexin V-FITC/PI, JC-1 staining, ELISA kit, and a mouse assay. The wild-type (WT, ΔespF, ΔespF/pespF, ΔespFC, ΔespFC/pespFC, ΔespFN, and ΔespFN/pespFN groups exhibited apoptotic rates of 68.3, 27.9, 64.9, 65.7, 73.4, 41.3, and 35.3% respectively, and mean TNF-α expression levels of 428 pg/mL, 342, 466, 446, 381, 383, and 374 pg/mL, respectively. In addition, the apoptotic rates and TNF-α levels of the WT, ΔespF/pespF, and ΔespFC were significantly higher than that of ΔespF, ΔespFN, ΔespFC/pespFC, and ΔespFN/pespFN group (p < 0.05. The N-terminal of EspF resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, TNF-α secretion, ROS generation, mitochondria apoptosis, and pathogenicity in BalB/c mice. In conclusion, the N-terminal domain of the Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 EspF more strongly promotes apoptosis and inflammation than the C-terminal domain.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of the Impact of the Probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 on Campylobacter jejuni's Invasion and Intracellular Survival in Human Colonic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Yosra A; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial food poisoning in humans. Due to the rise in antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter , there exists a need to develop antibiotic-independent interventions to control infections in humans. Here, we evaluated the impact of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), a probiotic strain, on C. jejuni's invasion and intracellular survival in polarized human colonic cells (HT-29). To further understand how EcN mediates its impact, the expression of 84 genes associated with tight junctions and cell adhesion was profiled in HT-29 cells after treatment with EcN and challenge with C. jejuni . The pre-treatment of polarized HT-29 cells with EcN for 4 h showed a significant effect on C. jejuni 's invasion (∼2 log reduction) of the colonic cells. Furthermore, no intracellular C. jejuni were recovered from EcN pre-treated HT-29 cells at 24 h post-infection. Other probiotic strains tested had no significant impact on C. jejuni invasion and intracellular survival. C. jejuni decreased the expression of genes associated with epithelial cells permeability and barrier function in untreated HT-29 cells. However, EcN positively affected the expression of genes that are involved in enhanced intestinal barrier function, decreased cell permeability, and increased tight junction integrity. The results suggest that EcN impedes C. jejuni invasion and subsequent intracellular survival by affecting HT-29 cells barrier function and tight junction integrity. We conclude that EcN might be a viable alternative for controlling C. jejuni infections.

  17. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  18. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry [Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France); Mazella, Jean, E-mail: mazella@ipmc.cnrs.fr [Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation in HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  19. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  20. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  1. Polyphenols from evening primrose ( Oenothera paradoxa ) defatted seeds induce apoptosis in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Sylwia; Wagner, Waldemar; Podsedek, Anna; Sosnowska, Dorota; Dastych, Jarosław; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2011-07-13

    Polyphenols extracted from evening primrose seeds (industrial waste product) were studied as apoptosis inducers in human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines and in rat normal intestinal IEC-6 cells. The extract dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and IEC-6 cells. However, nuclear DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis was observed only in Caco-2. After 72 h of incubation with the extract at 150 μM gallic acid equivalents (44.1 μg extract/mL), Caco-2 cell numbers decreased to 19% of control and 48.8% of the cells were identified by flow cytometry as apoptotic. Under the same conditions only 8% of HT-29 cells and 12.6% of IEC-6 cells exhibited hypodiploid DNA content. The effects of the extract and its fractions on phosphatidylserine exposure and cell membrane integrity were assessed by high content screening image cytometry. The fractions strongly and dose-dependently reduced Caco-2 cell numbers, whereas HT-29 and IEC-6 cells were affected to lesser extents.

  2. Synsepalum dulcificum extracts exhibit cytotoxic activity on human colorectal cancer cells and upregulate c-fos and c-jun early apoptotic gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichang Seong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore cytotoxicity of Synsepalum dulcificum (S. dulcificum Daniell (Sapotaceae on human colon cancer (HCT-116 and HT-29, human monocytic leukemia (THP-1 and normal (HDFn cell lines, and its effect on the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun. Methods: Leaf, stem and berry of S. dulcificum were separately extracted by using 2 solvents, 10% ethanol (EtOH and 80% methanol (MeOH. PrestoBlue® cell viability assay and qRT-PCR assay were conducted to examine the above objectives respectively. Results: Stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum were cytotoxic to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells. For HCT-116, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were not significantly different (P>0.05 from that of the positive control bleomycin (IC50 of 33.57 μg/mL, while for HT-29, IC50 values of these 3 extracts were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that of bleomycin (IC50 of 25.24 μg/mL. None of the extracts were cytotoxic to the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells and HDFn normal human dermal fibroblasts. For both HCT-116 and HT-29, these extracts significantly up-regulated (P<0.05 the expression of c-fos and c-jun compared to the untreated negative control. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity of stem MeOH, stem EtOH, and berry EtOH extracts of S. dulcificum on HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells is due to the induced apoptosis which is caused by the up-regulation of the expression of early apoptotic genes, c-fos and c-jun.

  3. Calorimetric signatures of human cancer cells and their nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todinova, S. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, E. [Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shose Blvd. 73, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Krumova, S., E-mail: sakrumo@gmail.com [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Iliev, I. [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Taneva, S.G. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2016-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two temperature ranges are distinguished in the thermograms of cells/nuclei. • Different thermodynamic properties of cancer and normal human cells/nuclei. • Dramatic reduction of the enthalpy of the low-temperature range in cancer cells. • Oxaliplatin and 5-FU affect the nuclear matrix proteins and the DNA stability. - Abstract: The human cancer cell lines HeLa, JEG-3, Hep G2, SSC-9, PC-3, HT-29, MCF7 and their isolated nuclei were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric profiles differed from normal human fibroblast (BJ) cells in the two well distinguished temperature ranges—the high-temperature range (H{sub T}, due to DNA-containing structures) and the low-temperature range (L{sub T}, assigned to the nuclear matrix and cellular proteins). The enthalpy of the L{sub T} range, and, respectively the ratio of the enthalpies of the L{sub T}- vs. H{sub T}-range, ΔH{sub L}/ΔH{sub H}, is strongly reduced for all cancer cells compared to normal fibroblasts. On the contrary, for most of the cancer nuclei this ratio is higher compared to normal nuclei. The HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells/nuclei differed most drastically from normal human fibroblast cells/nuclei. Our data also reveal that the treatment of HT-29 cancer cells with cytostatic drugs affects not only the DNA replication but also the cellular proteome.

  4. Autophagy mediates cytotoxicity of human colorectal cancer cells treated with garcinielliptone FC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Shen-Jeu; Yen, Cheng-Hsin; Lin, Ting-Yu; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Lin, Chun-Nan; Chen, Jyun-Ti; Su, Chun-Li

    2018-01-01

    The tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC (GFC) is a novel tautomeric pair of polyprenyl benzophenonoid isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (G. subelliptica, Clusiaceae), a tree with abundant sources of polyphenols. Our previous report demonstrated that GFC induced apoptosis on various types of human cancer cell lines including chemoresistant human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. In the present study, we observed that many autophagy-related genes in GFC-treated HT-29 cells were up- and down-regulated using a cDNA microarray containing oncogenes and kinase genes. GFC-induced autophagy of HT-29 cells was confirmed by observing the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, LC3 puncta, and double-membrane autophagic vesicles using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Inhibition of AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling as well as formation of Atg5-Atg12 and PI3K/Beclin-1 complexes were observed using Western blot. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine and shRNA Atg5) and apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD showed that the GFC-induced autophagy was cytotoxic form and GFC-induced apoptosis enhanced GFC-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the involvement of autophagy and apoptosis in GFC-induced anticancer mechanisms of human colorectal cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain JFR1 attenuates Salmonella adhesion to human intestinal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Justina Su; Guri, Anilda; Corredig, Milena; Morales-Rayas, Rocio; Hassan, Ashraf; Griffiths, Mansel; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2016-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1 has been studied in reduced fat cheese due to its ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) in situ, contributing to improved textural and organoleptic properties. In this study, the effect of strain JFR1 on virulence gene expression and attachment of Salmonella to HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells was investigated. Overnight cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1 containing EPS, grown in M17 media with 0.5% glucose supplementation, decreased attachment as well as down regulated virulence gene expression in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica when tested on HT-29 cells. However, EPS isolated from milk fermented with L. lactis subsp. cremoris JFR1 did not affect Salmonella virulence gene expression or attachment to HT-29 cells. These results suggest that EPS does not contribute to the attachment of Salmonella to human intestinal cells. However, the possibility that the isolation process may have affected the structural features of EPS cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new fluorescence/PET probe for targeting intracellular human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using Tat peptide-conjugated IgM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung oh; Youn, Hyewon; Kim, Seung Hoo; Kim, Young-Hwa; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing need for methods to visualize intracellular proteins in vivo, the majority of antibody-based imaging methods available can only detect membrane proteins. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an intracellular target of great interest because of its high expression in several types of cancer. In this study, we developed a new probe for hTERT using the Tat peptide. An hTERT antibody (IgG or IgM) was conjugated with the Tat peptide, a fluorescence dye and "6"4Cu. HT29 (hTERT+) and U2OS (hTERT−) were used to visualize the intracellular hTERT. The hTERT was detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Fluorescence signals for hTERT were obtained by confocal microscopy, live cell imaging, and analyzed by Tissue-FAXS. In nude mice, tumors were visualized using the fluorescence imaging devices Maestro™ and PETBOX. In RT-PCR and western blot, the expression of hTERT was detected in HT29 cells, but not in U2OS cells. Fluorescence signals were clearly observed in HT29 cells and in U2OS cells after 1 h of treatment, but signals were only detected in HT29 cells after 24 h. Confocal microscopy showed that 9.65% of U2OS and 78.54% of HT29 cells had positive hTERT signals. 3D animation images showed that the probe could target intranuclear hTERT in the nucleus. In mice models, fluorescence and PET imaging showed that hTERT in HT29 tumors could be efficiently visualized. In summary, we developed a new method to visualize intracellular and intranuclear proteins both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We developed new probes for imaging hTERT using Tat-conjugated IgM antibodies labeled with a fluorescent dye and radioisotope. • This probes could be used to overcome limitation of conventional antibody imaging system in live cell imaging. • This system could be applicable to monitor intracellular and intranuclear proteins in vitro and in vivo.

  7. A new fluorescence/PET probe for targeting intracellular human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) using Tat peptide-conjugated IgM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung oh [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hyewon, E-mail: hwyoun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Imaging Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hoo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Hwa [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June-Key, E-mail: jkchung@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-26

    Despite an increasing need for methods to visualize intracellular proteins in vivo, the majority of antibody-based imaging methods available can only detect membrane proteins. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is an intracellular target of great interest because of its high expression in several types of cancer. In this study, we developed a new probe for hTERT using the Tat peptide. An hTERT antibody (IgG or IgM) was conjugated with the Tat peptide, a fluorescence dye and {sup 64}Cu. HT29 (hTERT+) and U2OS (hTERT−) were used to visualize the intracellular hTERT. The hTERT was detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Fluorescence signals for hTERT were obtained by confocal microscopy, live cell imaging, and analyzed by Tissue-FAXS. In nude mice, tumors were visualized using the fluorescence imaging devices Maestro™ and PETBOX. In RT-PCR and western blot, the expression of hTERT was detected in HT29 cells, but not in U2OS cells. Fluorescence signals were clearly observed in HT29 cells and in U2OS cells after 1 h of treatment, but signals were only detected in HT29 cells after 24 h. Confocal microscopy showed that 9.65% of U2OS and 78.54% of HT29 cells had positive hTERT signals. 3D animation images showed that the probe could target intranuclear hTERT in the nucleus. In mice models, fluorescence and PET imaging showed that hTERT in HT29 tumors could be efficiently visualized. In summary, we developed a new method to visualize intracellular and intranuclear proteins both in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We developed new probes for imaging hTERT using Tat-conjugated IgM antibodies labeled with a fluorescent dye and radioisotope. • This probes could be used to overcome limitation of conventional antibody imaging system in live cell imaging. • This system could be applicable to monitor intracellular and intranuclear proteins in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine Curcumin Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer to Radiation by Altering the Expression of DNA Repair-related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangen; Qiu, Jianming; Wang, Dong; Tao, Yong; Song, Yihuan; Wang, Hongtao; Tang, Juping; Wang, Xing; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Human colon cancer HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (2.5 μM), irradiation (10 Gy) and the combination of irradiation and curcumin. Cell proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis. PCR was performed to determine differential-expression profiling of 95 DNA-repair genes in irradiated cells and cells treated with both irradiation and curcumin. Differentially-expressed genes were confirmed by Western blotting. In vivo radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin was assessed in a xenograft mouse model of HT-29 colon cancer. Curcumin was administrated daily by intraperitoneal injection at 20 mg/kg/dose. Mice received irradiation (10 Gy) twice weekly. Apoptosis of the cancer cells following treatment was determined by TUNEL staining. Irradiation induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 cells in vitro. Concurrent curcumin treatment sensitized the HT-29 tumor to irradiation (pcurcumin and irradiation compared with irradiation alone (pcurcumin and irradiation resulted in a significantly greater tumor-growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to irradiation treatment alone (pCurcumin sensitizes human colon cancer in vitro and in vivo to radiation. Downregulation of LIG4 and PNKP and upregulation of XRCC5 and CCNH DNA-repair-related genes were involved in the radio-sensitizing efficacy of curcumin in colon cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  10. Expression of adrenomedullin in human colorectal tumors and its role in cell growth and invasion in vitro and in xenograft growth in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouguerède, Emilie; Berenguer, Caroline; Garcia, Stéphane; Bennani, Bahia; Delfino, Christine; Nanni, Isabelle; Dahan, Laetitia; Gasmi, Mohamed; Seitz, Jean-François; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Ouafik, L'Houcine

    2013-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide vasodilator that transduces its effects through calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein-2 and -3 (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3). In this study, real-time quantitative reverse transcription demonstrated a significant expression of AM mRNA in tumor samples from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in clinical stage II, III, and IV when compared with normal colorectal tissue. AM, CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 proteins were immunohistochemically localized in the carcinomatous epithelial compartment of CRC tissue. Tissue microarray analysis revealed a clear increase of AM, CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 staining in lymph node and distant metastasis when compared with primary tumors. The human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 expressed and secreted AM into the culture medium with a significant increase under hypoxia. Treatment of HT-29 cells with synthetic AM stimulated cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Incubation with anti-AM antibody (αAM), anti-AM receptors antibodies (αAMR), or AM antagonist AM 22–52 inhibited significantly basal levels of proliferation of HT-29 cells, suggesting that AM may function as an autocrine growth factor for CRC cells. Treatment with αAM significantly suppressed the growth of HT-29 tumor xenografts in vivo. Histological examination of αAM-treated tumors showed evidence of disruption of tumor vascularity with decreased microvessel density, depletion of endothelial cells and pericytes, and increased tumor cell apoptosis. These findings highlight the potential importance of AM and its receptors in the progression of CRC and support the conclusion that αAM treatment inhibits tumor growth by suppression of angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that AM may be a useful therapeutic target

  11. The novel anthraquinone derivative IMP1338 induces death of human cancer cells by p53-independent S and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Kyung; Ryu, Hwani; Son, A-Rang; Seo, Bitna; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Song, Jie-Young; Ahn, Jiyeon

    2016-04-01

    To identify novel small molecules that induce selective cancer cell death, we screened a chemical library containing 1040 compounds in HT29 colon cancer and CCD18-Co normal colon cells, using a phenotypic cell-based viability assay system with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). We discovered a novel anthraquinone derivative, N-(4-[{(9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-1-anthracenyl)sulfonyl}amino]phenyl)-N-methylacetamide (IMP1338), which was cytotoxic against the human colon cancer cells tested. The MTT cell viability assay showed that treatment with IMP1338 selectively inhibited HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), HT29, and A549 cancer cell proliferation compared to that of Beas2B normal epithelial cells. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity of IMP1338, we examined the effect of IMP1338 on the cell cycle distribution and death of cancer cells. IMP1338 treatment significantly arrested the cell cycle at S and G2/M phases by DNA damage and led to apoptotic cell death, which was determined using FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI double staining. Furthermore, IMP1338 increased caspase-3 cleavage in wild-type p53, p53 knockout HCT116, and HT29 cells as determined using immunoblotting. In addition, IMP1338 markedly induced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX and Chk1 in both cell lines while the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation inhibited the viability of HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), and HT29 cells compared to 5-FU or radiation alone. Our findings indicated that IMP1338 induced p53-independent cell death through S and G2/M phase arrest as well as DNA damage. These results provide a basis for future investigations assessing the promising anticancer properties of IMP1338. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. 5-Fluorouracil modulation of radiosensitivity in cultured human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, S.R.; Kimler, B.F.; Evans, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated conventional pulse exposure versus continuous exposure models of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) radiosensitization in HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) and DU-145 (human prostate cancer adenocarcinoma) cell lines. Cell survival following treatment with drug and/or radiation was determined by colony formation assays. Radiation was delivered either by itself, approximately midway through a 1-hr exposure to 5-FU (10 micrograms/ml), or at various times following initiation of exposure to 5-FU (0.5 microgram/ml) present throughout the entire period of incubation. Drug concentrations were selected to approximate those achieved in vivo in humans. HT-29 cells showed a plating efficiency of 87% and similar cytotoxicity (survival reduced to 0.57-0.71) for all 5-FU conditions. The Do's of the radiation survival curves were not different for 1 hr of 5-FU exposure versus radiation alone. However, continuous exposure conditions demonstrated statistically significantly different Do's from radiation alone and pulse 5-FU exposure. DU-145 cells displayed a plating efficiency of 17% and cytotoxicities of 0.10-0.91 for the 5-FU conditions. DU-145 cells showed different radiation 5-FU interactions: 5-FU produced statistically significant changes in Do well as the differences between cell lines insofar as their radiosensitization by 5-FU underscore the caution required in extrapolating these radiobiologic models to the clinical setting

  13. CD44 regulates cell migration in human colon cancer cells via Lyn kinase and AKT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Venkateswaran; Vincent, Isabella R; Gardner, Helena; Chan, Emily; Dhamko, Helena; Jothy, Serge

    2007-10-01

    Colon cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death in North America. CD44, an adhesion and antiapoptotic molecule is overexpressed in colon cancer. Cofilin is involved in the directional motility of cells. In the present study, we looked at how CD44 might modulate cell migration in human colon cancer via cofilin. We used a human colon cancer cell line, HT29, which expresses CD44, HT29 where CD44 expression was knocked down by siRNA, SW620, a human colon cancer cell line which does not express CD44, stably transfected exons of CD44 in SW620 cells and the colon from CD44 knockout and wild-type mouse. Western blot analysis of siRNA CD44 lysates showed increased level of AKT phosphorylation and decreased level of cofilin expression. Similar results were also observed with SW620 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon lysates. Experiments using the AKT phosphorylation inhibitor LY294002 indicate that AKT phosphorylation downregulates cofilin. Immunoprecipitation studies showed CD44 complex formation with Lyn, providing an essential link between CD44 and AKT phosphorylation. LY294002 also stabilized Lyn from phosphorylated AKT, suggesting an interaction between Lyn and AKT phosphorylation. Immunocytochemistry showed that cofilin and Lyn expression were downregulated in siRNA CD44 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon. siRNA CD44 cells had significantly less migration compared to HT29 vector. Given the well-defined roles of CD44, phosphorylated AKT in apoptosis and cancer, these results indicate that CD44-induced cell migration is dependent on its complex formation with Lyn and its consequent regulation of AKT phosphorylation and cofilin expression.

  14. Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Delphine; Pellequer, Yann; Tempesta, Camille; Lorscheidt, Stefan; Kettel, Bernadette; Tamaddon, Lana; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf; Béduneau, Arnaud

    2015-03-15

    Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT. Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF). Co-culture was set up from Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells using an original seeding procedure. Viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed following incubation of FeSSIF and FaSSIF with co-culture. Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated. Results were compared with Caco-2 and HT29-MTX monocultures. While Caco-2 viability was strongly affected with FeSSIF, no toxic effect was detected for the co-cultures in terms of viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of FeSSIF to the basolateral compartment of the co-culture induced cytotoxic effects which suggested the apical mucus barrier being cell protective. In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture. Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic β-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids. This study demonstrated the compatibility of the Caco-2/HT29-MTX model with some of the current biorelevant media. Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid - a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Guichard Alves, Helena; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2016-07-13

    Despite the large popularity of the Boletus edulis mushroom, little is known about its influence on human health and the possibilities of its therapeutic use. Nevertheless, several reports revealed the usefulness of biopolymers isolated from it in cancer treatment. Our previous studies have shown that B. edulis water soluble biopolymers are not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells (CCD841 CoTr) and at the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells (LS180) which was accompanied with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The purpose of the present study was to verify the proapoptotic properties of a selected fraction from B. edulis - BE3, as well as determine its chemical nature. The BE3 fraction was extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Further chemical examinations revealed that BE3 consists mainly of ribonucleic acid (59.1%). The ability of BE3 to induce programmed cell death was examined in human colon cancer cell lines LS180 and HT-29 by measuring caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and expression of BAX, BCL2, TP53 and CDKN1A genes. The sensitivity of colon cancer cells with silenced BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A expression to BE3 treatment was also evaluated. We have demonstrated for the first time that the BE3 fraction is a potent apoptosis inducer in human colon cancer cells. The revealed mechanism of apoptosis triggering was dependent on the presence of functional p53 and consequently was a little different in investigated cell lines. Our results indicated that BE3 stimulated proapoptotic genes BAX (LS180, HT-29), TP53 (LS180) and CDKN1A (HT-29) while at the same time silenced the expression of the key prosurvival gene BCL2 (LS180, HT-29). The obtained results indicate the high therapeutic potential of the BE3 fraction against colon cancer, yet it is necessary to further confirm fraction efficacy and safety in animal and clinical studies.

  16. Augmented internalisation of ferroportin to late endosomes impairs iron uptake by enterocyte-like IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Phillip S; Thomas, Carla

    2005-08-01

    Absorption of iron occurs by duodenal enterocytes, involving uptake by the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and release by ferroportin. Ferroportin responds to the hepatocyte-produced 25-amino-acid-peptide hepcidin-25 by undergoing internalisation to late endosomes that impair iron release. Ferroportin is also expressed on the apical membrane of polarised Caco-2 cells, rat intestinal cells and in IEC-6 cells (an intestinal epithelial cell line). A blocking antibody to ferroportin also impairs the uptake, but not the release, of iron. In this study IEC-6 cells were used to study the mechanism of impairment or recovery from impairment produced by the blocking antibody and the fate of DMT1 and ferroportin. Uptake of 1 muM Fe(II) was studied by adding the antibody from time 0 and after adding or removing the antibody once a steady state had been reached. Surface binding, maximum iron transport rate V(max) and transporter affinity (K(m)) were measured after impairment of iron uptake. Ferroportin and DMT1 distribution were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Antibody-mediated impairment, or recovery from impairment, of Fe(II) uptake occurred within minutes. Impairment was lost when the antibody was combined with the immunizing peptide. DMT1 and ferroportin undergo internalisation to late endosomes and, in the presence of the antibody, augmented internalisation of DMT1 and ferroportin caused swelling of late endosomes. Surface binding of Fe(II) and iron transport V(max) were reduced by 50%, indicating that the antibody removed membrane-bound DMT1. The ferroportin antibody induced rapid turnover of membrane ferroportin and DMT1 and its internalisation to late endosomes, resulting in impaired Fe(II) uptake.

  17. New peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of invasive cancer cells: in vivo studies using 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 targeting uPAR in human colorectal cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Rasmussen, Palle; Madsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    -of-concept for a theranostic approach as treatment modality in a human xenograft colorectal cancer model. MethodsA DOTA-conjugated 9-mer high affinity uPAR binding peptide (DOTA-AE105) was radiolabeled with 64Cu and 177Lu, for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy study, respectively. Human uPAR-positive CRC HT-29...... for the first time the in vivo efficacy of an uPAR-targeted radionuclide therapeutic intervention on both tumor size and its content of uPAR expressing cells thus setting the stage for future translation into clinical use. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  18. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  19. Inhibition of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with AdCMV-p53 gene transfection induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Min Fengling; Xie Yi; Zhou Qingming; Duan Xin; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zhang Hong; Li Wenjian; Hao Jifang; Zhou Guangming; Gao Qingxiang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of AdCMV-p53 gene transfection induced by γ-ray irradiation on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. The HT-29 cells were irradiated by 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 Gy 60 Co γ-rays, then were transfected with AdCMV-GFP (a replication of deficient recombinant adenoviral vector containing a CMV promoter and green fluorescent protein) or AdCMV-p53 (a replication of deficient recombinant adenoviral vector containing a CMV promoter and carrying human wild p53 gene). Cytotoxity was measured by clonogenic survival assay; apoptosis and the p53 expression were determined by flow cytometry. The results show that the pre-exposure of 0.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays significantly enhanced the inhibition of HT-29 cells with AdCMV-53 transfection and promoted cell apoptosis. The inhibition rates for the groups of pre-exposure with 0.5 Gy and transfection with 40 and 80 MOI AdCMV-p53 were 50% and 20% higher than those for the groups of the mere transfection, and 40% more than the mere irradiation group. In the case of higher than 0.5 Gy pre-exposure, no significant difference was found between the pre-exposure with transfection group and the mere irradiation group. So 0.5 Gy pre-irradiation and AdCMV-p53 transfection obviously increases the inhibition of HT-29 cells with AdCMV-p53 transfection. The optimum condition is the lower than 1.0 Gy pre-exposure combined with the lower than 80 MOI AdCMV-p53 transfection. (authors)

  20. Anti-proliferative effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212 extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as anti-tumor activity. The aim of the present work was to study the growth inhibition of tumor cells by butanol extract of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from healthy young Koreans. The anti-proliferative activity of B. adolescentis isolates was assessed by XTT assays on three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480). The effects of B. adolescentis SPM0212 butanol extract on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480 cells by 70%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL. Additionally, the butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 induced macrophage activation and significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO, which regulate immune modulation and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 increased activity of the host immune system and may improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer as a biological response modifier

  1. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmi, Rossella [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montroni, Isacco [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Mattei, Gabriella [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Taffurelli, Mario [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Santini, Donatella [Dipartimento di Patologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Pezzetti, Furio [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Castellani, Gastone [Centro Interdipartimentale L. Galvani, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); DIMORFIPA, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Guidotti, Lia [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Coppola, Domenico [H. Lee Moffit Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Strippoli, Pierluigi; Lauriola, Mattia [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Francesconi, Mirko [Centro Interdipartimentale L. Galvani, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); DIMORFIPA, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Martini, Désirée [Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Voltattorni, Manuela [Laboratori di Biotecnologie, Via Beverara 123, Bologna (Italy); Ceccarelli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Patologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-08-08

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  2. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzetti Furio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Methods Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Results Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2, possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. Conclusion This is the first study to have systematically investigated

  3. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmi, Rossella; Montroni, Isacco; Mattei, Gabriella; Taffurelli, Mario; Santini, Donatella; Pezzetti, Furio; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Castellani, Gastone; Guidotti, Lia; Coppola, Domenico; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Lauriola, Mattia; Francesconi, Mirko; Martini, Désirée; Voltattorni, Manuela; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone

    2008-01-01

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  4. Stat6 activity-related Th2 cytokine profile and tumor growth advantage of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben Hui; Xu, Shuang Bing; Li, Feng; Zou, Xiao Guang; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Simayi, Dilixia; Wang, Ying Hong; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2012-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) is critical in Th2 polarization of immune cells and active Stat6 activity has been suggested in anti-tumor immunity in animal models. The present study aims at investigating the impact of natural Stat6 activity on tumor microenvironment in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Using colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 whose IL-4/Stat6 activities were known and nude mice as a model, we examined correlative relationships between Stat6 activities and gene expression profiles together with cellular behaviors in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 cells carrying active Stat6 signaling displayed spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th2 cytokines, cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis and pro-metastasis with increased mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-13, GATA-3, CDK4, CD44v6 and S100A4 using RT-PCR. In contrast, Caco-2 cells carrying defective Stat6 signaling exhibited spontaneous expression profiles favoring Th1 and Th17 cytokines, cell cycle inhibition, pro-apoptosis and anti-metastasis with elevated mRNA expression of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-12A, IL-17, IL-23, T-bet, CDKN1A, CDKNIB, CDKN2A and NM23-H1. Xenograft tumors of Stat6-active HT-29 cells showed a growth advantage over those of Stat6-defective Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, mice bearing HT-29 tumors expressed increased levels of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in the blood and pro-growth and/or pro-metastasis proteins CDK4 and CD44v6 in the tumor. To the contrary, mice bearing Caco-2 tumors expressed heightened levels of Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNF in the blood and pro-apoptosis and anti-metastatic proteins p53 and p27(kip1) in the tumor. Colorectal cancer cells carrying active Stat6 signaling may create a microenvironment favoring Th2 cytokines and promoting expression of genes related to pro-growth, pro-metastasis and anti-apoptosis, which leads to a tumor growth advantage in vivo. These findings may imply why Stat6 pathway is constitutively activated in a

  5. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christina L; Harden, Scott W; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J; Wallet, Shannon M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Adhesion of Lactobacillus salivarius REN to a Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Requires S-layer Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Jiang, Lun; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Liang; Hao, Yanling; Guo, Huiyuan; Sang, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-03-10

    Lactobacillus salivarius REN, a novel probiotic isolated from Chinese centenarians, can adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and subsequently colonize the host. We show here that the surface-layer protein choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of L. salivarius REN was involved in adherence to the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. Adhesion of a cbpA deletion mutant was significantly reduced compared with that of wild-type, suggesting that CbpA acts as an adhesin that mediates the interaction between the bacterium and its host. To identify the molecular mechanism of adhesion, we determined the crystal structure of a truncated form of CbpA that is likely involved in binding to its cell-surface receptor. The crystal structure identified CbpA as a peptidase of the M23 family whose members harbor a zinc-dependent catalytic site. Therefore, we propose that CbpA acts as a multifunctional surface protein that cleaves the host extracellular matrix and participates in adherence. Moreover, we identified enolase as the CbpA receptor on the surface of HT-29 cells. The present study reveals a new class of surface-layer proteins as well as the molecular mechanism that may contribute to the ability of L. salivarius REN to colonize the human gut.

  7. Plant Polyphenols and Oxidative Metabolites of the Herbal Alkenylbenzene Methyleugenol Suppress Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Anna Maria Groh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has been provided that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms associated with cancer development in humans. The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC activity and the disruption of the HDAC complex have been recognized as a potent strategy for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated whether selected plant constituents affect HDAC activity or HDAC1 protein status in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The polyphenols (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and genistein (GEN as well as two oxidative methyleugenol (ME metabolites were shown to inhibit HDAC activity in intact HT29 cells. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of the HDAC1 protein level was observed after incubation with EGCG and GEN, whereas the investigated ME metabolites did not affect HDAC1 protein status. In conclusion, dietary compounds were found to possess promising HDAC-inhibitory properties, contributing to epigenetic alterations in colon tumor cells, which should be taken into account in further risk/benefit assessments of polyphenols and alkenylbenzenes.

  8. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vitamin E analogue, D-alpha tocopherol succinate, enhances x-ray induced growth delay of human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Ottesen, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of d-alpha Tocopherol succinate (alpha-TS) in modifying radiation-induced viability reduction and apoptosis occurrence in the model for normal and cancer cells. Our hypothesis was that alpha-TS enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of x-irradiation in cancer cells and that the effect is more pronounced in these cells than in normal cells. Murine NIH 3T3 Swiss albino embryonic cells and HT29 human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells were used in the experiments. Alpha-TS was added to the cultures 1 h prior to irradiation with doses of 2 or 5Gy of x-ray. After irradiation cells were incubated for 73 h. Trypan blue exclusion viability test and estimation of apoptosis and necrosis were made. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted in fluorescence microscope using fluorescence dyes: propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. For experiments with the dose of 5 Gy at least five series of experiments were performed. At lower doses (up to approximately 25μM/ml) treatment with alpha-TS alone enhanced growth of both cell lines. At higher doses treatment with alpha-TS alone delayed the growth of the cell cultures, accompanied by 20-25% necrosis. At the concentrations higher than 25μM/mL alpha-TS alone caused growth delay of both cell cultures, being much more pronounced for the cancer cell line HT29. At the concentrations of 50 μM/mL, responsible for about 30-60% of growth delay, there was observed a synergy effect for x-rays and alpha-TS for both cell lines. The effect was more pronounced for HT29 cells (DMF=0.48 for HT29 versus DMF=0.73 for NIH 3T3). These results may confirm the views of the literature reports suggesting that use of vitamin E together with radiation could be favorable for colon cancer treatment; however, more experiments using more advanced techniques are needed

  10. Isolation and characterization of lactobacilli from human faeces and indigenous fermented foods for their potential application as probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Hemanti; Jariwala, Ruchi; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to select Lactobacillus strains from various sources on the basis of their probiotic attributes, such as acid and bile tolerance, binding to intestinal cells, and antimicrobial activity. Twelve isolates were obtained from human and food sources and were evaluated against standard probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Isolates were also studied for their antibiotic susceptibility. Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum GPI-6 showed the best survival profile at 0.3% and 1% bile salt, as compared with LGG. Isolates Lactobacillus plantarum GRI-2 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-4 showed no reduction in survival rate at pH 2.5. As expected, isolates showed strain-specific differences when comparing various attributes. Isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed better adhesion to HT-29, while isolate GPI-4 adhered better to Caco-2 cells than did LGG. However, when studying their ability to compete with Escherichia coli O26:H11, isolates GPI-6 and GPI-7 significantly inhibited E. coli adhesion to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells compared with LGG. In conclusion, isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed excellent binding ability and antagonistic activity and better tolerance to acidic pH (pH 2.5) and to different bile salt concentrations in comparison with LGG, and hence, they could be considered as potential probiotic candidates.

  11. Comparative genome-based identification of a cell wall-anchored protein from Lactobacillus plantarum increases adhesion of Lactococcus lactis to human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zuo, Fanglei; Yu, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2015-09-15

    Adhesion to host cells is considered important for Lactobacillus plantarum as well as other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to persist in human gut and thus exert probiotic effects. Here, we sequenced the genome of Lt. plantarum strain NL42 originating from a traditional Chinese dairy product, performed comparative genomic analysis and characterized a novel adhesion factor. The genome of NL42 was highly divergent from its closest neighbors, especially in six large genomic regions. NL42 harbors a total of 42 genes encoding adhesion-associated proteins; among them, cwaA encodes a protein containing multiple domains, including five cell wall surface anchor repeat domains and an LPxTG-like cell wall anchor motif. Expression of cwaA in Lactococcus lactis significantly increased its autoaggregation and hydrophobicity, and conferred the new ability to adhere to human colonic epithelial HT-29 cells by targeting cellular surface proteins, and not carbohydrate moieties, for CwaA adhesion. In addition, the recombinant Lc. lactis inhibited adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to HT-29 cells, mainly by exclusion. We conclude that CwaA is a novel adhesion factor in Lt. plantarum and a potential candidate for improving the adhesion ability of probiotics or other bacteria of interest.

  12. Characterization of Candidate probionts isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, S; Mojgani, N

    2017-05-20

    This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria. Based on 16SrRNA sequencing, these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, L.gasseri, L.fermentum, L.plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus facieum. Among the isolates, P. acidilactici was the most frequent species (71%) present in these samples. Few Gram and catalase positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus and S.hominiis were also observed. The isolates were viable and unviable in pH 3 and 1.5, respectively, while all isolates survived in 1.0% bile salt. As putative probionts, P.acidilactici 1C showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion to Caco-2 cells (p< 0.05)than the other two isolates L.plantarum 7A and E.facieum 2C. Bacterial strains isolated from human breast milk were shown to have probiotic properties including anti-infective protection and may be considered as future therapeutics for infants.

  13. Tumour-Derived Interleukin-1 Beta Induces Pro-inflammatory Response in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alajez, Nehad M; Al-toub, Mashael; Almusa, Abdulaziz

    ’ secreted factors as represented by a panel of human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231); prostate (PC-3); lung (NCI-H522); colon (HT-29) and head & neck (FaDu)) on the biological characteristics of MSCs. Background Over the past several years, significant amount of research has emerged......, the goal of this study was to assess the cellular and molecular changes in MSCs in response to secreted factors present in conditioned media (CM) from a panel of human tumor cell lines covering a spectrum of human cancers (Breast, Prostate, Lung, colon, and head and neck). Research Morphological changes...... with bipolar processes. In association with phenotypic changes, genome-wide gene expression and bioinformatics analysis revealed an enhanced pro-inflammatory response of those MSCs. Pharmacological inhibitions of FAK and MAPKK severely impaired the pro-inflammatory response of MSCs to tumor CM (~80-99%, and 55...

  14. Antiproliferative effect of a novel nitro-oxy derivative of celecoxib in human colon cancer cells: role of COX-2 and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Claudia; Bozzo, Francesca; Bassignana, Andrea; Miglietta, Antonella

    2010-07-01

    It has been shown previously that a novel nitrooxy derivative of celecoxib exerts antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in human colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether these biological properties depend on COX-2 inhibition and/or NO release. Therefore, the derivative was decomposed into the parent compound celecoxib and the NO donor benzyl nitrate and the biological role of each was tested in COX-2-positive (HT-29) and -negative (SW-480) colon cancer cells. The main findings were that the nitro-oxy derivative behaved like celecoxib in HT-29 cells in terms of COX-2 and ERK/MAPK inhibition, as well as induction of apoptosis, while the benzyl nitrate had no such effects. Interestingly, the beta-catenin system was activated by the nitro-oxy derivative as well as by benzyl nitrate alone more potently than by the parent compound celecoxib, suggesting a possible regulatory role for NO. In SW480 cells, these activities were substantially less pronounced, suggesting the presence of COX-2-dependent mechanisms in the modulation of these parameters.

  15. Pathway of deoxynivalenol-induced apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensassi, Fatma; El Golli-Bennour, Emna; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Bouaziz, Chayma; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen

    2009-01-01

    The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), is generally detected in cereal grains and grain-based food products worldwide. Therefore, DON has numerous toxicological effects on animals and humans. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of DON toxicity on human colon carcinoma cells (HT 29). To this aim, we have monitored the effects of DON on (i) cell viability, (ii) Heat shock protein expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage and (iv) cell death signalling pathway. Our results clearly showed that DON treatment inhibits cell proliferation, did not induce Hsp 70 protein expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We have also demonstrated that this toxin induced a DNA fragmentation followed by p53 and caspase-3 activations. Finally, our findings suggested that oxidative damage is not the major contributor to DON toxicity. This mycotoxin induces direct DNA lesions and could be considered by this fact as a genotoxic agent inducing cell death via an apoptotic process.

  16. CytotoxicEffect of Curcumin on Proliferation of HT_29 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Nabiuni

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion:According to molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation and curcumin ability in the induction of pro_apoptotic proteins and the inhibition of anti_apoptotic proteins as well as inhibition of as survival pathways,like NF_KB and AKT, this predisposition makes curcumin a good anticancer drug.

  17. TRAIL and docosahexaenoic acid cooperate to induce HT-29 colon cancer cell death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculová, Alena; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Anděra, Ladislav; Kozubík, Alois

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 1 (2005), s. 43-48 ISSN 0304-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/04/0895; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0766 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : TRAIL * DHA * cell death Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2005

  18. Detection of human cancer in an animal model using radio-labelled tumour-associated monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epenetos, A.A.; Arklie, J.; Knowles, R.W.; Bodmer, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to epithelial-cell antigenic determinants, labelled with 123 I and 125 I, were administered parenterally to immunodeficient mice bearing human tumours derived from a human cancer cell line. Anterior, posterior and lateral radioscans of the body were taken with a gamma scintillation camera at various times from immediately to 65 days after injection. Visual displays of the images were processed by standard computer techniques. The model used a human colon-cancer cell line, HT29, and the monoclonal antibody, AUAl, which is specific to an epithelial proliferating antigen. Tumour detection was achieved in all the mice. The smallest tumour detectable appeared to be about 1 mm in diameter. The degree of antibody uptake in a tumour depended on its size and the blood supply of its surrounding tissues. (author)

  19. Anti-inflammatory properties of fermented soy milk with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis S-SU2 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and DSS-induced IBD model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Miho; Nemoto, Maki; Nakata, Toru; Kondo, Saya; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Kuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Six lactic acid bacteria strains (four Lactobacillus plantarum strains and one each of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Pediococcus pentosaceus) have been isolated and shown to possess anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we determined their acid, bile, salt resistance, and adhesion activity on human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc and Caco-2 cells. An isolate Lc. lactis S-SU2 showed highest bile resistance and adhesion activity compared to type strains. S-SU2 could ferment both 10% skimmed milk and soy milk while the type strain could not ferment soy milk. Soy milk fermented with S-SU2 showed an increased nitric oxide (NO) secretion in the mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells without bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the fermented soy milk on Escherichia coli O111 LPS-induced NO secretion were higher than those of fresh soy milk. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was induced in mice fed either 5% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water or 50% soy milk in drinking water. Shortening of colon length, breaking of epithelial cells, lowering liver and thymus weights, and enlargement of spleen are some of the characteristics observed in the IBD, which were prevented by the use of soy milk fermented with Lc. lactis S-SU2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Ghelfi, Francesca; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cecchini, Cinzia; Cresci, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    The possibility of using microbes to maintain health, and to prevent or treat disease is a topic as old as microbiology. The research of novel probiotic strains is important in order to satisfy the increasing request of the market and to obtain functional products in which the probiotic cultures are more active and with better probiotic characteristics than those already present on the market. In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Italian elderly human faeces was investigated. The Lactobacillus strains were identified and examined for resistance to gastric acidity and bile toxicity, adhesion to HT-29 cells, antimicrobial activities, antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile. Survival of the strains through human intestine was examined in a 3 months human feeding trial. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502, tolerated well low pH and bile acids. In antimicrobial activity assays, both strains showed inhibitory properties towards selected potential harmful microorganisms, particularly against Candida albicans. The two selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to HT-29 cells increasing this characteristic when they are used in combination and they were resistant to vamcomycin, colistin sulphate, gentamicin, oxolinic acid and kanamycin. Moreover, the two strains could be recovered from stools of volunteers after the feeding trials. Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 and L. paracasei IMC 502 present favourable strain-specific properties for their utilisation as probiotics in functional foods and the high adhesion ability of the L. rhamnosus IMC 501 and L. paracasei IMC 502 used in combination, confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo study, indicate that the two bacterial strains could be used as health-promoting bacteria.

  1. Activation of neurotensin receptors and purinoceptors in human colonic adenocarcinoma cells detected with the microphysiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M; van Giersbergen, P; Zimmermann, A; Lesur, B; Hoflack, J

    1997-10-01

    Activation of endogenous neurotensin (NT) receptors and P2-purinoceptors expressed by human colonic adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells increased extracellular acidification rates that were detected in the microphysiometer. NT (pGlu-Leu-Tyr-Glu-Asn-Lys-Pro-Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu), NT[8-13] (Arg-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu), NT[9-13] (Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu), and NT1 (N alpha methyl-Arg-Lys-Pro-Trp-Tle-Leu [Tle = tert-leucine]) were full agonists, whereas XL 775 (N-[N-[2-[3-[[6-amino-1-oxo-2-[[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-amino]hex yl]amino]phenyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]-L-isoleucyl]-L-le ucine) was a partial agonist for activating NT receptors expressed by HT-29 cells. Desensitization induced by NT was rapid and monophasic with 85% of the initial response lost by a 30-s exposure. Once initiated, the rate and extent of desensitization were similar for different concentrations of a given agonist, for agonists of different potencies, and for agonists of different efficacies, which suggests that desensitization may be independent of receptor occupancy or agonist efficacy. Resensitization was a much slower process, requiring 60 min before the full agonist response to NT was recovered. ATP, via P2-purinoceptors, also activated cellular acidification rates in a concentration-dependent manner. ATP induced a biphasic desensitization of purinoceptors with a loss of ca. 50% of the initial stimulation detectable between 30 and 90 s of exposure to the agonist. Desensitization of NT receptors did not influence the activation of P2-purinoceptors by ATP, suggesting there was no heterologous desensitization between the two types of receptors. Superfusion with NT receptor agonists for 15 min at concentrations that did not elicit changes in extracellular acidification rates blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner, the agonist response induced by 100 nM NT. This may reflect sequestration of the receptor. These results suggest that the high agonist affinity state of NT receptors may

  2. Different molecular organization of two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in human colon epithelial cells and colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzinski, Wojciech; Piet, Mateusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Reszczynska, Emilia; Welc, Renata; Paduch, Roman; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I.

    2018-01-01

    Two cell lines, human normal colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) and human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) were cultured in the presence of exogenous carotenoids, either zeaxanthin or lutein. Both carotenoids demonstrated cytotoxicity with respect to cancer cells but not to normal cells. Cells from both the cell lines were analyzed with application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Raman scattering microscopy. Both imaging techniques show effective incorporation of carotenoid molecules into growing cells. Comparison of the Raman scattering and fluorescence lifetime characteristics reveals different molecular organization of carotenoids in the carcinoma and normal cells. The main difference consists in a carotenoid aggregation level which is substantially lower in the carcinoma cells as compared to the normal cells. Different molecular organization of carotenoids was interpreted in terms of a different metabolism of normal and carcinoma cells and has been concluded to provide a possibility of cancer diagnosis based on spectroscopic analyses.

  3. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in tissue damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).As the role of the intestinal epithelium in this process is unknown, we determined MMP expression and enzyme activity in human colonic epithelial cells (CEC). MMP mRNA expression...... was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells and in CEC isolated from biopsies from IBD and control patients. Total MMP activity in the cells was measured by a functional assay, based on degradation of a fluorescent synthetic peptide containing the specific bond...

  4. DK1 Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Hussin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been done in the search for innovative treatments against colon adenocarcinomas; however, the incidence rate of patients remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. Natural bioactive compounds such as curcumin have been substantially studied as an alternative to anticancer drug therapies and have been surmised as a potent agent but, nevertheless, remain deficient due to its poor cellular uptake. Therefore, efforts now have shifted toward mimicking curcumin to synthesize novel compounds sharing similar effects. A synthetic analog, (Z-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-phenylprop-2-ene-1-one (DK1, was recently synthesized and reported to confer improved bioavailability and selectivity toward human breast cancer cells. This study, therefore, aims to assess the anticancer mechanism of DK1 in relation to the induction of in vitro cell death in selected human colon cancer cell lines. Using the3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT assay, the cytotoxicity of DK1 towards HT29 and SW620 cell lines were investigated. Acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI dual-staining assay and flow cytometry analyses (cell cycle analysis, Annexin/V-FITC and JC-1 assays were incorporated to determine the mode of cell death. To further determine the mechanism of cell death, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and proteome profiling were conducted. Results from this study suggest that DK1 induced changes in cell morphology, leading to a decrease in cell viability and subsequent induction of apoptosis. DK1 treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation 48 h post treatment with IC50 values of 7.5 ± 1.6 µM for HT29 cells and 14.5 ± 4.3 µM for SW620 cells, causing cell cycle arrest with increased accumulation of cell populations at the sub-G0/G1phaseof 74% and 23%, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses showed that DK1 treatment in cancer cells induced apoptosis, as indicated by DNA

  5. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, is genotoxic in primary human colon cells and in cells from preneoplastic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Nadine; Weise, Anja; Claussen, Uwe; Sendt, Wolfgang; Marian, Brigitte; Glei, Michael; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L.

    2006-01-01

    The irradiation of fat results in the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, a new class of food contaminants. Results of previous in vitro studies with primary human colon cells and in vivo experiments with rats fed with 2-alkylcyclobutanones indicated that these radiolytic derivatives may be genotoxic and enhance the progression of colon tumors. The underlying mechanisms of these effects, however, are not clearly understood. Therefore we performed additional investigations to elucidate the genotoxic potential of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2dDCB) that is generated from palmitic acid. In particular, we explored the relative sensitivities of human colon cells, representing different stages of tumor development and healthy colon tissues, respectively. HT29clone19A cells, LT97 adenoma cells and primary human epithelial cells were exposed to 2dDCB (150-2097 μM). We determined cytotoxic effects using trypan blue exclusion. Genotoxicity, reflected as strand breaks, was assessed using the alkaline version of the comet assay and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated by 24-color fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization. 2dDCB was cytotoxic in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated primary cells but not in the human colon tumor cell line. Associated with this was a marked induction of DNA damage by 2dDCB in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated colonocytes, whereas in the HT29clone19A cells no strand breaks were detectable. A long-term incubation of LT97 adenoma cells with lower concentrations of 2dDCB revealed cytogenetic effects. In summary, 2dDCB was clearly genotoxic in healthy human colon epithelial cells and in cells representing preneoplastic colon adenoma. These findings provide additional evidence that this compound may be regarded as a possible risk factor for processes in colon carcinogenesis related to initiation and progression

  6. Preferential radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Samuel; Brown, Stephen L.; Kim, Sang-Hie; Khil, Mark S.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Recent cell culture studies by us and others suggest that some human carcinoma cells are more sensitive to heat than are rodent cells following mild hyperthermia. In studying the cellular mechanism of enhanced thermosensitivity of human tumor cells to hyperthermia, prostatic carcinoma cells of human origin were found to be more sensitive to mild hyperthermia than other human cancer cells. The present study was designed to determine the magnitude of radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia and to examine whether the thermal radiosensitization is related to the intrinsic thermosensitivity of cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Two human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145 and PC-3) and other carcinoma cells of human origin, in particular, colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), lung (A-549), and brain (U-251) were exposed to temperatures of 40-41 deg. C. Single acute dose rate radiation and fractionated radiation were combined with mild hyperthermia to determine thermal radiosensitization. The end point of the study was the colony-forming ability of single-plated cells. Results: DU-145 and PC-3 cells were found to be exceedingly thermosensitive to 41 deg. C for 24 h, relative to other cancer cell lines. Ninety percent of the prostatic cancer cells were killed by a 24 h heat exposure. Prostatic carcinoma cells exposed to a short duration of heating at 41 deg. C for 2 h resulted in a substantial enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) of single acute dose radiation following heat treatment 41 deg. C for 2 h were 2.0 in DU-145 cells and 1.4 in PC-3 cells. The TERs of fractionated irradiation combined with continuous heating at 40 deg. C were similarly in the range of 2.1 to 1.4 in prostate carcinoma cells. No significant radiosensitization was observed in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells under the same conditions. Conclusion: The present data suggest that a significant radiosensitization of

  7. Cyclical DNA Methylation and Histone Changes Are Induced by LPS to Activate COX-2 in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Angrisano

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces release of inflammatory mediators both in immune and epithelial cells. We investigated whether changes of epigenetic marks, including selected histone modification and DNA methylation, may drive or accompany the activation of COX-2 gene in HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells upon exposure to LPS. Here we describe cyclical histone acetylation (H3, methylation (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27 and DNA methylation changes occurring at COX-2 gene promoter overtime after LPS stimulation. Histone K27 methylation changes are carried out by the H3 demethylase JMJD3 and are essential for COX-2 induction by LPS. The changes of the histone code are associated with cyclical methylation signatures at the promoter and gene body of COX-2 gene.

  8. Functional modulation of human intestinal epithelial cell responses by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ann M; O'Regan, Padraig; Fanning, Áine; O'Mahony, Caitlin; MacSharry, John; Lyons, Anne; Bienenstock, John; O'Mahony, Liam; Shanahan, Fergus

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in antigen sampling and the maintenance of gut homeostasis. However, the interaction of commensal bacteria with the intestinal surface remains incompletely understood. Here we investigated immune cell responses to commensal and pathogenic bacteria. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 or Salmonella typhimurium UK1 for varying times, or were pretreated with a probiotic for 2 hr prior to stimulation with S. typhimurium or flagellin. Gene arrays were used to examine inflammatory gene expression. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, interleukin (IL)-8 secretion, pathogen adherence to IECs, and mucin-3 (MUC3) and E-cadherin gene expression were assayed by TransAM assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence, and real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by bacteria-treated peripheral blood-derived DCs were measured using ELISA. S. typhimurium increased expression of 36 of the 847 immune-related genes assayed, including NF-κB and IL-8. The commensal bacteria did not alter expression levels of any of the 847 genes. However, B. infantis and L. salivarius attenuated both IL-8 secretion at baseline and S. typhimurium-induced pro-inflammatory responses. B. infantis also limited flagellin-induced IL-8 protein secretion. The commensal bacteria did not increase MUC3 or E-cadherin expression, or interfere with pathogen binding to HT-29 cells, but they did stimulate IL-10 and TNF-α secretion by DCs. The data demonstrate that, although the intestinal epithelium is immunologically quiescent when it encounters B. infantis or L. salivarius, these commensal bacteria exert immunomodulatory effects on intestinal immune cells that mediate host responses to flagellin and enteric pathogens. PMID:16771855

  9. Cytokinetic effects of razoxane and relevance to radiopotentiation in a human adenocarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof.

    1982-01-01

    Razoxane (+-1,2-bis (3,5-dioxopiperazin-1-yl)propane) or ICRF 159 has been shown to enhance the X-radiation sensitivity of a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29R) in culture if the cells were incubated with the drug for more than ten hours prior irradiation. Razoxane was shown not to interfere with repair of sublethal of potentially lethal damage of radiation. The radiosensitizing effect is therefore attributed to a reduced ability to accumulate such damage. As the effect was shown greater in exponential phase, which consists of greater proportion of dividing cells than plateau phase cells, it is believed that the drug (0.1 - 100 μg/ml) potentiates the effect of X-radiation in HT29R cells by pertubation in the cell cycle kinetics. Razoxane at low and high concentrations (5 and 100 μg/ml) was shown to delay the cell progression on cells entering mitosis. Chromosomes of drug-treated cells seemed to be unable to condense at the premitosis stage and cells with chromosomes resembling those in prophase were allowed to proceed through mitosis but progressed very slowly so that accumulation of mitotic cells were seen. Cells were than allowed to complete mitosis but frequently failed to undergo cytokinesis and subsequently produced many giant multinucleate cells. It is likely that the cells in mitosis and multinucleate cells are more radiosensitive. However, the mitotic delay was found to be reversible following progressive drug inactivation in the cells. Cells appeared to return to normal cell progression rate and division while the radiopotentiating effect was disappearing. The mechanism of drug action in inhibiting chromosome condensation was shown to involve the drug interference with histone H 1 phosphorylation. The inhibition of H 1 phosphorylation might reduce the cross-linking of the histone on DNA strands and thus preventing them from participating in supercoiling of the chromosome. (author)

  10. Cytotoxic Effects and Anti-Angiogenesis Potential of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Hulls against MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddinipour, Maryam; Farghadani, Reyhaneh; Namvar, Farideh; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2018-01-05

    Pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) hulls (PVLH) represents a significant by-product of industrial pistachio processing that contains high amounta of phenolic and flavonoid compounds known to act as antioxidants. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials of PVLH extracts. The cytotoxic effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water PVLH extracts toward human colon cancer (HT-29 and HCT-116), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma (H23), liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), and normal fibroblast (BJ-5ta) cells were assessed using a MTT cell viability assay. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through the different nuclear staining assays and confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. Anti-angiogenic activities were also determined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. PVLH ethyl acetate extracts (PVLH-EAE) demonstrated a suppressive effect with an IC 50 value of 21.20 ± 1.35, 23.00 ± 1.2 and 25.15 ± 1.85 µg/mL against MCF-7, HT-29 and HCT-116, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. Morphological assessment and flow cytometry analysis showed the potential of PVLH-EAE to induce apoptosis. PVLH-EAE at the highest concentration demonstrated significant inhibition of angiogenesis as comparing with control group. Also the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased in treated MCF-7 cells. Thus, the apoptosis induction and angiogenesis potential of PVLH-EAE make it to be the most suitable for further cancer research study to deal with selective antitumor active substances to human cancers especially breast cancer.

  11. In vitro biologic efficacy of sunitinib drug-eluting beads on human colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma-A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lahti

    Full Text Available Sunitinib drug eluting beads (DEB are a novel anti-angiogenic bead preparation for use in transarterial chemoembolization. However, systematic studies of sunitinib DEB's effect on cancer cells have not been reported. Herein, we assess their direct biologic efficacy against carcinoma cell lines and correlate cell viability with drug release in vitro.Sunitinib-HCl (10mg/mL in Milli-Q water was mixed with LC Bead® 300-500μm (Biocompatibles UK Ltd.. Loading and release were assessed by measurement of drug UV absorbance using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Viability of human colorectal cancer (CRC, HCT116 and HT29 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, HepG2 cells upon exposure to sunitinib DEB was measured using a bioluminescent assay. Drug concentration during exposure was quantified using HPLC.When added to cultured HepG2 cells, sunitinib DEB rapidly inhibited viability with a significant decrease observed within 1 hour of incubation. Viability of HCT116 and HT29 cells decreased relatively slower, with significant reductions observed after 8 and 24 hours, respectively. After 24 hours there was nearly complete inhibition of all three cell lines. There was no difference in viability observed between cells treated with 5 μl, 10 μL, or 20 μL of sunitinib DEB. HPLC analysis of the cell culture supernatant demonstrated saturation of the cell medium within approximately 4 hours for each amount added, with sunitinib achieving a final concentration of 17.61 μM (SE ±1.01.Sunitinib can be efficiently loaded to and released from LC beads, and the resulting sunitinib DEB demonstrate strong in vitro inhibition of human CRC and HCC cells.

  12. Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khil, Mark S.; Sang, Hie Kim; Pinto, John T.; Jae, Ho Kim

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 μg/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of

  13. Influence of ethacrynic acid on glutathione S-transferase pi transcript and protein half-lives in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Ranganathan, S; Kuzmich, S; Tew, K D

    1995-10-12

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a plant phenolic acid that is both an inhibitor and an inducer of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. To determine contributory factors in the increased GST activity caused by EA treatment, human colon carcinoma HT29 cells were compared with a cloned EA-resistant population (HT6-8) maintained in medium containing 72 microM EA. Several factors are involved in the increased expression of GST pi in HT6-8. For example, nuclear run-on experiments showed an approximately 2-fold increase in the rate of transcription of GST pi. In addition, the half-life of GST pi transcript was increased from 4.1 (wild type, HT29, HT4-1) to 8.4 hr. The half-life of GST pi protein was 1-2 hr in HT4-1 cells versus 8-9 hr in HT6-8 cells. When either human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3) or human prostatic carcinoma cells (DU145) were treated with EA, the half-life of the GST pi transcript was also increased. The transcript half-lives of another thiol-metabolism enzyme, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), and a phase II detoxification enzyme, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH), were also increased in HT6-8, SKOV3 and DU145 cells treated with EA. However, the half-lives of transcripts from "housekeeping genes," such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), beta-actin and beta-tubulin, were not changed in these cell lines following EA. Apparently, a number of coordinated factors are involved in EA-enhanced expression of GST pi and other detoxification enzymes.

  14. A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: characterization of a novel gut-specific N-myristoylated annexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wice, B M; Gordon, J I

    1992-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is rapidly and perpetually renewed as the descendants of multipotent stem cells located in crypts undergo proliferation, differentiation, and eventual exfoliation during a very well organized migration along the crypt to villus axis. The mechanisms that establish and maintain this balance between proliferation and differentiation are largely unknown. We have utilized HT-29 cells, derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma, as a model system for identifying gene products that may regulate these processes. Proliferating HT-29 cells cultured in the absence of glucose (e.g., using inosine as the carbon source) have some of the characteristics of undifferentiated but committed crypt epithelial cells while postconfluent cells cultured in the absence of glucose resemble terminally differentiated enterocytes or goblet cells. A cDNA library, constructed from exponentially growing HT-29 cells maintained in inosine-containing media, was sequentially screened with a series of probes depleted of sequences encoding housekeeping functions and enriched for intestine-specific sequences that are expressed in proliferating committed, but not differentiated, epithelial cells. Of 100,000 recombinant phage surveyed, one was found whose cDNA was derived from an apparently gut-specific mRNA. It encodes a 316 residue, 35,463-D protein that is a new member of the annexin/lipocortin family. Other family members have been implicated in regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. RNA blot and in situ hybridization studies indicate that the gene encoding this new annexin exhibits region-specific expression along both axes of the human gut: (a) highest levels of mRNA are present in the jejunum with marked and progressive reductions occurring distally; (b) its mRNA appears in crypt-associated epithelial cells and increases in concentration as they exit the crypt. Villus-associated epithelial cells continue to transcribe this gene during their

  15. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Sridhar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene, a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. Methods We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Results Resveratrol (100-150 μM exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G0/G1-S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. Conclusions For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and

  16. Resveratrol suppresses IGF-1 induced human colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis via suppression of IGF-1R/Wnt and activation of p53 signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanamala, Jairam; Reddivari, Lavanya; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Tarver, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global phenomenon and is associated with various types of cancer, including colon cancer. There is a growing interest for safe and effective bioactive compounds that suppress the risk for obesity-promoted colon cancer. Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5,-trihydroxystilbene), a stilbenoid found in the skin of red grapes and peanuts suppresses many types of cancers by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms, however, resveratrol effects on obesity-promoted colon cancer are not clearly established. We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol on HT-29 and SW480 human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; elevated during obesity) and elucidated the mechanisms of action using IGF-1R siRNA in HT-29 cells which represents advanced colon carcinogenesis. Resveratrol (100-150 μM) exhibited anti-proliferative properties in HT-29 cells even after IGF-1 exposure by arresting G 0 /G 1 -S phase cell cycle progression through p27 stimulation and cyclin D1 suppression. Treatment with resveratrol suppressed IGF-1R protein levels and concurrently attenuated the downstream Akt/Wnt signaling pathways that play a critical role in cell proliferation. Targeted suppression of IGF-1R using IGF-1R siRNA also affected these signaling pathways in a similar manner. Resveratrol treatment induced apoptosis by activating tumor suppressor p53 protein, whereas IGF-1R siRNA treatment did not affect apoptosis. Our data suggests that resveratrol not only suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGF-1R and its downstream signaling pathways similar to that of IGF-1R siRNA but also enhances apoptosis via activation of the p53 pathway. For the first time, we report that resveratrol suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation and elevates apoptosis even in the presence of IGF-1 via suppression of IGF-1R/Akt/Wnt signaling pathways and activation of p53, suggesting its potential role as a

  17. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Vermont P; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-09-15

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 may be responsible for its capability to cause cytotoxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, respectively. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect may be associated with induction of apoptosis as evidenced by increased percentage of HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis from 5.4% (untreated) to 24.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and 8.5% (untreated) to 31.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), respectively. The molecular mechanistic explanation in the apoptosis inducing property of BG-4 is due to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax leading to increased expression of caspase-3 and affecting the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. This is the first report on the anti-cancer potential of a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against colon cancer that must be addressed using in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis.

  18. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  19. Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Croatian Fresh Soft Cheese and Serbian White Pickled Cheese

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    Ksenija Uroić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to gain insight into the probiotic potential of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses. Eleven out of 86 LAB isolates from traditionally produced artisanal fresh soft and white pickled cheeses which survived the most rigorous simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and did not show resistance to antibiotics were subjected to further evaluation for functional probiotic properties. The ability of the examined strains to assimilate cholesterol in the presence of bile salts was strain dependent, with the highest percentage of cholesterol assimilated by strain Lactobacillus brevis BGGO7-28 possessing S-layer proteins on its cell surface. The growth of strains with mannitol or lactulose as the only carbon source was better than with fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin as prebiotic substrates, which should be considered in the production of synbiotics. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the strains were highly adhesive to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and to a lesser extent to HT29-MTX cells, with the exception of strain Lb. brevis BGGO7-28, which showed similar percentage of adhesion to both cell lines. This strain was the only one with the acidic cell surface, while other examined strains have the cell surfaces with electron donor and basic properties. In addition, all selected strains decreased the proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT cells, suggesting possible immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Finally, the number of viable cells in dry active preparations after lyophilisation depended on the lyoprotectant used (inulin, FOS or skimmed milk, as well as on the strain subjected to lyophilisation. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that particular dairy LAB isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties. Thus, they could be further examined as part of mixed autochthonous starter cultures for

  20. Dihydrochalcone Compounds Isolated from Crabapple Leaves Showed Anticancer Effects on Human Cancer Cell Lines

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    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven dihydrochalcone compounds were isolated from the leaves of Malus crabapples, cv. “Radiant”, and their chemical structures were elucidated by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses. These compounds, which include trilobatin (A1, phloretin (A2, 3-hydroxyphloretin (A3, phloretin rutinoside (A4, phlorizin (A5, 6′′-O-coumaroyl-4′-O-glucopyranosylphloretin (A6, and 3′′′-methoxy-6′′-O-feruloy-4′-O-glucopyranosyl-phloretin (A7, all belong to the phloretin class and its derivatives. Compounds A6 and A7 are two new rare dihydrochalcone compounds. The results of a MTT cancer cell growth inhibition assay demonstrated that phloretin and these derivatives showed significant positive anticancer activities against several human cancer cell lines, including the A549 human lung cancer cell line, Bel 7402 liver cancer cell line, HepG2 human ileocecal cancer cell line, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. A7 had significant effects on all cancer cell lines, suggesting potential applications for phloretin and its derivatives. Adding a methoxyl group to phloretin dramatically increases phloretin’s anticancer activity.

  1. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  2. Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

    2014-08-01

    Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100 nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by γ-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250 µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies.

  3. Expression of a human gene for polyamine transport in Chinese-hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, T L; Wechter, R; Nuttall, M E; Pegg, A E

    1989-01-01

    A molecular-genetic approach towards isolating mammalian polyamine-transport genes and their encoded proteins was devised involving the production of Chinese-hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a human polyamine-transport protein. CHO cells and a polyamine-transport-deficient CHO mutant cell line (CHOMG) were equally sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), which blocked endogenous polyamine synthesis. Exposure to exogenous polyamines increased intracellular polyamine levels and reversed this DFMO-induced cytostasis in the CHO cells, but not in the CHOMG cells. CHOMG cells were therefore transfected with human DNA (isolated from HT-29 colon carcinoma cells) and cells expressing the human polyamine-transport system were identified by the ability of these cells to grow in a medium containing DFMO and polyamines. A number of different positive clones were identified and shown to have the capacity for polyamine uptake and an increased sensitivity to the toxic effects of the polyamine analogue methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Differences in these properties between the clones are consistent with a multiplicity of polyamine-transport systems. Some clones also showed a change in growth characteristics, which may indicate a relationship between genes involved in the polyamine-transport system and in cell proliferation. PMID:2512913

  4. The prophylactic effect of probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against different human cancer cells

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    YOUSEF eNAMI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, AGS, HT-29, and MCF-7. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications.

  5. Pronounced radiosensitization of cultured human cancer cells by COX inhibitor under acidic microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Tushar; Ryu, Samuel; Lee, Ho Jun; Brown, Stephen; Kim, Jae Ho

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the influence of pH on the cytotoxicity and radiosensitization by COX (cyclooxygenase) -1 and -2 inhibitors using established human cancer cells in culture. Methods and Materials: Nonselective COX inhibitor, ibuprofen (IB), and selective COX-2 inhibitor, SC-236, were used to determine the cytotoxicity and radiosensitization at varying pH of culture media. Human colon carcinoma cell line (HT-29) was exposed to the drug alone and in combination with radiation at different pH of the cell culture media. The end point was clonogenic ability of the single-plated cells after the treatment. Results: Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization of IB increased with higher drug concentration and longer exposure time. The most significant radiosensitization was seen with IB (1.5 mM) for 2-h treatment at pH 6.7 before irradiation. The dose-modifying factor as defined by the ratio of radiation doses required to achieve the same effect on cell survival was 1.8 at 10% survival level. In contrast, SC-236 (50 μM for 2-8 h) showed no pH-dependent cytotoxicity. There was modest increase in the cell killing at lower doses of radiation. Conclusion: An acidic pH was an important factor affecting the increased cytotoxicity and radiosensitization by ibuprofen. Radiation response was enhanced at shoulder portion of the cell survival curve by selective COX-2 inhibitor

  6. Radiosensitivity of four human tumor xenografts. Influence of hypoxia and cell-cell contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, M.; Dertinger, H.; Malaise, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Contact effect (CE) and hypoxia have been studied in human tumor cell lines transplanted in athymic nude mice. Four cell lines - one melanoma (Bell) and three colorectal adenocarcinomas (HT29, HRT18, and HCT8) - were studied. Cell survival was determined with an in vivo in vitro colony-forming assay. Survival curves were obtained under three different conditions: (1) tumor cells irradiated in air-breathing mice, (2) tumor cells irradiated in animals asphyxiated for 10 min, and (3) tumor cells plated and irradiated either immediately or 5 hr later. For all cell lines, radiosensitivity appeared to be lower when cells were irradiated in vivo than when they were irradiated in vitro. Only in the case of the HCT8 tumor did the relative in vivo radioresistance seem to be linked to hypoxia; in the other cell lines, hypoxia alone could not account for the lower in vivo radiosensitivity. Our results suggest that a CE plays an important role in the response of human xenografts to irradiation

  7. Studies on the cytotoxicity of diamond nanoparticles against human cancer cells and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adach, Kinga; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Gajek, Gabriela; Skolimowski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Blaszczyk, Alina

    2016-07-25

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DND) are a widely studied group of carbon nanomaterials. They have the ability to adsorb a variety of biomolecules and drugs onto their surfaces, and additionally their surfaces may be subjected to chemical functionalization by covalent bonds. We present a procedure for the purification and surface oxidation of diamond nanoparticles, which were then tested by spectroscopic analysis such as ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. We also examined the zeta potential of the tested material. Analysis of the cytotoxic effect of nanodiamonds against normal lymphocytes derived from human peripheral blood, the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) was performed using MTT colorimetric assay. Evaluation of cell viability was performed after 1-h and 24-h treatment with the tested nanoparticles applied at concentrations ranging from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. We found that the survival of the examined cells was strongly associated with the presence of serum proteins in the growth medium. The incubation of cells with nanodiamonds in the presence of serum did not exert a significant effect on cell survival, while the cell treatment in a serum-free medium resulted in a decrease in cell survival compared to the negative control. The role of purification and functionalization of nanodiamonds on their cytotoxicity was also demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxicity effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. on two human colon carcinoma cell lines

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    F. Sharififar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Natural products are one of the major sources for investigations of novel medicines. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM has shown pharmacological activities especially in gastrointestinal tract; however, there are limited studies about its cytotoxicity effects. In this study, the effect of Zataria multiflora was examined on two colon cancer cell lines (SW-48 and HT-29. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of ZM and its fractions including chloroform, petroleum ether and methanol extract were prepared by warm maceration method. Different concentrations were prepared and examined on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines using 2-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: The results of the present study have shown the cytotoxic effect of some fractions of ZM. The most considerable cytotoxic effect was shown against HT-29 cell line. Also, total ZM extract and the petroleum ether fraction demonstrated cytotoxic effects with IC50 values of 44.22 and 33.42 µg/ml on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. Conclusion: Zataria multiflora was cytotoxic to against colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-48.

  9. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains inoculated in cheese matrix during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Cross, Kathryn L; Parker, Mary L; Bisignano, Carlo; Wickham, Martin S J; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Caggia, Cinzia

    2012-08-01

    Survival of probiotic bacteria during transit through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is influenced by a number of environmental variables including stomach acidity, bile salts, digestive enzymes and food matrix. This study assessed survival of seven selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains delivered within a model cheese system to the human upper GI tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM). Good survival rates for all tested strains were recorded during both simulated gastric and duodenal digestion. Strains H12, H25 and N24 demonstrated higher survival capacities during gastric digestion than L. rhamnosus GG strain used as control, with H12 and N24 continuing to grow during duodenal digestion. Strains L. rhamnosus F17, N24 and R61 showed adhesion properties to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. The ability to attach to the cheese matrix during digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, also indicating production of extracellular polysaccharides as a response to acid stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential anticancer activity of curcumin analogs containing sulfone on human cancer cells

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    Zhang Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three curcumin analogs(S1-S3 containing sulfone were investigated for their effects on human prostate cancer PC-3, colon cancer HT-29, lung cancer H1299 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells. The three compounds were approximately 16-to 96-fold more active than curcumin in these cell lines as determined by the MTT assay. The effects of these compounds on cell growth were further studied in prostate cancer PC-3 cells in both two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D cultures. S1-S3strongly inhibited the growth and induced cell death in PC-3 cells, and the effects of these compounds were associated with suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, treatment of PC-3 cells with all three compounds caused a decrease in the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (p-STAT3 (Tyr705,but not p-STAT3(Ser727. Only S1and S2decreased the presence of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt in PC-3 cells. These curcumin analogs warrant further in vivo studies for anticancer activities in suitable animal models.

  11. SadA-Expressing Staphylococci in the Human Gut Show Increased Cell Adherence and Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqman, Arif; Nega, Mulugeta; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Ebner, Patrick; Götz, Friedrich

    2018-01-09

    A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora. Furthermore, sadA-expressing staphylococci showed increased adherence to HT-29 cells and 2- to 3-fold increased internalization. Internalization and adherence was also increased in a sadA mutant in the presence of tryptamine. The α2-adrenergic receptor is required for enhanced adherence and internalization. Thus, staphylococci in the gut might contribute to gut activity and intestinal colonization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SadA-Expressing Staphylococci in the Human Gut Show Increased Cell Adherence and Internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Luqman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs, are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA. SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora. Furthermore, sadA-expressing staphylococci showed increased adherence to HT-29 cells and 2- to 3-fold increased internalization. Internalization and adherence was also increased in a sadA mutant in the presence of tryptamine. The α2-adrenergic receptor is required for enhanced adherence and internalization. Thus, staphylococci in the gut might contribute to gut activity and intestinal colonization. : Luqman et al. examine the sadA gene and argue that it contributes to TAs. They found that neuromodulator-producing staphylococci were present in the gut of most probands. The produced neuromodulators enhanced the adherence and internalization of staphylococci to cells in culture. Keywords: adherence, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, gut microbiota, internalization, neuromodulator, neurotransmitter, staphylococcus

  13. Compound A398, a novel podophyllotoxin analogue: cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

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    Alethéia L Silveira

    Full Text Available Despite advances in oncology research, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, there is a demand for the development of more selective and effective antitumor agents. This study showed that A398, a novel podophyllotoxin analogue, was cytotoxic to the HT-29, MCF-7, MOLT-4 and HL-60 tumor cell lines, being less active in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal cell lines FGH and IEC-6. Tests using the HepG2 lineage indicated that its metabolites do not contribute to its cytotoxicity. In the HL-60 cells, A398 induced apoptosis in a time and concentration-dependent manner, promoting mitochondrial depolarization, inhibition of Bcl-2, phosphatidylserine exposure, activation of caspases -8, -9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The production of reactive oxygen species does not seem to be a crucial event for the apoptotic process. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38 resulted in an increased percentage of death induced by A398. These results indicate that the compound induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic death pathways with the mechanism involving the inhibition of the MAPKs and Bcl-2. Taken together, our findings suggest that A398 has an anticancer potential, proving itself to be a candidate for preclinical studies.

  14. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxic profie of Chuquiraga spinosa Lessing on human tumor cell lines: A promissory plant from Peruvian flra

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    Oscar Herrera-Calderon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity in vitro and cytotoxicity of crude ethanol extract (CEE, n-hexane fraction (NHF, petroleum ether fraction (PEF, chloroform fraction (CLF and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of aerial parts of Chuquiraga spinosa (C. spinosa Lessing. Methods: Phytochemical screening was developed by color and precipitated formation. The evaluation of antioxidant activity was assessed using hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC were measured by using standard methods by spectrophotometry. The cytotoxic effect was determined on human tumor cell lines including MCF-7, H-460, HT-29, M-14, HUTU-80, K-562 and DU-145. Results: Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids in crude extract and its all fractions. The CEE showed the highest antioxidant activity, for OH and NO radical scavenging tests (IC50 = 15.16 ± 3.45 μg/mL and IC50 = 18.91 ± 1.13 μg/mL, respectively. TPC was found to be the highest in the CEE (121.36 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dried extract compared to other fractions. The ranking order of NHF, PEF, CLF, EAF and CEE for TFC was 21.17 < 35.20 < 62.19 < 70.25 < 78.25 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried extract. The crude ethanolic extract (μg/mL showed a high cytotoxicity on MCF-7 (IC50 = 9.25 ± 0.81, K-562 (IC50 = 7.34 ± 1.00, HT-29 (IC50 = 8.52 ± 2.69, H-460 (IC50 = 5.32 ± 1.05, M-14 (IC50 = 8.30 ± 0.60, DU-145 (IC50 = 7.09 ± 0.09, HUTU-80 (IC50 = 6.20 ± 0.50. Conclusions: The study showed that CEE of the aerial parts of C. spinosa can be measured as a natural source of antioxidant which might be effective towards preventing or slowing oxidative stress related to chronic diseases as well as cytotoxic agent.

  15. The intraportal injection model: A practical animal model for hepatic metastases and tumor cell dissemination in human colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalheimer, Andreas; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Otto, Christoph; Bueter, Marco; Illert, Bertram; Gattenlohner, Stefan; Gasser, Martin; Meyer, Detlef; Fein, Martin; Germer, Christoph T

    2009-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of metastasized colorectal carcinoma requires biologically relevant and adequate animal models that generate both reproducible metastasis and the dissemination of tumor cells in the form of so-called minimal residual disease (MRD), an expression of the systemic character of neoplastic disease. We injected immunoincompetent nude mice intraportally with different numbers (1 × 10 5 , 1 × 10 6 and 5 × 10 6 cells) of the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and SW-620 and investigated by histological studies and CK-20 RT-PCR the occurrence of hematogenous metastases and the dissemination of human tumor cells in bone marrow. Only the injection of 1 × 10 6 cells of each colon carcinoma cell line produced acceptable perioperative mortality with reproducible induction of hepatic metastases in up to 89% of all animals. The injection of 1 × 10 6 cells also generated tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow in up to 63% of animals with hepatic metastases. The present intraportal injection model in immunoincompetent nude mice represents a biologically relevant and adequate animal model for the induction of both reproducible hepatic metastasis and tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow as a sign of MRD

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 mediates migration of human colorectal carcinoma cells by activation of Src family kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesslie, D P; Summy, J M; Parikh, N U; Fan, F; Trevino, J G; Sawyer, T K; Metcalf, C A; Shakespeare, W C; Hicklin, D J; Ellis, L M; Gallick, G E

    2006-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the predominant pro-angiogenic cytokine in human malignancy, and its expression correlates with disease recurrence and poor outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. Recently, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) has been observed on tumours of epithelial origin, including those arising in the colon, but the molecular mechanisms governing potential VEGF-driven biologic functioning in these tumours are not well characterised. In this report, we investigated the role of Src family kinases (SFKs) in VEGF-mediated signalling in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines. Vascular endothelial growth factor specifically activated SFKs in HT29 and KM12L4 CRC cell lines. Further, VEGF stimulation resulted in enhanced cellular migration, which was effectively blocked by pharmacologic inhibition of VEGFR-1 or Src kinase. Correspondingly, migration studies using siRNA clones with reduced Src expression confirmed the requirement for Src in VEGF-induced migration in these cells. Furthermore, VEGF treatment enhanced VEGFR-1/SFK complex formation and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, p130 cas and paxillin. Finally, we demonstrate that VEGF-induced migration is not due, at least in part, to VEGF acting as a mitogen. These results suggest that VEGFR-1 promotes migration of tumour cells through a Src-dependent pathway linked to activation of focal adhesion components that regulate this process. PMID:16685275

  17. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G 2 /M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S 3 ) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 μM) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G 2 /M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. New peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of invasive cancer cells: in vivo studies using 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 targeting uPAR in human colorectal cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Morten; Rasmussen, Palle; Madsen, Jacob; Ploug, Michael; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The proposition of uPAR as a potential target in cancer therapy is advanced by its predominant expression at the invasive front of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its value as prognostic biomarker for poor survival in this disease. In this study, we provide the first in vivo proof-of-concept for a theranostic approach as treatment modality in a human xenograft colorectal cancer model. Methods: A DOTA-conjugated 9-mer high affinity uPAR binding peptide (DOTA-AE105) was radiolabeled with 64 Cu and 177 Lu, for PET imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy study, respectively. Human uPAR-positive CRC HT-29 cells were inoculated in Nude mice and treated with 177 Lu-DOTA-AE105 once a visible tumor had formed. To evaluate the true effect of the targeted radiotherapy, two controls groups were included in this study, one receiving a 177 Lu-labeled non-binding control peptide and one receiving vehicle. All animals were treated day 0 and 7. A parallel 18 F-FLT PET/CT study was performed on day 0, 1, 3 and 6. Dosimetry calculations were based on a biodistribution study, where organs and tissue of interest were collected 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 24 h post injection of 177 Lu-DOTA-AE105. Toxicity was assessed by recording mouse weight and by H and E staining of kidneys in each treatment group. Results: uPAR-positive HT-29 xenograft was clearly visualized by PET/CT imaging using 64 Cu-DOTA-AE105. Subsequently, these xenograft transplants were locally irradiated using 177 Lu-DOTA-AE105, where a significant effect on tumor size and the number of uPAR-positive cells in the tumor was found (p 18 F-FLT PET/CT imaging study revealed a significant correlation between 18 F-FLT tumor uptake and efficacy of the radionuclide therapy. A histological examination of the kidneys from one animal in each treatment group did not reveal any gross abnormalities and the general performance of all treated animals also showed no indications of radioactivity-induced toxicity. Conclusion: These findings

  19. Doubly end-on azido bridged mixed-valence cobalt trinuclear complex: Spectral study, VTM, inhibitory effect and antimycobacterial activity on human carcinoma and tuberculosis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amitabha; Das, Kuheli; Sen, Chandana; Karan, Nirmal Kumar; Huang, Jui-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Her; Garribba, Eugenio; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Askun, Tulin; Celikboyun, Pinar; Mane, Sandeep B.

    2015-09-01

    Doubly end-on azido-bridged mixed-valence trinuclear cobalt complex, [Co3(L)2(N3)6(CH3OH)2] (1) is afforded by employing a potential monoanionic tetradentate-N2O2 Schiff base precursor (2-[{[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]imino}methyl]-6-methoxyphenol; HL). Single crystal X-ray structure reveals that in 1, the adjacent CoII and CoIII ions are linked by double end-on azido bridges and thus the full molecule is generated by the site symmetry of a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. Complex 1 is subjected on different spectral analysis such as IR, UV-vis, emission and EPR spectroscopy. On variable temperature magnetic study, we observe that during cooling, the χMT values decrease smoothly until 15 K and then reaches to the value 1.56 cm3 K mol-1 at 2 K. Complex 1 inhibits the cell growth on human lung carcinoma (A549 cells), human colorectal (COLO 205 and HT-29 cells), and human heptacellular (PLC5 cells) carcinoma cells. Complex 1 exhibits anti-mycobacterial activity and considerable efficacy on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294 and H37Ra ATCC 25177 strains.

  20. Cloning, overexpression, purification of bacteriocin enterocin-B and structural analysis, interaction determination of enterocin-A, B against pathogenic bacteria and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankaiah, Dasari; Palanichamy, Esakkiraj; Antonyraj, Christian Bharathi; Ayyanna, Repally; Perumal, Venkatesh; Ahamed, Syed Ibrahim Basheer; Arul, Venkatesan

    2018-05-02

    In this present study, a gene (ent-B) encoding the bacteriocin enterocin-B was cloned, overexpressed and purified from Enterococcus faecium por1. The molecular weight of the bacteriocin enterocin-B was observed around 7.2 kDa and exhibited antimicrobial activity against several human pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of cloned enterocin-B was increased effectively by combining with another bacteriocin enterocin-A from the same microorganism. Protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed that the bacteriocin enterocin-B is interacting with enterocin-A and formation of a heterodimer (enterocin A + B). The heterodimer of bacteriocin enterocin-A + B exhibited potential anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The bacteriocin enterocin-B, A and heterodimer of bacteriocin enterocin A + B showed no haemolysis on human RBC cells. This is the first report that the cell growth inhibitory activity of the bacteriocin enterocin B against HeLa, HT-29 and AGS human cancer cells and this cell growth inhibitory activity was significantly increased when cancer cells treated with the heterodimer of bacteriocins enterocin-A + B. The cell growth inhibitory activity of the bacteriocin enterocin-B and the heterodimer of bacteriocin enterocin-A + B were not observed in non-cancerous INT-407 cells (intestinal epithelial cells). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. New structural analogues of curcumin exhibit potent growth suppressive activity in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, Ling; Hutzen, Brian; Ball, Sarah; DeAngelis, Stephanie; Chen, Chun-Liang; Fuchs, James R; Li, Chenglong; Li, Pui-Kai; Lin, Jiayuh

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed for colorectal carcinoma. Curcumin, the active component and yellow pigment of turmeric, has been reported to have several anti-cancer activities including anti-proliferation, anti-invasion, and anti-angiogenesis. Clinical trials have suggested that curcumin may serve as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for colorectal cancer. We compared the inhibitory effects of curcumin and novel structural analogues, GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12, in three independent human colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480, HT-29, and HCT116. MTT cell viability assay was used to examine the cell viability/proliferation and western blots were used to determine the level of PARP cleavages. Half-Maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) were calculated using Sigma Plot 9.0 software. Curcumin inhibited cell viability in all three of the human colorectal cancer cell lines studied with IC 50 values ranging between 10.26 μM and 13.31 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 were more potent than curcumin in the inhibition of cell viability in these three human colorectal cancer cell lines with IC 50 values ranging between 0.51 μM and 4.48 μM. In addition, FLLL-11 and FLLL-12 exhibit low toxicity to WI-38 normal human lung fibroblasts with an IC-50 value greater than 1,000 μM. GO-Y030, FLLL-11, and FLLL-12 are also more potent than curcumin in the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 in all three human colorectal cancer cell lines studied. The results indicate that the three curcumin analogues studied exhibit more potent inhibitory activity than curcumin in human colorectal cancer cells. Thus, they may have translational potential as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for colorectal carcinoma

  2. Effect of selenium-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Se-bLF) on antioxidant enzyme activities in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Hannah; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2011-10-01

    Cancer and many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potential cellular and tissue damage created by ROS has significant impact on many disease and cancer states and natural therapeutics are becoming essential in regulating altered redox states. We have shown recently that iron content is a critical determinant in the antitumour activity of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF). We found that 100% iron-saturated bLF (Fe-bLF) acts as a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy and thus has a broad utility in the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, we also studied the effects of iron saturated bLF's ability as an antioxidant in the human epithelial colon cancer cell line HT29, giving insights into the potential of bLF in its different states. Thus, metal saturated bLF could be implemented as anti-cancer neutraceutical. In this regard, we have recently been able to prepare a selenium (Se) saturated form of bLF, being up to 98% saturated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine how oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 epithelial colon cancer cells, and observe changes in this activity by treatments with different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo (iron free)-bLF and selenium (Se)-bLF. The states of all antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- s-transferase (GsT), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) demonstrated high levels within untreated HT29 cells compared to the majority of other treatments being used, even prior to H2O2 exposure. All enzymes showed significant alterations in activity when cells were treated with antioxidants AA, Apo-bLF or Se-bLF, with and/or without H2O2 exposure. Obvious indications that the Se content of the bLF potentially interacted with the glutathione (GSH)/GPx/GR/GsT associated redox system could be

  3. Redox Role of Lactobacillus casei Shirota Against the Cellular Damage Induced by 2,2′-Azobis (2-Amidinopropane Dihydrochloride-Induced Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress in Enterocytes-Like Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Finamore

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In western societies where most of the day is spent in the postprandial state, the existence of oxidative and inflammatory stress conditions makes postprandial stress an important factor involved in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. A large body of evidence have been accumulated on the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics, but no information is available on the mechanisms through which intestinal microbiota modulates redox unbalance associated with inflammatory stress. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LS to induce an antioxidant response to counteract oxidative and inflammatory stress in an in vitro model of enterocytes. Our results show that pretreatment of enterocytes with LS prevents membrane barrier disruption and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation inside the cells, modulates the expression of the gastro-intestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPX2 antioxidant enzyme, and reduces p65 phosphorylation, supporting the involvement of the Nfr2 and nuclear factor kappa B pathways in the activation of antioxidant cellular defenses by probiotics. These results suggest, for the first time, a redox mechanism by LS in protecting intestinal cells from AAPH-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress.

  4. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  5. 64Cu-ATSM Reflects pO2 Levels in Human Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts but Not in Colorectal Cancer Xenografts: Comparison with 64CuCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper T; Forman, Julie; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The hypoxia PET tracer (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazonate) ((64)Cu-ATSM) has shown promising results in clinical studies. However, concerns have been raised with regard to the possible effect of copper metabolism and free copper on tumor uptake and thereby the robustness of (64)Cu-ATSM as a hypoxia marker. In this study, accumulation and distribution of (64)Cu-ATSM and (64)CuCl2 in tumor tissue were compared with partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) probe measurements. One-hour dynamic PET scans were performed on nude mice bearing subcutaneous human head and neck tumors (FaDu) and human colorectal tumors (HT29) after administration of either (64)Cu-ATSM or (64)CuCl2. Subsequently, tracks were generated and track markers were positioned in tumors to allow for registration of their exact location on the high-resolution CT scan. After completion of the CT scan, pO2 probe measurements were performed along each track. PET and CT images were coregistered and ROIs drawn on the basis of the location of track markers and pO2 probe measurement depth. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was applied for the comparison of PET tracer uptake to corresponding pO2 values. Comparable uptake of (64)Cu-ATSM and (64)CuCl2 was found in the kidney, muscle, and liver of all animals, but (64)CuCl2 showed a higher uptake 10-60 min after injection in both tumor models. Significant differences were also found for both tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-liver ratios. The intratumoral distribution of (64)Cu-ATSM, but not (64)CuCl2, showed a significant negative relationship with pO2 measurements in FaDu tumors. However, this relationship was not found in HT29 tumors. (64)Cu-ATSM and (64)CuCl2 displayed different uptake in tumors. In human head and neck xenografts, (64)Cu-ATSM but not (64)CuCl2 reflected pO2 measurements, indicating that (64)Cu-ATSM is a hypoxia-specific marker in this tumor type. However, data from colorectal cancer xenografts indicated that (64)Cu-ATSM may not be

  6. A Sensitive and Rapid Method to Determine the Adhesion Capacity of Probiotics and Pathogenic Microorganisms to Human Gastrointestinal Mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélinda Ringot-Destrez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucus is the habitat for the microorganisms, bacteria and yeast that form the commensal flora. Mucins, the main macromolecules of mucus, and more specifically, the glycans that cover them, play essential roles in microbial gastrointestinal colonization. Probiotics and pathogens must also colonize mucus to have lasting positive or deleterious effects. The question of which mucin-harboured glycan motifs favour the adhesion of specific microorganisms remains very poorly studied. In the current study, a simple test based on the detection of fluorescent-labeled microorganisms raised against microgram amounts of mucins spotted on nitrocellulose was developed. The adhesion of various probiotic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated on a panel of human purified gastrointestinal mucins and compared with that of commercially available pig gastric mucins (PGM and of mucins secreted by the colonic cancer cell line HT29-MTX. The latter two proved to be very poor indicators of adhesion capacity on intestinal mucins. Our results show that the nature of the sialylated cores of O-glycans, determined by MALDI MS-MS analysis, potentially enables sialic acid residues to modulate the adhesion of microorganisms either positively or negatively. Other identified factors affecting the adhesion propensity were O-glycan core types and the presence of blood group motifs. This test should help to select probiotics with enhanced adhesion capabilities as well as deciphering the role of specific mucin glycotopes on microbial adhesion.

  7. miR-320 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro by targeting FOXM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Lu-Ying; Deng, Jun; Xiang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ling; Yu, Feng; Chen, Jun; Sun, Zhe; Feng, Miao; Xiong, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpxiong@medmail.com.cn

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • miR-320 plays a significant role in chemoresistance. • This role might be attribute to targeting FOXM1. • The Wnt/β-catenin pathway also involves in this chemotherapy sensitivity. - Abstract: miR-320 expression level is found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer. To date, however, its underlying mechanisms in the chemo-resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-320 led to inhibit HCT-116 cell proliferation, invasion and hypersensitivity to 5-Fu and Oxaliplatin. Also, knockdown of miR-320 reversed these effects in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, we identified an oncogene, FOXM1, as a direct target of miR-320. In addition, miR-320 could inactive the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, we found that miR-320 and FOXM1 protein had a negative correlation in colon cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. These findings implied that miR-320–FOXM1 axis may overcome chemo-resistance of colon cancer cells and provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

  8. The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on human colon cells and inflammation in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Youn Wha; Chi, Sung-Gil; Joo, Yeong-Shil; Kim, Hyo Jong

    2009-02-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has beneficial effects in the treatment of intestinal inflammation; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which these effects occur. We investigated the effects of S. boulardii on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), using human HT-29 colonocytes and a rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. The effect of S. boulardii on gene expression was assessed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Northern blot and Western blot assays. Pharmacological inhibitors for various signaling pathways were used to determine the signaling pathways implicated in the S. boulardii regulation of PPAR-gamma and IL-8. We found that S. boulardii up-regulated and down-regulated PPAR-gamma and IL-8 expression at the transcription level, both in vitro and in vivo (P Saccharomyces boulardii blocked tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) regulation of PPAR-gamma and IL-8 through disruption of TNF-alpha-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. Furthermore, S. boulardii suppressed colitis and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in vivo (P boulardii reduces colonic inflammation and regulates inflammatory gene expression.

  9. Cisplatin and ultra-violet-C synergistically down-regulate receptor tyrosine kinases in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Junji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin are widely used for patients with various types of cancers, however, resistance to cisplatin is observed in some cases. Whereas we have recently reported that high dose UV-C (200 J/m² induces colorectal cancer cell proliferation by desensitization of EGFR, which leads oncogenic signaling in these cells, in this study we investigated the combination effect of low dose cisplatin (10 μM and low dose UV-C (10 J/m² on cell growth and apoptosis in several human colorectal cancer cells, SW480, DLD-1, HT29 and HCT116. Results The combination inhibited cell cycle and colony formation, while either cisplatin or UV-C alone had little effect. The combination also induced apoptosis in these cells. In addition, the combination caused the downregulation of EGFR and HER2. Moreover, UV-C alone caused the transient internalization of the EGFR, but with time EGFR recycled back to the cell surface, while cisplatin did not affect its localization. Surprisingly, the combination caused persistent internalization of the EGFR, which results in the lasting downregulation of the EGFR. Conclusions The combination of low dose cisplatin and low dose UV-C synergistically exerted anti-cancer effect by down-regulating RTK, such as EGFR and HER2. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer.

  10. Interferon-β lipofection II. Mechanisms involved in cell death and bystander effect induced by cationic lipid-mediated interferon-β gene transfer to human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, M S; Gil-Cardeza, M L; Glikin, G C; Finocchiaro, L M E

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the cytotoxic effects (apoptosis, necrosis and early senescence) of human interferon-β (hIFNβ) gene lipofection. The cytotoxicity of hIFNβ gene lipofection resulted equivalent to that of the corresponding addition of the recombinant protein (rhIFNβ) on human tumor cell lines derived from Ewing's sarcoma (EW7 and COH) and colon (HT-29) carcinomas. However, it was stronger than rhIFNβ on melanoma (M8) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7). To reveal the mechanisms involved in these differences, we compared the effects of hIFNβ gene and rhIFNβ protein on EW7 and M8 (sensitive and resistant to rhIFNβ protein, respectively). Lipofection with hIFNβ gene caused a mitochondrial potential decrease simultaneous with an increase of oxidative stress in both cell lines. However, rhIFNβ protein displayed the same pattern of response only in EW7-sensitive cell line. The great bystander effect of the hIFNβ gene lipofection, involving the production of reactive oxygen species, would be among the main causes of its success. In EW7, this effect killed >60% of EW7 cell population, even though only 1% of cells were expressing the transgene. As hIFNβ gene was effective even in the rhIFNβ protein-resistant M8 cell line and in a way not limited by low lipofection efficiency, these results strongly support the clinical potential of this approach.

  11. Comparison of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, Karin; Wagner, Sylvia; Briesen, Hagen von; Knobloch, Thomas; Wiehe, Arno; Engel, Andrea; Langer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The second generation photosensitizer mTHPC was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the palliative treatment of advanced head and neck cancer in October 2001. It is known that mTHPC possesses a significant phototoxicity against a variety of human cancer cells in vitro but also exhibits dark toxicity and can cause adverse effects (especially skin photosensitization). Due to its poor water solubility, the administration of hydrophobic photosensitizer still presents several difficulties. To overcome the administration problems, the use of nanoparticles as drug carrier systems is much investigated. Nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively studied as delivery systems into tumours due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The goal of this study was the comparison of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles concerning cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). The nanoparticles delivered the photosensitizer to the colon carcinoma cells and enabled drug release without losing its activity. The cytotoxicity assays showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability after illumination. However, first and foremost mTHPC lost its dark toxic effects using the PLGA nanoparticles as a drug carrier system. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug carrier system for the hydrophobic photosensitizer mTHPC.

  12. CDH1 and IL1-beta expression dictates FAK and MAPKK-dependent cross-talk between cancer cells and human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-toub, Mashael; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Hamam, Rimi

    2015-01-01

    in signaling pathways related to bone formation, FAK and MAPKK signaling. Co-culturing hMSCs with MCF7 cells increased their growth evidenced by increase in Ki67 and PCNA staining in tumor cells in direct contact with hMSCs niche. On the other hand, co-culturing hMSCs with FaDu, HT-29 or MDA-MB-231 cells led......INTRODUCTION: Tumor microenvironment conferred by stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) plays a key role in tumor development, progression, and response to therapy. Defining the role of MSCs in tumorigenesis is crucial for their safe utilization in regenerative medicine. Herein, we conducted...... comprehensive investigation of the cross-talk between human MSCs (hMSCs) and 12 cancer cell lines derived from breast, prostate, colon, head/neck and skin. METHODS: Human bone marrow-derived MSC line expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) (hMSC-GFP) were co-cultured with the following cancer cell lines...

  13. Omega-3 PUFA Loaded in Resveratrol-Based Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Properties and Antineoplastic Activities in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Serini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being investigated to ameliorate the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of the drugs currently used in colorectal cancer (CRC, one of the most common malignancies in the Western world. Data have been accumulated demonstrating that the antineoplastic therapies with either conventional or single-targeted drugs could take advantage from a combined treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA. These nutrients, shown to be safe at the dosage generally used in human trials, are able to modulate molecules involved in colon cancer cell growth and survival. They have also the potential to act against inflammation, which plays a critical role in CRC development, and to increase the anti-cancer immune response. In the present study, omega-3 PUFA were encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN having a lipid matrix containing resveratrol esterified to stearic acid. Our aim was to increase the efficiency of the incorporation of these fatty acids into the cells and prevent their peroxidation and degradation. The Resveratrol-based SLN were characterized and investigated for their antioxidant activity. It was observed that the encapsulation of omega-3 PUFA into the SLN enhanced significantly their incorporation in human HT-29 CRC cells in vitro, and their growth inhibitory effects in these cancer cells, mainly by reducing cell proliferation.

  14. Comparison of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, Karin; Wagner, Sylvia; Briesen, Hagen von [Fraunhofer-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, D-66386 Strasse Ingbert (Germany); Knobloch, Thomas [Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Biocenter of Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Wiehe, Arno [Biolitec AG, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Engel, Andrea; Langer, Klaus, E-mail: hagen.briesen@ibmt.fraunhofer.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, University of Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-06-17

    The second generation photosensitizer mTHPC was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the palliative treatment of advanced head and neck cancer in October 2001. It is known that mTHPC possesses a significant phototoxicity against a variety of human cancer cells in vitro but also exhibits dark toxicity and can cause adverse effects (especially skin photosensitization). Due to its poor water solubility, the administration of hydrophobic photosensitizer still presents several difficulties. To overcome the administration problems, the use of nanoparticles as drug carrier systems is much investigated. Nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively studied as delivery systems into tumours due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The goal of this study was the comparison of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles concerning cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). The nanoparticles delivered the photosensitizer to the colon carcinoma cells and enabled drug release without losing its activity. The cytotoxicity assays showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability after illumination. However, first and foremost mTHPC lost its dark toxic effects using the PLGA nanoparticles as a drug carrier system. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug carrier system for the hydrophobic photosensitizer mTHPC.

  15. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  16. A newly isolated probiotic Enterococcus faecalis strain from vagina microbiota enhances apoptosis of human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Y; Abdullah, N; Haghshenas, B; Radiah, D; Rosli, R; Yari Khosroushahi, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to describe probiotic properties and bio-therapeutic effects of newly isolated Enterococcus faecalis from the human vaginal tract. The Enterococcus faecalis strain was originally isolated from the vaginal microbiota of Iranian women and was molecularly identified using 16SrDNA gene sequencing. Some biochemical methodologies were preliminarily used to characterize the probiotic potential of Ent. faecalis, including antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, as well as acid and bile resistance. The bio-therapeutic effects of this strain's secreted metabolites on four human cancer cell lines (AGS, HeLa, MCF-7 and HT-29) and one normal cell line (HUVEC) were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis scrutiny. The characterization results demonstrated into the isolated bacteria strain revealed probiotic properties, such as antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity and resistance under conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract. Results of bio-therapeutic efficacy assessments illustrated acceptable apoptotic effects on four human cancer cell lines and negligible side effects on assayed normal cell line. Our findings revealed that the apoptotic effect of secreted metabolites mainly depended on proteins secreted by Ent. faecalis on different cancer cells. These proteins can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells. The metabolites produced by this vaginal Ent. faecalis strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. Accordingly, the physicochemical, structural and functional properties of the secreted anticancer substances should be further investigated before using them as anticancer therapeutics. This study aim to screen total bacterial secreted metabolites as a wealthy source to find the new active compounds to introduce as anticancer therapeutics in the future. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Saccharomyces boulardii Protease Inhibits the Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B in Human Colonic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Riegler, Martin F.; Valenick, Leyla; LaMont, J. Thomas; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    1999-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast used in the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. We have reported that S. boulardii inhibits C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rats by releasing a 54-kDa protease which digests the toxin A molecule and its brush border membrane (BBM) receptor (I. Castagliuolo, J. T. LaMont, S. T. Nikulasson, and C. Pothoulakis, Infect. Immun. 64:5225–5232, 1996). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of S. boulardii protease in preventing C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rat ileum and determine whether it protects human colonic mucosa from C. difficile toxins. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against purified S. boulardii serine protease inhibited by 73% the proteolytic activity present in S. boulardii conditioned medium in vitro. The anti-protease immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevented the action of S. boulardii on toxin A-induced intestinal secretion and mucosal permeability to [3H]mannitol in rat ileal loops, while control rabbit IgG had no effect. The anti-protease IgG also prevented the effects of S. boulardii protease on digestion of toxins A and B and on binding of [3H]toxin A and [3H]toxin B to purified human colonic BBM. Purified S. boulardii protease reversed toxin A- and toxin B-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in human colonic (HT-29) cells. Furthermore, toxin A- and B-induced drops in transepithelial resistance in human colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers were reversed by 60 and 68%, respectively, by preexposing the toxins to S. boulardii protease. We conclude that the protective effects of S. boulardii on C. difficile-induced inflammatory diarrhea in humans are due, at least in part, to proteolytic digestion of toxin A and B molecules by a secreted protease. PMID:9864230

  18. A novel class I HDAC inhibitor, MPT0G030, induces cell apoptosis and differentiation in human colorectal cancer cells via HDAC1/PKCδ and E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Liou, Jing-Ping; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Yi-Min; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-07-30

    Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes contributes to cancer development and progression. Compared with gene mutations or deletions, epigenetic changes are reversible, which alter the chromatin structure remodeling instead of changes in DNA sequence, and therefore become a promising strategy for chemotherapy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that responsible for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. MPT0G030 is a potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitor which showed broad-spectrum cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. in vitro fluorometric HDAC activity assay showed that MPT0G030 effectively inhibited Class I HDACs (HDAC1~3), which were overexpressed in many malignant neoplasms. Interestingly, MPT0G030 not only induced histone acetylation and tumor suppressor p21 transcription, but also redistributed E-cadherin and activated Protein Kinase C δ (PKCδ), which was linked to cell apoptosis and differentiation. Further, activation of PKCδ was demonstrated to be modulated through HDAC1. The in vivo anticancer activity of MPT0G030 and the importance of PKCδ were confirmed in the HT-29 tumor xenograft models. Taken together, those results indicate that MPT0G030, a class I HDAC inhibitor, has great potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy.

  19. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  20. Fused pyrazine mono-N-oxides as bioreductive drugs. II cytotoxicity in human cells and oncogenicity in a rodent transformation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmuir, Virginia K.; Laderoute, Keith R.; Mendonca, Holly L.; Sutherland, Robert M.; Hei, Tom K.; Liu, S.-X.; Hall, Eric J.; Naylor, Matthew A.; Adams, Gerald E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine what structural moieties of the fused pyrazine mono-N-oxides are determining factors in their in vitro cytotoxicity and oncogenicity. Methods and Materials: A new series of experimental bioreductive drugs, fused pyrazine mono-N-oxides, was evaluated in vitro for aerobic and hypoxic cytotoxicity in the HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line by using clonogenic assays. The relative oncogenicities of these compounds were also determined in aerobic cultures of C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts by using a standard transformation assay. Results: Removal of the 4-methyl piperazine side chain from the parent compound, RB 90740, reduced the potency of the hypoxic cytotoxin. Reduction of the N-oxide function increased the aerobic cytotoxicity and eliminated most of the hypoxic/aerobic cytotoxic differential. The reduced N-oxide also had significant oncogenicity, consistent with a mechanism of genotoxicity following bioreduction of RB 90740. Conclusion: This new series of bioreductive compounds may be effective in cancer therapy, particularly the lead compound RB 90740. The oncogenic potential of these compounds is similar to that for other cancer therapies. Further studies should include evaluation of these compounds in vivo and the development of analogs with reduced oncogenic potential and retention of the hypoxic/aerobic cytotoxicity differential

  1. Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-07-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀  = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Modulation of hypericin photodynamic therapy by pretreatment with 12 various inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism in colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleban, J.; Mikeš, J.; Szilárdiová, B.; Koval, J.; Sačková, V.; Solár, P.; Horváth, Viktor; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois; Fedoročko, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 5 (2007), s. 1174-1185 ISSN 0031-8655 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : hypericin * photodynamic therapy * arachidonic acid inhibitors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.172, year: 2007

  3. Lower sensitivity of FHC fetal colon epithelial cells to photodynamic therapy compared to HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells despite higher intracellular accumulation of hypericin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, J.; Hýžďalová, Martina; Kočí, Lenka; Jendželovský, R.; Koval, J.; Vaculová, Alena; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois; Fedoročko, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2011), s. 626-632 ISSN 1474-905X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1526 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : photodynamic therapy * hypericin * colon cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.584, year: 2011

  4. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  5. Blocking the proliferation of human tumor cell lines by peptidase inhibitors from Bauhinia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Mayer, Barbara; Neth, Peter; Hansen, Daiane; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2013-03-01

    In cancer tumors, growth, invasion, and formation of metastasis at a secondary site play a pivotal role, participating in diverse processes in the development of the pathology, such as degradation of extracellular matrix. Bauhinia seeds contain relatively large quantities of peptidase inhibitors, and two Bauhinia inhibitors were obtained in a recombinant form from the Bauhinia bauhinioides species, B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor, which is a cysteine and serine peptidase inhibitor, and B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor, which is a serine peptidase inhibitor. While recombinant B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor inhibits human neutrophil elastase cathepsin G and the cysteine proteinase cathepsin L, recombinant B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor inhibits plasma kallikrein and plasmin. The effects of recombinant B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor and recombinant B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor on the viability of tumor cell lines with a distinct potential of growth from the same tissue were compared to those of the clinical cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. At 12.5 µM concentration, recombinant B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor and recombinant B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor were more efficient than 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting MKN-28 and Hs746T (gastric), HCT116 and HT29 (colorectal), SkBr-3 and MCF-7 (breast), and THP-1 and K562 (leukemia) cell lines. Additionally, recombinant B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor inhibited 40 % of the migration of Hs746T, the most invasive gastric cell line, while recombinant B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor did not affect cell migration. Recombinant B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor and recombinant B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor, even at high doses, did not affect hMSC proliferation while 5-fluorouracil greatly reduced the proliferation rates of hMSCs. Therefore, both recombinant B. bauhinoides cruzipain inhibitor and recombinant B. bauhinioides kallikrein inhibitor might be considered for further studies

  6. Effect of Proton Beam on Cancer Progressive and Metastatic Enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Nam, K. S.; Oh, Y. H.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Jang, J. S.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proton beam on enzymes for promotion/progression of carcinogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumor cells to clarify proton beam-specific biological effects. The changes of cancer chemopreventive enzymes in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells irradiated with proton beams were tested by measuring the activities of quinine reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), glutathione (GSH) levels, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also examined the effect of proton beam on the ODC activity and expression of COX-2 in human breast cancer cell. We then assessed the metastatic capabilities of HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells irradiated with proton beam by measuring the invasiveness of cells through Matrigel-coated membrane and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. QR activity of irradiated HT-29 cells was slightly increased. Proton irradiation at dose of 32 Gy in HT-29 cells increased GST activity by 1.23-fold. In addition GSH levels in HT-29 cells was significantly increased 1.23- (p<0.05), 1.32- (p<0.01) and 1.34-fold (p<0.01) with the proton irradiation at doses of 8, 16 and 32 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that colon cancer chemopreventive activity was increased with the proton irradiation by increasing QR and GST activities and GSH levels and inhibiting ODC activity. Proton ion irradiation decreased the invasiveness of TPA-treated HT-29 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane. Proton ion irradiation pretreatment decreased TPA-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. Further studies are necessary to investigate if these findings could be translated to in vivo situations

  7. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke; Kajikawa, Shu-hei [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Uesato, Shin-ichi [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazushi [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Tanimura, Susumu [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Koji, Takehiko [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kohno, Michiaki, E-mail: kohnom@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showed that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients.

  8. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. ► Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. ► Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers – this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding

  9. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  10. New insights into the molecular mechanism of Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction (BE3) concerning antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Ribeiro, Miguel; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando Milheiro; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2017-05-24

    One of the relatively new and promising strategies of cancer treatment is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural or synthetic compounds to block, inhibit or reverse carcinogenesis. A valuable and still untapped source of chemopreventive compounds seems to be edible mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes. Boletus edulis biopolymers extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography showed antiproliferative activity in colon cancer cells, but only fraction BE3, mostly composed of ribonucleic acids, was able to inhibit DNA synthesis in HT-29 cells. The present work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this Boletus edulis ribonucleic acid fraction and in this sense flow cytometry and western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis in HT-29 cells. We found that the antiproliferative ability of fraction BE3 observed in HT-29 cells was associated with the modulation of expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, p21 and p27) leading to cell accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the BE3 fraction showed effective silencing of the signal transduction in an MAPK/Erk pathway in HT-29 and LS180 colon cancer cell lines. Thus, the previously and currently obtained results indicate that the BE3 fraction from Boletus edulis has great potential and needs to be further exploited through animal and clinical studies in order to develop a new efficient and safe therapeutic strategy for people who have been threatened by or suffered from colon cancer.

  11. Interferon-β lipofection I. Increased efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs on human tumor cells derived monolayers and spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, M S; Gil-Cardeza, M L; Glikin, G C; Finocchiaro, L M E

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of hIFNβ gene transfer alone or in combination with different antineoplastic drugs commonly used in cancer treatment. Five human tumor-derived cell lines were cultured as monolayers and spheroids. Four cell lines (Ewing sarcomas EW7 and COH, melanoma M8 and mammary carcinoma MCF-7) were sensitive to hIFNβ gene lipofection. Although this effect appeared in both culture configurations, spheroids showed a relative multicellular resistance (insensitive colon carcinoma HT-29 excluded). EW7 and M8 hIFNβ-expressing cells were exposed to different concentrations of bleomycin, bortezomib, carboplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, methotrexate, paclitaxel and vincristine in both configuration models. In chemotherapy-sensitive EW7 monolayers, the combination of hIFNβ gene and antineoplastic drugs displayed only additive or counteractive (methotrexate) effects, suggesting that cytotoxic mechanisms triggered by hIFNβ gene lipofection could be saturating the signaling pathways. Conversely, in chemotherapy-resistant EW7 spheroids or M8 cells, the combination of hIFNβ with drugs that mainly operate at the genotoxic level (doxorubicin, methotrexate and paclitaxel) presented only additive effects. However, drugs that also increase pro-oxidant species can complement the antitumor efficacy of the hIFNβ gene and clearly caused potentiated effects (bleomycin, bortezomib, carboplatin, etoposide and vincristine). The great bystander effect induced by hIFNβ gene lipofection could be among the main causes of its effectiveness, because only 1 or 2% of EW7 or M8 hIFNβ-expressing cells killed more than 60 or 80% of cell population, respectively.

  12. Neurotensin Phosphorylates GSK-3α/β through the Activation of PKC in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingding Wang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurotensin (NT, a gastrointestinal hormone, binds its receptor [neurotensin receptor (NTR] to regulate the growth of normal and neoplastic intestinal cells; molecular mechanisms remain largely undefined. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell growth and apoptosis. Here, we show that NT induces the phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β in the human colon cancer cell line HT29, HCT116, or SW480, which possesses high-affinity NTR. The effect of NT was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1 or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, suggesting a predominant role for PKC in GSK-3β phosphorylation by NT. Pretreatment with Gö6976 (which inhibits PKCα and PKCβ1 or downregulation of endogenous PKCα or PKCβ1 blocked NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation. Moreover, a selective PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196, reduced NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation, suggesting a role for PKCbβ in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β and an undefined kinase in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3α. Treatment with NT or the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 increased the expression of cyclin D1, a downstream effector protein of GSK-3 and a critical protein for the proliferation of various cells. Our results indicate that NT uses PKC-dependent pathways to modulate GSK-3, which may play a role in the NT regulation of intestinal cell growth.

  13. Pharmacologic requirements for obtaining sensitization of human tumor cells in vitro to combined 5-fluorouracil or ftorafur and x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, J.E.; Calabro-Jones, P.; Klisak, I.; Kulhanian, F.

    1982-01-01

    The combined effects of X ray and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in tissue culture have been studied using two human adenocarcinoma lines (HeLa and HT-29 cells). Both showed similar sensitivities to 5-FU, HeLa cells appearing somewhat more resistant to higher concentrations. Combined treatment of both cell types with 5-FU and X rays led to a time-dependent enhancement of cell killing (''radiosensitization''). Only post-radiation incubation had any effect, prior exposure to 5-FU being strictly additive. Enhanced cell killing by combined 5-FU and X rays could not be explained by either the infliction of additional acute damage in the immediate post-radiation period or an inhibitory effect of 5-FU on the repair of sub-lethal X ray injury. Rather, the enhanced cytotoxicity proved to be dependent on a damage expressed in time periods exceeding the duration of a cell doubling time in vitro. Overall, the data equally suggest that X rays may sensitize the cells to 5-FU. The enhanced cell killing is maximized if the cells are continuously exposed to 5-FU for 48 hours following the X ray exposure. These results indicate that clinical treatment regimens might be useful in evaluating 5-FU infusional scheduling in accordance with these unique requirements, which are not met by conventional bolus 5-FU and X ray therapy fractionation regimens. Ftorafur, a drug proposed to act as a slow release form of 5-FU, was found to show limited cytotoxic potential in vitro and did not significantly enhance cell killing after X ray exposure

  14. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fas ligand expression in human and mouse cancer cell lines; a caveat on over-reliance on mRNA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Aideen E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During carcinogenesis, tumors develop multiple mechanisms for evading the immune response, including upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L expression. Expression of FasL may help to maintain tumor cells in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of anti-tumor immune effector cells. Recently this idea has been challenged by studies reporting that tumor cells of varying origin do not express FasL. In the present study, we aimed to comprehensively characterize FasL expression in tumors of both murine and human origin over a 72 hour time period. Methods RNA and protein was extracted from six human (SW620, HT29, SW480, KM12SM, HCT116, Jurkat and three mouse (CMT93, CT26, B16F10 cancer cell lines at regular time intervals over a 72 hour time period. FasL expression was detected at the mRNA level by RT-PCR, using intron spanning primers, and at the protein level by Western Blotting and immunofluorescence, using a polyclonal FasL- specific antibody. Results Expression of FasL mRNA and protein was observed in all cell lines analysed. However, expression of FasL mRNA varied dramatically over time, with cells negative for FasL mRNA at many time points. In contrast, 8 of the 9 cell lines constitutively expressed FasL protein. Thus, cells can abundantly express FasL protein at times when FasL mRNA is absent. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the importance of complete analysis of FasL expression by tumor cells in order to fully characterize its biological function and may help to resolve the discrepancies present in the literature regarding FasL expression and tumor immune privilege.

  16. 9-Hydroxystearic acid interferes with EGF signalling in a human colon adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonghi, Natalia; Pagnotta, Eleonora; Parolin, Carola; Tognoli, Cristina; Boga, Carla; Masotti, Lanfranco

    2006-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor has long been known to be strictly correlated with the highly proliferating activities of cancer cells and primary tumors. Moreover, in the nucleus, the epidermal growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor complex (EGF/EGFR) functions as a transcriptional regulator that activates the cyclin D1 gene. 9-hydroxystearic acid (9-HSA) induces cell proliferation arrest and differentiation in HT29 colon cancer cells by inhibiting histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). 9-HSA-treated HT29, when stimulated with EGF, are not responsive and surprisingly undergo a further arrest. In order to understand the mechanisms of this effect, we analyzed the degree of internalization of the EGF/EGFR complex and its interactions with HDAC1. It appears that HDAC1, as modified by 9-HSA, is unable to associate with cyclin D1, interfering with the cell proliferation program, and sequesters the EGF/EGFR complex interrupting the transduction of the mitogenic signal

  17. Nano-enhanced food contact materials and the in vitro toxicity to human intestinal cells of nano-ZnO at low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claonadh, Niall O; Casey, Alan; Mukherjee, Sanchali Gupta; Chambers, Gordon; Lyons, Sean; Higginbotham, Clement

    2011-01-01

    Nano Zinc Oxide (nZnO) has been shown to display antimicrobial effects which have lead to its application in a number of areas such as antimicrobial surface coatings, anti bacterial wound dressings and more recently in polymer composite systems for use in food contact materials. Concerns have been raised due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in food packaging stemming from the possibility of repeated low dose direct exposure, through ingestion, primarily due to degradation and nanoparticle leaching from the polymer composite. To address these concerns, composites consisting of nZnO and polyethylene were formed using twin screw extrusion to mimic commercial methods of food contact material production. A leaching study was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in order to determine the concentration of nZnO leached from the composite. Composite stability studies were performed and a leached nZnO concentration was evaluated. This concentration range was then utilised in a series of tests aimed at determining the toxicity response associated with nZnO when exposed to an intestinal model. In this study two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, HT29 (ATCC No: HTB-38) and SW480 (ATTC No: CCL-228), were employed as a model to represent areas exposed by ingestion. These lines were exposed to a concentration range of nZnO which incorporated the concentration leached from the composites. The cytotoxic effects of nZnO were evaluated using four cytotoxic endpoints namely the Neutral Red, Alamar Blue, Coomassie Blue and MTT assays. The results of these studies are presented and their implications for the use on nano ZnO in direct food contact surfaces will be discussed.

  18. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  19. Oral administration of d-limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessio, Patrizia A; Ostan, Rita; Bisson, Jean-François; Schulzke, Joerg D; Ursini, Matilde V; Béné, Marie C

    2013-07-10

    To further explore the anti-inflammatory properties of d-Limonene. A rat model was used to compare evolution of TNBS (2,5,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid)-induced colitis after oral feeding with d-Limonene compared to ibuprofen. Peripheral levels of TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha) were assessed in all animals. Cell cultures of fibroblasts and enterocytes were used to test the effect of d-Limonene respectively on TNFα-induced NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) translocation and epithelial resistance. Finally, plasmatic inflammatory markers were examined in an observational study of diet supplementation with d-Limonene-containing orange peel extract (OPE) in humans. Administered per os at a dose of 10mg/kg p.o., d-Limonene induced a significant reduction of intestinal inflammatory scores, comparable to that induced by ibuprofen. Moreover, d-Limonene-fed rats had significantly lowered serum concentrations of TNF-α compared to untreated TNBS-colitis rats. The anti-inflammatory effect of d-Limonene also involved inhibition of TNFα-induced NF-κB translocation in fibroblast cultures. The application of d-Limonene on colonic HT-29/B6 cell monolayers increased epithelial resistance. Finally, inflammatory markers, especially peripheral IL-6, markedly decreased upon OPE supplementation of elderly healthy subjects submitted or not to 56 days of dietary supplementation with OPE. In conclusion, d-Limonene indeed demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effects on the epithelial barrier and decreased cytokines are involved, suggesting a beneficial role of d-Limonene as diet supplement in reducing inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nano-enhanced food contact materials and the in vitro toxicity to human intestinal cells of nano-ZnO at low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claonadh, Niall O; Casey, Alan; Mukherjee, Sanchali Gupta; Chambers, Gordon [Nanolab Research Centre, Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland); Lyons, Sean; Higginbotham, Clement, E-mail: Niall.OClaonadh@DIT.ie, E-mail: Alan.Casey@DIT.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Westmeath (Ireland)

    2011-07-06

    Nano Zinc Oxide (nZnO) has been shown to display antimicrobial effects which have lead to its application in a number of areas such as antimicrobial surface coatings, anti bacterial wound dressings and more recently in polymer composite systems for use in food contact materials. Concerns have been raised due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in food packaging stemming from the possibility of repeated low dose direct exposure, through ingestion, primarily due to degradation and nanoparticle leaching from the polymer composite. To address these concerns, composites consisting of nZnO and polyethylene were formed using twin screw extrusion to mimic commercial methods of food contact material production. A leaching study was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in order to determine the concentration of nZnO leached from the composite. Composite stability studies were performed and a leached nZnO concentration was evaluated. This concentration range was then utilised in a series of tests aimed at determining the toxicity response associated with nZnO when exposed to an intestinal model. In this study two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, HT29 (ATCC No: HTB-38) and SW480 (ATTC No: CCL-228), were employed as a model to represent areas exposed by ingestion. These lines were exposed to a concentration range of nZnO which incorporated the concentration leached from the composites. The cytotoxic effects of nZnO were evaluated using four cytotoxic endpoints namely the Neutral Red, Alamar Blue, Coomassie Blue and MTT assays. The results of these studies are presented and their implications for the use on nano ZnO in direct food contact surfaces will be discussed.

  1. Indigenous lactobacilli strains of food and human sources reverse enteropathogenic E. coli O26:H11-induced damage in intestinal epithelial cell lines: effect on redistribution of tight junction proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Ruchi; Mandal, Hemanti; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the neutralizing effect of lactobacilli isolated from indigenous food and human sources on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O26 : H11-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. This was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability assays using intestinal cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2. Furthermore, the expression and distribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins were analysed by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. The nine strains used in the study were from different species viz. Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillushelveticus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. All strains were able to reverse the decrease in TEER and corresponding increase in permeability across E. coli-infected monolayers. Maximum reversal was observed after 18 h [up to 93.8±2.0 % by L. rhamnosus GG followed by L. fermentum IIs11.2 (92.6±2.2 %) and L. plantarum GRI-2 (91.9±0.9 %)] of lactobacilli exposure following EPEC O26 : H11 infection. All strains were able to redistribute the TJ proteins to the cell periphery either partially or completely. Moreover, L. helveticus FA-7 was also able to significantly increase the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 (2.5-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively; PGRI-2 were good in all the aspects studied, and the other strains were good in some aspects. L. helveticus FA-7, L. fermentum FA-1 and L. plantarum GRI-2 can therefore be used for potential therapeutic purpose against intestinal epithelial dysfunction.

  2. Differential proteome analysis of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293 following mycophenolic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycophenolic acid (MPA is widely used as a post transplantation medicine to prevent acute organ rejection. In the present study we used proteomics approach to identify proteome alterations in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293 after treatment with therapeutic dose of MPA. Following 72 hours MPA treatment, total protein lysates were prepared, resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Expressional regulations of selected proteins were further validated by real time PCR and Western blotting. Results The proliferation assay demonstrated that therapeutic MPA concentration causes a dose dependent inhibition of HEK-293 cell proliferation. A significant apoptosis was observed after MPA treatment, as revealed by caspase 3 activity. Proteome analysis showed a total of 12 protein spots exhibiting differential expression after incubation with MPA, of which 7 proteins (complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit, peroxiredoxin 1, thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12, myosin regulatory light chain 2, and profilin 1 showed significant increase in their expression. The expression of 5 proteins (protein SET, stathmin, 40S ribosomal protein S12, histone H2B type 1 A, and histone H2B type 1-C/E/F/G/I were down-regulated. MPA mainly altered the proteins associated with the cytoskeleton (26%, chromatin structure/dynamics (17% and energy production/conversion (17%. Both real time PCR and Western blotting confirmed the regulation of myosin regulatory light chain 2 and peroxiredoxin 1 by MPA treatment. Furthermore, HT-29 cells treated with MPA and total kidney cell lysate from MMF treated rats showed similar increased expression of myosin regulatory light chain 2. Conclusion The emerging use of MPA in diverse pathophysiological conditions demands in-depth studies to

  3. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with isorhamnetin glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Moreno-García, Beatriz E; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Alvarez, Mario M; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2014-12-01

    (OFI) contains health-promoting compounds like flavonoids, being the isorhamnetin glycosides the most abundant. We evaluated the effect of OFI extracts with different isorhamnetin glycosides against two different human colon cancer cells (HT-29 and Caco2). The extracts were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH at 40 °C during 15, 30 or 60 min. Tri and diglycosides were the most abundant isorhamnetin glycosides, therefore these compounds were isolated to compare their cytotoxic effect with the obtained from the extracts. The OFI extracts and purified isorhamnetin glycosides were more cytotoxic against HT-29 cells than Caco2 cells. OFI-30 exhibited the lowest IC50 value against HT-29 (4.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL) and against Caco2 (8.2 ± 0.3 μg/mL). Isorhamnetin diglycosides IG5 and IG6 were more cytotoxic than pure isorhamnetin aglycone or triglycosides when they were tested in HT-29 cells. Bioluminescent analysis revealed increased activity of caspase 3/7 in OFI extracts-treated cells, particularly for the extract with the highest concentration of isorhamnetin triglycosides. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that OFI extract and isorhamnetin glycosides induced a higher percentage of apoptosis in HT-29 than in Caco2, while isorhamnetin was more apoptotic in Caco2. This research demonstrated that glycosilation affected antiproliferative effect of pure isorhamnetin glycosides or when they are mixed with other phytochemicals in an extract obtained from OFI.

  4. Effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin in vivo and correlation between viability and intracellular ATP level after calcium electroporation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gehl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    cancer cell lines: Breast (MDA-MB231) and colon (HT29), and in normal human fibroblasts (HDF-n), as well as investigating viability in human bladder cancer cells (SW780) and human small cell lung cancer cells (H69) where we have previously published intracellular ATP levels. RESULTS: Calcium...... with calcium alone (pHDF-n, and MDA-MB231; p

  5. Selected chemo-ecological studies of marine opisthobranchs from Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A.; Ciavatta, M.L.; DeSouza, L.; Mollo, E.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.; Cimino, G.

    ),27?29 tunicates (ecteinascidins, e.g. 12)30, 31 and sponges (renieramycins, e.g. 13).32?34 Jorumycin (10) was indeed cytotoxic against several tumor cell lines [HT29 (human colon carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), Mel28 (human melanoma), P388 (mouse lym...

  6. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... cancer Hela cells, human colorectal cancer HT29 cells in G2/M phase but arrested human leukemia HL60 cells in G1 phase(7). In this study we have shown the interaction of AITC with RNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions by using constant DNA concentration with the variety of molar ratios ...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-02-18

    Feb 18, 2011 ... provide novel genetic data involved in the pathogenesis of disease. In this study ... participate in cell-cell interactions by binding to integrins .... 4˚C with primary rabbit polyclonal anti-human ADAM9 antibody .... network-based analysis of systemic inflammation in humans. ... colon cancer cell line HT29 cells.

  8. Anticancer activity of calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through downregulation of cyclin D1 via inducing proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Bin; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Son, Ho-Jun; Um, Yurry; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2017-09-05

    Although it has been reported to contain high polyphenols, the pharmacological studies of the calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb (DKC) have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. Anti-cell proliferative effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the calyx of Diospyros kaki (DKC-E70) was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of DKC-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β-catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

  9. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  10. Effect of antigens from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and of ŕ-gliadin on the intestinal epithelial cell lines HT-29, SW-480 and Caco-2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David P.; Farré, Maria Antionette; Horáková, Dana; Kolínská, Jiřina; Ceska, M.; Barot, R.; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (1997), s. 52 ISSN 0818-9641. [International Congress of Mucosal Immunology /9./. 27.01.1997-31.01.1997, Sydney] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7020716; GA ČR GA310/96/1366; GA MZd IZ3761

  11. Concomitant consumption of lycopene and fish oil inhibits tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...

  12. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    IClswell can be ruled out. Furthermore, we show that curcumin exposure induces apoptosis in human kidney cells, and at a concentration of 5.0–10 μM induces the appearance of a sub-population of cells with a dramatically increased volume. In these cells the regulation of the cell volume seems to be impaired, most likely as a consequence of the IClswell blockade. Similarly, 50 μM curcumin induced apoptosis, caused cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and increased the volume of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. The cell cycle arrest in G1 phase may be the mechanism underlying the volume increase observed in this cell line after exposure to curcumin. PMID:22178266

  13. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    swell can be ruled out. Furthermore, we show that curcumin exposure induces apoptosis in human kidney cells, and at a concentration of 5.0–10 μM induces the appearance of a sub-population of cells with a dramatically increased volume. In these cells the regulation of the cell volume seems to be impaired, most likely as a consequence of the ICl swell blockade. Similarly, 50 μM curcumin induced apoptosis, caused cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and increased the volume of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. The cell cycle arrest in G1 phase may be the mechanism underlying the volume increase observed in this cell line after exposure to curcumin.

  14. Cytosolic calcium mediates RIP1/RIP3 complex-dependent necroptosis through JNK activation and mitochondrial ROS production in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaxia; Gao, Hongwei; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Wenwen; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Jinhua; Du, Guanhua; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-07-01

    Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis mediated by signaling complexes with receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 kinases as the main mediators. However, the underlying execution pathways of this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated in detail. In this study, a RIP1/RIP3 complex was formed in 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM)-treated HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. With this formation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased, mitochondrial depolarization occurred, and ATP concentrations decreased. This process was identified as necroptosis. This finding was confirmed by experiments showing that MAM-induced cell death was attenuated by the pharmacological or genetic blockage of necroptosis signaling, including RIP1 inhibitor necrostatin-1s (Nec-1s) and siRNA-mediated gene silencing of RIP1 and RIP3, but was unaffected by caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk or necrosis inhibitor 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-3-pentylamino-maleimide (IM54). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further revealed the ultrastructural features of MAM-induced necroptosis. MAM-induced RIP1/RIP3 complex triggered necroptosis through cytosolic calcium (Ca 2+ ) accumulation and sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Both calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and JNK inhibitor SP600125 could attenuate necroptotic features, including mitochondrial ROS elevation, mitochondrial depolarization, and ATP depletion. 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which is a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, was found to effectively reverse both MAM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death, indicating the complex II was the ROS-producing site. The essential role of mitochondrial ROS was confirmed by the protective effect of overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). MAM-induced necroptosis was independent of TNFα, p53, MLKL, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In summary, our study demonstrated that RIP1/RIP3 complex-triggered cytosolic calcium

  15. SILENCING THE NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC O-GLCNAC TRANSFERASE REDUCES PROLIFERATION, ADHESION AND MIGRATION OF CANCER AND FETAL HUMAN COLON CELL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA eSTEENACKERS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically de-creased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of mi-gration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disor-ganize microfilament, microtubule and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migra-tory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biolog-ical properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells.

  16. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  17. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  18. Arctigenin induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through ROS/p38MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-chun; Liang, Yun; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Guang-rui

    2016-01-01

    In the current study the antiproliferative effect of arctigenin, plant lignin, was evaluated on human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Furthermore, attempts were made to explore the signaling mechanism which may be responsible for its effect. Cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT and LDH assays. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine cell arrest in the cell cycle phase and apoptosis. Furthermore, to confirm the apoptotic activity of arctigenin, caspase-9 and -3 activities analysis was performed. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were investigated to determine their role in inducing apoptosis in arctigenin-treated HT-29 colon cancer cell line. MTT and LDH results demonstrated significant cell growth inhibitory effect of arctigenin on HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increase in cell number arrested at G2/M phase was observed in flow cytometric analysis upon arctigenin treatment. In addition, arctigenin increased the apoptotic ratio in a dose-dependent manner. The involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway was indicated by the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Moreover, increased ROS production, activation of p38 MAPK and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) also revealed the role of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cell growth inhibition after arctigenin exposure. Arctigenin induces apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by regulating ROS and p38 MAPK pathways.

  19. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  1. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  2. Kefir-isolated bacteria and yeasts inhibit Shigella flexneri invasion and modulate pro-inflammatory response on intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, P A; Abraham, A G; Pérez, P F; de Los Angeles Serradell, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a kefir-isolated microbial mixture containing three bacterial and two yeast strains (MM) to protect intestinal epithelial cells against Shigella flexneri invasion, as well as to analyse the effect on pro-inflammatory response elicited by this pathogen. A significant decrease in S. flexneri strain 72 invasion was observed on both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells pre-incubated with MM. Pre-incubation with the individual strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIDCA 8112 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CIDCA 8221 also reduced the internalisation of S. flexneri into HT-29 cells although in a lesser extent than MM. Interestingly, Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 exerted a protective effect on the invasion of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells by S. flexneri. Regarding the pro-inflammatory response on HT-29 cells, S. flexneri infection induced a significant activation of the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) encoding genes (P<0.05), whereas incubation of cells with MM did not induce the expression of any of the mediators assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation of HT-29 monolayer with MM produced an inhibition of S. flexneri-induced IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α mRNA expression. In order to gain insight on the effect of MM (or the individual strains) on this pro-inflammatory response, a series of experiments using a HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter system were performed. Pre-incubation of HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP cells with MM significantly dampened Shigella-induced activation. Our results showed that the contribution of yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CIDCA 8154 seems to be crucial in the observed effect. In conclusion, results presented in this study demonstrate that pre-treatment with a microbial mixture containing bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir, resulted in inhibition of S. flexneri internalisation into human intestinal epithelial cells, along with the

  3. Agonist properties of a stable hexapeptide analog of neurotensin, N alpha MeArg-Lys-Pro-Trp-tLeu-Leu (NT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akunne, H C; Demattos, S B; Whetzel, S Z; Wustrow, D J; Davis, D M; Wise, L D; Cody, W L; Pugsley, T A; Heffner, T G

    1995-04-18

    The major signal transduction pathway for neurotensin (NT) receptors is the G-protein-dependent stimulation of phospholipase C, leading to the mobilization of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and the stimulation of cyclic GMP. We investigated the functional actions of an analog of NT(8-13), N alpha MeArg-Lys-Pro-Trp-tLeu-Leu (NT1), and other NT related analogs by quantitative measurement of the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration in HT-29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma) cells using the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fura-2/AM and by effects on cyclic GMP levels in rat cerebellar slices. The NT receptor binding affinities for these analogs to HT-29 cell membranes and newborn (10-day-old) mouse brain membranes were also investigated. Data obtained from HT-29 cell and mouse brain membrane preparations showed saturable single high-affinity sites and binding densities (Bmax) of 130.2 and 87.5 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The respective KD values were 0.47 and 0.39 nM, and the Hill coefficients were 0.99 and 0.92. The low-affinity levocabastine-sensitive site was not present (K1 > 10,000) in either membrane preparation. Although the correlation of binding between HT-29 cell membranes and mouse brain membranes was quite significant (r = 0.92), some of the reference agents had lower binding affinities in the HT-29 cell membranes. The metabolically stable compound NT1 plus other NT analogs and related peptides [NT, NT(8-13), xenopsin, neuromedin N, NT(9-13), kinetensin and (D-Trp11)-NT] increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in HT-29 cells, indicating NT receptor agonist properties. The effect of NT1 in mobilizing [Ca2+]i blocked by SR 48692, a non-peptide NT antagonist. Receptor binding affinities of NT analogs to HT-29 cell membranes were positively correlated with potencies for mobilizing intracellular calcium in the same cells. In addition, NT1 increased cyclic GMP levels in rat cerebellar slices, confirming the latter findings of its NT agonist action. These results substantiate

  4. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  5. Zinc oxide nanoparticles provide anti-cholera activity by disrupting the interaction of cholera toxin with the human GM1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shamila; Ali, Asif; Pal, Mahadeb; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2017-11-03

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera and is the leading cause of diarrhea in developing countries, highlighting the need for the development of new treatment strategies to combat this disease agent. While exploring the possibility of using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in cholera treatment, we previously found that ZnO NPs reduce fluid accumulation in mouse ileum induced by the cholera toxin (CT) protein. To uncover the mechanism of action of ZnO NPs on CT activity, here we used classical (O395) and El Tor (C6706) V. cholerae biotypes in growth and biochemical assays. We found that a ZnO NP concentration of 10 μg/ml did not affect the growth rates of these two strains, nor did we observe that ZnO NPs reduce the expression levels of CT mRNA and protein. It was observed that ZnO NPs form a complex with CT, appear to disrupt the CT secondary structure, and block its interaction with the GM1 ganglioside receptor in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in intestinal (HT-29) cells and thereby reduce CT uptake into the cells. In the range of 2.5-10 μg/ml, ZnO NPs exhibited no cytotoxicity on kidney (HEK293) and HT-29 cells. We conclude that ZnO NPs prevent the first step in the translocation of cholera toxin into intestinal epithelial cells without exerting measurable toxic effects on HEK293 and HT-29 cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. E-selectin: sialyl Lewis, a dependent adhesion of colon cancer cells, is inhibited differently by antibodies against E-selectin ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, U; Påhlsson, P; Lundblad, A

    1996-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that selectins, a new family of cell-adhesion molecules with similar domain structures, mediate the adhesion of peripheral blood cells to interleukin-1 (IL-1)-activated endothelium. In the present study the authors evaluated the role of E-selectin-Sialyl Lewis x (SLe(x))/ Sialyl Lewis a (SLe(a)) interaction in mediating in vitro adhesion of two colon cancer cell lines, HT-29 and COLO 201, to human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC). Colon cancer cell lines had a strong expression of blood group-related carbohydrate epitopes as evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. It was established that adhesion of HT-29 and COLO 201 cells to IL-1 stimulated HUVEC was calcium dependent and could be inhibited by a monoclonal antibody directed against E-selectin. Prior incubation of cells with two different antibodies directed against SLe(x) and antibodies directed against related Lewis epitopes, Le(x) and Le(a), had no significant effect on adhesion. Three antibodies directed against SLe(a) differed in their capacity to inhibit the adhesion of HT-29 and COLO 201 cells to HUVEC. Only one antibody directed against the SLe(a) structure was effective in inhibiting adhesion of both COLO 201 and HT-29 cells. The difference could not be attributed to titre, the type or number of glycoproteins, or to a difference in the amount of SLe(a) present on individual proteins, suggesting that presence and right presentation of SLe(a) epitope might be important for adhesion of colon cancer cells. Finally, in the in vitro system used, adhesion of HT-29 and COLO 201 cells to activated HUVEC is mediated predominantly by E-selectin/SLe(a) interaction. SLe(x) and related epitopes, Le(x) and Le(a), seem to have limited relevance for colon cancer cell recognition of E-selectin.

  7. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  8. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  9. Human Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  10. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  11. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  12. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct homini...

  13. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  14. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  15. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  16. Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Yu, Kai; Li, Fushuang; Xu, Kangping; Li, Jing; He, Shujin; Cao, Shousong; Tan, Guishan

    2014-04-28

    Hericium is a genus of mushrooms (fungus) in the Hericiaceae family. Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used for the treatment of digestive diseases for over 2000 years in China. HE possesses many beneficial functions such as anticancer, antiulcer, antiinflammation and antimicrobial effects, immunomodulation and other activities. The aim of the studies was to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of two extracts (HTJ5 and HTJ5A) from the culture broth of HE against three gastrointestinal cancers such as liver, colorectal and gastric cancers in both of in vitro of cancer cell lines and in vivo of tumor xenografts and discover the active compounds. Two HE extracts (HTJ5 and HTJ5A) were used for the studies. For the study of chemical constituents, the HTJ5 and HTJ5A were separated using a combination of macroporous resin with silica gel, HW-40 and LH-20 chromatography then purified by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. For the in vitro cytotoxicity studies, HepG2 and Huh-7 liver, HT-29 colon, and NCI-87 gastric cancer cell lines were used and MTT assay was performed to determine the in vitro cytotoxicity. For in vivo antitumor efficacy and toxicity studies, tumor xenograft models of SCID mice bearing liver cancer HepG2 and Huh-7, colon cancer HT-29 and gastric cancer NCI-87 subcutaneously were used and the mice were treated with the vehicle control, HTJ5 and HTJ5A orally (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) and compared to 5-fluorouraci (5-FU) at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD, 25-30 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally daily for 5 days when the tumors reached about 180-200 mg (mm(3)). Tumor volumes and body weight were measured daily during the first 10 days and 2-3 times a week thereafter to assess the tumor growth inhibition, tumor doubling time, partial and complete tumor response and toxicity. Twenty-two compounds were obtained from the fractions of HTJ5/HTJ5A including seven cycli dipeptides, five

  17. Attività chemioprotettiva di estratti di spinacio (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milano, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) has a variety of biological functions, such as antitumor and chemoprotective activity, but little is known about the modulation of secondary metabolites induction by abiotic stress (i.e. hypoxia) and it’s correlation to human health. In this study I demonstrate that 24 h hypoxia alter the production of secondary metabolites in spinach. In vitro studies on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line of different spinach aqueous extracts,show ...

  18. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...

  19. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  20. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  1. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  2. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  3. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  4. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  5. Curcumin induces human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression through a vitamin D receptor-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chunxiao; Rosoha, Elena; Lowry, Malcolm B

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the pleiotropic biologic effects of 1α,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D(3). Recent in vitro studies suggested that curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) also bind to VDR with low affinity. As potential ligands for the VDR, we hypothesized that curcumin...... cancer cell line HT-29 and keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. We demonstrated that PUFAs failed to induce CAMP or CYP24A1 mRNA expression in all three cell lines, but curcumin up-regulated CAMP mRNA and protein levels in U937 cells. Curcumin treatment induced CAMP promoter activity from a luciferase reporter...... construct lacking the VDR binding site and did not increase binding of the VDR to the CAMP promoter as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These findings indicate that induction of CAMP by curcumin occurs through a vitamin D receptor-independent manner. We conclude that PUFAs and curcumin do...

  6. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Yang, Wenrong; Li, Qiong; Lin, Jia; Liu, Kexin; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs) were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01). Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24591829

  7. 64Cu-ATSM Reflects pO2 Levels in Human Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts but Not in Colorectal Cancer Xenografts: Comparison with 64CuCl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper T.; Forman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    colorectal tumors (HT29) after administration of either 64Cu-ATSM or 64CuCl2. Subsequently, tracks were generated and track markers were positioned in tumors to allow for registration of their exact location on the high-resolution CT scan. After completion of the CT scan, pO2 probe measurements were...... performed along each track. PET and CT images were coregistered and ROIs drawn on the basis of the location of track markers and pO2 probe measurement depth. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was applied for the comparison of PET tracer uptake to corresponding pO2 values. Results: Comparable uptake...

  8. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  9. Parallel mRNA, proteomics and miRNA expression analysis in cell line models of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Keenan, Joanne; Aherne, Sinead; O'Neill, Fiona; Clarke, Colin; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Breen, Laura; Barron, Niall; Clynes, Martin; Horgan, Karina; Doolan, Padraig; Murphy, Richard

    2017-11-07

    To identify miRNA-regulated proteins differentially expressed between Caco2 and HT-29: two principal cell line models of the intestine. Exponentially growing Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were harvested and prepared for mRNA, miRNA and proteomic profiling. mRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. miRNA microarray profiling analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix Genechip miRNA 3.0 array. Quantitative Label-free LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed using a Dionex Ultimate 3000 RSLCnano system coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Peptide identities were validated in Proteome Discoverer 2.1 and were subsequently imported into Progenesis QI software for further analysis. Hierarchical cluster analysis for all three parallel datasets (miRNA, proteomics, mRNA) was conducted in the R software environment using the Euclidean distance measure and Ward's clustering algorithm. The prediction of miRNA and oppositely correlated protein/mRNA interactions was performed using TargetScan 6.1. GO biological process, molecular function and cellular component enrichment analysis was carried out for the DE miRNA, protein and mRNA lists via the Pathway Studio 11.3 Web interface using their Mammalian database. Differential expression (DE) profiling comparing the intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 identified 1795 Genes, 168 Proteins and 160 miRNAs as DE between the two cell lines. At the gene level, 1084 genes were upregulated and 711 were downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. At the protein level, 57 proteins were found to be upregulated and 111 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Finally, at the miRNAs level, 104 were upregulated and 56 downregulated in the Caco-2 cell line relative to the HT-29 cell line. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the DE mRNA identified cell adhesion, migration and ECM organization, cellular lipid

  10. Antitumor Activity of Total Flavonoids from Daphne genkwa in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Song, Zi-Jing; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Jun; He, Xin; Zhang, Run-Qi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Li, Fei; Yu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-02-01

    Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. is a well-known medicinal plant. This study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of total flavonoids in D. genkwa (TFDG) in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were cultured to investigate the anticancer activity of TFDG. In addition, the Apc(Min/+) mouse model was applied in the in vivo experiment. Results of the cell experiment revealed that TFDG possessed significant inhibitory effects on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells (both p colon (both p cancer therapeutics, and TFDG's action is likely linked to its ability to regulate immune function and inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Composition and antiproliferative effect of essential oil of Origanum vulgare against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Nedel, Fernanda; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves; Beira, Fátima Tereza Alves; Del-Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death and is responsible for one in eight deaths worldwide. The use of herbs as complementary medicine for cancer, especially advanced cancer, has recently increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro, the antiproliferative effect of Origanum vulgare against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The essential oil (EO) was extracted from a bought amount of O. vulgare dried leaves and analyzed in a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass selective detector. The cytotoxicity test was performed by sulforhodamine B assay. The results show that the EO is composed mostly of 4-terpineol and induces a high cytotoxicity effect in HT-29. In the MCF-7 cell line the EO was less effective. In conclusion, this study showed that O. vulgare main component is 4-terpineol and was effective in inducing cancer cell growth inhibition.

  12. Beyond Humanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant) is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer t...

  13. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  14. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  15. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  16. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  17. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  18. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  19. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  1. Preclinical evaluation of destruxin B as a novel Wnt signaling target suppressing proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Chi-Tai [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center of Excellence for Cancer Research, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Rao, Yerra Koteswara [Institute of Biochemical Sciences and Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ye, Min [Department of Natural Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Wu, Wen-Shi [Department of Horticulture and Biotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Tung-Chen [Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Liang-Shun [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Hsiung [Center of Excellence for Cancer Research, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Alexander T.H., E-mail: chaw1211@tmu.edu.tw [Ph.D. Program for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yew-Min, E-mail: ymtzeng@cyut.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical Sciences and Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    In continuation to our studies toward the identification of direct anti-cancer targets, here we showed that destruxin B (DB) from Metarhizium anisopliae suppressed the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in human colorectal cancer (CRC) HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. Additionally, DB induced apoptosis in HT29 cells by decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while increased pro-apoptotic Bax. On the other hand, DB attenuated Wnt-signaling by downregulation of β-catenin, Tcf4 and β-catenin/Tcf4 transcriptional activity, concomitantly with decreased expression of β-catenin target genes cyclin D1, c-myc and survivin. Furthermore, DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through suppressed MMPs-2 and -9 enzymatic activities. We also found that DB targeted the MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt pathway by reduced expression of Akt, IKK-α, JNK, NF-κB, c-Jun and c-Fos while increased that of IκBα. Finally, we demonstrated that DB inhibited tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice using non-invasive bioluminescence technique. Consistently, tumor samples from DB-treated mice demonstrated suppressed expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, survivin, and endothelial marker CD31 while increased caspase-3 expression. Collectively, our data supports DB as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway that may be beneficial in the CRC management. Highlights: ► Destruxin B (DB) inhibited colorectal cancer cells growth and induced apoptosis. ► MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt cascade cooperates in DB induced apoptosis. ► DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through MMP-9. ► DB attenuated Wnt-signaling components β-catenin, Tcf4. ► DB attenuated cyclin D1, c-myc, survivin and tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice.

  2. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  3. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  4. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  5. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  6. Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is an ethno-pharmacologically important medicinal plant used in many polyherbal formulations for its potential health benefits. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were biofunctionalized using aqueous leaf extracts of G. sylvestre. The anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds and the biofunctionalized SNPs were compared using the HT29 human adenoma colon cancer cell line. The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. Biofunctionalized SNPs were synthesized using silver nitrate and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for size and shape. The characterized biofunctionalized G. sylvestre were tested for its in vitro anticancer activity against HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The biofunctionlized G. sylvestre SNPs showed the surface plasmon resonance band at 430 nm. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes, which were further determined using the Scherrer equation. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the biofunctionalized green-synthesized SNPs (GSNPs) indicated that the sensitivity of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells for cytotoxic drugs is higher than that of Vero cell line for the same cytotoxic agents and also higher than the bioactive compound of the aqueous extract. Our results show that the anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds of G. sylvestre can be enhanced through biofunctionalizing the SNPs using the bioactive compounds present in the plant extract without compromising their medicinal properties.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of a new neurotensin analog labeled with 99mTc for targeted imaging of neurotensin receptor positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakisa Zarrabi Ahrabi; Kazem Parivar; Davood Beiki

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin receptors are overexpressed in several human tumors and can be targets for tumors diagnosis and therapy. In this study, a new neurotensin analogue was labeled with 99m Tc via HYNIC and tricine/EDDA as coligands and investigated further. [HYNIC 0 , Gly 7 , Lys 9 , d-Tyr 11 ]-Neurotensin (7-13) was synthesized using a standard Fmoc strategy. Labeling with 99m Tc was performed at 100 deg C for 10 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radiopeptide was checked in the presence of humane serum at 37 deg C up to 24 h. The receptor bound internalization and externalization rates were studied in neurotensin receptor expressing HT-29 cells. Biodistribution of radiopeptide was studied in nude mice bearing HT-29 tumor. Labeling yield of 98.6 ± 0.54 % (n = 3) was obtained corresponding to a specific activity of 81 MBq/nmol. Peptide conjugate showed good stability in the presence of human serum. The radioligand showed specific internalization into HT-29 cells (12.43 ± 0.52 % at 4 h). In biodistribution studies, a receptor-specific uptake was observed in neurotensin receptor positive organs so that after 1 h the uptakes in mouse intestine and tumor were 0.87 ± 0.16 and 0.63 ± 0.12 % ID/g respectively. (author)

  8. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  9. Investigation of the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in cell culture by fourier transformation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Grote, Anna-Karina; Kleigrewe, Karin; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-07-27

    Ergot alkaloids are known toxic secondary metabolites of the fungus Claviceps purpurea occurring in various grains, especially rye products. The liver is responsible for converting the ergot alkaloids into metabolites; however, the toxic impact of these end products of metabolism is still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in colon and liver cell lines (HT-29, HepG2), as well as in human primary renal cells (RPTEC). It was shown that cells in vitro are able to metabolize ergot alkaloids, forming a variety of metabolic compounds. Significant differences between the used cell types could be identified, and a suitable model system was established using HT-29 cells, performing an intensive metabolism to hydroxylated metabolites. The formed substances were analyzed by coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FLD-FTMS) as a powerful tool to identify known and unknown metabolites.

  10. Plant Polyphenols Stimulate Adhesion to Intestinal Mucosa and Induce Proteome Changes in the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Delsoglio, Marta; Brix, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    pathways, such as glycolysis, nucleotide metabolism and stress response as well as being known moonlighting or surface-associated proteins. Conclusion: The five plant phenolics found in various foods stimulate the adhesive capacity of NCFM in diverse ways and elicited relative abundancy changes of specific...... of resveratrol and ferulic acid during bacterial growth stimulated adhesion of NCFM to mucin and human intestinal HT-29 cells, while tannic acid improved adhesion only to HT-29 cells and caffeic acid had very modest effect overall. Some dosage dependence was found for the four phenolics supplemented at 100, 250...... or 500 μg/mL to the cultures. Notably, 500 μg/mL ferulic acid only stimulated adhesion to mucin. Analyses of differential whole-cell as well as surface proteomes revealed relative abundancy changes for a total of 27 and 22 NCFM proteins, respectively. These changes include enzymes acting in metabolic...

  11. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  12. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  13. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  14. Double-stabilized neurotensin analogues as potential radiopharmaceuticals for NTR-positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garayoa, Elisa [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: elisa.garcia@psi.ch; Maes, Veronique [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Organic Chemistry, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Blaeuenstein, Peter [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Blanc, Alain [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hohn, Alexander [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tourwe, Dirk [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Organic Chemistry, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium); Schubiger, P. August [Center for Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    Introduction: Overexpression of neurotensin (NT) receptors in exocrine pancreatic cancer and other neuroendocrine cancers make them interesting targets for tumor imaging and therapy. Modifications at the cleavage bonds 8-9 and 11-12 led to the synthesis of NT-XII, NT-XIII and NT-XVIII, three new stabilized analogues. (N{alpha}His)Ac was coupled to the N-terminus for labeling with [{sup 99m}Tc]-tricarbonyl. Methods: Stability was tested in vitro in human plasma and HT-29 cells. Binding to NT1 receptors and internalization/efflux were analyzed in intact HT-29 cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in nude mice bearing HT-29 xenografts. Results: All analogues were very stable in human plasma, with half-lives of 20-21 days. Degradation in HT-29 cells was more rapid (t {sub 1/2} of 6.5, 5 and 2.5 h for NT-XII, NT-XIII and NT-XVIII, respectively). They also showed high affinity and specificity for NT1 receptors. Bound activity was rapidly internalized at 37{sup o}C. The pattern of externalization was different. NT-XII was released more slowly than NT-XIII and NT-XVIII (half of the activity still inside the cells after 24 h). Bigger differences were found in the biodistribution studies. NT-XII showed the highest tumor uptake as well as the best tumor to nontumor ratios. Conclusion: The modifications introduced in NT(8-13) increased plasma stability, maintaining unaffected the in vitro binding properties. The best biodistribution corresponded to NT-XII, which shows to be a good candidate for NT1 receptors overexpressing tumors. First clinical trials are ongoing.

  15. Double-stabilized neurotensin analogues as potential radiopharmaceuticals for NTR-positive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garayoa, Elisa; Maes, Veronique; Bläuenstein, Peter; Blanc, Alain; Hohn, Alexander; Tourwé, Dirk; Schubiger, P August

    2006-05-01

    Overexpression of neurotensin (NT) receptors in exocrine pancreatic cancer and other neuroendocrine cancers make them interesting targets for tumor imaging and therapy. Modifications at the cleavage bonds 8-9 and 11-12 led to the synthesis of NT-XII, NT-XIII and NT-XVIII, three new stabilized analogues. (NalphaHis)Ac was coupled to the N-terminus for labeling with [(99m)Tc]-tricarbonyl. Stability was tested in vitro in human plasma and HT-29 cells. Binding to NT1 receptors and internalization/efflux were analyzed in intact HT-29 cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in nude mice bearing HT-29 xenografts. All analogues were very stable in human plasma, with half-lives of 20-21 days. Degradation in HT-29 cells was more rapid (t(1/2) of 6.5, 5 and 2.5 h for NT-XII, NT-XIII and NT-XVIII, respectively). They also showed high affinity and specificity for NT1 receptors. Bound activity was rapidly internalized at 37 degrees C. The pattern of externalization was different. NT-XII was released more slowly than NT-XIII and NT-XVIII (half of the activity still inside the cells after 24 h). Bigger differences were found in the biodistribution studies. NT-XII showed the highest tumor uptake as well as the best tumor to nontumor ratios. The modifications introduced in NT(8-13) increased plasma stability, maintaining unaffected the in vitro binding properties. The best biodistribution corresponded to NT-XII, which shows to be a good candidate for NT1 receptors overexpressing tumors. First clinical trials are ongoing.

  16. Double-stabilized neurotensin analogues as potential radiopharmaceuticals for NTR-positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Garayoa, Elisa; Maes, Veronique; Blaeuenstein, Peter; Blanc, Alain; Hohn, Alexander; Tourwe, Dirk; Schubiger, P. August

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Overexpression of neurotensin (NT) receptors in exocrine pancreatic cancer and other neuroendocrine cancers make them interesting targets for tumor imaging and therapy. Modifications at the cleavage bonds 8-9 and 11-12 led to the synthesis of NT-XII, NT-XIII and NT-XVIII, three new stabilized analogues. (NαHis)Ac was coupled to the N-terminus for labeling with [ 99m Tc]-tricarbonyl. Methods: Stability was tested in vitro in human plasma and HT-29 cells. Binding to NT1 receptors and internalization/efflux were analyzed in intact HT-29 cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in nude mice bearing HT-29 xenografts. Results: All analogues were very stable in human plasma, with half-lives of 20-21 days. Degradation in HT-29 cells was more rapid (t 1/2 of 6.5, 5 and 2.5 h for NT-XII, NT-XIII and NT-XVIII, respectively). They also showed high affinity and specificity for NT1 receptors. Bound activity was rapidly internalized at 37 o C. The pattern of externalization was different. NT-XII was released more slowly than NT-XIII and NT-XVIII (half of the activity still inside the cells after 24 h). Bigger differences were found in the biodistribution studies. NT-XII showed the highest tumor uptake as well as the best tumor to nontumor ratios. Conclusion: The modifications introduced in NT(8-13) increased plasma stability, maintaining unaffected the in vitro binding properties. The best biodistribution corresponded to NT-XII, which shows to be a good candidate for NT1 receptors overexpressing tumors. First clinical trials are ongoing

  17. Study of probiotic potential of four wild Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weiqin; Zhang, Lanwei; Ai, Lianzhong; Zhang, Yingchun; Han, Xue; Yi, Huaxi

    2013-06-01

    The four wild Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were examined in vitro for resistance to simulated gastro and intestinal juices, adhesion to HT-29 cells, antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens and immunomodulating activity. The strains L. rhamnosus SB5L, J5L and IN1L were able to survive in simulated gastro juice while the strain L. rhamnosus SB31L lost viability exposed to simulated gastro juice for 3 h. The four strains had high viability in simulated small intestinal juice with little loss (<1.0 cycle reduction). The strains SB5L, J5L and IN1L antagonized against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Shigella sonnei ATCC 25931. The strain L. rhamnosus IN1L had the highest adhesive capability to HT-29 cells in vitro (251 bacteria cells per 100 HT-29 cells) compared to the other three L. rhamnosus strains. The live bacteria, cell wall and DNA of the four L. rhamnosus induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ and TNF-α by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The levels of IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ and TNF-α produced by stimulated PBMCs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Those data indicated that the four L. rhamnosus strains have the potential as the probiotic for human being use, although further studies are still needed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of [18F]FE@SUPPY for Cancer PET Imaging: Limitations of a Xenograft Model for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging probes such as PET-tracers have the potential to improve the accuracy of tumor characterization by directly visualizing the biochemical situation. Thus, molecular changes can be detected early before morphological manifestation. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR is described to be highly expressed in colon cancer cell lines and human colorectal cancer (CRC, suggesting this receptor as a tumor marker. The aim of this preclinical study was the evaluation of F18FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC using in vitro imaging and in vivo PET imaging. First, affinity and selectivity of FE@SUPPY and its metabolites were determined, proving the favorable binding profile of FE@SUPPY. The human adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 was characterized regarding its hA3AR expression and was subsequently chosen as tumor graft. Promising results regarding the potential of F18FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC imaging were obtained by autoradiography as ≥2.3-fold higher accumulation of F18FE@SUPPY was found in CRC tissue compared to adjacent healthy colon tissue from the same patient. Nevertheless, first in vivo studies using HT-29 xenografts showed insufficient tumor uptake due to (1 poor conservation of target expression in xenografts and (2 unfavorable pharmacokinetics of F18FE@SUPPY in mice. We therefore conclude that HT-29 xenografts are not adequate to visualize hA3ARs using F18FE@SUPPY.

  19. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the r......In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  1. A crosstalk between muscarinic and CRF2 receptors regulates cellular adhesion properties of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier-Rota, M; Chartier, N T; Bonaz, B; Jacquier-Sarlin, M R

    2017-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction. Non-neuronal acetylcholine (Ach) and muscarinic receptors (mAchR) also contribute to alterations of epithelial cell functions. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which stress and Ach modulate epithelial cell adhesive properties. We show that Ach-induced activation of mAchR in HT-29 cells results in cell dissociation together with changes in cell-matrix contacts, which correlates with the acquisition of invasive potential consistent with a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mode of invasion. These processes result from mAchR subsequent stimulation of the cascade of src/Erk and FAK activation. Ach-induced secretion of laminin 332 leads to α3β1 integrin activation and RhoA-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that Ach-mediated effects on cell adhesion are blocked by astressin 2b, a CRF2 antagonist, suggesting that Ach action depends partly on CRF2 signaling. This is reinforced by the fact that Ach-mediated activation of mAchR stimulates both the synthesis and the release of CRF2 ligands in HT-29 cells (effects blocked by atropine). In summary, our data provides evidence for a novel intracellular circuit involving mAchR acting on CRF2-signaling that could mediate colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction and exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis CIDCA 133 modulates response of human epithelial and dendritic cells infected with Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolny, I S; Tiscornia, I; Racedo, S M; Pérez, P F; Bollati-Fogolín, M

    2016-11-30

    It is known that probiotic microorganisms are able to modulate pathogen virulence. This ability is strain dependent and involves multiple interactions between microorganisms and relevant host's cell populations. In the present work we focus on the effect of a potentially probiotic lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CIDCA 133) in an in vitro model of Bacillus cereus infection. Our results showed that infection of intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells by B. cereus induces nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Noteworthy, the presence of strain L. delbrueckii subsp.lactis CIDCA 133 increases stimulation. However, B. cereus-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production by epithelial cells is partially abrogated by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CIDCA 133. These findings suggest that signalling pathways other than that of NF-κB are involved. In a co-culture system (HT-29 and monocyte-derived dendritic cells), B. cereus was able to translocate from the epithelial (upper) to the dendritic cell compartment (lower). This translocation was partially abrogated by the presence of lactobacilli in the upper compartment. In addition, infection of epithelial cells in the co-culture model, led to an increase in the expression of CD86 by dendritic cells. This effect could not be modified in the presence of lactobacilli. Interestingly, infection of enterocytes with B. cereus triggers production of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells (IL-8, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)). The production of TNF-α (a protective cytokine in B. cereus infections) by dendritic cells was increased in the presence of lactobacilli. The present work demonstrates for the first time the effect of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CIDCA 133, a potentially probiotic strain, in an in vitro model of B. cereus infection. The presence of the probiotic strain modulates cell response both in infected epithelial and dendritic cells thus suggesting a possible beneficial effect of

  3. Defective interleukin-4/Stat6 activity correlates with increased constitutive expression of negative regulators SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Hong; Xu, Shuang Bing; Yuan, Jia; Li, Ben Hui; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Qin; Li, Pin Dong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2009-12-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced Stat6 activities (phenotypes) vary among human cancer cells, of which the HT-29 cell line carries an active Stat6(high) phenotype, while Caco-2 carries a defective Stat6(null) phenotype, respectively. Cancer cells with Stat6(high) show resistance to apoptosis and exaggerated metastasis, suggesting the clinical significance of Stat6 phenotypes. We previously showed that Stat6(high) HT-29 cells exhibited low constitutive expression of Stat6-negative regulators SOCS-1 and SHP-1 because of gene hypermethylation. This study further examined the constitutive expression of other closely related SOCS family numbers including SOCS-3, SOCS-5, SOCS-7, and CISH using RT-PCR. Similar to SOCS-1 and SHP-1, Stat6(high) HT-29 cells expressed low constitutive mRNA of SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH than Stat6(null) Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, DNA demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in HT-29 cells up-regulated mRNA expression of the above genes, indicating a hypermethylation status, which was confirmed by methylation-specific sequencing in selected SOCS-3 gene. Furthermore, defective Stat6(null) Caco-2 exhibited impaired phosphorylation of Stat6 after IL-4 stimulation by flow cytometry, in keeping with the notion of an over-performed negative regulation. The findings that IL-4/Stat6 phenotypes show differential expression of multiple negative regulators suggest a model that a collective force of powerful negative regulators, directly and indirectly, acts on Stat6 activation, which may result in differential Stat6 phenotypes.

  4. Targeted inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase impairs cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Gao, Jun-Yi; Chen, Hua; Du, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Qun; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and its metastasis and drug resistance are challenging for its effective treatment. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the targeting of PI3K in colon cancer cells HT-29 and HCT-116 in vitro. In HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, and shRNAtarget to PI3KCA were used to inhibit PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The inhibition efficiency of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry assays. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleavage caspase 3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Bim) were also detected. We found that in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, the treatment of BEZ235 (1 μM) and PI3KCA knockdown inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. In addition, we confirmed that knockdown of BEZ235 and PI3KCA induced cell apoptosis through the upregulated levels of cleavage caspase 3 and Bax and downregulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bim. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impaired cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in human colon cancer.

  5. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  6. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  7. Managing the Human in Human Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical and social realities, mental biases and limitations of being human differentiate human brands from others. It is their very humanness that introduces risk while generating the ability for enhanced returns. Four particular human characteristics can create imbalance or inconsistency between the person and the brand: mortality, hubris, unpredictability and social embeddedness. None of these qualities manifest in traditional non-human brands, and all of them present risks requiring active managerial attention. Rather than treating humans as brands and making humans into brands for sale in the commercial marketplace, our framework forces a focus on keeping a balance between the person and the personified object.

  8. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  9. Curcumin Anti-Apoptotic Action in a Model of Intestinal Epithelial Inflammatory Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganes, Claudia; Lega, Sara; Bramuzzo, Matteo; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Tommasini, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Annalisa

    2017-06-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a preventive treatment with curcumin can protect intestinal epithelial cells from inflammatory damage induced by IFNγ. To achieve this goal we have used a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HT29) treated with IFNγ to undergo apoptotic changes that can reproduce the damage of intestinal epithelia exposed to inflammatory cytokines. In this model, we measured the effect of curcumin (curcuminoid from Curcuma Longa ) added as a pre-treatment at different time intervals before stimulation with IFNγ. Curcumin administration to HT29 culture before the inflammatory stimulus IFNγ reduced the cell apoptosis rate. This effect gradually declined with the reduction of the curcumin pre-incubation time. This anti-apoptotic action by curcumin pre-treatment was paralleled by a reduction of secreted IL7 in the HT29 culture media, while there was no relevant change in the other cytokine levels. Even though curcumin pre-administration did not impact the activation of the NF-κB pathway, a slight effect on the phosphorylation of proteins in this inflammatory signaling pathway was observed. In conclusion, curcumin pre-treatment can protect intestinal cells from inflammatory damage. These results can be the basis for studying the preventive role of curcumin in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  10. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  11. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  12. Modern Human Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-15

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  13. HUMANISM OF ANTROPOCENTRISM AND ANTROPOCENTRISM WITHOUT HUMANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Shilovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the distinction of humanism and anthropocentrism which is based on the parity of the person and being. Genetic communication of humanism and anthropocentrism and their historical break comes to light.

  14. Superintelligence, Humans, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Recent studies of the human mind debunk the myth that humans only use 10-20 percent of the human mind. A healthy human mind uses up to 90 percent...way. They will eat what is in front of them to satiate their appetite not knowing if there is anymore food for the future. Humans can predict

  15. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  16. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabi, Nazanin; McGuckin, Michael A; Lindén, Sara K

    2013-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12) and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6) origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immuno)histology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces suitable for studies

  17. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Navabi

    Full Text Available Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12 and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6 origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immunohistology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces

  18. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  19. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  20. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enroth, Stefan; Rada-Iglesisas, Alvaro; Andersson, Robin; Wallerman, Ola; Wanders, Alkwin; Påhlman, Lars; Komorowski, Jan; Wadelius, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) was used to identify promoters enriched for histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples from two CRC patients and for the CRC cell line HT29. By comparing histone modification patterns in normal mucosa and tumors, we found that alterations predicted to have major functional consequences were quite rare. Furthermore, when normal or tumor tissue samples were compared to HT29, high similarities were observed for H3K4me3. However, the differences found for H3K27me3, which is important in determining cellular identity, indicates that cell lines do not represent optimal tissue models. Finally, using public expression data, we uncovered previously unknown changes in CRC expression patterns. Genes positive for H3K4me3 in normal and/or tumor samples, which are typically already active in normal mucosa, became hyperactivated in tumors, while genes with H3K27me3 in normal and/or tumor samples and which are expressed at low levels in normal mucosa, became hypersilenced in tumors. Genome wide histone modification profiles can be used to find epigenetic aberrations in genes associated with cancer. This strategy gives further insights into the epigenetic contribution to the oncogenic process and may identify new biomarkers

  1. Increased expression of protease-activated receptor 4 and Trefoil factor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Yu

    Full Text Available Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4, a member of G-protein coupled receptors family, was recently reported to exhibit decreased expression in gastric cancer and esophageal squamous cancer, yet increased expression during the progression of prostate cancer. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2, a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. Altered TFF2 expression was also related to the development of gastrointestinal cancer. TFF2 has been verified to promote cell migration via PAR4, but the roles of PAR4 and TFF2 in the progress of colorectal cancer are still unknown. In this study, the expression level of PAR4 and TFF2 in colorectal cancer tissues was measured using real-time PCR (n = 38, western blotting (n=38 and tissue microarrays (n = 66. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PAR4 and TFF2 were remarkably increased in colorectal cancer compared with matched noncancerous tissues, especially in positive lymph node and poorly differentiated cancers. The colorectal carcinoma cell LoVo showed an increased response to TFF2 as assessed by cell invasion upon PAR4 expression. However, after intervention of PAR4 expression, PAR4 positive colorectal carcinoma cell HT-29 was less responsive to TFF2 in cell invasion. Genomic bisulfite sequencing showed the hypomethylation of PAR4 promoter in colorectal cancer tissues and the hypermethylation in the normal mucosa that suggested the low methylation of promoter was correlated to the increased PAR4 expression. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of PAR4 and TFF2 frequently occurs in colorectal cancer tissues, and that overexpression of PAR4 may be resulted from promoter hypomethylation. While TFF2 promotes invasion activity of LoVo cells overexpressing PAR4, and this effect was significantly decreased when PAR4 was knockdowned in HT-29 cells. Our findings will be helpful in further investigations into the

  2. Expression of CIAPIN1 in human colorectal cancer and its correlation with prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Hai; Wang, Weizhong; Zhao, Qingchuan; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Heliang; Chen, Changsheng; Li, Shujun; Li, Nanlin; Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    The cytokine-induced anti-apoptotic molecule (CIAPIN1) had been found to be a differentially-expressed gene involved in a variety of cancers, and it was also considered as a candidate tumour suppressor gene in gastric cancer, renal cancer and liver cancer. However, studies on the role of CIAPIN1 in colorectal cancer were still unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic impact of CIAPIN1 in 273 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and to investigate the CIAPIN1 expression in CRC cell lines after inducing differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect the expression of CIAPIN1 in CRC samples from 273 patients. The relationship between CIAPIN1 expression and patients' characteristics (gender, age, location of cancer, UICC stage, local recurrence and tumour grade factors) was evaluated. In addition, these patients were followed up for five consecutive years to investigate the relationship between CIAPIN1 expression and the prognosis of CRC. We induced the differentiation of the CRC cell lines HT29 and SW480, in order to detect the expression of CIAPIN1 in the process of CRC cells differentiation. Results indicated that CIAPIN1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and that its expression level in cancer samples was significantly lower than in normal tissues. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference in the differential expression of CIAPIN1 in patients with different T and UICC stages, and tumour grade (P = 0.0393, 0.0297 and 0.0397, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that the survival time of CRC patients with high expression of CIAPIN1 was longer than those with low expression during the 5-year follow up period (P = 0.0002). COX regression analysis indicated that low expression of CIAPIN1, cancer stage of > pT1, distant organ metastasis (pM 1 ), regional lymph node metastasis (> pN 1 ) and local recurrence (yes) were independent, poor prognostic factors of CRC

  3. Evaluation of 6-chloro-N-[3,4-disubstituted-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]-1,3-benzothiazol-2-amine Using Drug Design Concept for Their Targeted Activity Against Colon Cancer Cell Lines HCT-116, HCT15, and HT29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-Li; Wang, Cui-Yue; Xu, Cheng-Mian; Bi, Wei-Ping; ZHou, Xiu-Ying

    2017-03-05

    BACKGROUND Colorectal adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The stage of the disease is related to the survival of the patient, and in early phases surgery is the main modality of treatment. The main aim of modern medicinal chemistry is to synthesize small molecules via drug designing, especially by targeting tumor cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A new series of 19 compounds containing benzothiazole and thiazole were designed. Molecular docking studies were performed on the designed series of molecules. Compounds showing good binding affinity towards the EGFR receptor were selected for synthetic studies. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by FTIR, 1HNMR, Mass and C, H, N, analysis. RESULTS The anticancer evaluation of the synthesized compounds was done at NIC, USA at a single dose against colon cancer cell lines HCT 116, HCT15, and HC 29. The active compounds were further evaluated for the 5-dose testing. Compounds were designed by using docking analysis. To ascertain the interaction of EGFR tyrosine kinase binding, energy calculation was used. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study indicate that the designed compounds show good activity against colon cancer cell lines, which may be further studied to design new potential molecules.

  4. Preclinical evaluation of a new, stabilized neurotensin(8--13) pseudopeptide radiolabeled with (99m)tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garayoa, Elisa; Bläuenstein, Peter; Bruehlmeier, Matthias; Blanc, Alain; Iterbeke, Koen; Conrath, Peter; Tourwé, Dirk; Schubiger, P August

    2002-03-01

    The rapid degradation of neurotensin (NT) limits its clinical use in cancer imaging and therapy. Thus, a new NT(8--13) pseudopeptide, NT-VIII, was synthesized. Some changes were introduced in the sequence of NT(8--13) to stabilize the molecule against enzymatic degradation: Arg(8) was N-methylated, and Lys and Tle replaced Arg(9) and Ile(12), respectively. Finally, (NalphaHis)Ac was coupled to the N-terminus for (99m)Tc(CO)(3) labeling. This peptide was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. The new analog was labeled with (99m)Tc(CO)(3). Its metabolic stability was analyzed both in human plasma and in HT-29 cells. Binding properties, receptor downregulation, and internalization were tested with HT-29 cells. Biodistribution was evaluated in nude mice with HT-29 xenografts. (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII showed a high stability in plasma, where most of the peptide remained intact after 24 h of incubation at 37 degreesC. However, the degradation in HT-29 cells was more rapid (46% of intact (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII after 24 h at 37 degreesC). Binding to NT1 receptors (NTR1) was saturable and specific. Scatchard analysis showed a high affinity for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII, with a dissociation constant similar to (125)I-NT (1.8 vs. 1.6 nmol/L). After interacting with NTR1, (99m)Tc(CO)(3)NT-VIII was rapidly internalized, with more than 90% internalized after 30 min. It also distributed and cleared rapidly in nude mice bearing HT-29 xenografts. The highest rates of accumulation were found in kidney and tumor at all time points tested. Tumor uptake was highly specific because it could be blocked by coinjection with a high dose of (NalphaHis)Ac-NT(8--13). Tumors were clearly visualized in scintigraphy images. The changes that were introduced stabilized the molecule against enzymatic degradation without affecting binding properties. Moreover, the increase in stability enhanced tumor uptake, making this derivative a promising candidate for clinical use.

  5. Chloroquine potentiates the anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil on colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kazuhito; Hiyoshi, Masaya; Kaneko, Manabu; Kitayama, Joji; Takahashi, Koki; Nagawa, Hirokazu; Tsuno, Nelson H; Sunami, Eiji; Tsurita, Giichiro; Kawai, Kazushige; Okaji, Yurai; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Shuno, Yasutaka; Hongo, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), the worldwide used anti-malarial drug, has recently being focused as a potential anti-cancer agent as well as a chemosensitizer when used in combination with anti-cancer drugs. It has been shown to inhibit cell growth and/or to induce cell death in various types of cancer. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the chemotherapeutic agent of first choice in colorectal cancer, but in most cases, resistance to 5-FU develops through various mechanisms. Here, we focused on the combination of CQ as a mechanism to potentiate the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on human colon cancer cells. HT-29 cells were treated with CQ and/or 5-FU, and their proliferative ability, apoptosis and autophagy induction effects, and the affection of the cell cycle were evaluated. The proliferative ability of HT-29 was analyzed by the MTS assay. Apoptosis was quantified by flow-cytometry after double-staining of the cells with AnnexinV/PI. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow-cytometry after staining of cells with PI. Autophagy was quantified by flow-cytometry and Western blot analysis. Finally, to evaluate the fate of the cells treated with CQ and/or 5-FU, the colony formation assay was performed. 5-FU inhibited the proliferative activity of HT-29 cells, which was mostly dependent on the arrest of the cells to the G0/G1-phase but also partially on apoptosis induction, and the effect was potentiated by CQ pre-treatment. The potentiation of the inhibitory effect of 5-FU by CQ was dependent on the increase of p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 and the decrease of CDK2. Since CQ is reported to inhibit autophagy, the catabolic process necessary for cell survival under conditions of cell starvation or stress, which is induced by cancer cells as a protective mechanism against chemotherapeutic agents, we also analyzed the induction of autophagy in HT-29. HT-29 induced autophagy in response to 5-FU, and CQ inhibited this induction, a possible mechanism of the potentiation of the anti-cancer effect of 5-FU. Our

  6. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  7. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  8. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  9. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  10. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  11. Human algorithmic stability and human Rademacher complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, Mehrnoosh; Oneto, L.; Ghio, A; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In Machine Learning (ML), the learning process of an algo- rithm given a set of evidences is studied via complexity measures. The way towards using ML complexity measures in the Human Learning (HL) domain has been paved by a previous study, which introduced Human Rademacher Complexity (HRC): in this

  12. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  13. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  14. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  15. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  16. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  17. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  18. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  20. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  1. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  2. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  3. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  5. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  6. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...

  7. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Manz, A; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project‿ is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly

  8. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  9. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  10. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  11. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  12. Resveratrol Modulates the Topoisomerase Inhibitory Potential of Doxorubicin in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Schroeter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RSV is currently being widely discussed as potentially useful for anticancer therapy in combination with classical chemotherapeutics, e.g., the topoisomerase II (TOP II poison doxorubicin (DOX. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of possible interference at the target enzyme, especially since RSV itself has recently been described to act as a TOP poison. We therefore sought to address the question whether RSV affects DOX-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects with special emphasis on TOP II in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. RSV was found to counteract DOX-induced formation of DNA-TOP-intermediates at ≥100 µM for TOP IIα and at 250 µM for TOP IIβ. As a consequence, RSV modulated the DNA-strand breaking potential of DOX by mediating protective effects with an apparent maximum at 100 µM. At higher concentration ranges (≥200 µM RSV diminished the intracellular concentrations of DOX. Nevertheless, the presence of RSV slightly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of DOX after 1.5 h and 24 h of incubation. Taken together, at least in cell culture RSV was found to affect the TOP-poisoning potential of DOX and to modulate its cytotoxic effectiveness. Thus, further studies are needed to clarify the impact of RSV on the therapeutic effectiveness of DOX under in vivo conditions.

  13. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007) ar...... of the 'Muselmann', and Anton Ehrenzweig's psychoanalytic theory of artistic creation. Whereas Hart is focusing on form and colour, I also turn my attention towards the texture of the painting....

  14. Coumarins and xanthones from the seeds of Mammea siamensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laphookhieo, Surat; Promnart, Phunrawie; Syers, John Keith [Mae Fah Luang University, Tasud, Muang (Thailand). School of Science]. E-mails: mail: surat@mfu.ac.th; laphookhieo@yahoo.com; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit [Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai (Thailand). Faculty of Agro-Industry. Dept. of Industrial Biotechnology; Ponglimanont, Chanita; Karalai, Chatchanok [Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai (Thailand). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    A new coumarin, mammea E/BB cyclo D (1), together with five known compounds, mammea E/BA cyclo D (2), suragin C (3), therapin B (4), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (5) and 1-hydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone (6), were isolated from the seeds of Mammea siamensis. Their structures were characterized using 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Suragin C and therapin B showed cytotoxic activity against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervical cancer (HeLa), colon cancer (HT-29) and human oral cancer (KB). (author)

  15. Universe, human immortality and future human evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the universe, the development of new technologies in the 21st century and the future of the human race. Dr Bolonkin shows that a human soul is only the information in a person's head. He offers a new unique method for re-writing the main brain information in chips without any damage to the human brain. This is the scientific prediction of the non-biological (electronic) civilization and immortality of the human being. Such a prognosis is predicated upon a new law, discovered by the author, for the development of complex systems. According to this law, every self-copying system tends to be more complex than the previous system, provided that all external conditions remain the same. The consequences are disastrous: humanity will be replaced by a new civilization created by intellectual robots (which Dr Bolonkin refers to as "E-humans" and "E-beings"). These creatures, whose intellectual and mechanical abilities will far exceed those of man, will require neither food nor oxygen to sustain their...

  16. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  17. Rethinking medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  18. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  19. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  20. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  1. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  2. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  3. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  4. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  5. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  6. Human intrusion: New ideas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Inadvertent human intrusion has been an issue for the disposal of solid radioactive waste for many years. This paper discusses proposals for an approach for evaluating the radiological significance of human intrusion as put forward by ICRP with contribution from work at IAEA. The approach focuses on the consequences of the intrusion. Protective actions could, however, include steps to reduce the probability of human intrusion as well as the consequences. (author)

  7. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  8. The human genome project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is a massive international research project, costing 3 to 5 billion dollars and expected to take 15 years, which will identify the all the genes in the human genome - i.e. the complete sequence of bases in human DNA. The prize will be the ability to identify genes causing or predisposing to disease, and in some cases the development of gene therapy, but this new knowledge will raise important ethical issues

  9. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  10. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  11. Human Engineering Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Research Laboratory AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFTC Air Force Flight Test Center AFHRL Air Force Human Resources Laboratory AFR Air Force...performance requirements through the most effective use of man’s performance capability. 13 Human Engineering is one of five elements in the Human...applied judiciously and tailored to fit * the program or program phase and the acquisition strategy to achieve cost effective acquisition and life cycle

  12. Human babesiosis: Recent discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Sanja M.; Kranjčić-Zec Ivana F.; Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.; Džamić Aleksandar M.; Radonjić Ivana V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. This protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (Ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. Human babesiosis Human babesiosis is predominantly caused by Babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in North America) and by Babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in Europe). Occasionally, infection in A...

  13. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  14. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  15. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  16. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  17. Cytotoxicity and physicochemical characterization of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fahdawi, Mohamed Qasim; Rasedee, Abdullah; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Alhassan, Fatah H; Rosli, Rozita; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Naadja, Seïf-Eddine; Webster, Thomas J; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    Iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles with both Lewis and Brønsted acidic sites were prepared by a hydrothermal impregnation method followed by calcination at 650°C for 5 hours, and their cytotoxicity properties against cancer cell lines were determined. The characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brauner–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta size potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays against three human cancer cell lines (breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, colon carcinoma HT29 cells, and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells) and two normal human cell lines (normal hepatocyte Chang cells and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]). The results suggest for the first time that iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles are cytotoxic to MDA-MB231 and HepG2 cancer cells but have less toxicity to HT29 and normal cells at concentrations from 7.8 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL. The morphology of the treated cells was also studied, and the results supported those from the cytotoxicity study in that the nanoparticle-treated HepG2 and MDA-MB231 cells had more dramatic changes in cell morphology than the HT29 cells. In this manner, this study provides the first evidence that iron–manganese-doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticles should be further studied for a wide range of cancer applications without detrimental effects on healthy cell functions. PMID:26425082

  18. Relations between pH, oxygen partial pressure and growth in cultured cell spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, J; Acker, H

    1988-11-15

    The pH gradients, oxygen partial-pressure gradients and growth curves were measured for 7 different types of spheroids. Growth curves were measured in liquid overlay culture and thereafter the spheroids were attached to cover glasses and transferred to a chamber for micro-electrode measurements. The spheroids were randomly divided for pH or pO2 measurements which then were made under conditions as identical as possible. The decreases in pO2 and pH, delta pO2 and delta pH were calculated as the difference between the values in the culture medium and the values 200 micron inside the spheroids. Each type of spheroid had a certain relation between delta pO2 and delta pH. The human colon carcinoma HT29, the mouse mammary carcinoma EMT6 and the hamster lung V79-379A spheroids had high values of the quotient delta pO2/delta pH. The human thyroid carcinoma HTh7 spheroids and the 3 types of human glioma spheroids had lower quotients. There was a tendency for fast-growing spheroids to have high quotients. Two extreme types of spheroids, HT29 (high quotient) and U-118 MG (low quotient) were analyzed for lactate production and oxygen consumption. The U-118 MG spheroids produced about 3 times more lactate and consumed about 3 times less oxygen than the HT29 spheroids. The differences in lactate production could not be explained by differences in the pyruvate Km values of lactate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that there are significant metabolic differences between the spheroid systems studied.

  19. Cathelicidin suppresses colon cancer development by inhibition of cancer associated fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Cheng,1,* Samantha Ho,1,* Jun Hwan Yoo,1,2,* Deanna Hoang-Yen Tran,1,* Kyriaki Bakirtzi,1 Bowei Su,1 Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran,1 Yuzu Kubota,1 Ryan Ichikawa,1 Hon Wai Koon1 1Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Digestive Disease Center, CHA University Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors share co-first authorship Background: Cathelicidin (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides. Cancer-associated fibroblasts can promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells and growth of colon cancer tumors. Methods: We examined the role of cathelicidin in the development of colon cancer, using subcutaneous human HT-29 colon-cancer-cell-derived tumor model in nude mice and azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-mediated colon cancer model in C57BL/6 mice. We also determined the indirect antitumoral mechanism of cathelicidin via the inhibition of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT of colon cancer cells and fibroblast-supported colon cancer cell proliferation. Results: Intravenous administration of cathelicidin expressing adeno-associated virus significantly reduced the size of tumors, tumor-derived collagen expression, and tumor-derived fibroblast expression in HT-29-derived subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Enema administration of the mouse cathelicidin peptide significantly reduced the size and number of colonic tumors in azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate-treated mice without inducing apoptosis in tumors and the adjacent normal colonic tissues. Cathelicidin inhibited the collagen expression and vimentin-positive fibroblast expression in colonic tumors. Cathelicidin did not directly affect HT-29 cell viability, but did significantly reduce tumor growth factor-ß1-induced EMT of colon cancer cells. Media conditioned by the

  20. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  1. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  2. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  3. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  4. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  5. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  6. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  7. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  8. Human Powered Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  9. Kinship and Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergendorff, Steen

    This book offers a exiting new explanation of human evolution. Based on insight from Anthropology is shows that human became 'cultured' beings capable of symbolic thought by developing rasting kinship based between groups that could not other wise survive in the harah climate condition during...

  10. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  11. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  12. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  13. Evaluating the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  14. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  15. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  16. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  17. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  18. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  19. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  20. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  1. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  2. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  3. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  4. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  5. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  6. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  7. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  8. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  9. UN human rights council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mlrjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure, mechanisms, practices and perspectives of the Human Rights Council, the UN body that, at universal level is the most important body in this area. Introductory section provides for a brief overview of the origins of human rights and the work of the Commission on Human Rights, in whose jurisdiction were questions of human rights before the establishment of the Council. After the introductory section the author gives an analysis of the structure, objectives, mandate and main procedures for the protection of human rights within the united Nations. In the final section the authorpoints out the advantages of this authority and criticism addressed to it, with emphasis on the possibility and the need for its reform.

  10. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  11. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  12. Digital Human Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The development of models to represent human characteristics and behaviors in human factors is broad and general. The term "model" can refer to any metaphor to represent any aspect of the human; it is generally used in research to mean a mathematical tool for the simulation (often in software, which makes the simulation digital) of some aspect of human performance and for the prediction of future outcomes. This section is restricted to the application of human models in physical design, e.g., in human factors engineering. This design effort is typically human interface design, and the digital models used are anthropometric. That is, they are visual models that are the physical shape of humans and that have the capabilities and constraints of humans of a selected population. They are distinct from the avatars used in the entertainment industry (movies, video games, and the like) in precisely that regard: as models, they are created through the application of data on humans, and they are used to predict human response; body stresses workspaces. DHM enable iterative evaluation of a large number of concepts and support rapid analysis, as compared with use of physical mockups. They can be used to evaluate feasibility of escape of a suited astronaut from a damaged vehicle, before launch or after an abort (England, et al., 2012). Throughout most of human spaceflight, little attention has been paid to worksite design for ground workers. As a result of repeated damage to the Space Shuttle which adversely affected flight safety, DHM analyses of ground assembly and maintenance have been developed over the last five years for the design of new flight systems (Stambolian, 2012, Dischinger and Dunn Jackson, 2014). The intent of these analyses is to assure the design supports the work of the ground crew personnel and thereby protect the launch vehicle. They help the analyst address basic human factors engineering questions: can a worker reach the task site from the work platform

  13. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  15. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  16. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  17. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  18. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  19. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  1. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  2. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Luis da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma, A-549 (human lung carcinoma, HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma, Vero (monkey kidney cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool were also tested to verify their possible influence in the oil cytotoxic activity. The results obtained permitted to confirm that the essential oil is cytotoxic against tumoral cells (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 and 113.6 µg/ml for A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectively, while it did not show cytotoxicity against non-tumoral cells (Vero and mice macrophages. Thus, the essential oil from Z. rhoifolium leaves seems to present a possible therapeuthic role due to its selective cytotoxic activity against tumoral cell lines.O Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. é uma planta popularmente utilizada como antimicrobianos, no tratamento da malária e de inflamações. O óleo volátil do Z. rhoifolium foi extraído e posteriormente foi avaliada a sua citotoxicidade contra células HeLa (carcinoma cervical humano, A-549 (carcinoma de pulmão humano, HT-29 (adenocarcinoma de cólon humano, Vero (rim de macaco e macrófagos de camundongos. Alguns terpenos constituintes do óleo volátil (beta-cariofileno, alfa -humuleno, alfa -pineno, mirceno e linalool também foram testados para verificar as possíveis influências sobre a citotoxicidade do óleo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que o óleo volátil é citotóxico contra células as tumorais (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 e 113.6 µg/ml para A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectivamente, mas não apresenta citotoxicidade contra as células não tumorais (Vero e macrófagos de camundongos. Desta forma o óleo volátil das folhas do Z. rhoifolium demonstra

  3. Stabilised 111In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated neurotensin analogues for imaging and therapy of exocrine pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Krenning, E.P.; Jong, M. de; Janssen, P.J.J.M.; Srinivasan, A.; Reubi, J.C.; Waser, B.; Erion, J.L.; Schmidt, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic cancer and Ewing's sarcoma. The potential utility of native NT in cancer diagnosis and therapy is, however, limited by its rapid degradation in vivo. Therefore, NT analogues were synthesised with modified lysine and arginine derivatives to enhance stability and coupled either to DTPA, to enable high specific activity labelling with indium-111 for imaging, or to DOTA, to enable high specific activity labelling with β-emitting radionuclides, such as lutetium-177 and yttrium-90. Based on serum stability (4 h incubation at 37 C in human serum) and receptor binding affinity, the five most promising analogues were selected and further evaluated in in vitro internalisation studies in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells, which overexpress NT receptors. All five NT analogues bound with high affinity to NT receptors on human exocrine pancreatic tumour sections. The analogues could be labelled with 111 In to a high specific activity. The 111 In-labelled compounds were found to be very stable in serum. Incubation of HT29 cells with the 111 In-labelled analogues at 37 C showed rapid receptor-mediated uptake and internalisation. The most promising analogue, peptide 2530 [DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH] was further tested in vivo in a biodistribution study using HT29 tumour-bearing nude mice. The results of this study showed low percentages of injected dose per gram tissue of this 111 In-labelled 2530 analogue in receptor-negative organs like blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle and femur. Good uptake was found in the receptor-positive HT29 tumour and high uptake was present in the kidneys. Co-injection of excess unlabelled NT significantly reduced tumour uptake, showing that tumour uptake is a receptor-mediated process. With their enhanced stability, maintained high receptor affinity and rapid receptor-mediated internalisation, the 111 In-labelled DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated NT

  4. Inhibition of Various Cancer Cells Proliferation of Bornyl Acetate and Essential Oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Karan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inula species are medicinal and aromatic plants used for folk medicine extensively. In this work, hydrodistilled essential oil of Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf. analyzed by GC-MS which revealed that bornyl acetate was the major product (69.15%. Camphene was the second major compound (11.11%. Antiproliferative activity of the essential oil and bornyl acetate was investigated on HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, HT29 (human colon carcinoma , A549 (human lung carcinoma, MCF7 ( human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells and FL (human amnion cells normal cells. The cytotoxicity was executed by a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Essential oil and bornyl acetate displayed the outstanding activities on HeLa (IC 50, 64.1, 72.0 µg/mL, HT29 (IC 50, 24.6, 60.5 µg/mL, A549 (IC 50, 28.3, 44.1 µg/mL, MCF-7 (IC 50, 66.5, 85.6 µg/mL, and FL (IC 50, 42.1, 50.6 µg/mL cell lines respectively.

  5. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  6. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  7. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  8. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  9. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  10. OAS :: Accountability :: Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Plan Human Resources Organizational Structure Functions of each organizational unit Vacant Posts

  11. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  12. Calvin and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity has become a major moral directive in the contemporary ethical reflection on human rights and bio-ethics. This article examines the theological foundations laid by the reformer Calvin regarding the inherent dignity of people, and his influence on post-World War ethical reflection about the violations of human rights. In this article his views on the “imago dei” and common grace, the “lex naturae” and the obligations of the civil authority are investigated in order to illuminate his ideas about the dignity of human beings. The article then deals with the influence of these ideas in the influential works of the twentieth century’s reformed theologians Barth, Berkhouwer and Moltmann.

  13. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  14. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  15. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  16. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  17. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  18. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  19. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  20. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  1. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  2. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  3. Biotechnology and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  4. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  5. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  6. Pushing Human Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  7. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  8. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  9. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  11. Anticancer Screening of Various Seed Extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum on Human Colorectal, Skin and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mohaddesi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the modern lifestyle, the increase in cancer and related chronic disorders is a major public health problem. In spite of different methods used for the treatment of these conditions, natural medicines have high demands due to their significant effects as immune enhancement and therapeutic agents and fewer side effects in comparison with other treatment methods. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. seeds, based on traditional claims.Methods: A Soxhlet extractor was used to obtain different extracts from seeds of C. halicacabum Linn. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric (SRB assay used for the evaluation of the cytotoxic effect of the various extracts on HT-29, HCT-15 colon carcinoma, SK-MEL-2 skin carcinoma, and MCF-7 breast carcinoma. The results were compared against Doxorubicin as a standard drug.Results: The results of the present study showed the potent cytotoxic activity of n-hexane extract of seeds of C. halicacabum Linn. against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with 50% growth inhibition value (GI50 of 12.8 μg/ml but other extracts showed poor activity in other tested cell lines.Conclusions: The results indicated the potential medicinal value of C. halicacabum Linn. seeds oil with the highest extractive yield as an antineoplastic agent. However, further studies are needed for the isolation of the active anticancer compounds and evaluating the mechanism of action of the responsible compound.

  12. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy. PMID:23576913

  13. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  15. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  17. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  18. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  19. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  20. Human bites - self-care