Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen
Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time...
Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra
The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.
Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.
KHAIRUN NISA’ MINHAD
Full Text Available Identification of human emotional state while driving a vehicle can help in understanding the human behaviour. Based on this identification, a response system can be developed in order to mitigate the impact that may be resulted from the behavioural changes. However, the adaptation of emotions to the environment at most scenarios is subjective to an individual’s perspective. Many factors, mainly cultural and geography, gender, age, life style and history, level of education and professional status, can affect the detection of human emotional affective states. This work investigated sympathetic responses toward human emotions defined by using electrocardiography (ECG and skin conductance response (SCR signals recorded simultaneously. This work aimed to recognize ECG and SCR patterns of the investigated emotions measured using selected sensor. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the proposed framework. Initial results demonstrated the importance of suitability of the stimuli used to evoke the emotions and high opportunity for the ECG and SCR signals to be used in the automotive real-time emotion recognition systems.
Full Text Available Physiological responses during human–robots interaction are useful alternatives to subjective measures of uncanny feelings for nearly humanlike robots (uncanny valley and comparable emotional responses between humans and robots (media equation. However, no studies have employed the easily accessible measure of pupillometry to confirm the uncanny valley and media equation hypotheses, evidence in favor of the existence of these hypotheses in interaction with emotional robots is scarce, and previous studies have not controlled for low level image statistics across robot appearances. We therefore recorded pupil size of 40 participants that viewed and rated pictures of robotic and human faces that expressed a variety of basic emotions. The robotic faces varied along the dimension of human likeness from cartoonish to humanlike. We strictly controlled for confounding factors by removing backgrounds, hair, and color, and by equalizing low level image statistics. After the presentation phase, participants indicated to what extent the robots appeared uncanny and humanlike, and whether they could imagine social interaction with the robots in real life situations. The results show that robots rated as nearly humanlike scored higher on uncanniness, scored lower on imagined social interaction, evoked weaker pupil dilations, and their emotional expressions were more difficult to recognize. Pupils dilated most strongly to negative expressions and the pattern of pupil responses across emotions was highly similar between robot and human stimuli. These results highlight the usefulness of pupillometry in emotion studies and robot design by confirming the uncanny valley and media equation hypotheses.
Historically, researchers have never quite been able to agree as to the role of emotions, if any, when behavior is selected by its consequences. A brief review of findings from several fields suggests that in contingency-shaped behavior, motivating events, often unconscious, seem needed for reinforcement to select behavior. In rule-governed…
Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N
Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions. This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male) epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons), hippocampus (n = 270), anterior cingulate cortex (n = 256), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n = 174). Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions. Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n = 15∕66) of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, vs. 8% (n = 6∕76) of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.
Full Text Available Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions.This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons, hippocampus (n=270, anterior cingulate cortex (n=256, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=174. Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions.Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n=15/66 of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, versus 8% (n=6/76 of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p<0.01. These results show specific differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.
The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential. (author)
The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.
Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs’ gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at more often the eye regions of smiling (happy faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs’ pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs’ emotional arousal. While subjects’ pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our
Full Text Available Darwin (1872 postulated that emotional expressions contain universals that are retained across species. We recently showed that human rating responses were strongly affected by a listener's familiarity with vocalization types, whereas evidence for universal cross-taxa emotion recognition was limited. To disentangle the impact of evolutionarily retained mechanisms (phylogeny and experience-driven cognitive processes (familiarity, we compared the temporal unfolding of event-related potentials (ERPs in response to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations expressed by humans and three animal species. Using an auditory oddball novelty paradigm, ERPs were recorded in response to task-irrelevant novel sounds, comprising vocalizations varying in their degree of phylogenetic relationship and familiarity to humans. Vocalizations were recorded in affiliative and agonistic contexts. Offline, participants rated the vocalizations for valence, arousal, and familiarity. Correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between a posteriorly distributed early negativity and arousal ratings. More specifically, a contextual category effect of this negativity was observed for human infant and chimpanzee vocalizations but absent for other species vocalizations. Further, a significant correlation between the later and more posteriorly P3a and P3b responses and familiarity ratings indicates a link between familiarity and attentional processing. A contextual category effect of the P3b was observed for the less familiar chimpanzee and tree shrew vocalizations. Taken together, these findings suggest that early negative ERP responses to agonistic and affiliative vocalizations may be influenced by evolutionary retained mechanisms, whereas the later orienting of attention (positive ERPs may mainly be modulated by the prior experience.
Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D
To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.
Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.
Full Text Available Appropriate processing of human voices with different threat-related emotions is of evolutionarily adaptive value for the survival of individuals. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the sensitivity to threat-related information is present at birth. Using an oddball paradigm, the current study investigated the neural correlates underlying automatic processing of emotional voices of fear and anger in sleeping neonates. Event-related potential data showed that the frontocentral scalp distribution of the neonatal brain could discriminate fearful voices from angry voices; the mismatch response (MMR was larger in response to the deviant stimuli of anger, compared with the standard stimuli of fear. Furthermore, this fear-anger MMR discrimination was observed only when neonates were in active sleep state. Although the neonates’ sensitivity to threat-related voices is not likely associated with a conceptual understanding of fearful and angry emotions, this special discrimination in early life may provide a foundation for later emotion and social cognition development.
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct basic human emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit, and the opioid system modulates a variety of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood. Here, we review how the endogenous opioid system and particularly the μ receptor contribute to emotional processing in humans. Activation of the endogenous opioid system is consistently associated with both pleasant and unpleasant emotions. In general, exogenous opioid agonists facilitate approach-oriented emotions (anger, pleasure) and inhibit avoidance-oriented emotions (fear, sadness). Opioids also modulate social bonding and affiliative behaviour, and prolonged opioid abuse may render both social bonding and emotion recognition circuits dysfunctional. However, there is no clear evidence that the opioid system is able to affect the emotions associated with surprise and disgust. Taken together, the opioid systems contribute to a wide array of positive and negative emotions through their general ability to modulate the approach versus avoidance motivation associated with specific emotions. Because of the protective effects of opioid system-mediated prosociality and positive mood, the opioid system may constitute an important factor contributing to psychological and psychosomatic resilience. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.
Bogdan ANASTASIEI; Raluca CHIOSA
Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P), arousal (A) and domination (D) emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987) develope...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human faces provide important signals in social interactions by inferring two main types of information, individual identity and emotional expression. The ability to readily assess both, the variability and consistency among emotional expressions in different individuals, is central to one's own interpretation of the imminent environment. A factorial design was used to systematically test the interaction of either constant or variable emotional expressions with constant or variable facial identities in areas involved in face processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Previous studies suggest a predominant role of the amygdala in the assessment of emotional variability. Here we extend this view by showing that this structure activated to faces with changing identities that display constant emotional expressions. Within this condition, amygdala activation was dependent on the type and intensity of displayed emotion, with significant responses to fearful expressions and, to a lesser extent so to neutral and happy expressions. In contrast, the lateral fusiform gyrus showed a binary pattern of increased activation to changing stimulus features while it was also differentially responsive to the intensity of displayed emotion when processing different facial identities. Conclusions These results suggest that the amygdala might serve to detect constant facial emotions in different individuals, complementing its established role for detecting emotional variability.
Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery
Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.
Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros
In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....
Huber, Annika; Barber, Anjuli L A; Faragó, Tamás; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig
Emotional contagion, a basic component of empathy defined as emotional state-matching between individuals, has previously been shown in dogs even upon solely hearing negative emotional sounds of humans or conspecifics. The current investigation further sheds light on this phenomenon by directly contrasting emotional sounds of both species (humans and dogs) as well as opposed valences (positive and negative) to gain insights into intra- and interspecies empathy as well as differences between positively and negatively valenced sounds. Different types of sounds were played back to measure the influence of three dimensions on the dogs' behavioural response. We found that dogs behaved differently after hearing non-emotional sounds of their environment compared to emotional sounds of humans and conspecifics ("Emotionality" dimension), but the subjects responded similarly to human and conspecific sounds ("Species" dimension). However, dogs expressed more freezing behaviour after conspecific sounds, independent of the valence. Comparing positively with negatively valenced sounds of both species ("Valence" dimension), we found that, independent of the species from which the sound originated, dogs expressed more behavioural indicators for arousal and negatively valenced states after hearing negative emotional sounds. This response pattern indicates emotional state-matching or emotional contagion for negative sounds of humans and conspecifics. It furthermore indicates that dogs recognized the different valences of the emotional sounds, which is a promising finding for future studies on empathy for positive emotional states in dogs.
Formolo, D.; Bosse, T.
Conversational agents are increasingly being used for training of social skills. One of their most important benefits is their ability to provide natural interaction with humans. This work proposes to extend conversational agents’ benefits for social skills training by analysing the emotion conveyed
Full Text Available Drawing on qualitative research conducted with some female residents of a shelter for victims of trafficking located in Lào Cai, an urban centre on the Northern Vietnamese border with China, the intention, in this article, is to explore some of their expressed feelings and emotions. These seem to oscillate between a sense of shame and guilt, and a sense of self-pity and victimization. Such oscillation finds significant correspondence at two broader levels, that of Vietnamese society and of the international ideological discourse of human trafficking, which both present a stigmatizing, yet compassionate, approach to the returnees of trafficking. In this way, the aim is to show how emotions are embedded within socio-political power relations and gender inequalities.
We commonly feel a variety of emotional responses to works of fiction. In this thesis I propose to examine what we understand by the terms fictional and narrative, and to describe what sorts of narrator might be required within a narrative work. Of particular interest are interactive works of art, both narrative and non-narrative, and I provide a definition of what features a work should possess if it should properly be considered interactive. I discuss the notions of interactive narrative...
Beatty, Garrett F; Cranley, Nicole M; Carnaby, Giselle; Janelle, Christopher M
Emotions motivate individuals to attain appetitive goals and avoid aversive consequences. Empirical investigations have detailed how broad approach and avoidance orientations are reflected in fundamental movement attributes such as the speed, accuracy, and variability of motor actions. Several theoretical perspectives propose explanations for how emotional states influence the speed with which goal directed movements are initiated. These perspectives include biological predisposition, muscle activation, distance regulation, cognitive evaluation, and evaluative response coding accounts. A comprehensive review of literature and meta-analysis were undertaken to quantify empirical support for these theoretical perspectives. The systematic review yielded 34 studies that contained 53 independent experiments producing 128 effect sizes used to evaluate the predictions of existing theories. The central tenets of the biological predisposition (Hedges' g = -0.356), distance regulation (g = -0.293; g = 0.243), and cognitive evaluation (g = -0.249; g = -0.405; g = -0.174) accounts were supported. Partial support was also identified for the evaluative response coding (g = -0.255) framework. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that substantiate existing theoretical perspectives, and provide potential direction for conceptual integration of these independent perspectives. Recommendations for future empirical work in this area are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
M. Ben Moussa and N. Magnenat-Thalmann
Our goal is to create socially responsible agents either robots or virtual humans. In this paper we present an integration of emotions attachment and learning in emotional decision making to achieve this goal. Based on emerging psychological theories we aim at building human like emotional decision making where emotions play a central role in selecting the next action to be performed by the agent. Here we present our own approach for emotion appraisal where we use emotional attachment as an i...
Kim, Junsuk; Schultz, Johannes; Rohe, Tim; Wallraven, Christian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Bülthoff, Heinrich H
Emotions can be aroused by various kinds of stimulus modalities. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that several brain regions represent emotions at an abstract level, i.e., independently from the sensory cues from which they are perceived (e.g., face, body, or voice stimuli). If emotions are indeed represented at such an abstract level, then these abstract representations should also be activated by the memory of an emotional event. We tested this hypothesis by asking human participants to learn associations between emotional stimuli (videos of faces or bodies) and non-emotional stimuli (fractals). After successful learning, fMRI signals were recorded during the presentations of emotional stimuli and emotion-associated fractals. We tested whether emotions could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by the fractal stimuli using a classifier trained on the responses to the emotional stimuli (and vice versa). This was implemented as a whole-brain searchlight, multivoxel activation pattern analysis, which revealed successful emotion decoding in four brain regions: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, MPFC, and angular gyrus. The same analysis run only on responses to emotional stimuli revealed clusters in PCC, precuneus, and MPFC. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the activation patterns revealed clear clustering of responses by emotion across stimulus types. Our results suggest that PCC, precuneus, and MPFC contain representations of emotions that can be evoked by stimuli that carry emotional information themselves or by stimuli that evoke memories of emotional stimuli, while angular gyrus is more likely to take part in emotional memory retrieval. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355655-09$15.00/0.
How to make machines express emotions would be instrumental in establishing a completely new paradigm for man ma-chine interaction. A new method for simulating and assessing artificial psychology has been developed for the research of the emo-tion robot. The human psychology activity is regarded as a Markov process. An emotion space and psychology model is constructedbased on Markov process. The conception of emotion entropy is presented to assess the artificial emotion complexity. The simulatingresults play up to human psychology activity. This model can also be applied to consumer-friendly human-computer interfaces, andinteractive video etc.
Wardle, Margaret C; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Angstadt, Michael; Rabinak, Christine A; de Wit, Harriet; Phan, K Luan
Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that opiate drugs decrease emotional responses to negative stimuli and increase responses to positive stimuli. Such emotional effects may motivate misuse of oxycodone (OXY), a widely abused opiate. Yet, we know little about how OXY affects neural circuits underlying emotional processing in humans. We examined effects of OXY on brain activity during presentation of positive and negative visual emotional stimuli. We predicted that OXY would decrease amygdala activity to negative stimuli and increase ventral striatum (VS) activity to positive stimuli. Secondarily, we examined the effects of OXY on other emotional network regions on an exploratory basis. In a three-session study, healthy adults (N = 17) received placebo, 10 and 20 mg OXY under counterbalanced, double-blind conditions. At each session, participants completed subjective and cardiovascular measures and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning while completing two emotional response tasks. Our emotional tasks reliably activated emotional network areas. OXY produced subjective effects but did not alter either behavioral responses to emotional stimuli or activity in our primary areas of interest. OXY did decrease right medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC) responses to happy faces. Contrary to our expectations, OXY did not affect behavioral or neural responses to emotional stimuli in our primary areas of interest. Further, the effects of OXY in the MOFC would be more consistent with a decrease in value for happy faces. This may indicate that healthy adults do not receive emotional benefits from opiates, or the pharmacological actions of OXY differ from other opiates.
Kniazev, G G; Mitrofanova, L G; Bocharov, A V
Emotional intelligence-related differences in oscillatory responses to emotional facial expressions were investigated in 48 subjects (26 men and 22 women) in age 18-30 years. Participants were instructed to evaluate emotional expression (angry, happy and neutral) of each presented face on an analog scale ranging from -100 (very hostile) to + 100 (very friendly). High emotional intelligence (EI) participants were found to be more sensitive to the emotional content of the stimuli. It showed up both in their subjective evaluation of the stimuli and in a stronger EEG theta synchronization at an earlier (between 100 and 500 ms after face presentation) processing stage. Source localization using sLORETA showed that this effect was localized in the fusiform gyrus upon the presentation of angry faces and in the posterior cingulate gyrus upon the presentation of happy faces. At a later processing stage (500-870 ms) event-related theta synchronization in high emotional intelligence subject was higher in the left prefrontal cortex upon the presentation of happy faces, but it was lower in the anterior cingulate cortex upon presentation of angry faces. This suggests the existence of a mechanism that can be selectively increase the positive emotions and reduce negative emotions.
Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.
Engineers are normally seen as the archetype of people who make decisions in a rational and quantitative way. However, technological design is not value neutral. The way a technology is designed determines its possibilities, which can, for better or for worse, have consequences for human wellbeing. This leads various scholars to the claim that engineers should explicitly take into account ethical considerations. They are at the cradle of new technological developments and can thereby influence the possible risks and benefits more directly than anybody else. I have argued elsewhere that emotions are an indispensable source of ethical insight into ethical aspects of risk. In this paper I will argue that this means that engineers should also include emotional reflection into their work. This requires a new understanding of the competencies of engineers: they should not be unemotional calculators; quite the opposite, they should work to cultivate their moral emotions and sensitivity, in order to be engaged in morally responsible engineering. © The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented
Wang, Shuo; Tudusciuc, Oana; Mamelak, Adam N.; Ross, Ian B.; Adolphs, Ralph; Rutishauser, Ueli
The human amygdala plays a key role in recognizing facial emotions and neurons in the monkey and human amygdala respond to the emotional expression of faces. However, it remains unknown whether these responses are driven primarily by properties of the stimulus or by the perceptual judgments of the perceiver. We investigated these questions by recording from over 200 single neurons in the amygdalae of 7 neurosurgical patients with implanted depth electrodes. We presented degraded fear and happy faces and asked subjects to discriminate their emotion by button press. During trials where subjects responded correctly, we found neurons that distinguished fear vs. happy emotions as expressed by the displayed faces. During incorrect trials, these neurons indicated the patients’ subjective judgment. Additional analysis revealed that, on average, all neuronal responses were modulated most by increases or decreases in response to happy faces, and driven predominantly by judgments about the eye region of the face stimuli. Following the same analyses, we showed that hippocampal neurons, unlike amygdala neurons, only encoded emotions but not subjective judgment. Our results suggest that the amygdala specifically encodes the subjective judgment of emotional faces, but that it plays less of a role in simply encoding aspects of the image array. The conscious percept of the emotion shown in a face may thus arise from interactions between the amygdala and its connections within a distributed cortical network, a scheme also consistent with the long response latencies observed in human amygdala recordings. PMID:24982200
Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W
The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beffara, Brice; Ouellet, Marc; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Basu, Anamitra; Morisseau, Tiffany; Mermillod, Martial
It has generally been assumed that high-level cognitive and emotional processes are based on amodal conceptual information. In contrast, however, "embodied simulation" theory states that the perception of an emotional signal can trigger a simulation of the related state in the motor, somatosensory, and affective systems. To study the effect of social context on the mimicry effect predicted by the "embodied simulation" theory, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of participants when looking at emotional facial expressions. We observed an increase in embodied responses when the participants were exposed to a context involving social valence before seeing the emotional facial expressions. An examination of the dynamic EMG activity induced by two socially relevant emotional expressions (namely joy and anger) revealed enhanced EMG responses of the facial muscles associated with the related social prime (either positive or negative). These results are discussed within the general framework of embodiment theory.
Alexandra G Rosati
Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.
Full Text Available The remarkable developments in mobile-based technologies have brought prominent impacts on human life style. Today life is running on mobile electronic devices smart phones tablets gaming devices and video-players. Generally the users acquaint with the features and properties of products after emotionally and physically interacting with the devices. The interaction in return influencing our moods depending on the feelings the technology creates. The focus of this study lays on the uses of tablets or also called PC tablets and its effects on its users emotional responses. To discover possible emotional responses with the tablets the data in this work were collected through a survey questionnaire from participants belongs to various backgrounds age groups and genders. The model of emotions was adopted in order to classify the emotional responses.The study has found that during or after the interaction with the tablets the users may get positive or negative emotional responses of a different kind. The users mood can also be affected by awakening such emotional feelings as happiness sadness frustration etc.
Kaelen, M; Barrett, F S; Roseman, L; Lorenz, R; Family, N; Bolstridge, M; Curran, H V; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L
There is renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD was used extensively in the 1950s and 1960s as an adjunct in psychotherapy, reportedly enhancing emotionality. Music is an effective tool to evoke and study emotion and is considered an important element in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy; however, the hypothesis that psychedelics enhance the emotional response to music has yet to be investigated in a modern placebo-controlled study. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that music-evoked emotions are enhanced under LSD. Ten healthy volunteers listened to five different tracks of instrumental music during each of two study days, a placebo day followed by an LSD day, separated by 5-7 days. Subjective ratings were completed after each music track and included a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the nine-item Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS-9). Results demonstrated that the emotional response to music is enhanced by LSD, especially the emotions "wonder", "transcendence", "power" and "tenderness". These findings reinforce the long-held assumption that psychedelics enhance music-evoked emotion, and provide tentative and indirect support for the notion that this effect can be harnessed in the context of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Further research is required to test this link directly.
Master, S; Gershman, L
This study tested Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) theory which predicts that cognitive beliefs, not the stimulus situation, generate human emotions. According to RET, emotions created by rational beliefs are adaptive, while irrational beliefs result in an unadaptive anxiety level. Results demonstrated that at high levels of problem relevance there was (1) a significantly greater GSR in direct response to the stimulus situation, and also to irrational statements, than to rational and control statements, and (2) no significant difference between rational and neutral control statements. The authors argue that these results are more parsimoniously explained by conditioning theory than by RET theory.
... human relationship management as predictors of organizational commitment. ... The study seeks to explain the interactive and relative effects of emotional ... Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 300 participants from ...
An overview of the computational prediction of emotional responses to music is presented. Communication of emotions by music has received a great deal of attention during the last years and a large number of empirical studies have described the role of individual features (tempo, mode, articulation, timbre) in predicting the emotions suggested or invoked by the music. However, unlike the present work, relatively few studies have attempted to model continua of expressed emotions using a variety of musical features from audio-based representations in a correlation design. The construction of the computational model is divided into four separate phases, with a different focus for evaluation. These phases include the theoretical selection of relevant features, empirical assessment of feature validity, actual feature selection, and overall evaluation of the model. Existing research on music and emotions and extraction of musical features is reviewed in terms of these criteria. Examples drawn from recent studies of emotions within the context of film soundtracks are used to demonstrate each phase in the construction of the model. These models are able to explain the dominant part of the listeners' self-reports of the emotions expressed by music and the models show potential to generalize over different genres within Western music. Possible applications of the computational models of emotions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg
susceptible to noise if captured in a mobile context. Hypothesizing that retrieval of emotional responses in mobile usage scenarios could be enhanced through spatial filtering, we compare a standard EEG electrode based analysis against an approach based on independent component analysis (ICA). By clustering...... or unpleasant images; early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP). Recent studies suggest that several time course components may be modulated by emotional content in images or text. However these neural signatures are characterized by small voltage changes that would be highly...... by emotional content. We propose that similar approaches to spatial filtering might allow us to retrieve more robust signals in real life mobile usage scenarios, and potentially facilitate design of cognitive interfaces that adapt the selection of media to our emotional responses....
Schulze, Patrick; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Lech, Robert K; Kuchinke, Lars; Suchan, Boris
This study examines the processing of visual information by the olfactory system in humans. Recent data point to the processing of visual stimuli by the piriform cortex, a region mainly known as part of the primary olfactory cortex. Moreover, the piriform cortex generates predictive templates of olfactory stimuli to facilitate olfactory processing. This study fills the gap relating to the question whether this region is also capable of preprocessing emotional visual information. To gain insight into the preprocessing and transfer of emotional visual information into olfactory processing, we recorded hemodynamic responses during affective priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Odors of different valence (pleasant, neutral and unpleasant) were primed by images of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral and disgust). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the piriform cortex preprocesses emotional visual information prior to any olfactory stimulation and that the emotional connotation of this preprocessing is subsequently transferred and integrated into an extended olfactory network for olfactory processing.
Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel
The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).
Catte, M; Cox, M V
The human figure drawings of a group of emotionally-disturbed boys were compared with those of a group of well-adjusted boys closely matched for chronological age and another for mental age. A comparison based on Koppitz's (1968) original emotional indicators and another, based on new UK norms, showed that the emotionally-disturbed children included significantly more indicators in their drawings than their well-adjusted peers. Although this difference was statistically significant it is actually quite small. In addition, there were no differences among the groups in the kinds of indicators they exhibited. The usefulness of the Koppitz test as a tool for clinical use is questioned.
Hill, Larry K.
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Kreibig Sylvia D
Cardiovascular (CV) response consists of changes in CV parameters such as heart rate blood pressure and heart contraction force in reaction to an event or set of events. It is significant for multiple reasons perhaps most notably because research suggests that it affects the development and progression of heart disease. Disease models vary but most assume that characteristically strong and prolonged CV responses confer health risk. Psychologists have long suspected linkages between motivation...
Silver, Marjorie A
Traditional legal education and the Socratic method it utilises are by and large successful at training lawyers to think, reason and analyse. The cultivation of lawyers' intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, however, has been, at best, neglected by the profession. All lawyers, like all human beings, are emotional. Emotions affect who they are and how they practise law, whether or not they are conscious of them. As emotions cannot be removed from the practice of law, it is essential that lawyers learn to understand and manage their emotions, as well as learn to be attuned to their clients' emotional lives. Ignorance of concepts such as countertransference, denial and unconscious bias adversely impact the lawyer-client relationship. Lawyers who understand basic psychological principles and behaviours, who are aware of their own psychological makeup, understand their cultural perspective and recognise and credit their clients' differences, will enhance their effectiveness as counsellors. The client whose lawyer has these competencies will enjoy a therapeutically superior counselling or representational experience. The neglect of either the lawyer's or the client's emotional life threatens to sabotage the lawyer's ability, and thus professional responsibility, to render competent and impartial legal advice. Through drawing parallels to the training and practice in other counselling disciplines and relationships, this article argues that psychological-mindedness and multicultural competence are essential elements of ethically responsible legal representation.
Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian
Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xiao, Erte; Houser, Daniel
Evolutionary theory reveals that punishment is effective in promoting cooperation and maintaining social norms. Although it is accepted that emotions are connected to punishment decisions, there remains substantial debate over why humans use costly punishment. Here we show experimentally that constraints on emotion expression can increase the use of costly punishment. We report data from ultimatum games, where a proposer offers a division of a sum of money and a responder decides whether to accept the split, or reject and leave both players with nothing. Compared with the treatment in which expressing emotions directly to proposers is prohibited, rejection of unfair offers is significantly less frequent when responders can convey their feelings to the proposer concurrently with their decisions. These data support the view that costly punishment might itself be used to express negative emotions and suggest that future studies will benefit by recognizing that human demand for emotion expression can have significant behavioral consequences in social environments, including families, courts, companies, and markets.
Full Text Available Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON, these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person’s position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/ bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in an interpersonal and emotional context. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of fMRI studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions versus those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help further develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.
The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xin; Xie, Lun; Liu, Anqi; Li, Dan
This paper integrated Gross cognitive process into the HMM (hidden Markov model) emotional regulation method and implemented human-robot emotional interaction with facial expressions and behaviors. Here, energy was the psychological driving force of emotional transition in the cognitive emotional model. The input facial expression was translated into external energy by expression-emotion mapping. Robot’s next emotional state was determined by the cognitive energy (the stimulus after cognition...
Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.
Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.
Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.
A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…
Nadal, Marcos; Rosselló, Jaume
We commend Koelsch and colleagues  for developing a broad and integrative explanation of the neurobiological foundations of emotions. We especially welcome this framework's emphasis on the interaction between language and emotion, and its focus on the characteristically human moral emotions. Emotions elicited by art and aesthetics also seem to be distinctively human, but comparatively little research has been devoted to understanding these. This is probably because they are usually viewed as atypical in several respects. William James , for instance, regarded emotional responses to artworks and aesthetic qualities as subtler emotions, because they lacked the strong bodily changes and adaptive value characteristic of coarser emotions, such as joy, anger, or fear. This view is still predominant today, and aesthetic emotions are often distinguished from everyday emotions . However, the notion of a class of aesthetic emotions, separate from everyday emotions, rests on the questionable assumption that artistic and aesthetic experiences and activities are different in essence from everyday experiences and activities. The discontinuity between "aesthetic experience [and] normal processes of living" [9, p. 10], however, is the product of social and cultural developments in Europe during the 18th century [7,15,20]. Distinctions that oppose art to craft, or aesthetic to practical, in reference to objects, behaviors, experiences, and emotions, make little sense in a broader historic and geographic context [1,7,20], and hinder empirical research .
Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Incorporated (Canada); Bradley, M. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada); Artiss, W.G. [Human Factors Practical (Canada)
This paper proposes the idea that a large proportion of the incidents attributed to operator and maintenance error in a nuclear or industrial plant are actually founded in our human emotions. Basic psychological theory of emotions is briefly presented and then the authors present situations and instances that can cause emotions to swell and lead to operator and maintenance error. Since emotional information is not recorded in industrial incident reports, the challenge is extended to industry, to review incident source documents for cases of emotional involvement and to develop means to collect emotion related information in future root cause analysis investigations. Training must then be provided to operators and maintainers to enable them to know one's emotions, manage emotions, motivate one's self, recognize emotions in others and handle relationships. Effective training will reduce the instances of human error based in emotions and enable a cooperative, productive environment in which to work. (author)
Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.; Artiss, W.G.
This paper proposes the idea that a large proportion of the incidents attributed to operator and maintenance error in a nuclear or industrial plant are actually founded in our human emotions. Basic psychological theory of emotions is briefly presented and then the authors present situations and instances that can cause emotions to swell and lead to operator and maintenance error. Since emotional information is not recorded in industrial incident reports, the challenge is extended to industry, to review incident source documents for cases of emotional involvement and to develop means to collect emotion related information in future root cause analysis investigations. Training must then be provided to operators and maintainers to enable them to know one's emotions, manage emotions, motivate one's self, recognize emotions in others and handle relationships. Effective training will reduce the instances of human error based in emotions and enable a cooperative, productive environment in which to work. (author)
Full Text Available The emotional state can influence decision-making under ambiguity. Cognitive bias tests (CBT proved to be a promising indicator of the affective valence of animals in a context of farm animal welfare. Although it is well-known that humans can influence the intensity of fear and reactions of animals, research on cognitive bias often focusses on housing and management conditions and neglects the role of humans on emotional states of animals. The present study aimed at investigating whether humans can modulate the emotional state of weaned piglets. Fifty-four piglets received a chronic experience with humans: gentle (GEN, rough (ROU or minimal contact (MIN. Simultaneously, they were individually trained on a go/no-go task to discriminate a positive auditory cue, associated with food reward in a trough, from a negative one, associated with punishments (e.g. water spray. Independently of the treatment (P = 0.82, 59% of piglets completed the training. Successfully trained piglets were then subjected to CBT, including ambiguous cues in presence or absence of a human observer. As hypothesized, GEN piglets showed a positive judgement bias, as shown by their higher percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue compared to ROU (P = 0.03 and MIN (P = 0.02 piglets, whereas ROU and MIN piglets did not differ (P > 0.10. The presence of an observer during CBT did not modulate the percentage of go responses following an ambiguous cue (P > 0.10. However, regardless of the treatment, piglets spent less time in contact with the trough following positive cues during CBT in which the observer was present than absent (P < 0.0001. This study originally demonstrates that the nature of a chronic experience with humans can induce a judgement bias indicating that the emotional state of farm animals such as piglets can be affected by the way humans interact with them.
Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A
The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.
Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart
The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.
Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver
Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.
As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21 st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.
Wang, Shuo; Yu, Rongjun; Tyszka, J. Michael; Zhen, Shanshan; Kovach, Christopher; Sun, Sai; Huang, Yi; Hurlemann, Rene; Ross, Ian B.; Chung, Jeffrey M.; Mamelak, Adam N.; Adolphs, Ralph; Rutishauser, Ueli
The human amygdala is a key structure for processing emotional facial expressions, but it remains unclear what aspects of emotion are processed. We investigated this question with three different approaches: behavioural analysis of 3 amygdala lesion patients, neuroimaging of 19 healthy adults, and single-neuron recordings in 9 neurosurgical patients. The lesion patients showed a shift in behavioural sensitivity to fear, and amygdala BOLD responses were modulated by both fear and emotion ambiguity (the uncertainty that a facial expression is categorized as fearful or happy). We found two populations of neurons, one whose response correlated with increasing degree of fear, or happiness, and a second whose response primarily decreased as a linear function of emotion ambiguity. Together, our results indicate that the human amygdala processes both the degree of emotion in facial expressions and the categorical ambiguity of the emotion shown and that these two aspects of amygdala processing can be most clearly distinguished at the level of single neurons. PMID:28429707
Bermond, B.; Frijda, N.H.
Reviews the function of peripheral feedback for emotions and theories describing emotions as information-processing systems. Cognitive processes are seen as a necessary condition for most human emotional experiences. Coping difficulties and degree of harmful or favorable appraisal have been
Brignell, C. M.
It is often assumed that emotional events are remembered in great clarity and detail. This thesis begins with a review of the literature on memory enhancement by emotional material. This enhancement may involve mechanisms that are psychologically and neurobiologically distinct from the mechanisms usually employed in memory for neutral material, such as modulation of consolidation by emotional arousal via noradrenaline action in the amygdala. Theoretically, pharmacological manipulation of nora...
Güss, C Dominik; Dörner, Dietrich
Lake et al. discuss building blocks of human intelligence that are quite different from those of artificial intelligence. We argue that a theory of human intelligence has to incorporate human motivations and emotions. The interaction of motivation, emotion, and cognition is the real strength of human intelligence and distinguishes it from artificial intelligence.
Voyer, Daniel; Dempsey, Danielle; Harding, Jennifer A
Three experiments investigated the role of memory and rehearsal in a dichotic emotion recognition task by manipulating the response procedure as well as the interval between encoding and retrieval while taking into account order of report. For all experiments, right-handed undergraduates were presented with dichotic pairs of the words bower, dower, power, and tower pronounced in a sad, angry, happy, or neutral tone of voice. Participants were asked to report the two emotions presented on each trial by clicking on the corresponding drawings or words on a computer screen, either following no delay or a five second delay. Experiment 1 applied the delay conditions as a between-subjects factor whereas it was a within-subject factor in Experiment 2. In Experiments 1 and 2, more correct responses occurred for the left than the right ear, reflecting a left ear advantage (LEA) that was slightly larger with a nonverbal than a verbal response. The LEA was also found to be larger with no delay than with the 5s delay. In addition, participants typically responded first to the left ear stimulus. In fact, the first response produced a LEA whereas the second response produced a right ear advantage. Experiment 3 involved a concurrent task during the delay to prevent rehearsal. In Experiment 3, the pattern of results supported the claim that rehearsal could account for the findings of the first two experiments. The findings are interpreted in the context of the role of rehearsal and memory in models of dichotic listening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Schmid, Gabriele; Doll, Anselm; Schilbach, Leonhard; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian
Cognitive emotion regulation is a powerful way of modulating emotional responses. However, despite the vital role of emotions in learning, it is unknown whether the effect of cognitive emotion regulation also extends to the modulation of learning. Computational models indicate prediction error activity, typically observed in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, as a critical neural mechanism involved in associative learning. We used model-based fMRI during aversive conditioning with and without cognitive emotion regulation to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation would affect prediction error-related neural activity in the striatum and ventral tegmental area, reflecting an emotion regulation-related modulation of learning. Our results show that cognitive emotion regulation reduced emotion-related brain activity, but increased prediction error-related activity in a network involving ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, insula and ventral striatum. While the reduction of response activity was related to behavioral measures of emotion regulation success, the enhancement of prediction error-related neural activity was related to learning performance. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral tegmental area and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, an area involved in regulation, was specifically increased during emotion regulation and likewise related to learning performance. Our data, therefore, provide first-time evidence that beyond reducing emotional responses, cognitive emotion regulation affects learning by enhancing prediction error-related activity, potentially via tegmental dopaminergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wittling, W; Roschmann, R
To investigate whether the cerebral hemispheres differ in their subjective emotional responses 54 adult subjects were presented two films of different emotion-related qualities (positive and negative film) either to their left or right hemisphere. The films were exposed by means of a technique for the lateralization of visual input that allows prolonged viewing while permitting free ocular scanning. Subjective emotional responses were assessed by means of a continuous rating of emotional arousal experienced during the movie as well as by retrospective ratings of ten different emotional qualities. Presenting both films to the right hemisphere resulted in stronger subjective responses in the continuous emotion rating as well as in some retrospectively assessed ratings compared to left-hemispheric presentation. The effects were more pronounced for the negative film. Taken together, the findings suggest a higher responsiveness of the right hemisphere in subjective emotional experience.
aan het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen; Gesing, Christina M
Facial emotions are important for human communication. Unfortunately, traditional facial emotion recognition tasks do not inform about how respondents might behave towards others expressing certain emotions. Approach-avoidance tasks do measure behaviour, but only on one dimension. In this study 81
The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone
Larkin, Anne C; Cahan, Mitchell A; Whalen, Giles; Hatem, David; Starr, Susan; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Litwin, Demetrius; Sullivan, Kate; Quirk, Mark
This study examines the development and implementation of a pilot human factors curriculum during a 2-year period. It is one component of a comprehensive 5-year human factors curriculum spanning core competencies of interpersonal and communication skills, systems-based practice, and professionalism and using low-and high-fidelity simulation techniques. Members of the Department of Surgery and the Center for Clinical Communication and Performance Outcomes jointly constructed a curriculum for PGY1 and PGY2 residents on topics ranging from challenging communication to time and stress management. Video demonstrations, triggers, and simulated scenarios involving acting patients were created by surgeons and medical educators. Pre- and postintervention measures were obtained for communication skills, perceived stress level, and teamwork. Communication skills were evaluated using a series of video vignettes. The validated Perceived Stress Scale and Teamwork and Patient Safety Attitudes survey were used. Residents' perceptions of the program were also measured. Twenty-seven PGY1 residents and 15 PGY2 residents participated during 2 years. Analyses of video vignette tests indicated significant improvement in empathic communication for PGY1 (t = 3.62, p = 0.001) and PGY2 (t = 5.00, p = 0.004). There were no significant changes to teamwork attitudes. Perceived levels of stress became considerably higher. PGY1 residents reported trying 1 to 3 strategies taught in the time management session, with 60% to 75% reporting improvement post-training. This unique and comprehensive human factors curriculum is shown to be effective in building communication competency for junior-level residents in the human and emotional aspects of surgical training and practice. Continued refinement and ongoing data acquisition and analyses are underway. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Berntsen, Dorthe; Watson, Lynn Ann
Retrieving personal memories may provoke different emotions and a need for emotion regulation. Emotional responses have been studied scarcely in relation to autobiographical memory retrieval. We examined the emotional response to everyday involuntary (spontaneously arising) and voluntary...... (strategically retrieved) memories, and how this response may be different during dysphoria. Participants (20 dysphoric and 23 non-depressed) completed a structured diary where the intensity of basic emotions and regulation strategies employed upon retrieval of memories were rated. Brooding, memory suppression......, and emotional suppression were higher for all individuals’ involuntary memories than voluntary memories. Negative emotions and regulation strategies were greater for dysphoric individuals for both involuntary and voluntary memories after controlling for the valence of the remembered events. The results provide...
Zhao, Yue; Wright, David
This paper introduces a new emotion generation method for virtual human modelling. The method includes a novel hierarchical emotion structure, a group of emotion calculation equations and a simple heuristics decision making mechanism, which enables virtual humans to perform emotionally in real-time according to their internal and external factors. Emotion calculation equations used in this research were derived from psychologic emotion measurements. Virtual humans can utilise the information in virtual memory and emotion calculation equations to generate their own numerical emotion states within the hierarchical emotion structure. Those emotion states are important internal references for virtual humans to adopt appropriate behaviours and also key cues for their decision making. A simple heuristics theory is introduced and integrated into decision making process in order to make the virtual humans decision making more like a real human. A data interface which connects the emotion calculation and the decision making structure together has also been designed and simulated to test the method in Virtools environment.
Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R
Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.
Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230
Nielsen, Shawn E.; Segal, Sabrina K.; Worden, Ian V.; Yim, Ilona S.; Cahill, Larry
Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women – one naturally cycling (NC women, N = 42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, N = 36) – viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CP...
Evers, C.; Hopp, H.; Gross, J.J.; Fischer, A.H.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Mauss, I.B.
Emotions are widely thought to involve coordinated responses across multiple responses (e.g., experiential, behavioral, and physiological). However, empirical support for this general "response coherence" postulate is inconsistent. The present research takes a dual-process perspective, suggesting
Evers, Catharine; Hopp, Henrik; Gross, James J; Fischer, Agneta H; Manstead, Antony S R; Mauss, Iris B
Emotions are widely thought to involve coordinated responses across multiple responses (e.g., experiential, behavioral, and physiological). However, empirical support for this general "response coherence" postulate is inconsistent. The present research takes a dual-process perspective, suggesting
Visschedijk, G.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.; van der Hulst, A.; Vink, N.; Leemkuil, Hendrik H.
The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human
Visschedijk, G.C.; Lazonder, A.W.; Hulst, A.H. van der; Vink, N.; Leemkuil, H.
The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studieswere performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human
Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny
The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…
Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K
The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...
Comninos, Alexander N; Wall, Matthew B; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J; Clarke, Sophie A; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M; Jayasena, Channa N; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C; Thomas, Sarah A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S
Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin's enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC).
Full Text Available Psychopathic individuals show selfish, manipulative, and antisocial behavior in addition to emotional detachment and reduced empathy. Their empathic deficits are thought to be associated with a reduced responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Immediate facial muscle responses to the emotional expressions of others reflect the expressive part of emotional responsiveness and are positively related to trait empathy. Empirical evidence for reduced facial muscle responses in adult psychopathic individuals to the emotional expressions of others is rare. In the present study, 261 male criminal offenders and non-offenders categorized dynamically presented facial emotion expressions (angry, happy, sad, and neutral during facial electromyography recording of their corrugator muscle activity. We replicated a measurement model of facial muscle activity, which controls for general facial responsiveness to face stimuli, and modeled three correlated emotion-specific factors (i.e., anger, happiness, and sadness representing emotion specific activity. In a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we compared the means of the anger, happiness, and sadness latent factors between three groups: 1 non-offenders, 2 low, and 3 high psychopathic offenders. There were no significant mean differences between groups. Our results challenge current theories that focus on deficits in emotional responsiveness as leading to the development of psychopathy and encourage further theoretical development on deviant emotional processes in psychopathic individuals.
Zhao, Y; Kang, J; Wright, D K
Human modelling is an interdisciplinary research field. The topic, emotion-affected decision making, was originally a cognitive psychology issue, but is now recognized as an important research direction for both computer science and biomedical modelling. The main aim of this paper is to attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and bioengineering in emotion-affected decision making. The work is based on Ortony's theory of emotions and bounded rationality theory, and attempts to connect the emotion process with decision making. A computational emotion model is proposed, and the initial framework of this model in virtual human simulation within the platform of Virtools is presented.
Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490
Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.
Kennifer, Sarah L; Alexander, Stewart C; Pollak, Kathryn I; Jeffreys, Amy S; Olsen, Maren K; Rodriguez, Keri L; Arnold, Robert M; Tulsky, James A
To examine how type and severity of patients' negative emotions influence oncologists' responses and subsequent conversations. We analyzed 264 audio-recorded conversations between advanced cancer patients and their oncologists. Conversations were coded for patients' expressions of negative emotion, which were categorized by type of emotion and severity. Oncologists' responses were coded as using either empathic language or blocking and distancing approaches. Patients presented fear more often than anger or sadness; severity of disclosures was most often moderate. Oncologists responded to 35% of these negative emotional disclosures with empathic language. They were most empathic when patients presented intense emotions. Responding empathically to patients' emotional disclosures lengthened discussions by an average of only 21s. Greater response rates to severe emotions suggest oncologists may recognize negative emotions better when patients express them more intensely. Oncologists were least responsive to patient fear and responded with greatest empathy to sadness. Oncologists may benefit from additional training to recognize negative emotions, even when displayed without intensity. Teaching cancer patients to better articulate their emotional concerns may also enhance patient-oncologist communication.
Giles, Grace E; Spring, Alexander M; Urry, Heather L; Moran, Joseph M; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B
Caffeine reliably increases emotional arousal, but it is unclear whether and how it influences other dimensions of emotion such as emotional valence. These experiments documented whether caffeine influences emotion and emotion regulation choice and success. Low to abstinent caffeine consumers (maximum 100 mg/day) completed measures of state anxiety, positive and negative emotion, and salivary cortisol before, 45 min after, and 75 min after consuming 400 mg caffeine or placebo. Participants also completed an emotion regulation choice task, in which they chose to employ cognitive reappraisal or distraction in response to high and low intensity negative pictures (Experiment 1), or a cognitive reappraisal task, in which they employed cognitive reappraisal or no emotion regulation strategy in response to negative and neutral pictures (Experiment 2). State anxiety, negative emotion, and salivary cortisol were heightened both 45 and 75 min after caffeine intake relative to placebo. In Experiment 1, caffeine did not influence the frequency with which participants chose reappraisal or distraction, but reduced negativity of the picture ratings. In Experiment 2, caffeine did not influence cognitive reappraisal success. Thus, caffeine mitigated emotional responses to negative situations, but not how participants chose to regulate such responses or the success with which they did so.
Full Text Available We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion elicitation experiment we conducted by collecting, via wearable computers, physiological signals from the autonomic nervous system (galvanic skin response, heart rate, temperature and mapping them to certain emotions (sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration, and amusement. We show the results of three different supervised learning algorithms that categorize these collected signals in terms of emotions, and generalize their learning to recognize emotions from new collections of signals. We finally discuss possible broader impact and potential applications of emotion recognition for multimodal intelligent systems.
Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry
Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Buot, Anne; Welter, Marie-Laure; Karachi, Carine; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Mallet, Luc
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease as well as patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using high frequency stimulation (HFS). In both Parkinson's disease and OCD patients, STN-HFS can trigger abnormal behaviours, such as hypomania and impulsivity. To investigate if this structure processes emotional information, and whether it depends on motor demands, we recorded subthalamic local field potentials in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation electrodes. Recordings were made with and without dopaminergic treatment while patients performed an emotional categorisation paradigm in which the response varied according to stimulus valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral) and to the instruction given (motor, non-motor and passive). Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimuli evoked an event related potential (ERP). Without dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly larger for unpleasant compared with neutral pictures, whatever the response triggered by the stimuli; and the magnitude of this effect was maximal in the ventral part of the STN. No significant difference in ERP amplitude was observed for pleasant pictures. With dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly increased for pleasant compared with neutral pictures whatever the response triggered by the stimuli, while ERP amplitudes to unpleasant pictures were not modified. These results demonstrate that the ventral part of the STN processes the emotional valence of stimuli independently of the motor context and that dopamine enhances processing of pleasant information. These findings confirm the specific involvement of the STN in emotional processes in human, which may underlie the behavioural changes observed in patients with deep brain stimulation.
Castillo, Yuleinys; Fischer, Jerome M.
The skills and tasks in the human services field are highly connected to emotional intelligence abilities. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an expressive writing program involving human service students in an undergraduate rehabilitation services course. The program was developed to enhance their emotional intelligence.…
Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu
Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace. PMID:26953692
He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu
Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.
Full Text Available Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361
Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng; Zhou, Renlai
The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.
Full Text Available The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure. We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception-women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence.
The goal of the present study was to investigate preschool teachers' emotion socialization responses to Turkish preschoolers' emotional expressions based on children's age and gender. The participants in the current study were 12 preschool full time teachers from 4 preschool and 288 preschoolers ranging in age from 4 to 6 years in Aksaray. In…
Prakash, Jai; Shukla, Anand Prakash
The present study investigated personality dispositions such as emotional responsiveness and emotional stability in religious communities of India. The religious ideology and particular system of religious practices of each individual may influence his personality structure. A review of the literature shows that studies available in this area have…
Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.
Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condit...
Zhao, Y; Kang, J; Wright, D K
Human modelling is an interdisciplinary research field. The topic, emotion-affected decision making, was originally a cognitive psychology issue, but is now recognized as an important research direction for both computer science and biomedical modelling. The main aim of this paper is to attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and bioengineering in emotion-affected decision making. The work is based on Ortony's theory of emotions and bounded rationality theory, and attempts to connect the...
Ahn, Hey Jun; Stifter, Cynthia
This observational study examined practices through which child care teachers socialize children's emotion. A specific aim was to describe strategies of teacher intervention in response to emotion displayed by children in child care centers, and to answer the question of differential interactions based on children's age and gender. The results of…
The relationship between emotions perceived to be expressed (external locus EL) versus emotions felt (internal locus--IL) in response to music was examined using 5 contrasting pieces of Romantic, Western art music. The main hypothesis tested was that emotion expressed along the dimensions of emotional-strength, valence, and arousal were lower in magnitude for IL than EL. IL and EL judgments made together after one listening (Experiment 2, n = 18) produced less differentiated responses than when each task was performed after separate listenings (Experiment 1, n = 28). This merging of responses in the locus-task-together condition started to disappear as statistical power was increased. Statistical power was increased by recruiting an additional subject pool of elderly individuals (Experiment 3, n = 19, mean age 75 years). Their valence responses were more positive, and their emotional-strength ratings were generally lower, compared to their younger counterparts. Overall data analysis revealed that IL responses fluctuated slightly more than EL emotions, meaning that the latter are more stable. An additional dimension of dominance-submissiveness was also examined, and was useful in differentiating between pieces, but did not return a difference between IL and EL. Some therapy applications of these findings are discussed.
Can we build ‘moral robots’? If morality depends on emotions, the answer seems negative. Current robots do not meet standard necessary conditions for having emotions: they lack consciousness, mental states, and feelings. Moreover, it is not even clear how we might ever establish whether robots
Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…
Canamero, Dolores; Fredslund, Jacob
We report work on a LEGO robot that displays different emotional expressions in response to physical stimulation, for the purpose of social interaction with humans. This is a first step toward our longer-term goal of exploring believable emotional exchanges to achieve plausible interaction...... with a simple robot. Drawing inspiration from theories of human basic emotions, we implemented several prototypical expressions in the robot's caricatured face and conducted experiments to assess the recognizability of these expressions...
Nguyen, Hung; Kotani, Kazunori; Chen, Fan; Le, Bac
In recent years, research on human emotion estimation using thermal infrared (IR) imagery has appealed to many researchers due to its invariance to visible illumination changes. Although infrared imagery is superior to visible imagery in its invariance to illumination changes and appearance differences, it has difficulties in handling transparent glasses in the thermal infrared spectrum. As a result, when using infrared imagery for the analysis of human facial information, the regions of eyeglasses are dark and eyes' thermal information is not given. We propose a temperature space method to correct eyeglasses' effect using the thermal facial information in the neighboring facial regions, and then use Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Eigen-space Method based on class-features (EMC), and PCA-EMC method to classify human emotions from the corrected thermal images. We collected the Kotani Thermal Facial Emotion (KTFE) database and performed the experiments, which show the improved accuracy rate in estimating human emotions.
Sabini, John; Green, Melanie C
In three studies (total N = 619), the authors tested an evolutionary hypothesis: Men are more bothered by sexual than emotional infidelity, whereas the reverse is true of women. More diverse samples (in age) and measures than is typical were used. In Study 1, the authors found across gender, sample, and method that sexual infidelity was associated with anger and blame, but emotional infidelity was associated with hurt feelings. The evolutionary effect was replicated with undergraduates but not with the nonstudent sample. In Study 2, narrative scenarios were used; it was found that nonstudent men and women were more hurt and upset by emotional infidelity but were made angrier by sexual infidelity. In Study 3, using Likert-type scales, scenarios, and a nonstudent sample, it was found that both genders were more upset, hurt, and angrier about sexual than emotional transgressions when rating one kind without hearing the opposite type. The implications for how emotional responses evolved are discussed.
Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin
Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...
Collet, C; Vernet-Maury, E; Delhomme, G; Dittmar, A
The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the autonomic nervous system responses to emotional stimuli are specific. A series of six slides was randomly presented to the subjects while six autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters were recorded: skin conductance, skin potential, skin resistance, skin blood flow, skin temperature and instantaneous respiratory frequency. Each slide induced a basic emotion: happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Results have been first considered with reference to electrodermal responses (EDR) and secondly through thermo-vascular and respiratory variations. Classical as well as original indices were used to quantify autonomic responses. The six basic emotions were distinguished by Friedman variance analysis. Thus, ANS values corresponding to each emotion were compared two-by-two. EDR distinguished 13 emotion-pairs out of 15. 10 emotion-pairs were separated by skin resistance as well as skin conductance ohmic perturbation duration indices whereas conductance amplitude was only capable of distinguishing 7 emotion-pairs. Skin potential responses distinguished surprise and fear from sadness, and fear from disgust, according to their elementary pattern analysis in form and sign. Two-by-two comparisons of skin temperature, skin blood flow (estimated by the new non-oscillary duration index) and instantaneous respiratory frequency, enabled the distinction of 14 emotion-pairs out of 15. 9 emotion-pairs were distinguished by the non-oscillatory duration index values. Skin temperature was demonstrated to be different i.e. positive versus negative in response to anger and fear. The instantaneous respiratory frequency perturbation duration index was the only one capable of separating sadness from disgust. From the six ANS parameters study, different autonomic patterns were identified, each characterizing one of the six basic emotion used as inducing signals. No index alone, nor group of parameters (EDR and thermovascular
Childs, Emma; White, Tara L; de Wit, Harriet
An individual's susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure, for example, cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined the relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardized laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Individuals with high agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease.
Jessen, Sarah; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias
Sensitive responding to others' emotions is essential during social interactions among humans. There is evidence for the existence of subcortically mediated emotion discrimination processes that occur independent of conscious perception in adults. However, only recently work has begun to examine the development of automatic emotion processing systems during infancy. In particular, it is unclear whether emotional expressions impact infants' autonomic nervous system regardless of conscious perception. We examined this question by measuring pupillary responses while subliminally and supraliminally presenting 7-month-old infants with happy and fearful faces. Our results show greater pupil dilation, indexing enhanced autonomic arousal, in response to happy compared to fearful faces regardless of conscious perception. Our findings suggest that, early in ontogeny, emotion discrimination occurs independent of conscious perception and is associated with differential autonomic responses. This provides evidence for the view that automatic emotion processing systems are an early-developing building block of human social functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M
The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial
Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto
People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335
Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto
People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.
de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Pizza, Fabio; Covassin, Naima; Vandi, Stefano; Cellini, Nicola; Stegagno, Luciano; Plazzi, Giuseppe
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a complex sleep disorder that affects the modulation of emotions: cataplexy, the key symptom of narcolepsy, is indeed strongly linked with emotions that usually trigger the episodes. Our study aimed to investigate haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation in narco-cataplexy. Twelve adult drug-naive narcoleptic patients (five males; age: 33.3 ± 9.4 years) and 12 healthy controls (five males; age: 30.9 ± 9.5 years) were exposed to emotional stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral arteries were continuously recorded using photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound. Ratings of valence and arousal and coping strategies were scored by the Self-Assessment Manikin and by questionnaires, respectively. Narcoleptic patients' haemodynamic responses to pictures overlapped with the data obtained from controls: decrease of heart rate and increase of mean cerebral blood flow velocity regardless of pictures' content, increase of systolic blood pressure during the pleasant condition, and relative reduction of heart rate during pleasant and unpleasant conditions. However, when compared with controls, narcoleptic patients reported lower arousal scores during the pleasant and neutral stimulation, and lower valence scores during the pleasant condition, respectively, and also a lower score at the 'focus on and venting of emotions' dimensions of coping. Our results suggested that adult narcoleptic patients, compared with healthy controls, inhibited their emotion-expressive behaviour to emotional stimulation, and that may be related to the development of adaptive cognitive strategies to face emotions avoiding cataplexy. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Kato, Ryousuke; Takeda, Yuji
Previous studies have demonstrated that females exhibit higher sensitivity than males to the emotional state of a person in a photograph. The present study examined whether such females' sensitivity to human emotions could be observed even when the background emotional contexts were incongruent with facial expressions. The late positive potential (LPP) was measured while 19-female and 15-male participants viewed a photograph of a face with varied emotional expressions (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) superimposed on a background photograph with varied valences (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant). The results showed that unpleasant background photographs elicited a larger LPP compared to pleasant and neutral background photographs in both female and male participants. In contrast, a larger LPP for the unpleasant face photographs was observed only in female participants. Furthermore, the effect of face photographs did not interact with the effect of background photographs. These results suggest that females are sensitive to human emotions regardless of the emotional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses
Full Text Available Recently there has been a lot of interest in measuring emotional responses to advertising. This study focuses on the measurement of a specific emotional response to television advertising; warmth. Nearly thirty years ago, (Aaker, Stayman and Hagerty, 1986 developed a procedure they called the Warmth Monitor; “paper and pencil” self-report process recording method. The Warmth Monitor has been used in a large number of empirical studies in marketing since, but the most recent versions of the procedure are computerized. The two methods of administering the Warmth Monitor are compared in this research.
Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Hugdahl, K.; Bosch, M.P.C.
The nature of (un)conscious human emotional information processing remains a great mystery. On the one hand, classical models view human conscious emotional information processing as computation among the brain’s neurons but fail to address its enigmatic features. On the other hand, quantum
Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul
Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Limbic encephalitis (LE is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion-evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2-antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence and arousal ratings. The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala.
van den Broek, Egon L.; Lisý, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees
As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological proce-sses, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals.
Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mas-Herrero, Ernest
The study of emotions has been an important topic in cognitive and affective neuroscience in the last decades. In the present manuscript, Koelsch et al.  propose a new neurobiological framework based on four emotional core systems (the Quartet), involved in different aspects of human emotion processing. This is an interesting theory that goes beyond classical emotion classification to describe the emotional experience based on four main cerebral components (brainstem, diencephalon, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex). This approach allows the description of different classes of affects, including those that are unique in humans as emotional responses associated to abstract stimuli (for example, aesthetical stimuli such as art and music).
Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy
According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Engineers are normally seen as the archetype of people who make decisions in a rational and quantitative way. However, technological design is not value neutral. The way a technology is designed determines its possibilities, which can, for better or for worse, have consequences for human wellbeing.
Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René
Previous studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster, and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect, PCE). However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect, NCE). These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.
Wisenden, Patricia A; Budke, Katherine J; Klemetson, Chelsea J; Kurtti, Tana R; Patel, Chandi M; Schwantz, Trenda L; Wisenden, Brian D
The most effective way to learn human anatomy is through cadaver dissection. Historically, cadaver dissection has been the provenance of professional schools. Increasingly, cadaver-based courses in human anatomy are shifting to the undergraduate level, which creates both problems and opportunities because of differences between undergraduate and graduate student populations. Anxiety associated with dissecting cadavers can create a barrier to learning, and ultimately, entry into the health and medical sciences for some demographic subpopulations of undergraduates. We surveyed 76 students in 2007 and 51 students in 2009 at four times in the semester to investigate the timing and sociodemographic predictors of anxiety over cadaver dissection. We followed this with a second survey of 44 students in 2014 to test the effect of humanization of cadaver donors (providing information about donor occupation and cause of death) to reduce student anxiety. Students experienced anxiety upon first exposure to cadaver dissection. Female students experienced greater anxiety than male students upon first exposure to cadavers but this effect was short-lived. Self-identified non-white, non-Christian students experienced sustained anxiety throughout the semester, likely because cadaver stress compounded social and financial stressors unique to international students. Humanization was effective in reducing anxiety in non-white, non-Christian students but had the unexpected effect of increasing anxiety in female students. We recommend that humanizing information be offered to students who seek it out, but not forced upon students for whom the information would only add to their stress. Clin. Anat. 31:224-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg
responses are characterized by only small voltage changes that have typically been found in group studies involving multiple trials and large numbers of participants. Hypothesizing that spatial filtering might enhance retrieval, we apply independent component analysis (ICA) to cluster scalp maps and time...... series responses in a single subject based on only a few trials. Comparing our results against previous findings we identify multiple early and late ICA components that are similarly modulated by neutral, pleasant and unpleasant content in both images and words. Suggesting that we might be able to model...
Bianchin, Marta; Angrilli, Alessandro
Gender differences in emotional responses have been investigated in two groups of students, 22 males and 21 females. Participants watched a set of sixty emotional standardized slides divided into pleasant, neutral and unpleasant, while Startle reflex, Evoked Potentials, Heart Rate, facial EMG and Skin Conductance were recorded. Startle reflex amplitude, an index modulated by amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex and sensitive to aversive emotional stimuli, was overall larger in women. In addition, startle emotion modulation was greater in women with respect to men. Slow Evoked Potentials (400-800 ms), a measure representing the cognitive component of the emotional response, revealed gender differences in the left prefrontal site, with women showing greater positivity to unpleasant compared with pleasant slides while men had greater positivity to pleasant vs. neutral slides. Women, compared with men, perceived all slides as less pleasant and reported greater arousal to unpleasant condition. Results are in line with known functional brain differences, at level of limbic and paralimbic structures, between men and women, and point to biologically grounded greater sensitivity and vulnerability of women to adverse/stressful events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Croiset, G; Heijnen, C J; Veldhuis, H D; de Wied, D; Ballieux, R E
The influence of mild, emotional stress was investigated for its effect on the immune system by subjecting rats to the one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The reactivity of the immune system was tested by determining the proliferative response after mitogenic stimulation in vitro as well as
Perrin, Jeffrey L.
The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…
Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.
The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…
Cantor, Joanne; And Others
Describes a study which used the heart rate of subjects as the measure of physiological arousal to assess the effect of forewarning on emotional reactions and physiological responses to a frightening television film. Results indicate that although forewarning did not significantly affect anxiety, it did promote more intense fright and upset. (MBR)
Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A
The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Human-machine interaction is a major challenge in the development of complex humanoid robots. In addition to verbal communication the use of non-verbal cues such as hand, arm and body gestures or mimics can improve the understanding of the intention of the robot. On the other hand, by perceiving such mechanisms of a human in a typical interaction scenario the humanoid robot can adapt its interaction skills in a better way. In this work, the perception system of two social robots, ROMAN and ROBIN of the RRLAB of the TU Kaiserslautern, is presented in the range of human-robot interaction.
Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…
Gracanin, A.; Bylsma, L.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the
van den Broek, Egon; Lisy, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.
As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological processes, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and,
Packheiser, Julian; Rook, Noemi; Dursun, Zeynep; Mesenhöller, Janne; Wenglorz, Alrescha; Güntürkün, Onur; Ocklenburg, Sebastian
Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan. Despite the importance of embraces for human social interactions, their underlying neurophysiology is unknown. Here, we demonstrated in a well-powered sample of more than 2500 adults that humans show a significant rightward bias during embracing. Additionally, we showed that this general motor preference is strongly modulated by emotional contexts: the induction of positive or negative affect shifted the rightward bias significantly to the left, indicating a stronger involvement of right-hemispheric neural networks during emotional embraces. In a second laboratory study, we were able to replicate both of these findings and furthermore demonstrated that the motor preferences during embracing correlate with handedness. Our studies therefore not only show that embracing is controlled by an interaction of motor and affective networks, they also demonstrate that emotional factors seem to activate right-hemispheric systems in valence-invariant ways.
Park, Mona; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Bao, Yan; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Welker, Lorenz; Reiser, Maximilian; Meindl, Thomas; Gutyrchik, Evgeny
Music communicates and evokes emotions. The number of studies on the neural correlates of musical emotion processing is increasing but few have investigated the factors that modulate these neural activations. Previous research has shown that personality traits account for individual variability of neural responses. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the dimensions Extraversion and Neuroticism are related to differences in brain reactivity to musical stimuli expressing the emotions happiness, sadness and fear. 12 participants (7 female, M=20.33 years) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and were scanned while performing a passive listening task. Neurofunctional analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Neuroticism scores and activations in bilateral basal ganglia, insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to music expressing happiness. Extraversion scores were marginally negatively correlated with activations in the right amygdala in response to music expressing fear. Our findings show that subjects' personality may have a predictive power in the neural correlates of musical emotion processing and should be considered in the context of experimental group homogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fernandez, Ana Maria; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Zubeidat, Ihab
The authors studied gender differences in response to hypothetical infidelity in Spanish students. Using a forced-choice methodology, the authors asked a sample of 266 participants to indicate which kind of infidelity would be more distressing: emotional or sexual. Men were significantly more distressed by sexual infidelity than were women, and women were significantly more distressed by emotional infidelity than were men. Results supported the hypothesis that particular infidelity types, which resemble adaptive problems that human beings faced in the past, contribute to the psychology of jealousy. The results are consistent with previous cross-cultural research.
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.
Kanske, Philipp; Kotz, Sonja A
Coherent behavior depends on attentional control that detects and resolves conflict between opposing actions. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study tested the hypothesis that emotion triggers attentional control to speed up conflict processing in particularly salient situations. Therefore, we presented emotionally negative and neutral words in a version of the flanker task. In response to conflict, we found activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of the amygdala for emotional stimuli. When emotion and conflict coincided, a region in the ventral ACC was activated, which resulted in faster conflict processing in reaction times. Emotion also increased functional connectivity between the ventral ACC and activation of the dorsal ACC and the amygdala in conflict trials. These data suggest that the ventral ACC integrates emotion and conflict and prioritizes the processing of conflict in emotional trials. This adaptive mechanism ensures rapid detection and resolution of conflict in potentially threatening situations signaled by emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Suda, Miyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Obata, Akiko; Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi
Neurocognitive research has the potential to identify the relevant effects of music therapy. In this study, we examined the effect of music mode (major vs. minor) on stress reduction using optical topography and an endocrinological stress marker. In salivary cortisol levels, we observed that stressful conditions such as mental fatigue (thinking and creating a response) was reduced more by major mode music than by minor mode music. We suggest that music specifically induces an emotional response similar to a pleasant experience or happiness. Moreover, we demonstrated the typical asymmetrical pattern of stress responses in upper temporal cortex areas, and suggested that happiness/sadness emotional processing might be related to stress reduction by music.
Puškarević, Irma; Nedeljković, Uroš; Novaković, Dragoljub
Understanding the nature of advertising principles or any other means of marketing communication that affects consume behavior has long been the subject of marketing research. The research of emotional response in relation to ad efficiency in this paper is an extension of the research previously conducted (Nedeljkovic et al., 2011). The aim of this research is to show how the ad content i.e. visual message in printed advertisements affects emotional response. Two hypotheses were postulated. F...
Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M.
Recent efforts to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotional experiences have provided a foundation for novel neurophysiological theories of emotions, adding to the existing body of psychophysiological, motivational, and evolutionary theories. Besides explicitly modeling human-specific emotions and considering the interactions between emotions and language, Koelsch et al.'s original contribution to this challenging endeavor is to identify four brain areas as distinct "affect systems" which differ in terms of emotional qualia and evolutionary pathways . Here, we comment on some features of this promising Quartet Theory of Emotions, focusing particularly on evolutionary and biological aspects related to the four affect systems and their relation to prevailing emotion theories, as well as on the role of music-induced emotions.
Full Text Available A major challenge in decoding human emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG data is finding representations that are invariant to inter- and intrasubject differences. Most of the previous studies are focused in building an individual discrimination model for every subject (subject dependent model. Building subject-independent models is a harder problem due to the high data variability between different subjects and different experiments with the same subject. This paper explores, for the first time, the Factor Analysis as an efficient technique to extract temporal and spatial EEG features suitable to build brain-computer interface for decoding human emotions across various subjects. Our findings show that early waves (temporal window of 200–400 ms after the stimulus onset carry more information about the valence of the emotion. Also, spatial location of features, with a stronger impact on the emotional valence, occurs in the parietal and occipital regions of the brain. All discrimination models (NN, SVM, kNN, and RF demonstrate better discrimination rate of the positive valence. These results match closely experimental psychology hypothesis that, during early periods after the stimulus presentation, the brain response—to images with highly positive valence—is stronger.
– Study A investigates the effect of fixed time displacements within and between the parts played by different musicians. Listeners (n = 160 reacted negatively to irregularities within the drum track, but the mutual displacement of bass vs. drums did not have an effect.– Study B develops three metrics to calculate the average microtiming magnitude in a musical excerpt. The experiment showed that listeners' (n = 160 emotional responses to expert performance microtiming aligned with each other across styles, when microtiming magnitude was adjusted for rhythmic density. This indicates that rhythmic density is a unifying moderator for listeners' emotional response to microtiming in swing and funk.– Study C used the data from both experiments in order to compare the effect of fixed microtiming displacements (from Study A with scaled versions of the originally performed microtiming patterns (from Study B. It showed that fixed snare drum displacements irritated expert listeners more than the more flexible deviations occurring in the original performances. This provides some evidence that listeners' emotional response to microtiming deviations not only depends on the magnitude of the deviations, but also on the kind and origin of the microtiming patterns (fixed lab displacements vs. flexible performance microtiming.
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. In order to simulate virtual humans more realistically and enable them life-like behaviours, several exploration research on emotion calculation, synthetic perception, and decision making process have been discussed. A series of sub-modules have been designed and simulation results have been presented with discussion. A visual based synthetic perception system has been proposed in this th...
Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been involved in the regulation of anxiety, and proposed as an inhibitory modulator of neuronal, behavioral and adrenocortical responses to stressful stimuli. Brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus and cortex, which are directly involved in the regulation of emotional behavior, contain high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors show anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors as well as an altered hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activity, whereas enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Genetic and pharmacological approaches also support an involvement of endocannabinoids in extinction of aversive memories. Thus, the endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in the regulation of emotional states. Endocannabinoids have emerged as mediators of short- and long- term synaptic plasticity in diverse brain structures. Despite the fact that most of the studies on this field have been performed using in vitro models, endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity might be considered as a plausible candidate underlying some of the diverse physiological functions of the endogenous cannabinoid system, including developmental, affective and cognitive processes. In this paper, we will focus on the functional relevance of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity within the framework of emotional responses. Alterations of the endocannabinoid system may constitute an important factor in the aetiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, and, in turn, enhancers of endocannabinoid signaling could represent a potential therapeutical tool in the treatment of both anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Akimoto, Yoritaka; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Miyazawa, Shiho; Kawashima, Ryuta
Verbal irony conveys various emotional messages, from criticism to humor, that differ from the meaning of the actual words. To understand irony, we need conceptual knowledge of irony in addition to an understanding of context. We investigated the neural mechanism of irony comprehension, focusing on two overlooked issues: conceptual knowledge and emotional response. We studied 35 healthy subjects who underwent functional MRI. During the scan, the subject examined first-person-view stories describing verbal interactions, some of which included irony directed toward the subject. After MRI, the subject viewed the stories again and rated the degree of irony, humor, and negative emotion evoked by the statements. We identified several key findings about irony comprehension: (1) the right anterior superior temporal gyrus may be responsible for representing social conceptual knowledge of irony, (2) activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior inferior temporal gyrus might underlie the understanding of context, (3) modulation of activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the degree of irony perceived, and (4) modulation of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex varies with the degree of humor perceived. Our results clarified the differential contributions of the neural loci of irony comprehension, enriching our understanding of pragmatic language communication from a social behavior point of view. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Emotional processing is lateralized to the non-dominant brain hemisphere. However, there is no clear spatial model for lateralization of emotional domains in the basal ganglia. The subthalamic nucleus (STN, an input structure in the basal ganglia network, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD. This role is probably not limited only to the motor deficits of PD, but may also span the emotional and cognitive deficits commonly observed in PD patients. Beta oscillations (12-30Hz, the electrophysiological signature of PD, are restricted to the dorsolateral part of the STN that corresponds to the anatomically defined sensorimotor STN. The more medial, more anterior and more ventral parts of the STN are thought to correspond to the anatomically defined limbic and associative territories of the STN. Surprisingly, little is known about the electrophysiological properties of the non-motor domains of the STN, nor about electrophysiological differences between right and left STNs.In this study, microelectrodes were utilized to record the STN spontaneous spiking activity and responses to vocal non-verbal emotional stimuli during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgeries in human PD patients. The oscillation properties of the STN neurons were used to map the dorsal oscillatory and the ventral non-oscillatory regions of the STN. Emotive auditory stimulation evoked activity in the ventral non-oscillatory region of the right STN. These responses were not observed in the left ventral STN or in the dorsal regions of either the right or left STN. Therefore, our results suggest that the ventral non-oscillatory regions are asymmetrically associated with non-motor functions, with the right ventral STN associated with emotional processing. These results suggest that DBS of the right ventral STN may be associated with beneficial or adverse emotional effects observed in PD patients and may relieve mental symptoms in other neurological and
Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.
Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…
Martínez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Moya, Miguel; Vaes, Jeroen
The present research examines the relationship between the infrahumanization approach and the two-dimensional model of humanness: an issue that has received very little empirical attention. In Study 1, we created three unknown groups (Humanized, Animalized, and Mechanized) granting/denying them Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU) traits. The attribution of primary/secondary emotions was measured. As expected, participants attributed more secondary emotions to the humanized compared to dehumanized groups. Importantly, both animalized and mechanized groups were attributed similar amounts of secondary emotions. In Study 2, the groups were described in terms of their capacity to express secondary emotions. We measured the attribution of HN/HU traits. Results showed that the infrahumanized group was denied both HU/HN traits. The results highlight the importance of considering the common aspects of both approaches in understanding processes of dehumanization.
Nolden, Sophie; Rigoulot, Simon; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Armony, Jorge L
Emotions can be conveyed through a variety of channels in the auditory domain, be it via music, non-linguistic vocalizations, or speech prosody. Moreover, recent studies suggest that expertise in one sound category can impact the processing of emotional sounds in other sound categories as they found that musicians process more efficiently emotional musical and vocal sounds than non-musicians. However, the neural correlates of these modulations, especially their time course, are not very well understood. Consequently, we focused here on how the neural processing of emotional information varies as a function of sound category and expertise of participants. Electroencephalogram (EEG) of 20 non-musicians and 17 musicians was recorded while they listened to vocal (speech and vocalizations) and musical sounds. The amplitude of EEG-oscillatory activity in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band was quantified and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was used to identify underlying components of brain activity in each band. Category differences were found in theta and alpha bands, due to larger responses to music and speech than to vocalizations, and in posterior beta, mainly due to differential processing of speech. In addition, we observed greater activation in frontal theta and alpha for musicians than for non-musicians, as well as an interaction between expertise and emotional content of sounds in frontal alpha. The results reflect musicians' expertise in recognition of emotion-conveying music, which seems to also generalize to emotional expressions conveyed by the human voice, in line with previous accounts of effects of expertise on musical and vocal sounds processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura
There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…
Engelhard, I.M.; Krypotos, A.M.; Leer, A.; van Dis, E.A.M.
This experiment tested whether dual-tasking (i.e., recalling the emotional memory while performing a visuospatial dual-task) neutralizes emotional memory, thereby decreasing conditioned responses. Undergraduates completed a differential conditioning paradigm with pictures of food items as
Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Kirkovski, Melissa; Fornito, Alex; Paton, Bryan; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Enticott, Peter G
Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activation of the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS) can be elicited via visuomotor training. This is generally interpreted as supporting an associative learning account of the mirror neuron system (MNS) that argues against the ontogeny of the MNS to be an evolutionary adaptation for social cognition. The current study assessed whether a central component of social cognition, emotion processing, would influence the MNS activity to trained visuomotor associations, which could support a broader role of the MNS in social cognition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed repetition suppression to the presentation of stimulus pairs involving a simple hand action and a geometric shape that was either congruent or incongruent with earlier association training. Each pair was preceded by an image of positive, negative, or neutral emotionality. In support of an associative learning account of the MNS, repetition suppression was greater for trained pairs compared with untrained pairs in several regions, primarily supplementary motor area (SMA) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). This response, however, was not modulated by the valence of the emotional images. These findings argue against a fundamental role of emotion processing in the mirror neuron response, and are inconsistent with theoretical accounts linking mirror neurons to social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fredslund, Jakob; Cañamero, Lola D.
We report work on a LEGO robot capable of displaying several emo- tional expressions in response to physical contact. Our motivation has been to explore believable emotional exchanges to achieve plausible interaction with a simple robot. We have worked toward this goal in two ways. First......, acknowledging the importance of physical manipulation in children's inter- actions, interaction with the robot is through tactile stimulation; the various kinds of stimulation that can elicit the robot's emotions are grounded in a model of emotion activation based on different stimulation patterns. Sec- ond......, emotional states need to be clearly conveyed. We have drawn inspira- tion from theories of human basic emotions with associated universal facial expressions, which we have implemented in a caricaturized face. We have conducted experiments on both children and adults to assess the recogniz- ability...
Hastings, Janna; Brass, Andy; Caine, Colin; Jay, Caroline; Stevens, Robert
We evaluate the application of the Emotion Ontology (EM) to the task of self-reporting of emotional experience in the context of audience response to academic presentations at the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). Ontology evaluation is regarded as a difficult task. Types of ontology evaluation range from gauging adherence to some philosophical principles, following some engineering method, to assessing fitness for purpose. The Emotion Ontology (EM) represents emotions and all related affective phenomena, and should enable self-reporting or articulation of emotional states and responses; how do we know if this is the case? Here we use the EM 'in the wild' in order to evaluate the EM's ability to capture people's self-reported emotional responses to a situation through use of the vocabulary provided by the EM. To achieve this evaluation we developed a tool, EmOntoTag, in which audience members were able to capture their self-reported emotional responses to scientific presentations using the vocabulary offered by the EM. We furthermore asked participants using the tool to rate the appropriateness of an EM vocabulary term for capturing their self-assessed emotional response. Participants were also able to suggest improvements to the EM using a free-text feedback facility. Here, we present the data captured and analyse the EM's fitness for purpose in reporting emotional responses to conference talks. Based on our analysis of this data set, our primary finding is that the audience are able to articulate their emotional response to a talk via the EM, and reporting via the EM ontology is able to draw distinctions between the audience's response to a speaker and between the speakers (or talks) themselves. Thus we can conclude that the vocabulary provided at the leaves of the EM are fit for purpose in this setting. We additionally obtained interesting observations from the experiment as a whole, such as that the majority of emotions captured had
Kinner, Valerie L; Kuchinke, Lars; Dierolf, Angelika M; Merz, Christian J; Otto, Tobias; Wolf, Oliver T
Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses. Thirty healthy females were presented with negative and neutral pictures and asked to maintain or up- and downregulate their upcoming emotional responses through reappraisal or distraction. Pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were significantly enhanced when viewing negative relative to neutral pictures. For the pupil, this emotional arousal effect manifested specifically late during the pupillary response. In accordance with subjective ratings, increasing negative emotions through reappraisal led to the most prominent pupil size enlargements, whereas no consistent effect for downregulation was found. In contrast, early peak dilations were enhanced in all emotion regulation conditions independent of strategy. Skin conductance responses were not further modulated by emotion regulation. These results indicate that pupil diameter is modulated by emotional arousal, but is initially related to the extent of mental effort required to regulate automatic emotional responses. Our data thus provide first evidence that the pupillary response might comprise two distinct temporal components reflecting cognitive emotion regulation effort on the one hand and emotion regulation success on the other hand. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri
Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228
Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri
Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds.
Emerging research clearly shows a link between emotions and the overall productivity of the participants in any service organization or business. The ability to understand one's own emotions and the emotions of others, and to express feelings in a proactive manner, is referred to as "emotional intelligence." The purpose of this article is to introduce the essential components of emotional intelligence and provide practical strategies for improving one's own emotional intelligence and that of colleagues, staff, or clients.
WANG Guojiang; WANG Zhiliang; TENG Shaodong; XIE Yinggang; WANG Yujie
Emotion plays an essential role in the adaptation and social communication of organisms.Similarly,an appropriately timed and clearly expressed emotion is a central requirement for believable interactive virtual humans.Presently,incorporating emotion into virtual humans has gained increasing attention in the academia and industry.This strong interest is driven by a wide spectrum of promising applications in many areas such as virtual reality,e-learning,entertainment,etc.This paper introduces an emotion model of artificial psychology,in which the transition of emotion can be viewed as a Markov process and the relation of emotion,external incentive and personality can be described by a Markov decision process (MDP).In order to demonstrate the approach,this paper integrates the emotion model into a system composed of voice recognition and a realistic facial model.Thus,the model could be used for generating a variety of emotional expressions of autonomous,interactive virtual human beings.
Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335
Miiamaaria V Kujala
Full Text Available Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory, empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic rheumatic diseases are painful conditions which are not entirely controllable and can place high emotional demands on individuals. Increasing evidence has shown that emotion regulation in terms of actively processing and expressing disease-related emotions are likely to promote positive adjustment in patients with chronic diseases. The Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC measures active attempts to acknowledge, understand, and express emotions. Although tested in other clinical samples, the EAC has not been validated for patients with rheumatic diseases. This study evaluated the data quality, internal consistency reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the EAC for this group of patients. Methods 220 patients with different rheumatic diseases were included in a cross-sectional study in which data quality and internal consistency were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire (BACQ and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20. Responsiveness was tested in a longitudinal pretest-posttest study of two different coping interventions, the Vitality Training Program (VTP and a Self-Management Program (SMP. Results The EAC had low levels of missing data. Results from principal component analysis supported two subscales, Emotional Expression and Emotional Processing, which had high Cronbach's alphas of 0.90 and 0.92, respectively. The EAC had correlations with approach-oriented items in the BACQ in the range 0.17-0.50. The EAC Expression scale had a significant negative correlation with the GHQ-20 of -0.13. As hypothesized, participation in the VTP significantly improved EAC scores, indicating responsiveness to change. Conclusion The EAC is an acceptable and valid instrument for measuring emotional processing and expression in patients with rheumatic diseases. The EAC scales were responsive to change in an intervention
Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Lindquist, Kristen A; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Duncan, Seth; Gendron, Maria; Mize, Jennifer; Brennan, Lauren
For almost 5 decades, the scientific study of emotion has been guided by the assumption that categories such as anger, sadness, and fear cut nature at its joints. Barrett (2006a) provided a comprehensive review of the empirical evidence from the study of emotion in humans and concluded that this assumption has outlived its usefulness. Panksepp and Izard have written lengthy papers (published in this issue) containing complementary but largely nonover lapping criticisms of Barrett (2006a). In our response, we address three of their concerns. First, we discuss the value of correlational versus experimental studies for evaluating the natural-kind model of emotion and refute the claim that the evidence offered in Barrett (2006a) was merely correlational. Second, we take up the issue of whether or not there is evidence for "coherently organized neural circuits for natural kinds of emotions in the mammalian brain and counter the claim that Barrett (2006a) ignored crucial evidence for existence of discrete emotions as natural kinds. Third, we address Panksepp and Izard's misconceptions of an alternative view, the conceptual act model of emotion, that was briefly discussed in Barrett (2006a). Finally, we end the article with some thoughts on how to move the scientific study of emotion beyond the debate over whether or not emotions are natural kinds. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I
The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness (Sanfey, Rilling, Aronson, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2003; van't Wout, Kahn, Sanfey, & Aleman, 2006). We recorded skin conductance responses as a measure of emotional activation while participants performed a modified version of the UG, in which they were asked to play both for themselves and on behalf of a third-party. Our findings show that even unfair offers are rejected when participants' payoff is not affected (third-party condition); however, they show an increase in the emotional activation specifically when they are rejecting offers directed towards themselves (myself condition). These results suggest that theories emphasizing negative emotions as the critical factor of "irrational" rejections (Pillutla & Murninghan, 1996) should be re-discussed. Psychological mechanisms other than emotions might be better candidates for explaining this behaviour.
Fukai, Mina; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Yuko; Miyagishi, Yoshiaki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Yokokura, Masamichi; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Minabe, Yoshio
The oxytocin (OT)-related serotonergic system is thought to play an important role in the etiology and social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no evidence exists for the relation between the prosocial effect of chronic OT administration and the brain serotonergic system. Ten male subjects with ASD were administered OT for 8-10 weeks in an open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, uncontrolled manner. Before and during the OT treatment, positron emission tomography was used with the ( 11 C)-3-amino-4-(2-[(demethylamino)methyl]phenylthio)benzonitrile( 11 C-DASB) radiotracer. Then binding of serotonin transporter ( 11 C-DASB BP ND ) was estimated. The main outcome measures were changes in 11 C-DASB BP ND and changes in the emotional response to others' faces. No significant change was found in the emotional response to others' faces after the 8-10 week OT treatment. However, the increased serotonin transporter (SERT) level in the striatum after treatment was correlated significantly with increased negative emotional response to human faces. This study revealed a relation between changes in the serotonergic system and in prosociality after chronic OT administration. Additional studies must be conducted to verify the chronic OT effects on social behavior via the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balconi, Michela; Grippa, Elisabetta; Vanutelli, Maria Elide
This study explored the effect of lateralized left-right resting brain activity on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues and on the explicit appraisal (stimulus evaluation) of emotions based on their valence. Indeed subjective responses to different emotional stimuli should be predicted by brain resting activity and should be lateralized and valence-related (positive vs negative valence). A hemodynamic measure was considered (functional near-infrared spectroscopy). Indeed hemodynamic resting activity and brain response to emotional cues were registered when subjects (N = 19) viewed emotional positive vs negative stimuli (IAPS). Lateralized index response during resting state, LI (lateralized index) during emotional processing and self-assessment manikin rating were considered. Regression analysis showed the significant predictive effect of resting activity (more left or right lateralized) on both brain response and appraisal of emotional cues based on stimuli valence. Moreover, significant effects were found as a function of valence (more right response to negative stimuli; more left response to positive stimuli) during emotion processing. Therefore, resting state may be considered a predictive marker of the successive cortical responsiveness to emotions. The significance of resting condition for emotional behavior was discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kniaz, V. V.; Smirnova, Z. N.
Human emotion identification from image sequences is highly demanded nowadays. The range of possible applications can vary from an automatic smile shutter function of consumer grade digital cameras to Biofied Building technologies, which enables communication between building space and residents. The highly perceptual nature of human emotions leads to the complexity of their classification and identification. The main question arises from the subjective quality of emotional classification of events that elicit human emotions. A variety of methods for formal classification of emotions were developed in musical psychology. This work is focused on identification of human emotions evoked by musical pieces using human face tracking and optical flow analysis. Facial feature tracking algorithm used for facial feature speed and position estimation is presented. Facial features were extracted from each image sequence using human face tracking with local binary patterns (LBP) features. Accurate relative speeds of facial features were estimated using optical flow analysis. Obtained relative positions and speeds were used as the output facial emotion vector. The algorithm was tested using original software and recorded image sequences. The proposed technique proves to give a robust identification of human emotions elicited by musical pieces. The estimated models could be used for human emotion identification from image sequences in such fields as emotion based musical background or mood dependent radio.
This paper explores the emotional responses that assignment feedback can provoke in first-year undergraduates. The literature on the link between emotions and learning is well established, but surprisingly research on the relationship between emotions and feedback is still relatively scarce. This article aims to make an additional contribution to…
This article explores the emotional responses to higher education of students with dependent children, and draws on 68 in-depth interviews conducted with student-parents in universities in the UK and Denmark. By focussing on one specific emotion--guilt--it contends that emotions are important in helping to understand the way in which particular…
Vatne, Torun M; Ruland, Cornelia M; Ørnes, Knut; Finset, Arnstein
One function of expressing emotion is to receive support. The aim of this study was to assess how children with heart disease express negative emotions during routine consultations, and examine the interaction between children's expressions and adults' responses. Seventy children, aged 7-13 years, completed measures of anxiety and were videotaped during cardiology visits. Adult-child interactions were analyzed using the Verona Definitions of Emotional Sequences. Children expressed negative emotion, mainly in subtle ways; however, adults rarely recognized and responded to these expressions. The frequency of children's expressions and adults' responses were related to the child's age, level of anxiety, and verbal participation. Children do not openly express negative emotions frequently during routine cardiac consultations; they are more likely to provide subtle cues of negative emotion. When expression of negative emotions does occur, adults may consider using the opportunity to explore the child's emotional experiences.
Aragón, Oriana R; Clark, Margaret S; Dyer, Rebecca L; Bargh, John A
Extremely positive experiences, and positive appraisals thereof, produce intense positive emotions that often generate both positive expressions (e.g., smiles) and expressions normatively reserved for negative emotions (e.g., tears). We developed a definition of these dimorphous expressions and tested the proposal that their function is to regulate emotions. We showed that individuals who express emotions in this dimorphous manner do so as a general response across a variety of emotionally provoking situations, which suggests that these expressions are responses to intense positive emotion rather than unique to one particular situation. We used cute stimuli (an elicitor of positive emotion) to demonstrate both the existence of these dimorphous expressions and to provide preliminary evidence of their function as regulators of emotion. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M; Dukewich, Tammy L
Addressing a gap in methodological approaches to the study of links between marital conflict and children, 51 couples were trained to complete home diary reports on everyday marital conflicts and children's responses. Parental negative emotionality and destructive conflict tactics related to children's insecure emotional and behavioral responses. Parental positive emotionality and constructive conflict tactics were linked with children's secure emotional responding. When parents' emotions and tactics were considered in the same model, negative emotionality was more consistently related to children's negative reactions than were destructive conflict tactics, whereas constructive conflict tactics were more consistently related to children's positive reactions than parents' positive emotionality. Differences in children's responding as a function of specific parental negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear) and parent gender were identified.
Andreas G. Rösch
Full Text Available We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009. Implicit motives and activity inhibition were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (Schultheiss et al., 2009b. Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (Bradley and Lang, 1994 in a sample of 84 participants. We found that people with either a strong implicit power or achievement motive experienced stronger arousal, while people with a strong affiliation motive experienced less aroused and felt more unpleasant across emotions. Additionally, we obtained significant power motive × activity inhibition interactions for arousal ratings in response to FEEs and neutral faces. Participants with a strong power motive and weak activity inhibition experienced stronger arousal after the presentation of neutral faces but no additional increase in arousal after the presentation of FEEs. Participants with a strong power motive and strong activity inhibition (inhibited power motive did not feel aroused by neutral faces. However, their arousal increased in response to all FEEs with the exception of happy faces, for which their subjective arousal decreased. These more differentiated reaction pattern of individuals with an inhibited power motive suggest that they engage in a more socially adaptive manner of responding to different FEEs. Our findings extend established links between implicit motives and affective processes found at the procedural level to declarative reactions to FEEs. Implications are discussed with respect to dual-process models of motivation and research in motive congruence.
Fourie, Melike M; Thomas, Kevin G F; Amodio, David M; Warton, Christopher M R; Meintjes, Ernesta M
Guilt, shame, and embarrassment are quintessential moral emotions with important regulatory functions for the individual and society. Moral emotions are, however, difficult to study with neuroimaging methods because their elicitation is more intricate than that of basic emotions. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI), we employed a novel social prejudice paradigm to examine specific brain regions associated with real-time moral emotion, focusing on guilt and related moral-negative emotions. The paradigm induced intense moral-negative emotion (primarily guilt) in 22 low-prejudice individuals through preprogrammed feedback indicating implicit prejudice against Black and disabled people. fMRI data indicated that this experience of moral-negative emotion was associated with increased activity in anterior paralimbic structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula, in addition to areas associated with mentalizing, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus. Of significance was prominent conflict-related activity in the supragenual ACC, which is consistent with theories proposing an association between acute guilt and behavioral inhibition. Finally, a significant negative association between self-reported guilt and neural activity in the pregenual ACC suggested a role of self-regulatory processes in response to moral-negative affect. These findings are consistent with the multifaceted self-regulatory functions of moral-negative emotions in social behavior.
Chaya, C.; Pacoud, J.; Ng, May Ling; Fenton, A.; Hort, Joanne
In today’s extremely competitive markets, recent studies have highlighted that using hedonic measurement alone is inadequate for evaluating consumer product experience. Measuring emotional response is suggested to provide a richer insight into consumer responses. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure consumer emotional responses to beer; (ii) determine if a relationship exists between sensory and emotional attributes of products; and finally (iii) investigate the relative impact o...
Volkova, Svitlana; Chetviorkin, Ilia; Arendt, Dustin L.; Van Durme, Ben
We propose an approach for contrasting spatiotemporal dynamics of public opinions expressed toward targeted entities, also known as stance detection task, in Russia and Ukraine during crisis. Our analysis relies on a novel corpus constructed from posts on the VKontakte social network, centered on local public opinion of the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian crisis, along with newly annotated resources for predicting expressions of fine-grained emotions including joy, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise and fear. Akin to prior work on sentiment analysis we align traditional public opinion polls with aggregated automatic predictions of sentiments for contrastive geo-locations. We report interesting observations on emotional response and stance variations across geo-locations. Some of our findings contradict stereotypical misconceptions imposed by media, for example, we found posts from Ukraine that do not support Euromaidan but support Putin, and posts from Russia that are against Putin but in favor USA. Furthermore, we are the first to demonstrate contrastive stance variations over time across geo-locations using storyline visualization technique.
Taylor, Charles T; Knapp, Sarah E; Bomyea, Jessica A; Ramsawh, Holly J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thirty-five Master's students in the fields of business, design and engineering participated in an intensive five-day project-based introduction to programming and advanced electronics. The goal of the initiative was to build a fully functional prototype robot able to communicate and show at least four basic human emotions. A group of students is presenting a prototype robot showing human emotions at IdeaSquare. With no previous experience in electronics or coding, groups of students from Portugal, Italy, Norway and Estonia were introduced to the basics of sensors, integrated circuits and actuators, and after just 96 hours they presented their functioning robots at IdeaSquare on Friday, 15 January. These robots, mostly built around Arduino boards and recycled materials, were able to display different human emotions as a response to external environmental inputs. The five-day workshop, called öBot, was organised by the IdeaSquare te...
Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina
Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender...... of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify...
Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian
Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…
White, E. Jayne
This article challenges traditional approaches to emotion as a discreet biological or dialectic process in the early years. In doing so the proposition is made that emotion is an answerable social act of meaning-making and self-hood. Inspired by Bakhtinian philosophy, which resists separating emotion from cognition or the individual from their…
Horii Takato; Nagai Yukie; Asada Minoru
Humans can express their own emotion and estimate the emotional states of others during communication. This paper proposes a unified model that can estimate the emotional states of others and generate emotional self-expressions. The proposed model utilizes a multimodal restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) —a type of stochastic neural network. RBMs can abstract latent information from input signals and reconstruct the signals from it. We use these two characteristics to r...
Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin
Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered.
Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Szczepanik, Joanna; Khanna, Ashish; Nugent, Allison; Zarate, Carlos A
Faster acting antidepressants and biomarkers that predict treatment response are needed to facilitate the development of more effective treatments for patients with major depressive disorders. Here, we evaluate implicitly and explicitly processed emotional faces using neuroimaging to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response to the antimuscarinic, scopolamine. Healthy participants (n=15) and unmedicated-depressed major depressive disorder patients (n=16) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover infusion study using scopolamine (4 μg/kg). Before and following scopolamine, blood oxygen-level dependent signal was measured using functional MRI during a selective attention task. Two stimuli comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Participants attended to one stimulus component and performed a matching task. Face emotion was modulated (happy/sad) creating implicit (attend-houses) and explicit (attend-faces) emotion processing conditions. The pretreatment difference in blood oxygen-level dependent response to happy and sad faces under implicit and explicit conditions (emotion processing biases) within a-priori regions of interest was correlated with subsequent treatment response in major depressive disorder. Correlations were observed exclusively during implicit emotion processing in the regions of interest, which included the subgenual anterior cingulate (Pemotional faces prior to treatment reflect the potential to respond to scopolamine. These findings replicate earlier results, highlighting the potential for pretreatment neural activity in the middle occipital cortices and subgenual anterior cingulate to inform us about the potential to respond clinically to scopolamine. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.
This study suggests that fighting against different types of opponents in video games (e.g., human opponents vs. monster opponents) may lead to different emotional responses and moral judgments toward game characters. Based on Bandura's moral disengagement theory, this study proposes that shooting at monster opponents makes game players feel less guilty and judge the player-controlled character as more morally justified. An experiment was conducted in which participants played shooting games with either human opponents or monster opponents. The results show that when playing against monster opponents, participants felt both less ashamed and less guilty, reported enjoying the game more, and judged their character as more justified than participants who played against human opponents.
Full Text Available Research on outgroup infrahumanization is based on the subtle and not deliberate distinction of secondary emotions, an exclusively human emotion, and primary emotions, which are shared by animals and human beings. According to prior studies, people attribute more secondary emotions to the ingroup than to the outgroup which they deny or restrict the ability to experience them. This study presents normative measures for 148 emotional words viewed by Spanish people in seven dimensions related to humanity assessments. Two factors were revealed by the principal components analysis (PCA. The first component was loaded on dimensions that differentiate the emotions depending on the cognitive demands (cognition, moral quality and duration whereas the second one was loaded on their expressive profile (visibility, age at which they are acquired, universality and causal locus. These dimensions were analyzed in relation to desirability, familiarity and explicit humanity.
Endo, Hiroko; Yukawa, Shintaro
The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.
小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏
Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children’s socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking deficits in emotional clarity to childhood depressive symptoms. Participants included 345 3rd graders (M age = 8.89, SD = .34) assessed at two waves, appr...
Sperduti, Marco; Arcangeli, Margherita; Makowski, Dominique; Wantzen, Prany; Zalla, Tiziana; Lemaire, Stéphane; Dokic, Jérôme; Pelletier, Jérôme; Piolino, Pascale
For over forty years, philosophers have struggled with the "paradox of fiction", which is the issue of how we can get emotionally involved with fictional characters and events. The few neuroscientific studies investigating the distinction between the processing of real and fictional entities have evidenced that midline cortical structures and lateral fronto-parietal regions are more engaged for real and fictional entities, respectively. Interestingly, the former network is engaged in autobiographical memory retrieval and self-reference, processes that are known to boost emotional reactivity, while the latter underpins emotion regulation. Thus, a possible modulation of the emotional response according to the nature (real or fictional) of the stimulus is conceivable. To test this hypothesis, we presented short emotional (negative and positive) and neutral video as fictional or real. For negative material, we found that subjective emotional experience, but not physiological arousal measured by electrodermal activity, was reduced in the fictional condition. Moreover, the amount of personal memories linked to the scenes counteracted this effect boosting the subjective emotional response. On the contrary, personal memories elicited by the scenes, but not fiction, modulate the emotional response for positive material. These results suggest that when a stimulus triggers a personal memory, the emotional response is less prone to be modulated by contextual factors, and suggest that personal engagement could be responsible for emotional reaction toward fiction. We discuss these results in the emotion regulation framework and underline their implications in informing theoretical accounts of emotion in the neuroscientific domain and the philosophical debate on the paradox of emotional response to fiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Allergic responses are enhanced by stress, whereas they are reduced by laughter in atopic eczema patients. Emotion with tears decreases plasma IL-6 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the effect of emotion with tears on allergic responses in patients with atopic eczema was studied. Sixty patients with atopic eczema having latex allergy viewed both the weather information video and the heart-warming movie, Kramer vs. Kramer. Just before and immediately after viewing each video, allergic responses to latex were measured. Viewing the weather information video did not cause emotion with tears in any patients, and it failed to modulate allergic responses. In contrast, viewing Kramer vs. Kramer caused emotion with tears in 44 of 60 patients, and it reduced allergic skin wheal responses to latex and latex-specific IgE production in them. Emotion with tears reduced allergic responses, and it may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases.
Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, J. van
For decennia the cerebellum has largely been excluded from scientific enquiry beyond motor function. However, the intimate afferent and efferent connections to the midbrain and limbic system provide for the neuroanatomical foundation of cerebellar involvement in emotion and emotional disorders.
Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Peciña, Susana; Lin, Xu; Li, Mingyan; Sturza, Julia; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy
To study the interplay between motor learning and emotional responses of young infants, we developed a contingent learning paradigm that included two related, difficult, operant tasks. We also coded facial expression to characterise emotional response to learning. In a sample of nine-month-old healthy Chinese infants, 44.7% achieved learning threshold during this challenging arm-conditioning test. Some evidence of learning was observed at the beginning of the second task. The lowest period of negative emotions coincided with the period of maximum movement responses after the initiation of the second task, and movement responses negatively correlated with the frequency of negative emotions. Positive emotions, while generally low throughout the task, increased during peak performance especially for learners. Peak frequency of movement responses was positively correlated with the frequency of positive emotions. Despite the weak evidence of learning this difficult task, our results from the learners would suggest that increasing positive emotions, and perhaps down-regulating negative emotional responses, may be important for improving performance and learning a complex operant task in infancy. Further studies are necessary to determine the role of emotions in learning difficult tasks in infancy.
Qu, C.; Brinkman, W.P.; Ling, Y.; Wiggers, P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.
Virtual reality applications with virtual humans, such as virtual reality exposure therapy, health coaches and negotiation simulators, are developed for different contexts and usually for users from different countries. The emphasis on a virtual human's emotional expression depends on the
Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando
Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Demir, E.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Hekkert, P.
Emotional design, i.e., designing with an intention to evoke or to prevent a particular emotion, can be facilitated by understanding the processes underlying emotions. A promising approach to understanding these processes in the current psychological literature is appraisal theory. Appraisal theory
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.
This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…
Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.
We explored whether students' perceptions of emotional and instrumental support provided by their mathematics teacher constitute separate dimensions of teacher support and how they are related. We also analyzed how students' perceptions of emotional and instrumental support in math lessons relate to math anxiety, intrinsic motivation, help-seeking…
Gevarter, William B.
The successful results of the first stage of a research effort to develop a versatile computer model of motivated human cognitive behavior are reported. Most human decision making appears to be an experience-based, relatively straightforward, largely automatic response to situations, utilizing cues and opportunities perceived from the current environment. The development, considering emotions, of the architecture and computer program associated with such 'recognition-primed' decision-making is described. The resultant computer program (MoCog1) was successfully utilized as a vehicle to simulate earlier findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient the individual toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior in response to their environment.
Koelsch, Stefan; Jacobs, Arthur M; Menninghaus, Winfried; Liebal, Katja; Klann-Delius, Gisela; von Scheve, Christian; Gebauer, Gunter
Despite an explosion of research in the affective sciences during the last few decades, interdisciplinary theories of human emotions are lacking. Here we present a neurobiological theory of emotions that includes emotions which are uniquely human (such as complex moral emotions), considers the role of language for emotions, advances the understanding of neural correlates of attachment-related emotions, and integrates emotion theories from different disciplines. We propose that four classes of emotions originate from four neuroanatomically distinct cerebral systems. These emotional core systems constitute a quartet of affect systems: the brainstem-, diencephalon-, hippocampus-, and orbitofrontal-centred affect systems. The affect systems were increasingly differentiated during the course of evolution, and each of these systems generates a specific class of affects (e.g., ascending activation, pain/pleasure, attachment-related affects, and moral affects). The affect systems interact with each other, and activity of the affect systems has effects on - and interacts with - biological systems denoted here as emotional effector systems. These effector systems include motor systems (which produce actions, action tendencies, and motoric expression of emotion), peripheral physiological arousal, as well as attentional and memory systems. Activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language. Moreover, conscious cognitive appraisal (involving rational thought, logic, and usually language) can regulate, modulate, and partly initiate, activity of affect systems and effector systems. Our emotion theory integrates psychological, neurobiological, sociological, anthropological, and psycholinguistic perspectives on emotions in an interdisciplinary manner, aiming to advance the understanding of human emotions and their neural correlates
Koelsch, Stefan; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Menninghaus, Winfried; Liebal, Katja; Klann-Delius, Gisela; von Scheve, Christian; Gebauer, Gunter
Despite an explosion of research in the affective sciences during the last few decades, interdisciplinary theories of human emotions are lacking. Here we present a neurobiological theory of emotions that includes emotions which are uniquely human (such as complex moral emotions), considers the role of language for emotions, advances the understanding of neural correlates of attachment-related emotions, and integrates emotion theories from different disciplines. We propose that four classes of emotions originate from four neuroanatomically distinct cerebral systems. These emotional core systems constitute a quartet of affect systems: the brainstem-, diencephalon-, hippocampus-, and orbitofrontal-centred affect systems. The affect systems were increasingly differentiated during the course of evolution, and each of these systems generates a specific class of affects (e.g., ascending activation, pain/pleasure, attachment-related affects, and moral affects). The affect systems interact with each other, and activity of the affect systems has effects on - and interacts with - biological systems denoted here as emotional effector systems. These effector systems include motor systems (which produce actions, action tendencies, and motoric expression of emotion), peripheral physiological arousal, as well as attentional and memory systems. Activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language. Moreover, conscious cognitive appraisal (involving rational thought, logic, and usually language) can regulate, modulate, and partly initiate, activity of affect systems and effector systems. Our emotion theory integrates psychological, neurobiological, sociological, anthropological, and psycholinguistic perspectives on emotions in an interdisciplinary manner, aiming to advance the understanding of human emotions and their neural correlates.
Review by Koelsch et al.  presents an interdisciplinary theory of emotions, including a neurobiological emotion theory originating in four core emotional systems. The Quartet Theory (QT) includes specifically human emotions and considers the role of language for emotions. This comment considers questions about how the QT can address aesthetic emotions, what class of emotions they are, and what their function in cognition is. Can QT help defining aesthetic emotions neurally and functionally? Such a definition of aesthetic emotions would be necessary for their scientific exploration, because as widely used today there is no definition, aesthetics is defined through art, and art through aesthetics. Since contents of many art museums are not accepted as art by many artists and admirers of art, it is not clear what should be the subject of aesthetic emotions research.
Katharina Sophia Goerlich
Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions (cognitive dimension and in the experience of emotions (affective dimension. Previous research focused mainly on visual emotional processing in the cognitive alexithymia dimension. We investigated the impact of both alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in 60 female subjects.During unattended processing, subjects watched a movie while an emotional prosody oddball paradigm was presented in the background. During attended processing, subjects detected deviants in emotional prosody. The cognitive alexithymia dimension was associated with a left-hemisphere bias during early stages of unattended emotional speech processing, and with generally reduced amplitudes of the late P3 component during attended processing. In contrast, the affective dimension did not modulate unattended emotional prosody perception, but was associated with reduced P3 amplitudes during attended processing particularly to emotional prosody spoken in high intensity.Our results provide evidence for a dissociable impact of the two alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses during the attended and unattended processing of emotional prosody. The observed electrophysiological modulations are indicative of a reduced sensitivity to the emotional qualities of speech, which may be a contributing factor to problems in interpersonal communication associated with alexithymia.
Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine D; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Barsalou, Lawrence W
Research on the "emotional brain" remains centered around the idea that emotions like fear, happiness, and sadness result from specialized and distinct neural circuitry. Accumulating behavioral and physiological evidence suggests, instead, that emotions are grounded in core affect--a person's fluctuating level of pleasant or unpleasant arousal. A neuroimaging study revealed that participants' subjective ratings of valence (i.e., pleasure/displeasure) and of arousal evoked by various fear, happiness, and sadness experiences correlated with neural activity in specific brain regions (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala, respectively). We observed these correlations across diverse instances within each emotion category, as well as across instances from all three categories. Consistent with a psychological construction approach to emotion, the results suggest that neural circuitry realizes more basic processes across discrete emotions. The implicated brain regions regulate the body to deal with the world, producing the affective changes at the core of emotions and many other psychological phenomena.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. METHODS: 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1 electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2 autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing. RESULTS: DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.
Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira
Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W
high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation......While emotionality is often thought of as a risk factor, differential susceptibility theory argues that emotionality reflects susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study explored whether emotional children might be more susceptible to the effects of both...
Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha
Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.
Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…
van der Zwaag, Marjolein; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon
People often listen to music to influence their emotional state. However, the specific musical characteristics which cause this process are not yet fully understood. We have investigated the influence of the musical characteristics of tempo, mode and percussiveness on our emotions. In a quest
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan; Prast, Henriette
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals
Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter
In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Emotions are affective states of short duration, with concomitant vegetative symptoms, triggered by an internal or external perception. There are primary or universal emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, secondary or social emo- tions (compassion, shame, guilt, contempt, jealousy, envy, pride, admiration and background emotions (wellbeing, malaise, calm, tension. Emotions are complex programs of actions shaped by evolution. The actions are completed by a cognitive program, but the world of emotions is primarily a world of actions carried out in our body from the facial expressions and body positions to the changes in the viscera and internal milieu. We can consider emotion as a primary value system of the brain, leading certain activations to be selectively reinforced. In clinical interviews we are often led from the line of verbal speech to the line of emotional speech. We use our own emotions or feelings as a way to detect discrepancies or incongruities in the relationship, probably between the channels of verbal, non-verbal and empathic communication. Carl Rogers made an important contribution to psychotherapy with his experience of unconditionally accepting the client, who comes to be heard, without prejudice or judgment. A feeling, an emotion, a reasoning were accepted with the same attention, care and respect. The forms of expression and the exact configuration of stimuli that can induce an emotion are different in different cultures and individuals. But what is striking is the similarity.
Renata Del Giudice
Full Text Available Emotionally relevant stimuli and in particular anger are, due to their evolutionary relevance, often processed automatically and able to modulate attention independent of conscious access. Here, we tested whether attention allocation is enhanced when auditory stimuli are uttered by an angry voice. We recorded EEG and presented healthy individuals with a passive condition where unfamiliar names as well as the subject's own name were spoken both with an angry and neutral prosody. The active condition instead, required participants to actively count one of the presented (angry names. Results revealed that in the passive condition the angry prosody only elicited slightly stronger delta synchronization as compared to a neutral voice. In the active condition the attended (angry target was related to enhanced delta/theta synchronization as well as alpha desynchronization suggesting enhanced allocation of attention and utilization of working memory resources. Altogether, the current results are in line with previous findings and highlight that attention orientation can be systematically related to specific oscillatory brain responses. Potential applications include assessment of non-communicative clinical groups such as post-comatose patients.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W
While emotionality is often thought of as a risk factor, differential susceptibility theory argues that emotionality reflects susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study explored whether emotional children might be more susceptible to the effects of both high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation. Allostatic load was measured at age 13 and 17 using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic biomarkers. Emotionality was associated with higher allostatic load if self-reported responsiveness was low, but with lower allostatic load, when self-reported responsiveness was high. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I.
The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness ([Sanfey et al., 2003] and [van't Wout et al., 2006]). We recorded skin conductance responses as…
Bosse, T.; Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.; Treur, J.
Learning to regulate one's emotions under threatening circumstances is important, among others, for professionals like police officers and military personnel. To explore the opportunities of Virtual Reality-based training for such professionals, this paper describes an experiment performed to
Shira Barzilay; Zimri S. Yaseen; Zimri S. Yaseen; Mariah Hawes; Bernard Gorman; Rachel Altman; Adriana Foster; Alan Apter; Paul Rosenfield; Igor Galynker; Igor Galynker
BackgroundMental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF), a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose o...
Lindquist, Kristen A; Wager, Tor D; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kober, Hedy; Barret, Lisa Feldman
In our response, we clarify important theoretical differences between basic emotion and psychological construction approaches. We evaluate the empirical status of the basic emotion approach, addressing whether it requires brain localization, whether localization can be observed with better analytic tools, and whether evidence for basic emotions exists in other types of measures. We then revisit the issue of whether the key hypotheses of psychological construction are supported by our meta-analytic findings. We close by elaborating on commentator suggestions for future research.
Emotion research in sensory and consumer science has gathered significant momentum over recent years and the development of effective emotion measurement methods is a priority in this rapidly growing area.\\ud \\ud The aim of this research was to advance the use of consumer-led emotion lexicons by using focus groups to increase the efficiency of lexicon generation and by decreasing the number of consumer response categories. In parallel, the ability of the newly generated reduced lexicon to dis...
Full Text Available We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What positioned at three specific locations (Where within a visual context (Which context. During the retrieval test, which occurred 24 to 72 hours after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors.
Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Ravel, Nadine; Thévenet, Marc; Garcia, Samuel; Plailly, Jane
We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What) positioned at three specific locations (Where) within a visual context (Which context). During the retrieval test, which occurred 24–72 h after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors. PMID:24936176
Huggard, Jayne; Nichols, Jan
Emotional support is important for health professionals working in the demanding area of hospice/palliative care. While physical safety practices and effective human resource support are generally available to staff, one New Zealand hospice has taken this a step further by developing an emotional safety policy that incorporates personal, professional, and organizational measures designed to protect and promote staff members' emotional safety and to minimize stress and fatigue. The aim of this paper is to provide the background and rationale for this work, to introduce a case study around best practice, and to describe the development of the emotional safety policy, which provides effective support for all staff working at the hospice.
White, Hannah J.; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J.; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline
This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the\\ud relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtim...
White, Hannah J.; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, D. J.; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman
This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEMA), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new...
White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline
This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context. Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew. Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence or affiliative (positive emotional valence context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM. Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms.
S I Kudinov
Full Text Available The problem of emotional burning out in teachers is discussed in the article. The results of the empirical research characterizing the different stages of the emotional burning out depending on the level of the responsibility manifestation in teachers are given.
Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.
This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…
Tops, Mattie; van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob
Reduced emotional expression has been consistently related to susceptibility or fast progression of breast cancer. Breast cancer development and reduced emotional expression have both been related to rejection- and separation-related conditions. The neuropeptide oxytocin is low in response to
Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.
Background: One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being
Wied, de M.; Boxtel, van Anton; Zaalberg, R.; Goudena, P.P.; Matthys, W.
Based on the assumption that facial mimicry is a key factor in emotional empathy, and clinical observations that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are weak empathizers, the present study explored whether DBD boys are less facially responsive to facial expressions of emotions than
Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel
Examines the effects of distancing tactics on self-esteem and emotions following a win or loss of one's favorite basketball team. Measures the self-esteem and emotional responses of basketball fans as they exited the sport arena after their team won or lost an official game. (CMK)
Uno, Tominori; Wang, L.; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo
We investigated the olfactory 'Kansei' information processing for two kinds of smells by measuring the brain activities associated with olfactory responses in humans. In this study, the brain activities related to discrimination and recognition of odors were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In experiment 1, odor stimuli (lemon-like and banana-like) were presented using a block design in a blinded manner, and the kind of fruits was identified by its odor. The frontal and temporal lobe, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, amygdaloid body and parahippocampal gyrus were primarily activated by each odor based on conjunction analysis. In experiment 2, as a result of performing an oddball experiment using the odors of experiment 1, the active areas were mainly found in the temporal lobe, superior and inferior parietal lobule, insula, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, these regions overlapped with the emotional circuit. These experimental results suggest that common brain activities accompany the discrimination and cognition associated with odor stimuli, which may underlie the olfactory responses relevant to the higher brain function and emotions associated with olfactory function. (author)
Kalafatakis, K; Russell, G M; Harmer, C J; Munafo, M R; Marchant, N; Wilson, A; Brooks, J C; Durant, C; Thakrar, J; Murphy, P; Thai, N J; Lightman, S L
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are secreted in an ultradian, pulsatile pattern that emerges from delays in the feedforward-feedback interaction between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands. Dynamic oscillations of GCs are critical for normal cognitive and metabolic function in the rat and have been shown to modulate the pattern of GC-sensitive gene expression, modify synaptic activity, and maintain stress responsiveness. In man, current cortisol replacement therapy does not reproduce physiological hormone pulses and is associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially apathy and attenuated motivation in engaging with daily activities. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the pattern of GC dynamics in the brain is of crucial importance for regulating cognitive and behavioral processes. We provide evidence that exactly the same dose of cortisol administered in different patterns alters the neural processing underlying the response to emotional stimulation, the accuracy in recognition and attentional bias toward/away from emotional faces, the quality of sleep, and the working memory performance of healthy male volunteers. These data indicate that the pattern of the GC rhythm differentially impacts human cognition and behavior under physiological, nonstressful conditions and has major implications for the improvement of cortisol replacement therapy.
Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)
Scherer, K R; Wallbott, H G
The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.
Carvalho, Margarida; Oliveira, Lídia
In the area of human-computer interaction, over the last decade, there has been a growing interest on emotional factors, valuing above all the user experience. Emotions play a crucial role - in terms of both performance and influence - in areas such as attention, motivation, memory, decision-making and behavior. Therefore, not only emotion influences the interaction with websites but they also trigger emotional responses, and these responses can determine which website users choose. Therefore...
The hippocampus is an integral part of the temporal limbic system during emotional processing. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.
Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha
The proposed quartet theory of human emotions by Koelsch and colleagues  identifies four different affect systems to be involved in the processing of particular types of emotions. Moreover, the theory integrates both basic emotions and more complex emotion concepts, which include also aesthetic emotions such as musical emotions. The authors identify a particular brain system for each kind of emotion type, also by contrasting them to brain structures that are generally involved in emotion processing irrespective of the type of emotion. A brain system that has been less regarded in emotion theories, but which represents one of the four systems of the quartet to induce attachment related emotions, is the hippocampus.
Seehausen, Maria; Kazzer, Philipp; Bajbouj, Malek; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Prehn, Kristin
Empathy is highly relevant for social behavior and can be verbally expressed by voicing sympathy and concern (emotional empathy) as well as by paraphrasing or stating that one can mentally reconstruct and understand another person's thoughts and feelings (cognitive empathy). In this study, we investigated the emotional effects and neural correlates of receiving empathic social responses after negative performance feedback and compared the effects of emotionally vs. cognitively empathic comments. 20 participants (10 male) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while receiving negative performance feedback for a cognitive task. Performance feedback was followed by verbal comments either expressing cognitive and emotional empathy or demonstrating a lack of empathy. Empathic comments in general led to less negative self-reported feelings and calmer breathing. At the neural level, empathic comments induced activity in regions associated with social cognition and emotion processing, specifically in right postcentral gyrus and left cerebellum (cognitively empathic comments), right precentral gyrus, the opercular part of left inferior frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (emotionally empathic comments), as well as the orbital part of the left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus (emotionally empathic vs. unempathic comments). The study shows that cognitively and emotionally empathic comments appear to be processed in partially separable neural systems. Furthermore, confirming and expanding on another study on the same subject, the present results demonstrate that the social display of cognitive empathy exerts almost as positive effects on the recipient's feelings and emotions in states of distress as emotionally empathic response does. This can be relevant for professional settings in which strong negative emotions need to be de-escalated while maintaining professional impartiality, which may allow the display of cognitive but not
Leerkes, Esther M; Siepak, Kathryn J
The purpose of this study was to examine associations among women's emotional and cognitive responses to infant fear and anger and to identify attachment linked predictors of these responses. Four hundred and forty Caucasian and African American undergraduate college women viewed video clips of two crying infants, one displaying anger and the other displaying fear. They identified what the infants were feeling, made causal attributions about the cause of crying, rated their own emotional reactions to the crying infants, and reported on the extent to which their parents met their emotional needs in childhood and their current adult attachment patterns. Emotional and cognitive responses to infant fear and anger were interrelated. Consistent with prediction, a history of parental emotional rejection and adult attachment anxiety and avoidance correlated negatively with accurate identification of emotions and positively with negative attributions, amusement, and neutral responses to infant distress. Adult attachment security moderated the effects of early parental rejection on emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress, and these results varied based on race and parent gender. Results are discussed from an attachment theory perspective.
Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.
Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account. PMID:21887307
Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M
Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account.
Benny B Briesemeister
Full Text Available Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account.
Margot A Schel
Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children.
Full Text Available Understanding the nature of advertising principles or any other means of marketing communication that affects consume behavior has long been the subject of marketing research. The research of emotional response in relation to ad efficiency in this paper is an extension of the research previously conducted (Nedeljkovic et al., 2011. The aim of this research is to show how the ad content i.e. visual message in printed advertisements affects emotional response. Two hypotheses were postulated. First, we expected more positive response for ads with predominating iconic content. The second hypothesis sought to determine if greater response latency can be expected for ads with dominant tropological content. The method of research was SAM visual method of self-assessment. Emotional response and response latency of the participants were measured for advertisements for food and beverage products and services in order to determine how visual ad content influences emotional response of the participants, as well as the effectiveness of the advertising campaign. In an experiment the participants could rate their emotional response using the Self-assessment Manikin (SAM scale toward both types of advertisements. At the same time the response latency was measured. The results show that the main hypothesis was neither confirmed nor rejected, whereas the second hypothesis was confirmed. We conclude that the attitude towards the ad, as mediating variable, is a good indicator of advertising effectiveness.
Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael
En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...
del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn; Berntsen, Dorthe
Retrieving personal memories may cause emotional reactions and thus a need for emotion regulation. Past research indicates that involuntary memories have a greater effect on mood that the voluntary counterparts. However, different dimensions of the emotional response (i.e., intensity and regulation...... regulation strategies in response to both involuntary and voluntary memories. The between-group differences were not accounted for by the individuals’ mood preceding memory retrieval or the valence of the remembered events. The results suggest an important effect of retrieval mode in the emotion regulation......) upon retrieval of both involuntary and voluntary personal memories have not been thoroughly examined. We examined individuals’ emotional intensity and regulation of everyday involuntary and voluntary memories during dysphoria and non-depression. Twenty dysphoric individuals and 23 non...
Brown, Rachael; James, Cheree; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G
The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally charged images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). SSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively charged images (erotica) or negatively charged images (mutilation) were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting 2 min. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction; however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively charged and negatively charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.
Pryor, K O; Root, J C; Mehta, M; Stern, E; Pan, H; Veselis, R A; Silbersweig, D A
Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects. Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection models. Propofol had no effect on the stereotypical amygdalar response to emotional arousal, but caused marked suppression of the hippocampal response. Propofol caused memory performance to become uncoupled from amygdalar activation, but it remained correlated with activation in the posterior hippocampus, which decreased in proportion to amnesia. Propofol is relatively ineffective at suppressing amygdalar activation at sedative doses, but abolishes emotional modulation and causes amnesia via mechanisms that commonly involve hyporesponsiveness of the hippocampus. These findings raise the possibility that amygdala-dependent fear systems may remain intact even when a patient has diminished memory of events. This may be of clinical importance in the perioperative development of fear-based psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. NCT00504894. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.
This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine
Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Sparks, Glenn G.
Assesses individuals' fear and enjoyment reactions to horror films, applying theories of cognition and affect that predict emotional responses to a stimulus on the basis of prior affect toward specific cues included in that stimulus. (MM)
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint attention ep...
van Marle, Hein J F; Hermans, Erno J; Qin, Shaozheng; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Fernández, Guillén
A host of animal work demonstrates that the retention benefit for emotionally aversive over neutral memories is regulated by glucocorticoid action during memory consolidation. Particularly, glucocorticoids may affect systems-level processes that promote the gradual reorganization of emotional memory traces. These effects remain largely uninvestigated in humans. Therefore, in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we administered hydrocortisone during a polysomnographically monitored night of sleep directly after healthy volunteers studied negative and neutral pictures in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. The following evening memory consolidation was probed during a recognition memory test in the MR scanner by assessing the difference in brain activity associated with memory for the consolidated items studied before sleep and new, unconsolidated items studied shortly before test (remote vs. recent memory paradigm). Hydrocortisone administration resulted in elevated cortisol levels throughout the experimental night with no group difference at recent encoding or test. Behaviorally, we showed that cortisol enhanced the difference between emotional and neutral consolidated memory, effectively prioritizing emotional memory consolidation. On a neural level, we found that cortisol reduced amygdala reactivity related to the retrieval of these same consolidated, negative items. These findings show that cortisol administration during first post-encoding sleep had a twofold effect on the first 24h of emotional memory consolidation. While cortisol prioritized recognition memory for emotional items, it reduced reactivation of the neural circuitry underlying emotional responsiveness during retrieval. These findings fit recent theories on emotional depotentiation following consolidation during sleep, although future research should establish the sleep-dependence of this effect. Moreover, our data may shed light on mechanisms underlying
Pick, Susannah; Mellers, John D C; Goldstein, Laura H
People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses [SCRs]) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use. It was predicted that greater subjective negativity and arousal and increased SCRs in response to the affective pictures would be observed in the DS group. The DS group as a whole did not differ from controls in their subjective responses of valence and arousal. However, SCR amplitudes were greater in 'autonomic responders' with DS relative to 'autonomic responders' in the control group. A positive correlation was also observed between SCRs for highly arousing negative pictures and self-reported ictal autonomic arousal, in DS 'autonomic responders'. In the DS subgroup of autonomic 'non-responders', differences in subjective responses were observed for some conditions, compared to control 'non-responders'. The findings indicate unaffected subjective responses to emotional images in people with DS overall. However, within the group of people with DS, there may be subgroups characterized by differences in emotional responding. One subgroup (i.e., 'autonomic responders') exhibit heightened autonomic responses but intact subjective emotional experience, whilst another subgroup (i.e., 'autonomic non-responders') seem to experience greater subjective negativity and arousal for some emotional stimuli, despite less frequent autonomic reactions. The current results suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting awareness and regulation of physiological arousal and subjective emotional experience could be of value in some people with this disorder
Meyer, Marcel; Kuchinke, Lars
Literature, music and the arts have long attested to the complexity of human emotions. Hitherto, psychological and biological theories of emotions have largely neglected this rich heritage. In their review Koelsch and colleagues  have embarked upon the pioneering endeavour of integrating the diverse perspectives in emotion research. Noting that the focus of prior neurobiological theories relies mainly on animal studies, the authors sought to complement this body of research with a model of complex ("moral") emotions in humans (henceforth: complex emotions). According to this novel framework, there are four main interacting affective centres in the brain. Each centre is associated with a dominant affective function, such as ascending activation (brainstem), pain/pleasure (diencephalon), attachment-related affects (hippocampus) or moral emotions and unconscious cognitive appraisal (orbitofrontal cortex). Furthermore, language is ascribed a key role in (a) the communication of subjective feeling (reconfiguration) and (b) in the conscious regulation of emotions (by means of logic and rational thought).
Rizzo, Albert; Morie, Jacquelyn F; Williams, Josh; Pair, Jarrell; Buckwalter, J. G
.... Real world military training often naturally includes stress induction that aims to promote a similarity of internal emotional stimulus cues with what is expected to be present on the battlefield...
Kate A. Woodcock
Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.
Blouin, Ashley M; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L; Staba, Richard J; Behnke, Eric J; Lam, Hoa A; Maidment, Nigel T; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Siegel, Jerome M
The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.
Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F.; Salichs, Miguel A.
In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. PMID:24240598
Mukhamejanova, Zukhra; Korbo, Kristie L.
Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management As the hospitality industry grows, so does the number of consumers booking hotels online. These consumers choose hotels based on webpage information such as hotel pictures and other promotional media. Given the importance of visual stimuli displayed on hotel webpages, little research effort has been devoted to the guests’ emotional response to hotel design. The aim of this study is to measure consumer’s emotional responses an...
Full Text Available Do our background beliefs, desires, and mental images influence our perceptual experience of the emotions of others? In this paper, we will address the possibility of cognitive penetration of perceptual experience in the domain of social cognition. In particular, we focus on emotion recognition based on the visual experience of facial expressions. After introducing the current debate on cognitive penetration, we review examples of perceptual adaptation for facial expressions of emotion. This evidence supports the idea that facial expressions are perceptually processed as wholes. That is, the perceptual system integrates lower-level facial features, such as eyebrow orientation, mouth angle etc., into facial compounds. We then present additional experimental evidence showing that in some cases, emotion recognition on the basis of facial expression is sensitive to and modified by the background knowledge of the subject. We argue that such sensitivity is best explained as a difference in the visual experience of the facial expression, not just as a modification of the judgment based on this experience. The difference in experience is characterized as the result of the interference of background knowledge with the perceptual integration process for faces. Thus, according to the best explanation, we have to accept cognitive penetration in some cases of emotion recognition. Finally, we highlight a recent model of social vision in order to propose a mechanism for cognitive penetration used in the face-based recognition of emotion.
Pringle, Abbie; Harmer, Catherine J
Human models of emotional processing suggest that the direct effect of successful antidepressant drug treatment may be to modify biases in the processing of emotional information. Negative biases in emotional processing are documented in depression, and single or short-term dosing with conventional antidepressant drugs reverses these biases in depressed patients prior to any subjective change in mood. Antidepressant drug treatments also modulate emotional processing in healthy volunteers, which allows the consideration of the psychological effects of these drugs without the confound of changes in mood. As such, human models of emotional processing may prove to be useful for testing the efficacy of novel treatments and for matching treatments to individual patients or subgroups of patients.
Steutel, Jan; Dam, Ellis van
Maintains that recent criticism of cognitive psychologists' conception of irrational emotions as marginal and ephemeral is misguided and inaccurate. Argues that this interpretation is a misstatement of the psychologists' position and analyzes the process resulting in this misinterpretation. Discusses the implications of these arguments for moral…
de Loos, Wolter Statius
Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This
Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross
Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of different media to psychological outcomes; postulates that print media are related to analytic cognition (reason) and electronic media to syncretic cognition (emotion). Two hundred forty magazine and television advertisements are analyzed in terms of attributes and reactions they invoke.…
Neuner, Irene; Kellermann, Thilo; Stöcker, Tony; Kircher, Tilo; Habel, Ute; Shah, Jon N; Schneider, Frank
Tourette's syndrome is characterised by motor and vocal tics as well as a high level of impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies point to structural changes of the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and parts of the limbic system. However, there is no link between behavioural symptoms and the structural changes in the amygdala. One aspect of daily social interaction is the perception of emotional facial expressions, closely linked to amgydala function. We therefore investigated via fMRI the implicit discrimination of six emotional facial expressions in 19 adult Tourette's patients. In comparison to healthy control group, Tourette's patients showed significantly higher amygdala activation, especially pronounced for fearful, angry and neutral expressions. The BOLD-activity of the left amygdala correlated negatively with the personality trait extraversion. We will discuss these findings as a result of either deficient frontal inhibition due to structural changes or a desynchronization in the interaction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network within structures of the limbic system. Our data show an altered pattern of implicit emotion discrimination and emphasize the need to consider motor and non-motor symptoms in Tourette's syndrome in the choice of both behavioural and pharmacological treatment.
Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.
This paper attempts to do three things. Firstly, in the light of growing concern over the expanding managerialism and rationalism within society in general and accounting education in particular, the paper presents a theoretical reappraisal of the extent to which conventional perspectives on rationalism and managerialism might be misconstrued. In particular, the paper address a question that relates to the role of emotion within business decision making: ‘while we might feel uneasy about basi...
There is increasing recognition that consumer aesthetics--the responses of consumers to the aesthetic or appearance aspects of products--has become an important area of marketing in recent years. Consumer aesthetic responses to a product are a source of pleasure for the consumer. Previous research into the aesthetic responses to products has often emphasized exterior factors and visual design, but studies have seldom considered the psychological aesthetic experience of consumers, and in particular their emotional state. This study attempts to bridge this gap by examining the link between consumers' emotions and their aesthetic response to a product. Thus, the major goal of this study was to determine how valence-based and discrete emotional states influence choice. In Studies 1 and 2, positive and negative emotions were manipulated to implement two different induction techniques and explore the effect of emotions on participants' choices in two separate experiments. The results of both experiments confirmed the predictions, indicating that aesthetic responses and purchase intention are functions of emotional valence, such that both are stronger for people in a positive emotional state than for those in a negative emotional state. Study 2 also used a neutral affective state to establish the robustness of this observed effect of incidental affect. The results of Study 3 demonstrate that aesthetic response and purchase intention are not only a function of affect valence, but also are affected by the certainty appraisal associated with specific affective states. This research, therefore, contributes to the literature by offering empirical evidence that incidental affect is a determinant of aesthetic response.
Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Bohus, Bela
In young Wistar rats conditioned emotional stress can be characterized by a learned bradycardiac response to an inescapable footshock. In aged rats this bradycardiac response is attenuated and accompanied by suppressed behavioral arousal in response to novelty. In the present study, cardiac
Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A
Emotion regulation strategies can alter behavioral and physiological responses to emotional stimuli and the neural correlates of those responses in regions such as the amygdala or striatum. The current study investigates the brain systems engaged when using an emotion regulation technique during financial decisions. In decision making, regulating emotion with reappraisal-focused strategies that encourage taking a different perspective has been shown to reduce loss aversion as observed both in choices and in the relative arousal responses to actual loss and gain outcomes. In the current study, we find using fMRI that behavioral loss aversion correlates with amygdala activity in response to losses relative to gains. Success in regulating loss aversion also correlates with the reduction in amygdala responses to losses but not to gains. Furthermore, across both decisions and outcomes, we find the reappraisal strategy increases baseline activity in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the striatum. The similarity of the neural circuitry observed to that seen in emotion regulation, despite divergent tasks, serves as further evidence for a role of emotion in decision making, and for the power of reappraisal to change assessments of value and thereby choices.
Full Text Available Oxytocin has been shown to promote a host of social behaviors in humans but the exact mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are unspecified. One prominent theory suggests that oxytocin increases approach and decreases avoidance to social stimuli. Another dominant theory posits that oxytocin increases the salience of social stimuli. Herein, we report a direct test of these hypotheses. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined approach-avoidance motor responses to social and non-social emotional stimuli. One hundred and twenty participants self-administered either 24 IU oxytocin or placebo and moved a lever toward or away from pictures of faces depicting emotional expressions or from natural scenes appearing before them on a computer screen. Lever movements toward stimuli decreased and movements away increased stimuli size producing the illusion that stimuli moved away from or approached participants. Reaction time data were recorded. The task produced the effects that were anticipated on the basis of the approach-avoidance literature in relation to emotional stimuli, yet the anticipated speeded approach and slowed avoidance responses to emotional faces by the oxytocin group were not observed. Interestingly, the oxytocin treatment group was faster to approach and avoid faces depicting disgust relative to the placebo group, suggesting a salience of disgust for the former group. Results also showed that within the oxytocin group women's reaction times to all emotional faces were faster than those of men, suggesting sex specific effects of oxytocin. The present findings provide the first direct evidence that intranasal oxytocin administration does not enhance approach/avoidance to social stimuli and does not exert a stronger effect on social vs. non-social stimuli in the context of processing of emotional expressions and scenes. Instead, our data suggest that oxytocin administration increases the salience of certain social stimuli
Munneke, Jaap; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; Little, Bethany; Kooiman, Karen; van der Burg, Erik; Theeuwes, Jan
Objective Two major etiological theories on psychopathy propose different mechanisms as to how emotional facial expressions are processed by individuals with elevated psychopathic traits. The Response Modulation Hypothesis (RMH) proposes that psychopathic individuals show emotional deficits as a
Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H
Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available The concept of emotional intelligence has become so popular in the management literature that it has become imperative to understand and leverage it for the sake of enhancing the capacity of human capital in organizations. As the pace of change is increasing and world of work is making ever greater demands on a person’s cognitive, emotional and physical resources, this particular set of abilities are becoming increasingly important. Since majority of the concerns in organization involve people in different roles, emotional intelligence must become a determining factor for their effective management. It has also been found that ultimately it is the emotional and personal competencies that we need to identify and measure if we want to be able to predict performance at workplace resulting in its effectiveness, thereby enhancing the worth of the human capital. In this scenario the competencies possessed by the people will have a bearing on the extent to which they can actualize their emotional intelligence. The current paper sets out to examine the relationship between the emotional intelligence of executives in Indian business organizations with their personal competencies. The result suggests that emotional intelligence is significantly related with the personal competencies of employees and the variables of personal competency namely, people success, system success and self success have a predictive relationship with emotional intelligence.
Green, Melanie C; Sabini, John
The authors used a representative national sample (N = 777) to test the evolutionary hypothesis that men would be more bothered by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity, the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) effect. Our alternative conceptualization of jealousy suggests that there are distinct emotional components of jealousy that did not evolve differently by gender. The authors looked for effects of age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of measure (continuous or dichotomous) on jealousy. The authors did not find age or SES effects. Forced-choice items provided support for our alternative view; both genders showed more anger and blame over sexual infidelity but more hurt feelings over emotional infidelity. Continuous measures indicated more emotional response to sexual than emotional infidelity among both genders. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Baraybar-Fernández, Antonio; Baños-González, Miguel; Barquero-Pérez, Óscar; Goya-Esteban, Rebeca
Since the last century, we have witnessed a steady evolution of advertising techniques in an effort to adapt to the new social context in the market. As a strategic resource, Neuroscience brings a new perspective by allowing you to explore those difficult or verbally unconscious motives behind consumer behaviours. The present work aims to discover the relationship between the emotions induced in audiovisual advertising messages and their impact on the memory of the subjects. To achieve this g...
Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.
Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far....
Rosser, Timothy G.
Civilian pilot training has followed a traditional path for several decades. With a potential pilot shortage approaching, ICAO proposed a new paradigm in pilot training methodology called the Multi-Crew Pilot License. This new methodology puts a pilot in the cockpit of an airliner with significantly less flight time experience than the traditional methodology. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent gender, country of origin and pilot training methodology effect an aviation consumer's willingness to fly. Additionally, this study attempted to determine what emotions mediate a consumer's decision. This study surveyed participants from India and the United States to measure their willingness to fly using the Willingness to Fly Scale shown to be valid and reliable by Rice et al. (2015). The scale uses a five point Likert-type scale. In order to determine the mediating emotions, Ekman and Friesen's (1979) universal emotions, which are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics are provided for respondent's age and willingness to fly values. An ANOVA was conducted to test the first four hypotheses and Hayes (2004, 2008) bootstrapping process was used for the mediation analysis. Results indicated a significant main effect for training, F(1,972) = 227.76, p . .001, etap 2 = 0.190, country of origin, F(1, 972) = 28.86, p relationship between training and country of origin, and training. The findings of this study are important to designers of MPL training programs and airline marketers.
Lundqvist, Daniel; Svärd, Joakim; Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa; Fischer, Håkan; Svenningsson, Per
The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lin, Huiyan; Liang, Jiafeng; Jin, Hua; Zhao, Dongmei
Previous studies have investigated whether uncertainty influences neural responses to emotional events. The findings of such studies, particularly with respect to event-related potentials (ERPs), have been controversial due to several factors, such as the stimuli that serve as cues and the emotional content of the events. However, it is still unknown whether the effects of uncertainty on ERP responses to emotional events are influenced by anticipation patterns (e.g., explicit or implicit anticipation). To address this issue, participants in the present study were presented with anticipatory cues and then emotional (negative and neutral) pictures. The cues either did or did not signify the emotional content of the upcoming picture. In the inter-stimulus intervals between cues and pictures, participants were asked to estimate the expected probability of the occurrence of a specific emotional category of the subsequent picture based on a scale in the explicit anticipation condition, while in the implicit condition, participants were asked to indicate, using a number on a scale, which color was different from the others. The results revealed that in the explicit condition, uncertainty increased late positive potential (LPP) responses, particularly for negative pictures, whereas LPP responses were larger for certain negative pictures than for uncertain negative pictures in the implicit condition. The findings in the present study suggest that the anticipation pattern influences the effects of uncertainty when evaluation of negative events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.
While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to recognize emotions in facial expressions relies on an extensive neural network with the amygdala as the key node as has typically been demonstrated for the processing of fearful stimuli. A sufficient characterization of the factors influencing and modulating amygdala function, however, has not been reached now. Due to lacking or diverging results on its involvement in recognizing all or only certain negative emotions, the influence of gender or ethnicity is still under debate. This high-resolution fMRI study addresses some of the relevant parameters, such as emotional valence, gender and poser ethnicity on amygdala activation during facial emotion recognition in 50 Caucasian subjects. Stimuli were color photographs of emotional Caucasian and African American faces. Results Bilateral amygdala activation was obtained to all emotional expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happy, and sad and neutral faces across all subjects. However, only in males a significant correlation of amygdala activation and behavioral response to fearful stimuli was observed, indicating higher amygdala responses with better fear recognition, thus pointing to subtle gender differences. No significant influence of poser ethnicity on amygdala activation occurred, but analysis of recognition accuracy revealed a significant impact of poser ethnicity that was emotion-dependent. Conclusion Applying high-resolution fMRI while subjects were performing an explicit emotion recognition task revealed bilateral amygdala activation to all emotions presented and neutral expressions. This mechanism seems to operate similarly in healthy females and males and for both in-group and out-group ethnicities. Our results support the assumption that an intact amygdala response is fundamental in the processing of these salient stimuli due to its relevance detecting function.
de Sousa, Arielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline
This study was designed to examine the relationship between deficits in empathy, emotional responsivity, and social behavior in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 21 patients with severe TBI and 25 control participants viewed six film clips containing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral content whilst facial muscle responses, skin conductance, and valence and arousal ratings were measured. Emotional empathy (the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale, BEES: self-report) and changes in drive and control in social situations (The Current Behaviour Scale, CBS: relative report) were also assessed. In comparison to control participants, those in the TBI group reported less ability to empathize emotionally and had reduced facial responding to both pleasant and unpleasant films. They also exhibited lowered autonomic arousal, as well as abnormal ratings of valence and arousal, particularly to unpleasant films. Relative reported loss of emotional control was significantly associated with heightened empathy, while there was a trend to suggest that impaired drive (or motivation) may be related to lower levels of emotional empathy. The results represent the first to suggest that level of emotional empathy post traumatic brain injury may be associated with behavioral manifestations of disorders of drive and control.
Dellacherie, D; Bigand, E; Molin, P; Baulac, M; Samson, S
The present study investigated emotional responses to music by using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis in patients with right or left medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions and matched normal controls (NC). Participants were required to evaluate emotional dissimilarities of nine musical excerpts that were selected to express graduated changes along the valence and arousal dimensions. For this purpose, they rated dissimilarity between pairs of stimuli on an eight-point scale and the resulting matrices were submitted to an MDS analysis. The results showed that patients did not differ from NC participants in evaluating emotional feelings induced by the musical excerpts, suggesting that all participants were able to distinguish refined emotions. We concluded that the ability to detect and use emotional valence and arousal when making dissimilarity judgments was not strongly impaired by a right or left MTL lesion. This finding has important clinical implications and is discussed in light of current neuropsychological studies on emotion. It suggests that emotional responses to music can be at least partially preserved at a non-verbal level in patients with unilateral temporal lobe damage including the amygdala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Jacqueline; Parma, Valentina; Alho, Laura; Silva, Carlos F; Soares, Sandra C
Many studies have indicated that the chemical cues from body odors (BOs) of donors experiencing negative emotions can influence the psychophysiological and behavioral response of the observers. However, these olfactory cues have been used mainly as contextual information for processing visual stimuli. Here, for the first time, we evaluate how emotional BO affects the emotional tone of a subsequent BO message. Axillary sweat samples were taken from 20 donors in 3 separate sessions while they watched fear, disgust, or neutral videos. In a double-blind experiment, we assessed the cardiac and subjective responses from 69 participants who were either exposed to negative emotional or neutral BOs. Our results showed a reduced cardiac parasympathetic activity (HF%)-indicating increased stress-when participants smelled the emotional BOs before the neutral BOs, compared to when they smelled neutral followed by emotional BOs. The intensity of the neutral odor also increased following the exposure to both negative BOs. These findings indicate that BOs contain an emotion-dependent chemical cue that affects the perceiver both at the physiological and subjective levels.
Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann
To investigate general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' responses to emotional disclosures in consultations with patients with depression. Thirteen patient consultations with GPs and 17 with psychiatrists were video-recorded and then analyzed using conversation analysis (CA). Psychiatrists responded to patients' emotional disclosures by attempting to clarify symptoms, by rational argumentation, or by offering an interpretation of the emotions from their own perspectives. GPs responded by claiming to understand the emotions or by formulating the patients' statements, but without further exploring the emotions. GPs displayed a greater engagement with patients' emotions than psychiatrists. Their approach could be described as empathic, corresponding to a mentalizing stance. The different approaches taken by psychiatrists could represent conceptual differences and might affect fruitful interdisciplinary work. Psychiatric nurses' responses to patients' emotions must also be studied to complete our knowledge from psychiatry. Experiences from training in mentalization could be used to develop physicians' empathic or mentalizing approach. As most patients with depression are treated in primary care, developing GPs' mentalizing capacity instead of offering didactic training could have a substantial effect in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Theodorou, Marios
Findings on alexithymic emotion difficulties have been inconsistent. We examined potential differences between alexithymic and control participants in general arousal, reactivity, facial and subjective expression, emotion labeling, and covariation between emotion response systems. A depth of processing intervention was introduced. Fifty-four participants (27 alexithymic), selected using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, completed an imagery experiment (imagining joy, fear and neutral scripts), under instructions for shallow or deep emotion processing. Heart rate, skin conductance, facial electromyography and startle reflex were recorded along with subjective ratings. Results indicated hypo-reactivity to emotion among high alexithymic individuals, smaller and slower startle responses, and low covariation between physiology and self-report. No deficits in facial expression, labeling and emotion ratings were identified. Deep processing was associated with increased physiological reactivity and lower perceived dominance and arousal in high alexithymia. Findings suggest a tendency for avoidance of intense, unpleasant emotions and less defensive action preparation in alexithymia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuo; Dong, Ruijuan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Jing; Qi, Beier; Liu, Bo
To assess the emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users. Munich music questionnaire (MUMU) was used to match the music experience and the motivation of use of music between 12 normal-hearing and 12 cochlear implant subjects. Emotion rating test in Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants (MuSIC) test battery was used to assess the emotion perception ability for both normal-hearing and cochlear implant subjects. A total of 15 pieces of music phases were used. Responses were given by selecting the rating scales from 1 to 10. "1" represents "very sad" feeling, and "10" represents "very happy feeling. In comparison with normal-hearing subjects, 12 cochlear implant subjects made less active use of music for emotional purpose. The emotion ratings for cochlear implant subjects were similar to normal-hearing subjects, but with large variability. Post-lingually deafened cochlear implant subjects on average performed similarly in emotion rating tasks relative to normal-hearing subjects, but their active use of music for emotional purpose was obviously less than normal-hearing subjects.
Liu, T Y; Chen, Y S; Su, T P; Hsieh, J C; Chen, L F
This study investigates the cortical abnormalities of early emotion perception in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) using gamma oscillations. Twenty-three MDD patients, twenty-five BD patients, and twenty-four normal controls were enrolled and their event-related magnetoencephalographic responses were recorded during implicit emotional tasks. Our results demonstrated abnormal gamma activity within 100 ms in the emotion-related regions (amygdala, orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex, anterior insula (AI), and superior temporal pole) in the MDD patients, suggesting that these patients may have dysfunctions or negativity biases in perceptual binding of emotional features at very early stage. Decreased left superior medial frontal cortex (smFC) responses to happy faces in the MDD patients were correlated with their serious level of depression symptoms, indicating that decreased smFC activity perhaps underlies irregular positive emotion processing in depressed patients. In the BD patients, we showed abnormal activation in visual regions (inferior/middle occipital and middle temporal cortices) which responded to emotional faces within 100 ms, supporting that the BD patients may hyperactively respond to emotional features in perceptual binding. The discriminant function of gamma activation in the left smFC, right medial OFC, right AI/inferior OFC, and the right precentral cortex accurately classified 89.6% of patients as unipolar/bipolar disorders.
Full Text Available As social media is transforming how consumers interact with brands and how brand-related content is consumed, this paper aims to investigate if and how Facebook users express their emotions towards advertisements of brand share on the site. Seven hundred and three comments about the Lloyds 250th Anniversary advertisement on Facebook were analysed as positive, negative or neutral attitude towards the advert. Facebook users found the advertisement emotionally appealing and voluntarily report their emotion of love, pride and in some cases anger. The presence of an iconic image like the black horse and the cover music was found to be emotionally appealing. The background music as well aroused positive emotions and engaging. This study introduces the possibility of analysing Facebook comments on brand content to understand consumers’ emotional responses and attitudes to the brand. Managers can explore these opportunities to identify what consumers find interesting in advertisements and how best to develop their creative strategies. It also offers the opportunity to allocate resources better to engage consumers with creative advertisement. Unlike interviews or surveys, this is a pioneering study on measuring emotional responses to advertisement through users’ self-report on social media.
A nonlinear method named detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was utilized to investigate the scaling behavior of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) in three emotional music conditions (fear, happiness, sadness) and a rest condition (eyes-closed). The results showed that the EEG exhibited scaling behavior in two regions with two scaling exponents β1 and β2 which represented the complexity of higher and lower frequency activity besides β band respectively. As the emotional intensity decreased the value of β1 increased and the value of β2 decreased. The change of β1 was weakly correlated with the 'approach-withdrawal' model of emotion and both of fear and sad music made certain differences compared with the eyes-closed rest condition. The study shows that music is a powerful elicitor of emotion and that using nonlinear method can potentially contribute to the investigation of emotion.
Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias
Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chajut, Eran; Mama, Yaniv; Levy, Leora; Algom, Daniel
In the laboratory, people classify the color of emotion-laden words slower than they do that of neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect. Outside the laboratory, people react to features of emotion-laden stimuli or threatening stimuli faster than they do to those of neutral stimuli. A possible resolution to the conundrum implicates the counternatural response demands imposed in the laboratory that do not, as a rule, provide for avoidance in the face of threat. In 2 experiments we show that when such an option is provided in the laboratory, the response latencies follow those observed in real life. These results challenge the dominant attention theory offered for the emotional Stroop effect because this theory is indifferent to the vital approach-avoidance distinction.
Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám
Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions.
Moland, M; Whissell, C M
49 adult subjects responded to 37 children's drawings of six emotions (happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprised, and disgusted) by naming the emotion depicted and by identifying the pleasantness and arousal status of each drawing. Various analyses indicated that assignment to categories could be predicted on the basis of ratings of pleasantness and arousal (the two key dimensions of a bipolar affect space). Data support the contention that emotional responses should not be assessed solely on the basis of literal accuracy but should rather be described in terms of their location in affect space.
Joel S. Peterman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia.METHOD: Galvanic skin response (GSR and facial electromyography (fEMG were recorded in medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ and demograph-ically-matched healthy controls (CO while they viewed social and non-social im-ages from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symp-tom severity in the SZ, and schizotypy in CO were assessed.RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with schizophrenia were more positive in their va-lence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, GSR was greater in schizophrenia, suggesting differential awareness or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to nonsocial vs. social imag-es were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Negative symptoms in SZ and disor-ganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced fEMG. Greater corruga-tor fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions.CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their GSR and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in schizophrenia and under-score the complexities of emotion processing in health and
Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki
The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.
Full Text Available It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.
Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Lyle, Keith B; Szabo, Yvette Z; Miller, James J; Warnecke, Ashlee J
Elevated inflammation in the context of stress has been implicated in mental and physical health. Approaching this from an emotion regulation perspective, we tested whether the salivary cytokine response to stress is dampened by using distraction to minimize opportunity for poststressor rumination. Healthy young adults were randomized to an acute stressor: modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, Study 1) or angry memory retrieval (Study 2). Within each study, participants were randomized to poststressor condition-rest or distraction-at a 3:1 ratio. Saliva, collected before and 40 min after the end of each stressor, was assayed for proinflammatory cytokines (PICs): interleukin-1β (IL-1β), TNF-α, and IL-6. Both stressors increased all PICs, and both provoked negative emotion. At 40 min post-TSST, salivary PIC increases did not differ between distraction and rest, but correlated positively with emotional reactivity to stress. At 40 min after memory retrieval, IL-1β increases and intrusive rumination were lower during distraction than rest, but did not correlate with emotional reactivity. Trait rumination and interference control mechanisms, also measured, played little role in PIC increases. Overall, after some stressors, some salivary cytokine responses are lower during distraction than rest. The roles of specific emotions, emotional intensity, and poststressor timing of saliva collection in this finding require clarification. Furthermore, the possibility of two affective paths to inflammation in the context of stress-one sensitive to opportunities for early occurring emotion regulation (as reflected in emotional reactivity), and one sensitive to late-occurring emotion regulation (as reflected in distraction after stress)-deserves attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy; Su, Ying-Hwa
Human figure drawing is a common measurement that is used in practice and research. Drawing is a fun, inexpensive, and easy-to-administer method used to provide school-age children a projective means of expressing attitudes and emotions. As cognition matures, the content of drawing develops. The inclusion of emotional indicators in drawing signifies possible emotional problems. Recently, drawing has been used in countries and cultures other than the United States. Drawing can be implemented in any setting by all health care professionals.
Stemmler, Gerhard; Wacker, Jan
A dominant paradigm in biopsychological personality research seeks to establish links between emotional and motivational traits and habitual, transsituationally consistent individual differences in measures of physiological activity. An alternative approach conceptualizes traits as dispositions that are only operative in certain situational contexts and consequently predicts associations between emotional and motivational traits and physiological activity only for trait-relevant situational contexts in which the physiological systems underlying the traits in question are engaged. In the present paper we first examine and contrast these personistic and interactionistic conceptualizations of personality and personality-physiology associations and then present data from several large studies (N>100) in which electrocortical (e.g., frontal alpha asymmetry) and somatovisceral parameters were measured in various situational contexts (e.g., after the induction of either anger, or fear, or anxiety). As predicted by the interactionistic conceptualization of traits as dispositions the situational context and its subjective representation by the participants moderated the personality-physiology relationships for measures of both central and peripheral nervous system activity. We conclude by outlining the implications of the interactionistic approach for biopsychological personality research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Cognitive, emotional, and arousal responses to violent games play a central role in theoretical explanations of how violent media may affect aggression. However, existing research has focused on a relatively narrow range of responses to violent games in experimental settings. This limits our
Croiset, Gerda; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Wal, Wim E. van der; Boer, Sietse F. de; Wied, David de
The role of the autonomic nervous system in the modulation of the immune response to emotional stimuli, was established in rats subjected to the passive avoidance test. An increase in splenic primary antibody response directed against SRBC was found after exposure of rats to the passive avoidance
aan het Rot, Marije; Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Iancu, Sorina; Taftă, Steluţa A; Bărbuşelu, Mariana
While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural
Dagan, Meirav; Sanderman, Robbert; Hoff, Christiaan; Meijerink, W. J. H. Jeroen; Baas, Peter C.; van Haastert, Michiel; Hagedoorn, Mariët
The central aim of this longitudinal observational study was to test whether patients with a high need for emotional expression are especially sensitive to their partners' responsive behavior, and therefore at risk for depressive symptoms when responsiveness is withheld. Patients with colorectal
Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…
aan het Rot, Marije; Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Iancu, Sorina; Taftă, Steluţa A; Bărbuşelu, Mariana
While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural
Matias, Cheryl E.; Allen, Ricky Lee
Although scholars have articulated how whites institutionally, economically, and socially invest in their whiteness, they have paid little attention to white emotionality. By explicating a critical, more humanizing theory of love that accounts for the painful process of sharing in the burden of creating humanity, this psychoanalytic theoretical…
Yamamoto, Junko; Ananou, Simeon
Even though technology has brought great benefits to current society, there are also indications that the manner in which people use technology has undermined their humanity in some respects. In this article the authors frame human nature in terms of four dimensions: cognition, social interaction, emotion, and ethics. We argue that while basic…
Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Galvan, Moriah; Vonk, Jennifer
The ability of domestic dogs (C. lupus famaliaris) to follow and attend to human emotion expressions is well documented. It is unknown whether domestic cats (F. silvestris catus) possess similar abilities. Because cats belong to the same order (Carnivora), but did not evolve to live in complex social groups, research with them enables us to tease apart the influence of social structure versus domestication processes on the capacity to recognize human communicative cues, such as emotions. Two experiments were conducted to determine the extent to which domestic cats discriminate between human emotion cues. The first experiment presented cats with facial and postural cues of happiness and anger from both an unfamiliar experimenter and their familiar owner in the absence of vocal cues. The second experiment presented cats with vocal cues of human emotion through a positively or negatively charged conversation between an experimenter and owner. Domestic cats were only modestly sensitive to emotion, particularly when displayed by their owner, suggesting that a history of human interaction alone may not be sufficient to shape such abilities in domestic cats.
Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Štastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert
Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well.
Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael
Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men). Qualitative analysis revealed three patterns of responses to ongoing terrorism: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Emotional responses include fear, worry, sense of empathy, and detachment. Cognitive responses include situational assessment and pursuit of solutions, the use of traumatic imagining, beliefs in fate and luck, and optimism. Behavioral responses include looking for information, alertness, and habituation. The findings also revealed another response, which combines cognitive and behavioral responses. Some of the responses are innovative and unique to the threat of terrorism. Mapping the responses revealed mental health risk factors, as well as protective factors that can help structure personal and national resilience. These findings have implications on the treatment and prevention of personal and social pathologies, and how to effectively cope with terrorism threats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tamm, Gerly; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Harro, Jaanus; Cowan, Nelson
It is unclear if positive, negative, or neutral emotional expressions have an advantage in short-term recognition. Moreover, it is unclear from previous studies of working memory for emotional faces whether effects of emotions comprise response bias or sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare how schematic emotional expressions (sad, angry, scheming, happy, and neutral) are discriminated and recognized in an updating task (2-back recognition) in a representative sample of birth cohort of young adults. Schematic facial expressions allow control of identity processing, which is separate from expression processing, and have been used extensively in attention research but not much, until now, in working memory research. We found that expressions with a U-curved mouth (i.e., upwardly curved), namely happy and scheming expressions, favoured a bias towards recognition (i.e., towards indicating that the probe and the stimulus in working memory are the same). Other effects of emotional expression were considerably smaller (1-2% of the variance explained)) compared to a large proportion of variance that was explained by the physical similarity of items being compared. We suggest that the nature of the stimuli plays a role in this. The present application of signal detection methodology with emotional, schematic faces in a working memory procedure requiring fast comparisons helps to resolve important contradictions that have emerged in the emotional perception literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin
Emotion effects in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have previously been reported for a range of visual stimuli, including emotional words, pictures, and facial expressions. Still, little is known about the actual comparability of emotion effects across these stimulus classes. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating emotion effects in response to words, pictures, and facial expressions using a blocked within-subject design. Furthermore, ratings of stimulus arousal and valence were collected from an independent sample of participants. Modulations of early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive complex (LPC) were visible for all stimulus domains, but showed clear differences, particularly in valence processing. While emotion effects were limited to positive stimuli for words, they were predominant for negative stimuli in pictures and facial expressions. These findings corroborate the notion of a positivity offset for words and a negativity bias for pictures and facial expressions, which was assumed to be caused by generally lower arousal levels of written language. Interestingly, however, these assumed differences were not confirmed by arousal ratings. Instead, words were rated as overall more positive than pictures and facial expressions. Taken together, the present results point toward systematic differences in the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli of emotional content, not only in terms of a valence bias evident in ERPs, but also concerning their emotional evaluation captured by ratings of stimulus valence and arousal.
Sekiya, Taki; Miwa, Zenzo; Tsuchihashi, Natsumi; Uehara, Naoko; Sugimoto, Kumiko
Since the understanding of emotional changes induced by dental treatments is important for dentists to provide a safe and comfortable dental treatment, we analyzed physiological responses during watching video images of dental treatments to search for the appropriate objective indices reflecting emotional changes. Fifteen healthy young adult subjects voluntarily participated in the present study. Electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and corrugator muscle electromyogram (EMG) were recorded and changes of them by viewing videos of dental treatments were analyzed. The subjective discomfort level was acquired by Visual Analog Scale method. Analyses of autonomic nervous activities from ECG and four emotional factors (anger/stress, joy/satisfaction, sadness/depression and relaxation) from EEG demonstrated that increases in sympathetic nervous activity reflecting stress increase and decreases in relaxation level were induced by the videos of infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation, but not intraoral examination. The corrugator muscle activity was increased by all three images regardless of video contents. The subjective discomfort during watching infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation was higher than intraoral examination, showing that sympathetic activities and relaxation factor of emotion changed in a manner consistent with subjective emotional changes. These results suggest that measurement of autonomic nervous activities estimated from ECG and emotional factors analyzed from EEG is useful for objective evaluation of subjective emotion.
Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud
One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laura M. Tully, PhD
Full Text Available LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9 during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.
Riis Christensen, Sverre
Consumers' reactions from being exposed to sponsorships has primarily been measured and docu-mented applying cognitive information processing models to the phenomenon. In the paper it is argued that such effects are probably better modelled applying models of peripheral information processing...... in consumer reactions towards sponsored objects of different natures as well as towards potential sponsoring organisations. For instance, the charitable institutions measured in the study elicit larger negative emotional re-sponses than positive responses, corresponding to a negative Net Emotional Response...... to the net scores and to the full evaluations on the attitude and emotion batteries and it seems as if the latter approach will be richer in explanatory power for a potential sponsor....
da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup
-offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5......-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli......Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non...
Reigeluth, Christopher S; Pollastri, Alisha R; Cardemil, Esteban V; Addis, Michael E
Decades of masculinity research have concluded that society places higher demands on males to adhere to norms for low emotional expression; yet, countless studies find that emotional expression is integral to well-being. Unfortunately, this contradiction places boys and men in a tenuous position as they must navigate a bombardment of societal messages about the importance of emotional stoicism and invincibility. For urban adolescents, the situation is more complicated as they encounter environmental stressors that place greater emphasis on projecting a tough façade. Thus, our primary aim was to assess to what degree dyads of close adolescent male friends from urban, low-income neighborhoods are able to engage in emotional expression and response and to explore some of the underlying mechanisms and interpersonal processes. Qualitative findings from our sample suggest that urban boys exhibit a wide range of behaviors when participating in dyadic emotional disclosure and response, including being highly emotionally expressive and supportive in the context of close male friendship. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pehrs, Corinna; Samson, Andrea C.; Gross, James J.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors . Specific deficits include failure to initiate reciprocal social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication difficulties, decreased sensitivity to social and emotional cues, and limited perspective-taking abilities. Social withdrawal, avoidance or indifference to affection or physical contact, lack of eye contact, and decreased joint attention and facial responsiveness are also common . In addition to these core features, there is a growing body of literature that describes problematic patterns of emotional reactivity (increased negative and decreased positive emotions) and emotion regulation (increased use of maladaptive and decreased use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies) [3-5]. The present comment seeks to link difficulties in socio-emotional domains to the Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by mapping characteristic ASD social deficits and emotion dysregulation onto two of the affect systems described in this theory: the hippocampal and orbitofrontal-centered systems.
Sachs, Matthew E; Ellis, Robert J; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche
Humans uniquely appreciate aesthetics, experiencing pleasurable responses to complex stimuli that confer no clear intrinsic value for survival. However, substantial variability exists in the frequency and specificity of aesthetic responses. While pleasure from aesthetics is attributed to the neural circuitry for reward, what accounts for individual differences in aesthetic reward sensitivity remains unclear. Using a combination of survey data, behavioral and psychophysiological measures and diffusion tensor imaging, we found that white matter connectivity between sensory processing areas in the superior temporal gyrus and emotional and social processing areas in the insula and medial prefrontal cortex explains individual differences in reward sensitivity to music. Our findings provide the first evidence for a neural basis of individual differences in sensory access to the reward system, and suggest that social-emotional communication through the auditory channel may offer an evolutionary basis for music making as an aesthetically rewarding function in humans. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri
Touch is a powerful tool for communicating positive emotions. However, it has remained unknown to what extent social touch would maintain and establish social bonds. We asked a total of 1,368 people from five countries to reveal, using an Internet-based topographical self-reporting tool, those parts of their body that they would allow relatives, friends, and strangers to touch. These body regions formed relationship-specific maps in which the total area was directly related to the strength of...
Alertness of the global climate and environment change triggered by the effects of the economy of waste of industrial modern society has been raised to governments and populations. World-wide agreements and protocols have been established; they will be improved for action in two major issues: limitation (elimination of CFC's use, reductions of CO2 emissions, increasing energy efficiency, etc.) and adaptation (socio economic impacts, human behaviour, enhancement of predictive models, etc.)
Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure
There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141
Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein; Jensen, Bård Fossli; Gulbrandsen, Pål
Patients express their negative emotions in medical consultations either implicitly as cue to an underlying unpleasant emotion or explicitly as a clear, unambiguous concern. The health provider's response to such cues and concerns is important for the outcome of consultations. Yet, physicians often neglect patient's negative emotions. Most studies of this subject are from primary health care. We aimed to describe how physicians in a hospital respond to negative emotions in an outpatient setting. Ninety six consultations were videotaped in a general teaching hospital. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences was used to identify patients' expression of negative emotions in terms of cue and concern and to code physicians' subsequent responses. Cohen's kappa was used as interrater reliability measure. Acceptable kappa level was set to .60. We observed 163 expressions of negative emotions. In general, the physician responses to patients' cues and concerns did not include follow up or exploration. Concerns more often than cues led to lack of emotional exploration. When patients expressed negative emotions or cues to such, hospital physicians tended to move away from emotional communication, particularly if the emotion was expressed as an explicit concern. Medical training should enable physicians' to explore the patients' emotions in situations where it will improve the medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure
There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.
Palo-Bengtsson, Liisa; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa
The emotional response to social dancing and walks in persons with dementia was studied to better understand the feasibility, popularity, and meaning of these activities from the perspective of the patient. Social dance events and walks were videotaped and analyzed using Husserl's philosophy as a basis for the analysis. Six persons with dementia participated in the study. The results are described in terms of four interrelated themes: 1) the engaged body; 2) the caregivers' understanding, encouragement, and response to patients during the activity; 3) mutual tenderness and communion; and 4) environmental conditions. Results were then synthesized into a general assessment of the emotional states observed and reported in relation to the activities.
Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann
OBJECTIVE: To investigate general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' responses to emotional disclosures in consultations with patients with depression. METHODS: Thirteen patient consultations with GPs and 17 with psychiatrists were video-recorded and then analyzed using conversation analysi...... approach. As most patients with depression are treated in primary care, developing GPs' mentalizing capacity instead of offering didactic training could have a substantial effect in the population.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' responses to emotional disclosures in consultations with patients with depression. METHODS: Thirteen patient consultations with GPs and 17 with psychiatrists were video-recorded and then analyzed using conversation analysis...
motivate , more collaborative, agile, and productive teams capable of managing successful defense acquisitions. Sharpening the focus on emotional ...published an article in The Atlantic in 2014. In the “Dark Side of Emotional Intelligence,” he stated that EI is good when used for motivation , but evil...identifying, learning, understanding , feeling and expressing human emotions in ways that are healthy and constructive. Emotional skills are key to
Chaya, Carolina; Eaton, Curtis; Hewson, Louise; Fernández Vázquezc, Rocío; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Smart, Katherine A.; Hort, Joanne
Previous researchers have recently recommended and utilised consumer-led lexicons to measure emotional response. This study further advances this approach by 1) making the lexicon generation process more efficient by using consumer focus groups as opposed to individual consumer interviews and 2) decreasing the number of responses required from each consumer by reducing the lexicon to categories of similar terms. In response to 10 lager samples which were manipulated in order to control select...
S I Kudinov
Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the empirical research results of the formation of burnout symptoms in the teachers with low and high levels of personal responsibility. The sample of respondents was made by teachers with five years’ experience of work. At the preliminary stage the peculiarities of situational and personality anxiety, as well as indicators of emotional stability and neuroticism were studied. As a result of the data analysis the teachers with average anxiety and emotional stability were included in the final group of the subjects. The procedure of the respondents selection was motivated by the desire to exclude the respondents, potentially predisposed to intense emotional burnout due to their individual susceptibility to it from the empirical sample.During carrying out the basic research the responsibility indicators were studied at the first stage. According to the hierarchical distribution of the harmonic variables of responsibility the contrasting levels of the manifestation of this property were revealed and characterized. The high level of responsibility manifestation included mainly the positive characteristics responsible for the intensity of the display properties, such as ergicity, sthenicity, internality, socio-centeredness, meaningfulness and productivity. The second group included the respondents in whose hierarchy of variables property manifestation is dominated by the disharmonious components responsible for the weak manifestations of the property: aergicity, asthenicity, externality, ego-centeredness, etc. The selected indicators of responsibility in the both groups differed at a statistically significant level. At the following stage the emotional burnout indicators in each group were analyzed. The study confirmed the put forward hypothesis that the emotional burnout developed more intensively in the teachers with a high level of personal responsibility, rather than that of the respondents with a
The present study tested whether neural sensitivity to salient emotional facial expressions was influenced by emotional expectations induced by a cue that validly predicted the expression of a subsequently presented target face. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by fearful and neutral faces were recorded while participants performed a gender discrimination task under cued (‘expected’) and uncued (‘unexpected’) conditions. The behavioral results revealed that accuracy was lower for fearful compared with neutral faces in the unexpected condition, while accuracy was similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. ERP data revealed increased amplitudes in the P2 component and 200–250 ms interval for unexpected fearful versus neutral faces. By contrast, ERP responses were similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. These findings indicate that human neural sensitivity to fearful faces is modulated by emotional expectations. Although the neural system is sensitive to unpredictable emotionally salient stimuli, sensitivity to salient stimuli is reduced when these stimuli are predictable.
Arjmand, Hussain-Abdulah; Hohagen, Jesper; Paton, Bryan; Rickard, Nikki S
Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo - and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation - is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18-38 years) who listened to four stimuli-pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music), neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG) data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA) indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect) were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3-FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a change in low level acoustic
Wöllner, Clemens; Hammerschmidt, David; Albrecht, Henning
Slow motion scenes are ubiquitous in screen-based audiovisual media and are typically accompanied by emotional music. The strong effects of slow motion on observers are hypothetically related to heightened emotional states in which time seems to pass more slowly. These states are simulated in films and video clips, and seem to resemble such experiences in daily life. The current study investigated time perception and emotional response to media clips containing decelerated human motion, with or without music using psychometric and psychophysiological testing methods. Participants were presented with slow-motion scenes taken from commercial films, ballet and sports footage, as well as the same scenes converted to real-time. Results reveal that slow-motion scenes, compared to adapted real-time scenes, led to systematic underestimations of duration, lower perceived arousal but higher valence, lower respiration rates and smaller pupillary diameters. The presence of music compared to visual-only presentations strongly affected results in terms of higher accuracy in duration estimates, higher perceived arousal and valence, higher physiological activation and larger pupillary diameters, indicating higher arousal. Video genre affected responses in addition. These findings suggest that perceiving slow motion is not related to states of high arousal, but rather affects cognitive dimensions of perceived time and valence. Music influences these experiences profoundly, thus strengthening the impact of stretched time in audiovisual media.
Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan
In cognitive science and neuroscience, there have been two leading models describing how humans perceive and classify facial expressions of emotion-the continuous and the categorical model. The continuous model defines each facial expression of emotion as a feature vector in a face space. This model explains, for example, how expressions of emotion can be seen at different intensities. In contrast, the categorical model consists of C classifiers, each tuned to a specific emotion category. This model explains, among other findings, why the images in a morphing sequence between a happy and a surprise face are perceived as either happy or surprise but not something in between. While the continuous model has a more difficult time justifying this latter finding, the categorical model is not as good when it comes to explaining how expressions are recognized at different intensities or modes. Most importantly, both models have problems explaining how one can recognize combinations of emotion categories such as happily surprised versus angrily surprised versus surprise. To resolve these issues, in the past several years, we have worked on a revised model that justifies the results reported in the cognitive science and neuroscience literature. This model consists of C distinct continuous spaces. Multiple (compound) emotion categories can be recognized by linearly combining these C face spaces. The dimensions of these spaces are shown to be mostly configural. According to this model, the major task for the classification of facial expressions of emotion is precise, detailed detection of facial landmarks rather than recognition. We provide an overview of the literature justifying the model, show how the resulting model can be employed to build algorithms for the recognition of facial expression of emotion, and propose research directions in machine learning and computer vision researchers to keep pushing the state of the art in these areas. We also discuss how the model can
Wexler, B E; Warrenburg, S; Schwartz, G E; Janer, L D
Dichotic stimulus pairs were constructed with one word that was emotionally neutral and another that evoked either negative or positive feelings. Temporal and spectral overlap between the members of each pair was so great that the two words fused into a single auditory percept. Subjects were consciously aware of hearing only one word from most pairs; sometimes the emotion-evoking word was heard consciously, other times the neutral word was heard consciously. Subjects were instructed to let their thoughts wander in response to the word they heard, during which time EEG alpha activity over left and right frontal regions, and muscle activity (EMG) in the corrugator ("frowning") and zygomatic ("smiling") regions were recorded. Both EEG and EMG provided evidence of emotion-specific responses to stimuli that were processed without conscious awareness. Moreover both suggested relatively greater right hemisphere activity with unconscious rather than conscious processing.
Aberer, Elisabeth; Stieber, Werner; Homayoon, Donja; Fink-Puches, Regina; Lichen, Roland; Salmhofer, Wolfgang; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Aberer, Werner
Medical photography is the state of the art for the documentation of dermatological disease. Experienced photographers take pictures of the most typical skin lesions in order to assist the clinician in assessing disease morphology and activity. In this study, we present 6 individuals with a variety of dermatoses and the expression of the patients' emotions. The patients were asked to show their diseased skin and to present typically involved areas in the respective disease. The feelings expressed by their body movements and positions are viewed and interpreted. The patients' history will be reported retrospectively. The aim of the report is to show that the art of medical photography does not only document skin lesions but also the disease burden and the associated impairment of quality of life. Moreover, dermatologic photography is a sensitive intervention for patients viewed in the light of teaching and patient care.
Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L
Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention.
Marusak, Hilary A; Thomason, Moriah E; Sala-Hamrick, Kelsey; Crespo, Laura; Rabinak, Christine A
Healthy parenting may be protective against the development of emotional psychopathology, particularly for children reared in stressful environments. Little is known, however, about the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying this association, particularly during childhood and adolescence, when emotional disorders frequently emerge. Here, we demonstrate that psychological control, a parenting strategy known to limit socioemotional development in children, is associated with altered brain and behavioral responses to emotional conflict in 27 at-risk (urban, lower income) youth, ages 9-16. In particular, youth reporting higher parental psychological control demonstrated lower activity in the left anterior insula, a brain area involved in emotion conflict processing, and submitted faster but less accurate behavioral responses-possibly reflecting an avoidant pattern. Effects were not replicated for parental care, and did not generalize to an analogous nonemotional conflict task. We also find evidence that behavioral responses to emotional conflict bridge the previously reported link between parental overcontrol and anxiety in children. Effects of psychological control may reflect a parenting style that limits opportunities to practice self-regulation when faced with emotionally charged situations. Results support the notion that parenting strategies that facilitate appropriate amounts of socioemotional competence and autonomy in children may be protective against social and emotional difficulties. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Helmich, Esther; Diachun, Laura; Joseph, Radha; LaDonna, Kori; Noeverman-Poel, Nelleke; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra
Dealing with emotions is critical for medical trainees' professional development. Taking a sociocultural and narrative approach to understanding emotions, we studied complex clinical situations as a specific context in which emotions are evoked and influenced by the social environment. We sought to understand how medical trainees respond to emotions that arise in those situations. In an international constructivist grounded theory study, 29 trainees drew two rich pictures of complex clinical situations, one exciting and one frustrating. Rich pictures are visual representations that capture participants' perceptions about the people, situations and factors that create clinical complexity. These pictures were used to guide semi-structured, individual interviews. We analysed visual materials and interviews in an integrated way, starting with looking at the drawings, doing a 'gallery walk', and using the interviews to inform the aesthetic analysis. Participants' drawings depicted a range of personal emotions in response to complexity, and disclosed unsettling feelings and behaviours that might be considered unprofessional. When trainees felt confident, they were actively participating, engaged in creative problem-solving strategies, and emphasised their personal involvement. When trainees felt the situation was beyond their control, they described how they were running away from the situation, hiding themselves behind others or distancing themselves from patients or families. A sense of control seems to be a key factor influencing trainees' emotional and behavioural responses to complexity. This is problematic, as complex situations are by their nature emergent and dynamic, which limits possibilities for control. Following a social performative approach to emotions, we should help students understand that feeling out of control is an inherent property of participating in complex clinical situations, and, by extension, that it is not something they will 'grow out of
What is an Emotion? This question has fascinated scientific research since William James. Despite the fact that a consensus has been reached about the biological origin of emotions, uniquely human aspects of emotions are still poorly understood. One of these blind spots concerns the relationship between emotion and human language. Historically, many theories imply a duality between emotions on the one hand and cognitive functions such as language on the other hand. Especially for symbolic forms of written language and word processing, it has been assumed that semantic information would bear no relation to bodily, affective, or sensorimotor processing (for an overview see Ref. ). The Quartet Theory proposed by Koelsch and colleagues  could provide a solution to this problem. It offers a novel, integrative neurofunctional model of human emotions which considers language and emotion as closely related. Crucially, language - be it spoken or written - is assumed to "regulate, modulate, and partly initiate" activity in core affective brain systems in accord with physical needs and individual concerns [cf. page 34, line 995]. In this regard, the Quartet Theory combines assumptions from earlier bioinformational theories of emotions , contemporary theories of embodied cognition , and appraisal theories such as the Component Process Model  into one framework, thereby providing a holistic model for the neuroscientific investigation of human emotion processing at the interface of emotion and cognition, mind and body.
Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years and eighteen younger (19-24 years listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard, et al., 2008 while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.
Papousek I.; Schulter G.; Lackner H. K.; Samson A. C.; Freudenthaler H. H.
This study aimed to investigate the relevance of an individual's typical emotion perception and emotion regulation behavior to his or her responsiveness to humor. This was studied behaviorally by examining responses to different types of humorous stimuli in an experimental paradigm, in a sample of n = 54 participants aged between 18 to 41 years (29 women, 25 men). Individual differences in emotion perception and regulation were assessed by relevant subscales of an established self-report inst...
Roseman, Leor; Demetriou, Lysia; Wall, Matthew B; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L
Recent evidence indicates that psilocybin with psychological support may be effective for treating depression. Some studies have found that patients with depression show heightened amygdala responses to fearful faces and there is reliable evidence that treatment with SSRIs attenuates amygdala responses (Ma, 2015). We hypothesised that amygdala responses to emotional faces would be altered post-treatment with psilocybin. In this open-label study, 20 individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe, treatment-resistant depression, underwent two separate dosing sessions with psilocybin. Psychological support was provided before, during and after these sessions and 19 completed fMRI scans one week prior to the first session and one day after the second and last. Neutral, fearful and happy faces were presented in the scanner and analyses focused on the amygdala. Group results revealed rapid and enduring improvements in depressive symptoms post psilocybin. Increased responses to fearful and happy faces were observed in the right amygdala post-treatment, and right amygdala increases to fearful versus neutral faces were predictive of clinical improvements at 1-week. Psilocybin with psychological support was associated with increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, an opposite effect to previous findings with SSRIs. This suggests fundamental differences in these treatments' therapeutic actions, with SSRIs mitigating negative emotions and psilocybin allowing patients to confront and work through them. Based on the present results, we propose that psilocybin with psychological support is a treatment approach that potentially revives emotional responsiveness in depression, enabling patients to reconnect with their emotions. ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14426797. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lauer, Amanda M; Larkin, Gail; Jones, Aikeen; May, Bradford J
Increased prevalence of emotional distress is associated with tinnitus and hearing loss. The underlying mechanisms of the negative emotional response to tinnitus and hearing loss remain poorly understood, and it is challenging to disentangle the emotional consequences of hearing loss from those specific to tinnitus in listeners experiencing both. We addressed these questions in laboratory rats using three common rodent anxiety screening assays: elevated plus maze, open field test, and social interaction test. Open arm activity in the elevated plus maze decreased substantially after one trial in controls, indicating its limited utility for comparing pre- and post-treatment behavior. Open field exploration and social interaction behavior were consistent across multiple sessions in control animals. Individual sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats showed a range of phenotypes in the open field, including reduced entries into the center in some subjects and reduced locomotion overall. In rats screened for tinnitus, less locomotion was associated with higher tinnitus scores. In salicylate-treated animals, locomotion was correlated with age. Sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats also showed reduced social interaction. These results suggest that open field exploratory activity is a selective measure for identifying tinnitus distress in individual animals, whereas social interaction reflects the general effects of hearing loss. This animal model will facilitate future studies of the structural and functional changes in the brain pathways underlying emotional distress associated with hearing dysfunction, as well as development of novel interventions to ameliorate or prevent negative emotional responses.
Gummerum, Michaela; López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Rodríguez-Cano, Sonia; Dellaria, Giulia; Smith, Gary; Wilson, Ellie
Previous research in the happy victimizer tradition indicated that preschool and early elementary school children attribute positive emotions to the violator of a moral norm, whereas older children attribute negative (moral) emotions. Cognitive and motivational processes have been suggested to underlie this developmental shift. The current research investigated whether making the happy victimizer task less cognitively demanding by providing children with alternative response formats would increase their attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation. In Study 1, 93 British children aged 4-7 years old responded to the happy victimizer questions either in a normal condition (where they spontaneously pointed with a finger), a wait condition (where they had to wait before giving their answers), or an arrow condition (where they had to point with a paper arrow). In Study 2, 40 Spanish children aged 4 years old responded to the happy victimizer task either in a normal or a wait condition. In both studies, participants' attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation was significantly higher in the conditions with alternative response formats (wait, arrow) than in the normal condition. The role of cognitive abilities for emotion attribution in the happy victimizer task is discussed.
Herrell, James M.
In this study females (N=32) and males (N=32) read two passages. One described a sexually exploitative experience for a young woman and the other described a sexually positive experience. Response by males and females varied considerably and depended on the interpersonal as well as the erotic content of the passages. (EJT)
Data were gathered via the Professional Quality of Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales – Revision IV (ProQOL – R-IV) and the Silencing Response Scale and were analysed according to descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients. Findings suggest a high risk for compassion fatigue, a moderate ...
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari
The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…
Shlapakova, Iryna N.; Nearing, Bruce D.; Lau, David H.; Boink, Gerard J. J.; Danilo, Peter; Kryukova, Yelena; Robinson, Richard B.; Cohen, Ira S.; Rosen, Michael R.; Verrier, Richard L.
Biological pacemakers based on the HCN2 channel isoform respond to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation, suggesting a capacity to respond to autonomic input. The purpose of this study was to investigate autonomic response to emotional arousal in canines implanted with murine HCN2-based
Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen
Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935
Chan, Siu Mui
This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…
Bland, Mark W.; Morrison, Elizabeth
Evolution is widely regarded as biology's unifying theme, yet rates of rejection of evolutionary science remain high. Anecdotal evidence suggests that cognitive dissonance leading to an emotional response is a barrier to learning about and accepting evolution. We explored the hypothesis that students whose worldviews may be inconsistent with the…
Smeijers, Loes; Szabo, Balazs M.; van Dammen, Lotte; Wonnink, Wally; Jakobs, Bernadette S.; Bosch, Jos A.; Kop, Willem J.
Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels int the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study
Smeijers, L.; Szabó, B.M.; van Dammen, L.; Wonnink-de Jonge, W.F.; Jacobs, B.S.; Bosch, J.A.; Kop, W.J.
Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels in the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study
Rudy M. Schuster; W. E. Hammitt
Stress/coping theory was used to understand recreationists' appraisal of stressful situations, coping processes, and the outcomes of the process. Specifically, stress was conceptualized as hassles in recreation settings. Specifically, the objective of this paper was to discuss the emotion focused coping response of visitors to stress encountered while on a...
Full Text Available Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mbenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29 to 99 seconds in duration in random order (8 from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts. For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface, peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation. Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.
van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan
In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations
The present study examined the interplay among negative emotionality, responsive parenting and socio-cognitive developmental outcomes (i.e., communication, personal-social and problem-solving outcomes) in about 1620 Korean children using three waves of longitudinal data spanning the first 2 years of their life. Results from the Structural Equation…
Samson, L.; Potter, R.F.
This article examines individual variability in empathizing and systemizing abilities (Baron-Cohen, 2003, 2009) on emotional responses to mediated violence. It is predicted that these abilities influence feelings of distress and enjoyment while processing violent media and that they interact with
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…
Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph
Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…
Bartels, Jared M.; Herman, William E.
Research suggests that students who fear failure are likely to utilize cognitive strategies such as self-handicapping that serve to perpetuate failure. Such devastating motivational dispositions clearly limit academic success. The present study examined negative emotional responses to scenarios involving academic failure among a sample of…
Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and typically developing individuals with and without amusia.
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C
Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants' emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers' neural response to their own infant's emotion faces, considering both effects of perinatal depression history and current depressive symptoms. Primiparous mothers (n = 22), half of whom had a history of major depressive episodes (with one episode occurring during pregnancy and/or postpartum), were exposed to images of their own and unfamiliar infants' joy and distress faces during functional neuroimaging. Group differences (depression vs. no-depression) and continuous effects of current depressive symptoms were tested in relation to neural response to own infant emotion faces. Compared to mothers with no psychiatric diagnoses, those with depression showed blunted responses to their own infant's distress faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Mothers with higher levels of current symptomatology showed reduced responses to their own infant's joy faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and insula. Current symptomatology also predicted lower responses to own infant joy-distress in left-sided prefrontal and insula/striatal regions. These deficits in self-regulatory and motivational response circuits may help explain parenting difficulties in depressed mothers.
In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…
Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Pinto, Diego Muniz; Quinderé, Paulo Henrique Dias; Pinto, Antonio Germane Alves; Sousa, Fernando Sérgio Pereira de; Cavalcante, Cinthia Mendonça
Healthcare relations serve as efficient devices for the promotion of mental health and the development of comprehensive practices. This study seeks to analyze the measures that make mental healthcare possible in the daily operations of a Psychosocial Healthcare Center (CAPS). It is qualitative research adopting a critical and reflexive approach conducted in CAPS in the municipality of Sobral in the State of Ceará. Complying with regulations, the study was submitted for analysis by the Committee for Ethics in Research adhering to norms for research involving human beings. For data gathering, conducted between May and July 2008, semi-structured and systematic observation interview techniques were used. The research subjects involved 20 people, distributed into three groups: group I (mental health workers-8); group II (users-7) and group III (relatives of users-5). The material was organized and analyzed using principles of critical hermeneutics. According to the results, in the daily operations of CAPS, the relations of care and its devices (reception, emotional involvement, co-responsibility and autonomy) make the transversal adaptation of psychosocial practices possible. The dialogues were derived from meetings of mental health workers, users and relatives in their quest for healthcare solutions.
Mickey, Brian J.; Heffernan, Joseph; Heisel, Curtis; Peciña, Marta; Hsu, David T.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany M.
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide widely recognized for its role in regulating social and reproductive behavior. Increasing evidence from animal models suggests that oxytocin also modulates reward circuitry in non-social contexts, but evidence in humans is lacking. Here we examined the effects of oxytocin administration on reward circuit function in 18 healthy men as they performed a monetary incentive task. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of intranasal oxytocin. We found that oxytocin increases the BOLD signal in the midbrain (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) during the late phase of the hemodynamic response to incentive stimuli. Oxytocin’s effects on midbrain responses correlated positively with its effects on positive emotional state. We did not detect an effect of oxytocin on responses in the nucleus accumbens. Whole-brain analyses revealed that oxytocin attenuated medial prefrontal cortical deactivation specifically during anticipation of loss. Our findings demonstrate that intranasal administration of oxytocin modulates human midbrain and medial prefrontal function during motivated behavior. These findings suggest that endogenous oxytocin is a neurochemical mediator of reward behaviors in humans – even in a non-social context – and that the oxytocinergic system is a potential target of pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders that involve dysfunction of reward circuitry. PMID:27614896
Mickey, Brian J; Heffernan, Joseph; Heisel, Curtis; Peciña, Marta; Hsu, David T; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany M
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide widely recognized for its role in regulating social and reproductive behavior. Increasing evidence from animal models suggests that oxytocin also modulates reward circuitry in non-social contexts, but evidence in humans is lacking. We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on reward circuit function in 18 healthy men as they performed a monetary incentive task. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of intranasal oxytocin. We found that oxytocin increases the BOLD signal in the midbrain (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) during the late phase of the hemodynamic response to incentive stimuli. Oxytocin's effects on midbrain responses correlated positively with its effects on positive emotional state. We did not detect an effect of oxytocin on responses in the nucleus accumbens. Whole-brain analyses revealed that oxytocin attenuated medial prefrontal cortical deactivation specifically during anticipation of loss. Our findings demonstrate that intranasal administration of oxytocin modulates human midbrain and medial prefrontal function during motivated behavior. These findings suggest that endogenous oxytocin is a neurochemical mediator of reward behaviors in humans-even in a non-social context-and that the oxytocinergic system is a potential target of pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders that involve dysfunction of reward circuitry.
Smeijers, Loes; Szabó, Balázs M; van Dammen, Lotte; Wonnink, Wally; Jakobs, Bernadette S; Bosch, Jos A; Kop, Willem J
Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels in the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study examined whether patients with TTC show exaggerated emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress. Patients with TTC (n = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7, 78% women) and 2 comparison groups (healthy controls, n = 19; mean age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68% women; chronic heart failure, n = 19; mean age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68% women) performed a structured mental stress task (anger recall and mental arithmetic) and low-grade exercise with repeated assessments of negative emotions, neurohormones (catecholamines: norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol), echocardiography, blood pressure, and heart rate. TTC was associated with higher norepinephrine (520.7 ± 125.5 vs 407.9 ± 155.3 pg/ml, p = 0.021) and dopamine (16.2 ± 10.3 vs 10.3 ± 3.9 pg/ml, p = 0.027) levels during mental stress and relatively low emotional arousal (p stress and exercise were elevated in TTC compared with healthy controls. No evidence was found for a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or hemodynamic responses. Patients with TTC showed blunted emotional arousal to mental stress. This study suggests that catecholamine hyper-reactivity and not emotional hyper-reactivity to stress is likely to play a role in myocardial vulnerability in TTC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeon, Lieny; Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K
Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies. The sample consisted of 1129 preschool-aged classroom teachers in day care and public pre-K programs across the US. We first found that child-care chaos was directly associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic child-care settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn, was associated with lower levels of positive responsiveness to children. Teachers reporting a higher degree of chaos used more suppression strategies, which in turn, was associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions and fewer expressive encouragement reactions to children's emotions. Results of this exploratory study suggest that it is important to prepare teachers to handle chaotic environments with clear guidelines and rules. In order to encourage teachers' supportive responses to children, intervention programs are needed to address teachers' coping and emotion regulation strategies in early childhood education. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This response considers the role of video games in promoting the social and emotional aspects of civic education and engagement. Specifically, it discusses how design choices in iCivics and video games generally may impact students' emotional responses to issues and other people, sense of internal efficacy, and social connectedness. [For "The…
Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…
Evers, Kris; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse; Wagemans, Johan
Emotion labelling was evaluated in two matched samples of 6-14-year old children with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 45 and N = 50, resp.), using six dynamic facial expressions. The Emotion Recognition Task proved to be valuable demonstrating subtle emotion recognition difficulties in ASD, as we showed a general poorer emotion…
Ahmad, M.I.; Tariq, H.; Saeed, M.; Shahid, S.; Krahmer, E.J.
In this paper, we discuss the design and the development of a highly customizable interactive platform ‘Guess Who’, which was designed as a tool for investigating human emotions in a variety of experimental setups. In its essence, ‘Guess Who?’ is actually a game, which includes typical game elements
Evolution has created a human brain that is characterized by a layered, hierarchical organization. These superimposed layers have gradually evolved to generate ever more complex forms of socio-emotional behavior. The present thesis centers on the neurobiological substrates that generate this
Taylor, Véronique A; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Washburn, Dustin; Joober, Ridha
There is evidence that cortisol influences cognitive and affective processes such as selective attention and memory for emotional events, yet the effects of glucocorticoids on attentional inhibition in humans remain unknown. Consequently, this double-blind study examined dose-dependent effects of exogenous glucocorticoids on the inhibition of emotional information. Sixty-three university students (14 male, 49 female) ingested either a placebo pill or hydrocortisone (10mg or 40mg), and completed a negative priming task assessing the inhibition of pictures depicting angry, sad, and happy faces. The 10mg, but not the 40mg hydrocortisone dose elicited increased inhibition for angry faces relative to placebo. Thus, moderate glucocorticoid elevations may have adaptive effects on emotional information processing, whereas high glucocorticoid elevations appear to attenuate this effect, consistent with the view that there are dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoids on cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard
cardinal. Male participants often used expletives and expressed symptoms in concrete terms. Women expressed symptoms in vaguer terms. Both genders used linguistic metaphors. The implications for nursing emphasised the impact of prodromal symptoms, mental and emotional withdrawal, and linguistic...... to identify and discuss patient’s mental and emotional responses, including interpretations and delaying strategies concerning Acute Coronary Syndrome symptoms, with a view to elucidating patterns in the pre-hospital decision-making process of female and male persons to contact medical services...
Cowen, Alan S; Keltner, Dacher
We present a mathematically based framework distinguishing the dimensionality, structure, and conceptualization of emotion-related responses. Our recent findings indicate that reported emotional experience is high-dimensional, involves gradients between categories traditionally thought of as discrete (e.g., 'fear', 'disgust'), and cannot be reduced to widely used domain-general scales (valence, arousal, etc.). In light of our conceptual framework and findings, we address potential methodological and conceptual confusions in Barrett and colleagues' commentary on our work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lorentzen, Vibeke; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard
to identify and discuss patient’s mental and emotional responses, including interpretations and delaying strategies concerning Acute Coronary Syndrome symptoms, with a view to elucidating patterns in the pre-hospital decision-making process of female and male persons to contact medical services...... cardinal. Male participants often used expletives and expressed symptoms in concrete terms. Women expressed symptoms in vaguer terms. Both genders used linguistic metaphors. The implications for nursing emphasised the impact of prodromal symptoms, mental and emotional withdrawal, and linguistic...
Ivanete Schneider Hahn
Full Text Available Social media is becoming an important part of an organization's media strategy. This study examines the effects of trust and consumer emotional response to advertisements on brand evaluation in an online social media context. The study used a survey method, and the studied population consisted of 927 Brazilian social media users (Facebook subscribers. The results showed the following: (1 the emotional response to advertising on social media had a positive influence on brand evaluation; and (2 consumer trust had a positive influence on brand evaluation and emotional response to advertisements on social media. It is possible to conclude that consumer trust is the key variable to a positive emotional response to advertisements on social media and to a positive brand evaluation. Finally, this study demonstrates that companies must measure the emotional response to advertising in their social media activities as a way of enhancing brand evaluation.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika
dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...
Aarts, J W M; van Oers, A M; Faber, M J; Cohlen, B J; Nelen, W L D M; Kremer, J A M; van Dulmen, A M
Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.
Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui
The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Premkumar, Preethi; Fannon, Dominic; Sapara, Adegboyega; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Anilkumar, Anantha P; Simmons, Andrew; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena
Grey matter volume (GMV) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may relate to better response to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) because of the region׳s role in emotional decision-making and cognitive flexibility. This study aimed to determine the relation between pre-therapy OFC GMV or asymmetry, emotional decision-making and CBTp responsiveness. Emotional decision-making was measured by the Iowa Gambling task (IGT). Thirty patients received CBTp+standard care (CBTp+SC; 25 completers) for 6-8 months. All patients (before receiving CBTp) and 25 healthy participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Patients׳ symptoms were assessed before and after therapy. Pre-therapy OFC GMV was measured using a region-of-interest approach, and IGT performance was measured as overall learning, attention to reward, memory for past outcomes and choice consistency. Both these measures, were comparable between patient and healthy groups. In the CBTp+SC group, greater OFC GMV correlated with positive symptom improvement, specifically hallucinations and persecution. Greater rightward OFC asymmetry correlated with improvement in several negative and general psychopathology symptoms. Greater left OFC GMV was associated with lower IGT attention to reward. The findings suggest that greater OFC volume and rightward asymmetry, which maintain the OFC׳s function in emotional decision-making and cognitive flexibility, are beneficial for CBTp responsiveness. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants' emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants' affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned: a happy smiling face (smile condition or a calm neutral face (neutral condition. Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant's positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren
Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or "earworms")-the spontaneous mental recall and repetition of a tune-to deliberate recall of the same tune as voluntary musical imagery (VMI) in terms of recall accuracy and emotional responses. Twenty participants completed two 3-day tasks. In an INMI task, participants recorded information about INMI episodes as they occurred; in a VMI task, participants were prompted via text message to deliberately imagine each tune they had previously experienced as INMI. In both tasks, tempi of the imagined tunes were recorded by tapping to the musical beat while wearing an accelerometer and additional information (e.g., tune name, emotion ratings) was logged in a diary. Overall, INMI and VMI tempo measurements for the same tune were strongly correlated. Tempo recall for tunes that have definitive, recorded versions was relatively accurate, and tunes that were retrieved deliberately (VMI) were not recalled more accurately in terms of tempo than spontaneous and involuntary instances of imagined music (INMI). Some evidence that INMI elicited stronger emotional responses than VMI was also revealed. These results demonstrate several parallels to previous literature on involuntary memories and add new insights on the phenomenology of INMI.
Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia
This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Rufer, Michael; Redlich, Ronny; Dohm, Katharina; Grotegerd, Dominik; Zaremba, Dario; Dannlowski, Udo
Alexithymia is a clinically relevant personality trait related to difficulties in recognizing and describing emotions. Previous studies examining the neural correlates of alexithymia have shown mainly decreased response of several brain areas during emotion processing in healthy samples and patients suffering from autism or post-traumatic stress disorder. In the present study, we examined the effect of alexithymia on automatic brain reactivity to negative and positive facial expressions in clinical depression. Brain activation in response to sad, happy, neutral, and no facial expression (presented for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces) was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T in 26 alexithymic and 26 non-alexithymic patients with major depression. Alexithymic patients manifested less activation in response to masked sad and happy (compared to neutral) faces in right frontal regions and right caudate nuclei than non-alexithymic patients. Our neuroimaging study provides evidence that the personality trait alexithymia has a modulating effect on automatic emotion processing in clinical depression. Our findings support the idea that alexithymia could be associated with functional deficits of the right hemisphere. Future research on the neural substrates of emotion processing in depression should assess and control alexithymia in their analyses.
Hulbert-Williams, N J; Morrison, V; Wilkinson, C; Neal, R D
Lazarus's Transactional Model of stress and coping underwent significant theoretical development through the 1990s to better incorporate emotional reactions to stress with their appraisal components. Few studies have robustly explored the full model. This study aimed to do so within the context of a major life event: cancer diagnosis. A repeated measures design was used whereby data were collected using self-report questionnaire at baseline (soon after diagnosis), and 3- and 6-month follow-up. A total of 160 recently diagnosed cancer patients were recruited (mean time since diagnosis = 46 days). Their mean age was 64.2 years. Data on appraisals, core-relational themes, and emotions were collected. Data were analysed using both Spearman's correlation tests and multivariate regression modelling. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated weak correlation between change scores of theoretically associated components and some emotions correlated more strongly with cognitions contradicting theoretical expectations. Cross-sectional multivariate testing of the ability of cognitions to explain variance in emotion was largely theory inconsistent. Although data support the generic structure of the Transactional Model, they question the model specifics. Larger scale research is needed encompassing a wider range of emotions and using more complex statistical testing. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: • Stress processes are transactional and coping outcome is informed by both cognitive appraisal of the stressor and the individual's emotional response (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). • Lazarus (1999) made specific hypotheses about which particular stress appraisals would determine which emotional response, but only a small number of these relationships have been robustly investigated. • Previous empirical testing of this theory has been limited by design and statistical limitations. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • This study empirically investigates the cognitive precedents of a
Narumoto, J; Okada, T; Sadato, N; Fukui, K; Yonekura, Y
A parallel neural network has been proposed for processing various types of information conveyed by faces including emotion. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested the effect of the explicit attention to the emotional expression of the faces on the neuronal activity of the face-responsive regions. Delayed match to sample procedure was adopted. Subjects were required to match the visually presented pictures with regard to the contour of the face pictures, facial identity, and emotional expressions by valence (happy and fearful expressions) and arousal (fearful and sad expressions). Contour matching of the non-face scrambled pictures was used as a control condition. The face-responsive regions that responded more to faces than to non-face stimuli were the bilateral lateral fusiform gyrus (LFG), the right superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In these regions, general attention to the face enhanced the activities of the bilateral LFG, the right STS, and the left IPS compared with attention to the contour of the facial image. Selective attention to facial emotion specifically enhanced the activity of the right STS compared with attention to the face per se. The results suggest that the right STS region plays a special role in facial emotion recognition within distributed face-processing systems. This finding may support the notion that the STS is involved in social perception.
Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan
Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion. Therefore, modulation of the brain activity can lead to manipulation of cognitive functions. The stimulus used in this study was 40-Hz binaural beat because binaural beat induces frequency following response. This study aimed to investigate the neural oscillation responding to the 40-Hz binaural beat and to evaluate working memory function and emotional states after listening to that stimulus. Two experiments were developed based on the study aims. In the first experiment, electroencephalograms were recorded while participants listened to the stimulus for 30min. The results suggested that frontal, temporal, and central regions were activated within 15min. In the second experiment, word list recall task was conducted before and after listening to the stimulus for 20min. The results showed that, after listening, the recalled words were increase in the working memory portion of the list. Brunel Mood Scale, a questionnaire to evaluate emotional states, revealed changes in emotional states after listening to the stimulus. The emotional results suggested that these changes were consistent with the induced neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eichmann, Mischa; Kugel, Harald; Suslow, Thomas
Difficulties in identifying and differentiating one's emotions are a central characteristic of alexithymia. In the present study, automatic activation of the fusiform gyrus to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During 3 Tesla fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 22 healthy adults who also responded to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The fusiform gyrus was selected as the region of interest, and voxel values of this region were extracted, summarized as means, and tested among the different conditions (sad, happy, and neutral faces). Masked sad facial emotions were associated with greater bilateral activation of the fusiform gyrus than masked neutral faces. The subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of the fusiform gyrus to masked sad faces. The correlation results suggest that automatic hyporesponsiveness of the fusiform gyrus to negative emotion stimuli may reflect problems in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life.
Full Text Available Difficulties in social–emotional processing have been proposed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN. Few studies, thus far, have investigated neural processes that underlie these difficulties, including processing emotional facial expressions. However, the majority of these studies have investigated neural responses to adult emotional display, which may be confounded by elevated sensitivity to social rank and threat in AN. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the neural processes underlying implicit processing of positively and negatively valenced infant emotional display in AN. Twenty-one adult women with AN and twenty-six healthy comparison (HC women were presented with images of positively valenced, negatively valenced, and neutral infant faces during a fMRI scan. Significant differences between the groups in positive > neutral and negative > neutral contrasts were investigated in a priori regions of interest, including the bilateral amygdala, insula, and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. The findings revealed that the AN participants showed relatively increased recruitment while the HC participants showed relatively reduced recruitment of the bilateral amygdala and the right dorsolateral PFC in the positive > neutral contrast. In the negative > neutral contrast, the AN group showed relatively increased recruitment of the left posterior insula while the HC groups showed relatively reduced recruitment of this region. These findings suggest that people with AN may engage in implicit prefrontal down-regulation of elevated limbic reactivity to positively social–emotional stimuli.
Blasi, Giuseppe; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Fazio, Leonardo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Rampino, Antonio; Masellis, Rita; Papp, Audrey; Ursini, Gianluca; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang; Bertolino, Alessandro
Personality traits related to emotion processing are, at least in part, heritable and genetically determined. Dopamine D(2) receptor signaling is involved in modulation of emotional behavior and activity of associated brain regions such as the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism within the D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) (rs1076560, guanine > thymine or G > T) shifts splicing of the two protein isoforms (D(2) short, mainly presynaptic, and D(2) long) and has been associated with modulation of memory performance and brain activity. Here, our aim was to investigate the association of DRD2 rs1076560 genotype with personality traits of emotional stability and with brain physiology during processing of emotionally relevant stimuli. DRD2 genotype and Big Five Questionnaire scores were evaluated in 134 healthy subjects demonstrating that GG subjects have reduced "emotion control" compared with GT subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 24 individuals indicated greater amygdala activity during implicit processing and greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) response during explicit processing of facial emotional stimuli in GG subjects compared with GT. Other results also demonstrate an interaction between DRD2 genotype and facial emotional expression on functional connectivity of both amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal regions with overlapping medial prefrontal areas. Moreover, rs1076560 genotype is associated with differential relationships between amygdala/DLPFC functional connectivity and emotion control scores. These results suggest that genetically determined D(2) signaling may explain part of personality traits related to emotion processing and individual variability in specific brain responses to emotionally relevant inputs.
Aguilar, Raúl; Martínez, Carlos; Alvero-Cruz, José R
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was examined over a 45days stay at extreme altitudes (above of about 5500m) on Mount Kangchenjunga. The CAR refers to a peak cortisol response during the waking period that is superimposed to the diurnal rhythmicity in cortisol secretion, whose function has been proposed to be the anticipation of demands of the upcoming day (the CAR anticipation hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, we distinguished between resting days on which the expedition team engaged in routine activities in the base camp, and ascent days on which it planned to climb up a very demanding track. We were also interested in examining the association of testosterone with emotional anticipation, given the role of this steroid hormone in reward-related processes in challenge situations. Results showed that the climber group had a bigger CAR on ascent days, relative to the Sherpa group at the same altitude and the non-climber group at sea level. Several methodological issues, however, made it difficult to interpret these group differences in terms of the CAR anticipation hypothesis (e.g. a seemingly influential covariate was awakening time). Although based on tentative results, correlational and regression analyses controlling for awakening time coherently showed that the CAR was associated with anticipation of a hard day and feelings of fear, and testosterone was associated with feelings of energy and positive affect. Whether or not the anticipation of a hard day played a key role in regulation of the CAR, the observation of an intact CAR in the climber group under hypobaric hypoxia conditions would require in-depth reflection from the perspective of human adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
情绪是一种心理现象，人有各种各样的情绪，抑郁、紧张、恐惧、悲伤、愉快、轻松等都属于情绪活动。情绪有正性情绪和负性情绪之分。正性情绪有助于人的健康，负性情绪有害于人的健康。在人类的基本情绪中，人的负性情绪占大多数，因此，在生命里的人总会让积极情绪战胜消极情绪。对情绪进行有效的管理，是一个需要我们认真研究的课题。%Emotion is a psychological phenomenon , and people have all kinds of emotions , such as , depression , ten-sion, fear, sorrow, happiness, relaxation, all of these belong to the emotional activities .Emotions have positive and negative emotions .Positive emotion is helpful to people's health , and negative emotions are harmful to people 's health.In the basic emotions of human , people's negative emotions are in the majority , therefore , people will make positive emotions overcome negative emotions in the life .Effective management of emotion is a topic we need to seri-ously study .
Full Text Available This paper examines men’s contributions to the division of emotional labour in heterosexual couple relationships by exploring the dimensions of commitment and independence, and how couples deal with challenges. The study is based on individual interviews with each of the partners in ten urban middle-class couples in Norway. The results indicate diversity in middle-class men’s approaches to emotional responsibility, which is expressed through three models. The model of shared responsibility implies that the man’s contributions in the relationship represent expressions of responsive commitment. The man finds a balance between giving priority to his personal interests and considering shared interests; a pattern we refer to as collaborative independence, and he shares the responsibility for coping with challenges with his partner. The model of gendered responsibility implies that the man’s contributions in the relationship are characterized by non-responsive commitment. The man gives priority to his personal interests in a way we refer to as conflicting independence, and refrains from sharing the responsibility for coping with challenges with his partner. Finally, a third model, termed partial responsibility, is also evident in the data. This model is a combination of collaborative independence and non-responsive commitment, and may represent a phase of transition towards collaboration on an equal basis. A discussion of interpretations of the diversity in men’s approaches to commitment and independence concludes the paper.
Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A
In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered...... from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....
Besmann, Anna; Rios, Kimberly
Previous research has demonstrated the tendency for humans to anthropomorphize computers-that is, to react to computers as social actors, despite knowing that the computers are mere machines. In the present research, we examined the attribution of both primary (non-uniquely human) and secondary (human-like) emotions to ingroup (teammate) and outgroup (opponent) computer-controlled characters in a video game. We found that participants perceived the teammate character as experiencing more secondary emotions than the opponent character, but that they perceived the teammate and opponent character as experiencing equal levels of primary emotions. Thus, participants anthropomorphized the ingroup character to a greater extent than the outgroup character. These results imply that computers' "emotions" are treated with a similar ingroup/outgroup social regard as the emotions of actual humans.
Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.
The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058
Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre; Desseilles, Martin
Persistence (PS) is defined as the ability to generate and maintain arousal and motivation internally in the absence of immediate external reward. Low PS individuals tend to become discouraged when expectations are not rapidly fulfilled. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in PS influence the recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation. In a functional MRI study, 35 subjects judged the emotional intensity of displayed pictures. When processing negative pictures, low PS (vs. high PS) subjects showed higher amygdala and right orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) activity but lower left OFC activity. This dissociation in OFC activity suggests greater prefrontal cortical asymmetry for approach/avoidance motivation, suggesting an avoidance response to aversive stimuli in low PS. For positive or neutral stimuli, low PS subjects showed lower activity in the amygdala, striatum, and hippocampus. These results suggest that low PS may involve an imbalance in processing distinct emotional inputs, with greater reactivity to aversive information in regions involved in avoidance behaviour (amygdala, OFC) and dampened response to positive and neutral stimuli across circuits subserving motivated behaviour (striatum, hippocampus, amygdala). Low PS affective style was associated with depression vulnerability. These findings in non-depressed subjects point to a neural mechanism whereby some individuals are more likely to show systematic negative emotional biases, as frequently observed in depression. The assessment of these individual differences, including those that may cause vulnerability to depressive disorders, would therefore constitute a promising approach to risk assessment for depression.
Bos, Marieke G N; Jacobs van Goethem, Tessa H; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel
Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional categories (i.e., war and disease) presented against a category-related background picture. One day later, participants returned to the lab and received a reminder of the words of one emotional category followed by exposure to a stress task (Stress group, n=22) or a control task (Control group, n=24). Six days later, memory contextualization was tested using a word stem completion task. Half of the word stems were presented against the encoding context (i.e., congruent context) and the other half of the word stems were presented against the other context (i.e., incongruent context). The results showed that participants recalled more words in the congruent context than in the incongruent context. Interestingly, cortisol mediated the effect of stress exposure on memory contextualization. The stronger the post-reactivation cortisol response, the more memory performance relied on the contextual embedding of the words. Taken together, the current findings suggest that a moderate cortisol response after memory reactivation might serve an adaptive function in preventing generalization of emotional memories over contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces in adulthood. 52 subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23-25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task (EFAT. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and mPFC responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues.
Bujor Anca Liliana
The current context of economic development, the transformations that are subject to national and international organizations impose their traditional attitude change in relation to results and performance of current activity. In this context, the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) aims to achieve economic success in an ethical manner with respect for people, communities and environment. This article analyses the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in relation to Human Resources (HR...
Full Text Available BackgroundMental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF, a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose of this study was to validate the TRQ-SF in a general outpatient clinic setting.MethodsAdult psychiatric outpatients (N = 346 and their treating mental health professionals (N = 48 completed self-report assessments following their first clinic meeting. Clinician measures included the TRQ-SF, general emotional states and traits, therapeutic alliance, and assessment of patient suicide risk. Patient suicidal outcomes and symptom severity were assessed at intake and one-month follow-up. Following confirmatory factor analysis of the TRQ-SF, factor scores were examined for relationships with clinician and patient measures and suicidal outcomes.ResultsFactor analysis of the TRQ-SF confirmed three dimensions: (1 affiliation, (2 distress, and (3 hope. The three factors also loaded onto a single general factor of negative emotional response toward the patient that demonstrated good internal reliability. The TRQ-SF scores were associated with measures of clinician state anger and anxiety and therapeutic alliance, independently of clinician personality traits after controlling for the state- and patient-specific measures. The total score and three subscales were associated in both concurrent and predictive ways with patient suicidal outcomes, depression severity, and clinicians’ judgment of patient suicide risk, but not with global symptom severity, thus indicating specifically suicide-related responses.ConclusionThe TRQ-SF is a brief and reliable measure with a
Barzilay, Shira; Yaseen, Zimri S; Hawes, Mariah; Gorman, Bernard; Altman, Rachel; Foster, Adriana; Apter, Alan; Rosenfield, Paul; Galynker, Igor
Mental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF), a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose of this study was to validate the TRQ-SF in a general outpatient clinic setting. Adult psychiatric outpatients ( N = 346) and their treating mental health professionals ( N = 48) completed self-report assessments following their first clinic meeting. Clinician measures included the TRQ-SF, general emotional states and traits, therapeutic alliance, and assessment of patient suicide risk. Patient suicidal outcomes and symptom severity were assessed at intake and one-month follow-up. Following confirmatory factor analysis of the TRQ-SF, factor scores were examined for relationships with clinician and patient measures and suicidal outcomes. Factor analysis of the TRQ-SF confirmed three dimensions: (1) affiliation, (2) distress, and (3) hope. The three factors also loaded onto a single general factor of negative emotional response toward the patient that demonstrated good internal reliability. The TRQ-SF scores were associated with measures of clinician state anger and anxiety and therapeutic alliance, independently of clinician personality traits after controlling for the state- and patient-specific measures. The total score and three subscales were associated in both concurrent and predictive ways with patient suicidal outcomes, depression severity, and clinicians' judgment of patient suicide risk, but not with global symptom severity, thus indicating specifically suicide-related responses. The TRQ-SF is a brief and reliable measure with a 3-factor structure. It demonstrates
Corr, Philip J; Kumari, Veena
An emerging literature associates increased dopaminergic neurotransmission with altered brain response to aversive stimuli in humans. The direction of the effect of dopamine on aversive motivation, however, remains unclear, with some studies reporting increased and others decreased amygdala activation to aversive stimuli following the administration of dopamine agonists. Potentiation of the startle response by aversive foreground stimuli provides an objective and directional measure of emotional reactivity and is considered useful as an index of the emotional effects of different drugs. We investigated the effects of two doses of D-amphetamine (5 and 10 mg), compared to placebo, for the first time to our knowledge, using the affect-startle paradigm. The study employed a between-subjects, double-blind design, with three conditions: 0 mg (placebo), and 5 and 10 mg D-amphetamine (initially n = 20/group; final sample: n = 18, placebo; n = 18, 5 mg; n = 16, 10 mg). After drug/placebo administration, startle responses (eyeblinks) to intermittent noise probes were measured during viewing of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant images. Participants' general and specific impulsivity and fear-related personality traits were also assessed. The three groups were comparable on personality traits. Only the placebo group showed significant startle potentiation by unpleasant, relative to neutral, images; this effect was absent in both 5- and 10-mg D-amphetamine groups (i.e. the same effect of D-amphetamine observed at different doses in different people). Our findings demonstrate a reduced aversive emotional response under D-amphetamine and may help to account for the known link between the use of psychostimulant drugs and antisocial behaviour.
Full Text Available Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.
Cutrona, Carolyn E; Russell, Daniel W
Adult attachment theory provides guidance for providing optimal social support in intimate relationships. According to attachment theory, facilitating autonomy (secure base support) sometimes is more important than providing nurturance (safe haven support). In addition, it is important that couples celebrate one another's triumphs and successes (another form of secure base support). A key construct that explains the development of attachment is responsiveness to the individual's needs. Support that is delivered in a responsive manner (i.e., that leads the individual to feel understood, validated, and cared for) is more likely to enhance the relationship and less likely to damage self-esteem than assistance that is not responsive. A responsive exchange is more likely if emotion dysregulation can be prevented. Attachment theory offers explanations for why people vary in their effectiveness at emotion regulation. Appropriate emotion regulation is more likely if disclosures of current difficulties can be made in a way that is not defensive or accusatory, an ability that varies as a function of attachment orientation. Attachment theory also offers guidance regarding the optimal forms of social support for specific individuals. All these insights from adult attachment theory can be integrated into interventions to help couples become more effective support providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo – and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation – is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18–38 years who listened to four stimuli—pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music, neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3–FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a
Gebauer, L.; Kringelbach, M. L.; Vuust, P.
The review by Koelsch and colleagues  offers a timely, comprehensive, and anatomically detailed framework for understanding the neural correlates of human emotions. The authors describe emotion in a framework of four affect systems, which are linked to effector systems, and higher order cognitive functions. This is elegantly demonstrated through the example of music; a realm for exploring emotions in a domain, that can be independent of language but still highly relevant for understanding human emotions .
Full Text Available "nObjective:This study aimed to examine the effects of haloperidol and amphetamine on human startle response modulated by emotionally-toned film clips. "n "n Method:Sixty participants, in two groups (one receiving haloperidol and the other receiving amphetamine were tested using electromyography (EMG to measure eye-blink muscle (orbicular oculi while different emotions were induced by six 2-minute film clips. Results:An affective rating shows the negative and positive effects of the two drugs on emotional reactivity, neither amphetamine nor haloperidol had any impact on the modulation of the startle response. Conclusion: The methodological and theoretical aspects of the study and findings will be discussed.
van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan
In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations individuals receive from other in-group members. In Study 1, we show that evaluations of one's immoral behaviour primarily induce guilt, whereas evaluations of incompetent behaviour raise anger. In Study 2, we elaborate on the psychological process associated with these emotional responses, and demonstrate that evaluations of immorality, compared to incompetence, diminish group members' perceived coping abilities, which in turn intensifies feelings of guilt. However, when anticipating an opportunity to restore one's self-image as a moral group member, perceived coping abilities are increased and the experience of guilt is alleviated. Together these studies demonstrate how group members can overcome their moral misery when restoring their self-image.
Bombeke, Klaas; Duthoo, Wout; Mueller, Sven C; Hopf, Jens-Max; Boehler, C Nico
Controversy revolves around the question of whether psychological factors like attention and emotion can influence the initial feedforward response in primary visual cortex (V1). Although traditionally, the electrophysiological correlate of this response in humans (the C1 component) has been found to be unaltered by psychological influences, a number of recent studies have described attentional and emotional modulations. Yet, research into psychological effects on the feedforward V1 response has neglected possible direct contributions of concomitant pupil-size modulations, which are known to also occur under various conditions of attentional load and emotional state. Here we tested the hypothesis that such pupil-size differences themselves directly affect the feedforward V1 response. We report data from two complementary experiments, in which we used procedures that modulate pupil size without differences in attentional load or emotion while simultaneously recording pupil-size and EEG data. Our results confirm that pupil size indeed directly influences the feedforward V1 response, showing an inverse relationship between pupil size and early V1 activity. While it is unclear in how far this effect represents a functionally-relevant adaptation, it identifies pupil-size differences as an important modulating factor of the feedforward response of V1 and could hence represent a confounding variable in research investigating the neural influence of psychological factors on early visual processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aan Het Rot, Marije; Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Iancu, Sorina; Taftă, Steluţa A; Bărbuşelu, Mariana
While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural expressions of emotion. We presented 101 Romanian students with facial and postural stimuli involving individuals ('targets') expressing happiness, sadness, anger, or fear. Using an interpersonal grid, participants simultaneously indicated how communal (i.e., quarrelsome or agreeable) and agentic (i.e., dominant or submissive) they would be towards people displaying these expressions. Participants were agreeable-dominant towards targets showing happy facial expressions and primarily quarrelsome towards targets with angry or fearful facial expressions. Responses to targets showing sad facial expressions were neutral on both dimensions of interpersonal behaviour. Postural versus facial expressions of happiness and anger elicited similar behavioural responses. Participants responded in a quarrelsome-submissive way to fearful postural expressions and in an agreeable way to sad postural expressions. Behavioural responses to the various facial expressions were largely comparable to those previously observed in Dutch students. Observed differences may be explained from participants' cultural background. Responses to the postural expressions largely matched responses to the facial expressions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Jakubowski, Kelly; Bashir, Zaariyah; Farrugia, Nicolas; Stewart, Lauren
Comparisons between involuntarily and voluntarily retrieved autobiographical memories have revealed similarities in encoding and maintenance, with differences in terms of specificity and emotional responses. Our study extended this research area into the domain of musical memory, which afforded a unique opportunity to compare the same memory as accessed both involuntarily and voluntarily. Specifically, we compared instances of involuntary musical imagery (INMI, or “earworms”)—the spontaneous ...
Ide, Soichiro; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi
The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female μ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of μ-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. MOP-KO mice entered more and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type mice. MOP-KO mice also displayed significantly decreased immobility in a 15 min tail-suspension test compared with wild-type mice. Similarly, MOP-KO mice exhibited significantly decreased immobility on days 2, 3, and 4 in a 6 min forced swim test conducted for 5 consecutive days. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by tail-suspension, repeated forced swim, or restraint stress was reduced in MOP-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Corticosterone levels were not different between wild-type and MOP-KO mice before stress exposure. In contrast, although female mice tended to exhibit fewer anxiety-like responses in the tail-suspension test in both genotypes, no significant gender differences were observed in stress-induced emotional responses. These results suggest that MOPs play an important facilitatory role in emotional responses to stress, including anxiety- and depression-like behavior and corticosterone levels. PMID:19596019
Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi
Full Text Available Introduction: Coping responses are complex dynamic behavioral reactions that involve reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition but cognitive studies in Iran have less emphasized coping responses of methamphetamine dependent individuals to distressing situations. To address this aim, the current study was designed to investigate the coping responses of a group of methamphetamine dependent women in comparison with a group of healthy women. Methods: 80 women with mean age 24(SD=6.8 years who met DSM.IV-TR criteria for methamphetamine dependence were recruited from the department of psychostimulant use treatment program of Rojan psychiatric center and 4 other local clinics in Tehran, Iran and were matched with a sample of 80 non-drug taking women. First, demographics and details of substance use were completed based on items elicited from Addiction Severity Index (ASI, then the Persian version of Billings and Moos Coping Checklist was completed by participants in each group. Data was further analyzed by performing independent sample t-test and logistic regression model in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the methamphetamine dependent group applied less problem-solving response and had lower reliance on seeking social support and cognitive evaluation compared with the controls. In addition, the methamphetamine dependent group applied significantly more emotional and physical control oriented responses compared with the controls. Discussion: The study results yielded that coping responses of the methamphetamine dependent group were less problem-focused strategies which show an impaired aspect of cognitive functioning which is subject to clinical and treatment implications. Study in the context of identifying aspects that are fundamental to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying emotion-cognition interactions in the paradigm of coping responses is discussed.
Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi
Full Text Available Introduction: Coping responses are complex dynamic behavioral reactions that involve reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition but cognitive studies in Iran have less emphasized coping responses of methamphetamine dependent individuals to distressing situations. To address this aim, the current study was designed to investigate the coping responses of a group of methamphetamine dependent women in comparison with a group of healthy women. Methods: 80 women with mean age 24(SD=6.8 years who met DSM.IV-TR criteria for methamphetamine dependence were recruited from the department of psychostimulant use treatment program of Rojan psychiatric center and 4 other local clinics in Tehran, Iran and were matched with a sample of 80 non-drug taking women. First, demographics and details of substance use were completed based on items elicited from Addiction Severity Index (ASI, then the Persian version of Billings and Moos Coping Checklist was completed by participants in each group. Data was further analyzed by performing independent sample t-test and logistic regression model in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the methamphetamine dependent group applied less problem-solving response and had lower reliance on seeking social support and cognitive evaluation compared with the controls. In addition, the methamphetamine dependent group applied significantly more emotional and physical control oriented responses compared with the controls. Discussion: The study results yielded that coping responses of the methamphetamine dependent group were less problem-focused strategies which show an impaired aspect of cognitive functioning which is subject to clinical and treatment implications. Study in the context of identifying aspects that are fundamental to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying emotion-cognition interactions in the paradigm of coping responses is discussed.
Rosenfeld, Ethan S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Nonterah, Camilla; Stevens, Michael C
This fMRI study examined whether hemodynamic responses to affectively-salient stimuli were abnormally prolonged in remitted bipolar disorder, possibly representing a novel illness biomarker. A group of 18 DSM-IV bipolar I-diagnosed adults in remission and a demographically-matched control group performed an event-related fMRI gender-discrimination task in which face stimuli had task-irrelevant neutral, happy or angry expressions designed to elicit incidental emotional processing. Participants' brain activation was modeled using a "fully informed" SPM5 basis set. Mixed-model ANOVA tested for diagnostic group differences in BOLD response amplitude and shape within brain regions-of-interest selected from ALE meta-analysis of previous comparable fMRI studies. Bipolar-diagnosed patients had a generally longer duration and/or later-peaking hemodynamic response in amygdala and numerous prefrontal cortex brain regions. Data are consistent with existing models of bipolar limbic hyperactivity, but the prolonged frontolimbic response more precisely details abnormalities recognized in previous studies. Prolonged hemodynamic responses were unrelated to stimulus type, task performance, or degree of residual mood symptoms, suggesting an important novel trait vulnerability brain dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Bipolar patients also failed to engage pregenual cingulate and left orbitofrontal cortex-regions important to models of automatic emotion regulation-while engaging a delayed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex response not seen in controls. These results raise questions about whether there are meaningful relationships between bipolar dysfunction of specific ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions believed to automatically regulate emotional reactions and the prolonged responses in more lateral aspects of prefrontal cortex.
Brown, William; Liu, Connie; John, Rita Marie; Ford, Phoebe
Developing gross and fine motor skills and expressing complex emotion is critical for child development. We introduce "StorySense", an eBook-integrated mobile app prototype that can sense face and sound topologies and identify movement and expression to promote children's motor skills and emotional developmental. Currently, most interactive eBooks on mobile devices only leverage "low-motor" interaction (i.e. tapping or swiping). Our app senses a greater breath of motion (e.g. clapping, snapping, and face tracking), and dynamically alters the storyline according to physical responses in ways that encourage the performance of predetermined motor skills ideal for a child's gross and fine motor development. In addition, our app can capture changes in facial topology, which can later be mapped using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for later interpretation of emotion. StorySense expands the human computer interaction vocabulary for mobile devices. Potential clinical applications include child development, physical therapy, and autism.
Martini, Tanya S.; Root, Carol A.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
The present study investigated the effects of situational (child situational emotions) and dispositional (child temperament) child variables on mothers' regulation of their own hostile (anger) and nonhostile (sadness and anxiety) emotions. Participants included 94 low and middle income mothers and their children (41 girls; 53 boys) aged 3 to 6…
Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai M; Howell, Brittany R
Social buffering, the phenomenon by which the presence of a familiar individual reduces or even eliminates stress- and fear-induced responses, exists in different animal species and has been examined in the context of the mother-infant relationship, in addition to adults. Although it is a well-known effect, the biological mechanisms that underlie it as well as its developmental impact are not well understood. Here, we provide a review of evidence of social and maternal buffering of stress reactivity in nonhuman primates, and some data from our group suggesting that when the mother-infant relationship is disrupted, maternal buffering is impaired. This evidence underscores the critical role that maternal care plays for proper regulation and development of emotional and stress responses of primate infants. Disruptions of the parent-infant bond constitute early adverse experiences associated with increased risk for psychopathology. We will focus on infant maltreatment, a devastating experience not only for humans, but for nonhuman primates as well. Taking advantage of this naturalistic animal model of adverse maternal caregiving, we have shown that competent maternal care is critical for the development of healthy attachment, social behavior, and emotional and stress regulation, as well as of the neural circuits underlying these functions.
McCormack, Kai M.; Howell, Brittany R.
Social buffering, the phenomenon by which the presence of a familiar individual reduces or even eliminates stress- and fear-induced responses exists in different animal species, and has been examined in the context of the mother-infant relationship in addition to adults. Although it is a well-known effect, the biological mechanisms, which underlie it, as well as its developmental impact are not well understood. Here we provide a review of evidence of social and maternal buffering of stress reactivity in nonhuman primates, and some data from our group suggesting that when the mother-infant relationship is disrupted maternal buffering is impaired. This evidence underscores the critical role that maternal care plays for proper regulation and development of emotional and stress responses of primate infants. Disruptions of the parent-infant bond constitute early adverse experiences associated with increased risk for psychopathology. We will focus on infant maltreatment, a devastating experience not only for humans, but for nonhuman primates as well. Taking advantage of this naturalistic animal model of adverse maternal caregiving we have shown that competent maternal care is critical for the development of healthy attachment, social behavior and emotional and stress regulation, as well as of neural circuits underlying these functions. PMID:26324227
Mermillod, Martial; Grynberg, Delphine; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Beffara, Brice; Harquel, Sylvain; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M; Dutheil, Frédéric; Droit-Volet, Sylvie
Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target) on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal), physiological (facial mimicry) as well as on neural (P100 and N170) responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE) that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1), increased electromyographical responses (Study 2), and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3) when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative) information (vs. no information). These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Luypaert, Robert; De Raedt, Rudi; De Mey, Johan
The affective personality trait 'harm avoidance' (HA) from Cloninger's psychobiological personality model determines how an individual deals with emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli are processed by a neural network that include the left and right amygdalae as important key nodes. Explicit, implicit and passive processing of affective stimuli are known to activate the amygdalae differently reflecting differences in attention, level of detailed analysis of the stimuli and the cognitive control needed to perform the required task. Previous studies revealed that implicit processing or passive viewing of affective stimuli, induce a left amygdala response that correlates with HA. In this new study we have tried to extend these findings to the situation in which the subjects were required to explicitly process emotional stimuli. A group of healthy female participants was asked to rate the valence of positive and negative stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Afterwards the neural responses of the participants to the positive and to the negative stimuli were separately correlated to their HA scores and compared between the low and high HA participants. Both analyses revealed increased neural activity in the left laterobasal (LB) amygdala of the high HA participants while they were rating the positive and the negative stimuli. Our results indicate that the left amygdala response to explicit processing of affective stimuli does correlate with HA.
Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.
Wang, Yongfu; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Bi; Li, Chaocui; Cai, Jing-Xia
It is established that stress impairs spatial learning and memory via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Dopamine D1 receptors were also shown to be responsible for a stress-induced deficit of working memory. However, whether stress affects the subsequent emotional learning and memory is not elucidated yet. Here, we employed the well-established one-trial step-through task to study the effect of an acute psychological stress (induced by tail hanging for 5, 10, or 20 min) on emotional learning and memory, and the possible mechanisms as well. We demonstrated that tail hanging induced an obvious stress response. Either an acute tail-hanging stress or a single dose of intraperitoneally injected dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) significantly decreased the step-through latency in the one-trial step-through task. However, SCH23390 prevented the acute tail-hanging stress-induced decrease in the step-through latency. In addition, the effects of tail-hanging stress and/or SCH23390 on the changes in step-through latency were not through non-memory factors such as nociceptive perception and motor function. Our data indicate that the hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors mediated the stress-induced deficit of emotional learning and memory. This study may have clinical significance given that psychological stress is considered to play a role in susceptibility to some mental diseases such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The research group around Koelsch presents a neurobiological emotion theory that is supposed to have the following plus factors: (1) Interdisciplinary approach towards understanding human emotions and their neural correlates, (2) concentration on human emotions, (3) interaction between language and emotion, (4) allows research on short-term emotional phenomena and takes long-term emotional phenomena into account, as well as the differences of the neural correlates underlying short-term and long-term emotions . This is a very ambitious program. My comment will focus on (3) and (4).
Full Text Available This work presents a Web ontology for modeling and representation of the emotional, cognitive and motivational state of online learners, interacting with university systems for distance or blended education. The ontology is understood as a way to provide the required mechanisms to model reality and associate it to emotional responses, but without committing to a particular way of organizing these emotional responses. Knowledge representation for the contributed ontology is performed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL, a semantic web language designed to represent rich and complex knowledge about things, groups of things, and relations between things. OWL is a computational logic-based language such that computer programs can exploit knowledge expressed in OWL and also facilitates sharing and reusing knowledge using the global infrastructure of the Web. The proposed ontology has been tested in the field of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs to check if it is capable of representing emotions and motivation of the students in this context of use.
López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto
This work presents a Web ontology for modeling and representation of the emotional, cognitive and motivational state of online learners, interacting with university systems for distance or blended education. The ontology is understood as a way to provide the required mechanisms to model reality and associate it to emotional responses, but without committing to a particular way of organizing these emotional responses. Knowledge representation for the contributed ontology is performed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL), a semantic web language designed to represent rich and complex knowledge about things, groups of things, and relations between things. OWL is a computational logic-based language such that computer programs can exploit knowledge expressed in OWL and also facilitates sharing and reusing knowledge using the global infrastructure of the Web. The proposed ontology has been tested in the field of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to check if it is capable of representing emotions and motivation of the students in this context of use. PMID:27199796
Full Text Available This pilot study examined the effects of Therapeutic Clowning on inpatients in a pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Ten disabled children with varied physical and verbal expressive abilities participated in all or portions of the data collection protocol. Employing a mixed-method, single-subject ABAB study design, measures of physiological arousal, emotion and behavior were obtained from eight children under two conditions—television exposure and therapeutic clown interventions. Four peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS signals were recorded as measures of physiological arousal; these signals were analyzed with respect to measures of emotion (verbal self reports of mood and behavior (facial expressions and vocalizations. Semistructured interviews were completed with verbally expressive children (n = 7 and nurses of participating children (n = 13. Significant differences among children were found in response to the clown intervention relative to television exposure. Physiologically, changes in ANS signals occurred either more frequently or in different patterns. Emotionally, children's (self and nurses' (observed reports of mood were elevated positively. Behaviorally, children exhibited more positive and fewer negative facial expressions and vocalizations of emotion during the clown intervention. Content and themes extracted from the interviews corroborated these findings. The results suggest that this popular psychosocial intervention has a direct and positive impact on hospitalized children. This pilot study contributes to the current understanding of the importance of alternative approaches in promoting well-being within healthcare settings.
Gadeikis, Darius; Bos, Nikita; Schweizer, Susanne; Murphy, Fionnuala; Dunn, Barnaby
It is important to identify effective emotion regulation strategies to increase positive emotion experience in the general population and in clinical conditions characterized by anhedonia. There are indications that engaging in experiential processing (direct awareness of sensory and bodily experience) bolsters positive emotion experience but this has not been extensively tested during memory recall. To further test this notion, 99 community participants recalled two positive autobiographical memories. Prior to the second recall, participants either underwent an experiential, analytical, or distraction induction (n = 33 per condition). Subjective happiness and sadness ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) response were measured during each recall. Greater spontaneous use of experiential processing during the first memory was associated with greater happiness experience, but was unrelated to HRV and sadness experience. Inducing experiential processing increased happiness experience relative to both the analytical and distraction conditions (but had no impact on sadness experience). There was a significant difference in HRV between conditions. The experiential condition led to a trend-significant increase, and the other conditions a non-significant decrease, in HRV from the first to the second memory. These results suggest that engaging in experiential processing is an effective way to up-regulate positive emotion experience during positive memory recall. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Judith; Panagioti, Maria; Bass, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lauren; Harrison, Reema
Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen
Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.
Mukherjee, Prerona; Whalley, Heather C; McKirdy, James W; McIntosh, Andrew M; Johnstone, Eve C; Lawrie, Stephen M; Hall, Jeremy
The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with affective disorders, but its role in emotion processing has not been fully established. Due to the clinically heterogeneous nature of these disorders, studying the effect of genetic variation in the BDNF gene on a common attribute such as fear processing may elucidate how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism impacts brain function. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging examine the effect of the BDNF Val66Met genotype on neural activity for fear processing. Forty healthy participants performed an implicit fear task during scanning, where subjects made gender judgments from facial images with neutral or fearful emotion. Subjects were tested for facial emotion recognition post-scan. Functional connectivity was investigated using psycho-physiological interactions. Subjects were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and the measures compared between genotype groups. Met carriers showed overactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brainstem and insula bilaterally for fear processing, along with reduced functional connectivity from the ACC to the left hippocampus, and impaired fear recognition ability. The results show that during fear processing, Met allele carriers show an increased neural response in regions previously implicated in mediating autonomic arousal. Further, the Met carriers show decreased functional connectivity with the hippocampus, which may reflect differential retrieval of emotional associations. Together, these effects show significant differences in the neural substrate for fear processing with genetic variation in BDNF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lithari, C; Frantzidis, C A; Papadelis, C; Vivas, Ana B; Klados, M A; Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Pappas, C; Ioannides, A A; Bamidis, P D
Men and women seem to process emotions and react to them differently. Yet, few neurophysiological studies have systematically investigated gender differences in emotional processing. Here, we studied gender differences using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) and Skin Conductance Responses (SCR) recorded from participants who passively viewed emotional pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The arousal and valence dimension of the stimuli were manipulated orthogonally. The peak amplitude and peak latency of ERP components and SCR were analyzed separately, and the scalp topographies of significant ERP differences were documented. Females responded with enhanced negative components (N100 and N200), in comparison to males, especially to the unpleasant visual stimuli, whereas both genders responded faster to high arousing or unpleasant stimuli. Scalp topographies revealed more pronounced gender differences on central and left hemisphere areas. Our results suggest a difference in the way emotional stimuli are processed by genders: unpleasant and high arousing stimuli evoke greater ERP amplitudes in women relatively to men. It also seems that unpleasant or high arousing stimuli are temporally prioritized during visual processing by both genders.
Mamonto, N. E.; Maulana, H.; Liliana, D. Y.; Basaruddin, T.
Datasets that have been developed before contain facial expression from foreign people. The development of multimedia content aims to answer the problems experienced by the research team and other researchers who will conduct similar research. The method used in the development of multimedia content as facial expression datasets for human emotion recognition is the Villamil-Molina version of the multimedia development method. Multimedia content developed with 10 subjects or talents with each talent performing 3 shots with each capturing talent having to demonstrate 19 facial expressions. After the process of editing and rendering, tests are carried out with the conclusion that the multimedia content can be used as a facial expression dataset for recognition of human emotions.
Taskiran, Candan; Karaismailoglu, Serkan; Cak Esen, Halime Tuna; Tuzun, Zeynep; Erdem, Aysen; Balkanci, Zeynep Dicle; Dolgun, Anil Barak; Cengel Kultur, Sadriye Ebru
Emotion dysregulation (ED) has long been recognized in clinical descriptions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but a renewed interest in ED has advanced research on the overlap between the two entities. Autonomic reactivity (AR) is a neurobiological correlate of emotion regulation; however, the association between ADHD and AR remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the clinical differences, AR, and subjective emotional responses to visual emotional stimuli in ADHD children with and without ED. School-aged ADHD children with (n = 28) and without (n = 20) ED, according to the definition of deficiency in emotional self-regulation (DESR), and healthy controls (n = 22) were interviewed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) to screen frequent psychopathologies for these ages. All subjects were evaluated with Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (CBCL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the School-Age Temperament Inventory (SATI), and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), which were completed by parents. To evaluate emotional responses, the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and the subjective and physiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate reactivity) to selected pictures were examined. Regarding clinically distinctive features, the ADHD+ED group differed from the ADHD-ED and the control groups in terms of having higher temperamental negative reactivity, more oppositional/conduct problems, and lower prosocial behaviors. In the AR measures, children in the ADHD+ED group rated unpleasant stimuli as more negative, but they still had lower heart rate reactivity (HRR) than the ADHD-ED and control groups; moreover, unlike the two other groups, the ADHD+ED group showed no differences in HRR between different emotional stimuli. The presented findings are unique in terms of their
Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok
Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can
Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan
The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing.
Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing
Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.
Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y
Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a
Hämmerer, Dorothea; Hopkins, Alexandra; Betts, Matthew J; Maaß, Anne; Dolan, Ray J; Düzel, Emrah
A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses. In keeping with the hypothesis of reduced age-related NA influences, older adults showed attenuated induced PD responses to negative emotional events. The findings highlight a likely contribution of NA to negative emotional memory, mediated via arousal that may be compromised with aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dellacherie, Delphine; Roy, Mathieu; Hugueville, Laurent; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine
To study the influence of musical education on emotional reactions to dissonance, we examined self-reports and physiological responses to dissonant and consonant musical excerpts in listeners with low (LE: n=15) and high (HE: n=13) musical experience. The results show that dissonance induces more unpleasant feelings and stronger physiological responses in HE than in LE participants, suggesting that musical education reinforces aversion to dissonance. Skin conductance (SCR) and electromyographic (EMG) signals were analyzed according to a defense cascade model, which takes into account two successive time windows corresponding to orienting and defense responses. These analyses suggest that musical experience can influence the defense response to dissonance and demonstrate a powerful role of musical experience not only in autonomic but also in expressive responses to music. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Samant, Shilpa S; Chapko, Matthew J; Seo, Han-Seok
Traditional methods of sensory testing focus on capturing information about multisensory perceptions, but do not necessarily measure emotions elicited by these food and beverages. The objective of this study was to develop an optimum model of predicting overall liking (rating) and preference (choice) based on taste intensity and evoked emotions. One hundred and two participants (51 females) were asked to taste water, sucrose, citric acid, salt, and caffeine solutions. Their emotional responses toward each sample were measured by a combination of a self-reported emotion questionnaire (EsSense25), facial expressions, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. In addition, their perceived intensity and overall liking were measured. After a break, participants re-tasted the samples and ranked them according to their preference. The results showed that emotional responses measured using self-reported emotion questionnaire and facial expression analysis along with perceived taste intensity performed best to predict overall liking as well as preference, while ANS measures showed limited contribution. Contrary to some previous research, this study demonstrated that not only negative emotions, but also positive ones could help predict consumer liking and preference. In addition, since there were subtle differences in the prediction models of overall liking and preference, both aspects should be taken into account to understand consumer behavior. In conclusion, combination of evoked emotions along with sensory perception could help better understand consumer acceptance as well as preference toward basic taste solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wardy, Wisdom; Sae-Eaw, Amporn; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon
Effects of attribute presence and absence on the emotional profile and consumer acceptability of products with varying qualities were assessed using eggs as an example. An online survey (n = 320) was used to evaluate emotional responses and acceptability to 5 types of egg quality attributes: intrinsic, aesthetic, extrinsic, expediency, and wholesome/safety, for both present and absent conditions. Attribute absence rather than presence evoked greater consumer discriminating emotions associated with eggs. Mean emotion intensity elicited by the presence of all quality attributes ranged from 1.67 (intrinsic; guilty) to 4.05 (wholesome; good) versus 2.01 (wholesome; satisfied) to 3.29 (wholesome; disgusted) when absent. Key positive emotions elicited by presence of attributes were active, calm, good, interested, happy, safe, and satisfied; while dominant negative emotions elicited by absence of attributes included disgusted and worried. Wholesome quality (constituted by egg freshness, "packing/best-before-date" and absence of visible cracks) exhibited the highest liking (7.65) and emotion intensities, while the emotional responses to both the presence and absence of intrinsic quality (constituted by nutrient-fortified egg, organic egg, and USDA-certified farm egg) were similar, reflecting their dynamic effects on emotions. Emotions and acceptability were more correlated for attribute absence than presence; and good, happy, and satisfied emotions were strongly related to egg acceptability (r ≥ 0.6). Egg product/packaging design can be oriented toward emphasizing wholesome and expedient attributes, since they enhance good, safe, and satisfied emotions, while minimizing disgust, worry, and boredom. The use of emotional responses and hedonic testing regarding attribute presence and absence would allow for improved selection of attributes critical to consumer acceptance of products. Assessing effects of attribute presence compared with absence on food-evoked emotions may
Claes, Laurence; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Santamaría, Juan J; Moussa, Maher B; Sánchez, Isabel; Forcano, Laura; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Konstantas, Dimitri; Overby, Mikkel L; Nielsen, Jeppe; Bults, Richard G A; Granero, Roser; Lam, Tony; Kalapanidas, Elias; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
Several aspects of social and emotional functioning are abnormal in people with eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to measure facial emotional expression in patients with eating disorders and healthy controls whilst playing a therapeutic video game (Playmancer) designed to train individuals in emotional regulation. Participants were 23 ED patients (11 AN, 12 BN) and 11 HCs. ED patients self reported more anger at baseline but expressed less facial expression of anger during the Playmancer game. The discrepancy between self-report and non-verbal expression may lead to problems in social communication. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Conn, Kelly M; Fisher, Susan G; Rhee, Hyekyun
Little is known about the emotional intelligence (EI) of parents and their children with asthma. Objectives of this study were to assess: 1) parent's and children's report of emotions in response to an asthma vignette (proxy for EI) and 2) the relationship between emotions, self-management behaviors, and symptoms. We conducted a descriptive, mixed methods study of children 7-12 years old with asthma. Parent-Child dyads (n=104) responded to an asthma vignette to gain insight into emotions, symptoms, and self-management behaviors. Additional questions assessed confidence and worry using a 5-point Likert scale. Thematic analyses and descriptive statistics were used to assess qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Children were predominantly male (58%), 7-9 (58%), and White (46%). The most common negative emotions reported by children were scared and sad. Children who sought help from an adult were less likely to report using medications compared to children who did not seek help (39.5% vs. 62.3%, p=.029). Children with low worry and high confidence had fewer symptoms compared to children reporting high worry and low confidence (symptoms: days 3.24 vs. 6.77, p=.012, nights 2.71 vs. 5.36, p=.004). Children provided appropriate emotional responses to the asthma vignette; emotions were related to self-management behaviors and symptoms. More studies are needed to specifically assess EI in this population. Parents and children with greater EI may be better able to understand their needs, engage in self-management behaviors, and communicate with their nurses, to improve their support network and ability to access services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miranda M Ravicz
Full Text Available Accurate decoding of facial expressions is critical for human communication, particularly during infancy, before formal language has developed. Different facial emotions elicit distinct neural responses within the first months of life. However, there are broad individual differences in such responses, such that the same emotion can elicit different brain responses in different infants. In this study we sought to investigate such differences in the processing of emotional faces by analyzing infants’ cortical metabolic responses to face stimuli and examining whether individual differences in these responses might vary as a function of infant temperament.Seven-month-old infants (N = 24 were shown photographs of women portraying happy expressions, and neural activity was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Temperament data were collected using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire Short Form, which assesses the broad temperament factors of Surgency/Extraversion (S/E, Negative Emotionality (NE, and Orienting/Regulation (O/R. We observed that oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb responses to happy face stimuli were negatively correlated with infant temperament factors in channels over the left prefrontal cortex (uncorrected for multiple comparisons. To investigate the brain activity underlying this association, and to explore the use of fNIRS in measuring cortical asymmetry, we analyzed hemispheric asymmetry with respect to temperament groups. Results showed preferential activation of the left hemisphere in low-NE infants in response to smiling faces.These results suggest that individual differences in temperament are associated with differential prefrontal oxyHb responses to faces. Overall, these analyses contribute to our current understanding of face processing during infancy, demonstrate the use of fNIRS in measuring prefrontal asymmetry, and illuminate the neural correlates of face processing as modulated by temperament.
Ivanete Schneider Hahn; Flavia Luciane Scherer; Kenny Basso; Marindia Brachak dos Santos
Social media is becoming an important part of an organization's media strategy. This study examines the effects of trust and consumer emotional response to advertisements on brand evaluation in an online social media context. The study used a survey method, and the studied population consisted of 927 Brazilian social media users (Facebook subscribers). The results showed the following: (1) the emotional response to advertising on social media had a positive influence on brand evaluation; and ...
Thoma, Myriam V.; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M.
Background Music listening has been suggested to beneficially impact health via stress-reducing effects. However, the existing literature presents itself with a limited number of investigations and with discrepancies in reported findings that may result from methodological shortcomings (e.g. small sample size, no valid stressor). It was the aim of the current study to address this gap in knowledge and overcome previous shortcomings by thoroughly examining music effects across endocrine, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional domains of the human stress response. Methods Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test: 1) relaxing music (‘Miserere’, Allegri) (RM), 2) sound of rippling water (SW), and 3) rest without acoustic stimulation (R). Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), subjective stress perception and anxiety were repeatedly assessed in all subjects. We hypothesized that listening to RM prior to the stress test, compared to SW or R would result in a decreased stress response across all measured parameters. Results The three conditions significantly differed regarding cortisol response (p = 0.025) to the stressor, with highest concentrations in the RM and lowest in the SW condition. After the stressor, sAA (p=0.026) baseline values were reached considerably faster in the RM group than in the R group. HR and psychological measures did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that music listening impacted the psychobiological stress system. Listening to music prior to a standardized stressor predominantly affected the autonomic nervous system (in terms of a faster recovery), and to a lesser degree the endocrine and psychological stress response. These findings may help better understanding the
Christian G. Capistrano
Full Text Available Childhood poverty is a pervasive problem that can alter mental health outcomes. Children from impoverished circumstances are more likely than their middle-income counterparts to develop internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. To date, however, the emotional-cognitive control processes that link childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms remain largely unexplored. Using the Emotion Go/NoGo paradigm, we examined the association between poverty and emotional response inhibition in middle childhood. We further examined the role of emotional response inhibition in the link between middle childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms. Lower income was associated with emotional response inhibition difficulties (indexed by greater false alarm rates in the context of task irrelevant angry and sad faces. Furthermore, emotional response inhibition deficits in the context of angry and sad distracters were further associated with child-report internalizing problems. The results of the current study demonstrate the significance of understanding the emotional-cognitive control vulnerabilities of children raised in poverty and their association with mental health outcomes.
Antonia A Paschali
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.
Banks, Sarah J; Bellerose, Jenny; Douglas, Danielle; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn
The insula plays an important role both in emotion processing and in the generation of epileptic seizures. In the current study we examined thickness of insular cortices and bilateral skin conductance responses (SCR) in healthy subjects in addition to a small number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. SCR measures arousal and is used to assess non-conscious responses to emotional stimuli. We used two emotion tasks, one explicitly about emotion and the other implicit. The explicit task required judgments about emotions being expressed in photographs of faces, while the implicit one required judgments about the age of the people in the photographs. Patients and healthy differed in labeling neutral faces, but not other emotions. They also differed in their SCR to emotions, though the profile depended on which hand the recordings were from. Finally, we found relationships between the thickness of the insula and SCR to each task: in the healthy group the thickness of the left insula was related to SCR to the emotion-labeling task; in the patient group it was between the thickness of the right insula and SCR in the age-labeling task. These patterns were evident only for the right hand recordings, thus underscoring the importance of bilateral recordings.
Full Text Available The mechanisms to communicate emotions have dramatically changed in the last 10 years with social networks, where users massively communicate their emotional states by using the Internet. However, people with socialization problems have difficulty expressing their emotions verbally or interpreting the environment and providing an appropriate emotional response. In this paper, a novel solution called the Emotion-Bracelet is presented that combines a hardware device and a software system. The proposed approach identifies the polarity and emotional intensity of texts published on a social network site by performing real-time processing using a web service. It also shows emotions with a LED matrix using five emoticons that represent positive, very positive, negative, very negative, and neutral states. The Emotion-Bracelet is designed to help people express their emotions in a non-intrusive way, thereby expanding the social aspect of human emotions.
Martinez, Alicia; Estrada, Hugo; Molina, Alejandra; Mejia, Manuel; Perez, Joaquin
The mechanisms to communicate emotions have dramatically changed in the last 10 years with social networks, where users massively communicate their emotional states by using the Internet. However, people with socialization problems have difficulty expressing their emotions verbally or interpreting the environment and providing an appropriate emotional response. In this paper, a novel solution called the Emotion-Bracelet is presented that combines a hardware device and a software system. The proposed approach identifies the polarity and emotional intensity of texts published on a social network site by performing real-time processing using a web service. It also shows emotions with a LED matrix using five emoticons that represent positive, very positive, negative, very negative, and neutral states. The Emotion-Bracelet is designed to help people express their emotions in a non-intrusive way, thereby expanding the social aspect of human emotions.
Evans, R G
The ideal of patient centred medicine remains only partially realised. Within modern Western society, the highly individualistic culture and religious decline linked with medicine's reluctance to relinquish an outmoded form of scientific rationalism can act as reductive influences, stifling conceptual development. Some examples of the recent literature on communication skills in medicine are analysed to discern the underlying philosophy. A rationalist stance invites an examination of the possible nature of rationality. Another example accepts the need to accommodate the emotional and the unconscious. Issues of human suffering with an inherent spiritual dimension seem to remain excluded. The need to move beyond a duality of reason and emotion to embrace the existential and spiritual is suggested as a theoretical prerequisite for developing a more inclusive concept of patient centred medicine, which only then may be realised. Some brief examples are considered of the sort of notions and types of discourse that might effectively inform "teaching" of communication skills.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to outline the strategic importance of Emotional Intelligence (EI in contemporary approaches to management of Human resources (HR. The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual theoretical insight of the relationship between EI and leadership. The paper also reflects the conditions within the present business environment in Slovakia with the emphasis on leadership in the context of EI (based on the research conducted in this field, while answering the following question: To what extent do Slovak organizations incorporate EI measures into the hiring process for managerial positions? The answer to this question would consequently disclose whether organizations in Slovakia consider Emotional Intelligence as a factor determining effective performance of managers – leaders.
Full Text Available The present paper involves a reflection on the current orientation that education is adopting based on Martha Nussbaum’s thinking. Under the imperative of the economic growth, education is seen as a mere means to achieve success in the job market, and arts and humanities are being marginalized from study programs increasingly. We will talk about the cultivation of empathic imagination and compassion as mechanisms that help us to understand people that are different from us, and to acquire a concern for them. We will see why the role of these emotions might be relevant in order to prompt us to help whoever that finds himself in a vulnerability situation or suffering. This is why we will argue that the cultivation of these emotions may help us to develop a better moral agency, and also to enhance our condition as citizens, making us more sensitive towards other’s necessities, and orienting our political decisions towards cooperation and solidarity.
Miura, Asako; Komori, Masashi; Matsumura, Naohiro; Maeda, Kazutoshi
In this article, we investigated the expression of emotional responses to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake by analyzing the frequency of negative emotional terms in tweets posted on Twitter, one of the most popular social media platforms. We focused on differences in time-series variations and diurnal changes between two kinds of disasters: natural disasters (earthquakes and tsunamis) and nuclear accidents. The number of tweets containing negative emotional responses increased sharply shortly after the first huge earthquake and decreased over time, whereas tweets about nuclear accidents showed no correlation with elapsed time. Expressions of anxiety about natural disasters had a circadian rhythm, with a peak at midnight, whereas expressions of anger about the nuclear accident were highly sensitive to critical events related to the accident. These findings were discussed in terms of similarities and differences compared to earlier studies on emotional responses in social media.
Coleman, Katie L; Miah, Emma M; Morris, Gordon A; Morris, Cecile
The impact of health claims on purchase intent, emotional response and liking has never been previously reported. In this study, prebiotic-enriched bread was used as a model functional food. Purchase intent, emotional response and liking were investigated in three phases: (1) focus groups were used to gauge consumer perception of health claims and functional foods, (2) the impact of health claims on purchase intent and emotional responses were measured using an online survey (n = 122) and (3) hedonic ratings on bread rolls presented with or without any associated claims were obtained (n = 100). A cluster analysis of the purchase intent data identified two clusters of consumers who were either receptive or non-receptive to health claims. Receptive and non-receptive consumers significantly differed in the emotions they reported with respect to the claims. The hedonic ratings did not significantly differ between the breads tasted with or without health claims.
Lehman, Barbara J; Cane, Arianna C; Tallon, Shannon J; Smith, Stephanie F
This study examined concurrent and delayed emotional and cardiovascular correlates of naturally occurring experiences with subjective social evaluative threat (SSET) and tested whether individual differences in social interaction anxiety moderated those associations. Sixty-eight participants wore ambulatory blood pressure monitors for three days. Following each blood pressure reading, participants reported on SSET and negative emotions, yielding 1770 momentary measures. Multilevel modeling suggested that reports of greater SSET uniquely predicted elevations in anxiety and embarrassment, with elevations in anxiety, embarrassment, and shame extending to the hour following SSET. Reports of concurrent and previous-hour SSET also predicted cardiovascular elevations. Linkages between SSET and anxiety and shame, but not cardiovascular measures, were moderated by social interaction anxiety. Those higher in social interaction anxiety showed especially strong associations between SSET and both concurrent and delayed anxiety and greater delayed shame. This research suggests an important role for anxiety, embarrassment, and shame as emotional consequences of naturally occurring evaluative threat, especially for those who are more socially anxious. Further, this work replicates other naturalistic studies that have documented increased blood pressure at times of SSET and extends that work by documenting cardiovascular responses into the following hour.
Cho, Ara; Kwak, Soo-Min; Lee, Jang-Han
The effect of media images has been regarded as a significant variable in the construction or in the activation of body images. Individuals who have a negative body image use avoidance coping strategies to minimize damage to their body image. We identified attentional biases and negative emotional responses following exposure to body stimuli. Female university students were divided into two groups based on their use of avoidance coping strategies (high-level group: high avoidance [HA]; low-group: low avoidance [LA]), and were assigned to two different conditions (exposure to thin body pictures, ET, and exposure to oversized body pictures, EO). Results showed that the HA group paid more attention to slim bodies and reported more negative emotions than the LA group, and that the EO had more negative effects than the ET. We suggest that HAs may attend more to slim bodies as a way of avoiding overweight bodies, influenced by social pressure, and in the search for a compensation of a positive emotional balance. However, attentional bias toward slim bodies can cause an upward comparison process, leading to increased body dissatisfaction, which is the main factor in the development of eating disorders (EDs). Therefore, altering avoidance coping strategies should be considered for people at risk of EDs.
Kleemans, Mariska; Schlindwein, Luise F; Dohmen, Roos
Watching news is important for preadolescents, but it may also harm their well-being. This study examined whether applying insights from positive psychology to news production can reduce this potential harm, by reducing negative emotional responses and enhancing positive emotional responses to negative news, and by encouraging prosocial intentions. Moreover, we explored whether peer discussion strengthened these effects. Preadolescents (n = 336; 9-13 years old; 48.5% female) were exposed to either constructive (solution-based news including positive emotions) or nonconstructive news. Subsequently, half of the children assigned to the constructive and the nonconstructive condition participated in a peer discussion. The findings showed that exposure to constructive news resulted in more positive emotional responses and less negative emotional responses as compared to nonconstructive news. Moreover, discussing the news with peers led to more positive and less negative emotional responses among preadolescents who watched the nonconstructive newscast, and to more prosocial intentions among preadolescents who watched constructive news. In all, constructive news reporting and peer discussion could function as tools to make negative news less harmful for preadolescents.
This slide presentation reviews NASA's role in the response to spacecraft accidents that involve human fatalities or injuries. Particular attention is given to the work of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT), the first response to the accidents and the interface to the accident investigation board. The MIT does not investigate the accident, but the objective of the MIT is to gather, guard, preserve and document the evidence. The primary medical objectives of the MIT is to receive, analyze, identify, and transport human remains, provide assistance in the recovery effort, and to provide family Casualty Coordinators with latest recovery information. The MIT while it does not determine the cause of the accident, it acts as the fact gathering arm of the Mishap Investigation Board (MIB), which when it is activated may chose to continue to use the MIT as its field investigation resource. The MIT membership and the specific responsibilities and tasks of the flight surgeon is reviewed. The current law establishing the process is also reviewed.
Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T
The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.
Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C; Harmer, C J; Reinecke, A; Macoveanu, J; Siebner, H R; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M
Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. Thirty healthy, never-depressed monozygotic (MZ) twins with a co-twin history of depression (high risk group: n = 13) or without co-twin history of depression (low-risk group: n = 17) were enrolled in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping strategies. High-risk twins showed increased neural response to happy and fearful faces in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), pre-supplementary motor area and occipito-parietal regions compared to low-risk twins. They also displayed stronger negative coupling between amygdala and pregenual ACC, dmPFC and temporo-parietal regions during emotional face processing. These task-related changes in neural responses in high-risk twins were accompanied by impaired gender discrimination performance during face processing. They also displayed increased attention vigilance for fearful faces and were slower at recognizing facial expressions relative to low-risk controls. These effects occurred in the absence of differences between groups in mood, subjective state or coping. Different neural response and functional connectivity within fronto-limbic and occipito-parietal regions during emotional face processing and enhanced fear vigilance may be key endophenotypes for depression.
Wirth, Michelle M; Scherer, Sean M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Abercrombie, Heather C
Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48h apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol's effects on emotion in two ways: (A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and (B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g., habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wirth, Michelle M.; Scherer, Sean M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Abercrombie, Heather C.
Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1 mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48 hours apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol’s effects on emotion in two ways: A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g. habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. PMID:21232874