WorldWideScience

Sample records for human embryonal carcinoma

  1. Plasma membrane proteomics of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Braam, S.R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are of immense interest in regenerative medicine as they can self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to any adult cell type. Human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) are the malignant counterparts of hESCs found in testis tumors. hESCs that have acquired

  2. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...... of reactivity for all antibodies against both ES and EC cells, suggesting that these markers will afford recognition of unique sub-states within the undifferentiated stem cell compartment....... and EC cells, and herein describe their characterization. The reactivity of these antibodies against a range of cell lines is reported, as well as their developmental regulation, basic biochemistry and reactivity in immunohistochemistry of testicular germ cell tumours. Our data reveal a range...

  3. A practical guide for the identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.; Heck, A.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of (plasma) membrane proteins in cells can provide valuable insights into the regulation of their biological processes. Pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and share many of the biological

  4. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Asanagi, Miki [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Sekino, Yuko [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Yasunari, E-mail: kanda@nihs.go.jp [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  5. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  6. Wnt pathway reprogramming during human embryonal carcinoma differentiation and potential for therapeutic targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Grace E; Kasper, Allison C; Busch, Alexander M; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Ewings, Katherine E; Bee, Thomas; Spinella, Michael J; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Freemantle, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC) that can differentiate into diverse tissues. The pluripotent nature of human ECs resembles that of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Many Wnt signalling species are regulated during differentiation of TGCT-derived EC cells. This study comprehensively investigated expression profiles of Wnt signalling components regulated during induced differentiation of EC cells and explored the role of key components in maintaining pluripotency. Human embryonal carcinoma cells were stably infected with a lentiviral construct carrying a canonical Wnt responsive reporter to assess Wnt signalling activity following induced differentiation. Cells were differentiated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or by targeted repression of pluripotency factor, POU5F1. A Wnt pathway real-time-PCR array was used to evaluate changes in gene expression as cells differentiated. Highlighted Wnt pathway genes were then specifically repressed using siRNA or stable shRNA and transfected EC cells were assessed for proliferation, differentiation status and levels of core pluripotency genes. Canonical Wnt signalling activity was low basally in undifferentiated EC cells, but substantially increased with induced differentiation. Wnt pathway gene expression levels were compared during induced differentiation and many components were altered including ligands (WNT2B), receptors (FZD5, FZD6, FZD10), secreted inhibitors (SFRP4, SFRP1), and other effectors of Wnt signalling (FRAT2, DAAM1, PITX2, Porcupine). Independent repression of FZD5, FZD7 and WNT5A using transient as well as stable methods of RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited cell growth of pluripotent NT2/D1 human EC cells, but did not appreciably induce differentiation or repress key pluripotency genes. Silencing of FZD7 gave the greatest growth suppression in all human EC cell lines tested including NT2/D1, NT2/D1-R1, Tera-1 and 833

  7. Tributyltin induces mitochondrial fission through NAD-IDH dependent mitofusin degradation in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Nakano, Mizuho; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2015-08-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors. TBT acts at the nanomolar level through genomic pathways via the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR). We recently reported that TBT inhibits cell growth and the ATP content in the human embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 via a non-genomic pathway involving NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which metabolizes isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAD-IDH mediates TBT toxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of TBT on mitochondrial NAD-IDH and energy production. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that nanomolar TBT levels induced mitochondrial fragmentation. TBT also degraded the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2. Interestingly, apigenin, an inhibitor of NAD-IDH, mimicked the effects of TBT. Incubation with an α-ketoglutarate analogue partially recovered TBT-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the involvement of NAD-IDH. Our data suggest that nanomolar TBT levels impair mitochondrial quality control via NAD-IDH in NT2/D1 cells. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with metal exposure.

  8. NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase as a novel target of tributyltin in human embryonic carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2014-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is known to cause developmental defects as endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs). At nanomoler concentrations, TBT actions were mediated by genomic pathways via PPAR/RXR. However, non-genomic target of TBT has not been elucidated. To investigate non-genomic TBT targets, we performed comprehensive metabolomic analyses using human embryonic carcinoma NT2/D1 cells. We found that 100 nM TBT reduced the amounts of α-ketoglutarate, succinate and malate. We further found that TBT decreased the activity of NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate in the TCA cycle. In addition, TBT inhibited cell growth and enhanced neuronal differentiation through NAD-IDH inhibition. Furthermore, studies using bacterially expressed human NAD-IDH and in silico simulations suggest that TBT inhibits NAD-IDH due to a possible interaction. These results suggest that NAD-IDH is a novel non-genomic target of TBT at nanomolar levels. Thus, a metabolomic approach may provide new insights into the mechanism of EDC action.

  9. A practical guide for the identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormeyer, Wilma; van Hoof, Dennis; Mummery, Christine L; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Heck, Albert J R

    2008-10-01

    The identification of (plasma) membrane proteins in cells can provide valuable insights into the regulation of their biological processes. Pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and share many of the biological mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation. The comparison of their membrane proteomes will help unravel the biological principles of pluripotency, and the identification of biomarker proteins in their plasma membranes is considered a crucial step to fully exploit pluripotent cells for therapeutic purposes. For these tasks, membrane proteomics is the method of choice, but as indicated by the scarce identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in global proteomic surveys it is not an easy task. In this minireview, we first describe the general challenges of membrane proteomics. We then review current sample preparation steps and discuss protocols that we found particularly beneficial for the identification of large numbers of (plasma) membrane proteins in human tumour- and embryo-derived stem cells. Our optimized assembled protocol led to the identification of a large number of membrane proteins. However, as the composition of cells and membranes is highly variable we still recommend adapting the sample preparation protocol for each individual system.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated glucose transport as a novel target of tributyltin in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2013-05-01

    Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) are known to cause various forms of cytotoxicity, including developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity. However, the molecular target of the toxicity induced by nanomolar levels of TBT has not been identified. In the present study, we found that exposure to 100 nM TBT induced growth arrest in human pluripotent embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. Since glucose provides metabolic energy, we focused on the glycolytic system. We found that exposure to TBT reduced the levels of both glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. To investigate the effect of TBT exposure on glycolysis, we examined glucose transporter (GLUT) activity. TBT exposure inhibited glucose uptake via a decrease in the level of cell surface-bound GLUT1. Furthermore, we examined the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known to regulate glucose transport by facilitating GLUT translocation. Treatment with the potent AMPK activator, AICAR, restored the TBT-induced reduction in cell surface-bound GLUT1 and glucose uptake. In conclusion, these results suggest that exposure to nanomolar levels of TBT causes growth arrest by targeting glycolytic systems in human embryonic carcinoma cells. Thus, understanding the energy metabolism may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal-induced cytotoxicity.

  11. Tributyltin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanagi, Miki; Yamada, Shigeru; Hirata, Naoya; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-04-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We have recently reported that TBT induces growth arrest in the human embryonic carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 at nanomolar levels by inhibiting NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH), which catalyzes the irreversible conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. However, the molecular mechanisms by which NAD-IDH mediates TBT toxicity remain unclear. In the present study, we examined whether TBT at nanomolar levels affects cell cycle progression in NT2/D1 cells. Propidium iodide staining revealed that TBT reduced the ratio of cells in the G1 phase and increased the ratio of cells in the G2/M phase. TBT also reduced cell division cycle 25C (cdc25C) and cyclin B1, which are key regulators of G2/M progression. Furthermore, apigenin, an inhibitor of NAD-IDH, mimicked the effects of TBT. The G2/M arrest induced by TBT was abolished by NAD-IDHα knockdown. Treatment with a cell-permeable α-ketoglutarate analogue recovered the effect of TBT, suggesting the involvement of NAD-IDH. Taken together, our data suggest that TBT at nanomolar levels induced G2/M cell cycle arrest via NAD-IDH in NT2/D1 cells. Thus, cell cycle analysis in embryonic cells could be used to assess cytotoxicity associated with nanomolar level exposure of EDCs.

  12. Regional differentiation of retinoic acid-induced human pluripotent embryonic carcinoma stem cell neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis E Coyle

    Full Text Available The NTERA2 cl D1 (NT2 cell line, derived from human teratocarcinoma, exhibits similar properties as embryonic stem (ES cells or very early neuroepithelial progenitors. NT2 cells can be induced to become postmitotic central nervous system neurons (NT2N with retinoic acid. Although neurons derived from pluripotent cells, such as NT2N, have been characterized for their neurotransmitter phenotypes, their potential suitability as a donor source for neural transplantation also depends on their ability to respond to localized environmental cues from a specific region of the CNS. Therefore, our study aimed to characterize the regional transcription factors that define the rostocaudal and dorsoventral identity of NT2N derived from a monolayer differentiation paradigm using quantitative PCR (qPCR. Purified NT2N mainly expressed both GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes and were electrically active but did not form functional synapses. The presence of immature astrocytes and possible radial glial cells was noted. The NT2N expressed a regional transcription factor code consistent with forebrain, hindbrain and spinal cord neural progenitors but showed minimal expression of midbrain phenotypes. In the dorsoventral plane NT2N expressed both dorsal and ventral neural progenitors. Of major interest was that even under the influence of retinoic acid, a known caudalization factor, the NT2N population maintained a rostral phenotype subpopulation which expressed cortical regional transcription factors. It is proposed that understanding the regional differentiation bias of neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells will facilitate their successful integration into existing neuronal networks within the CNS.

  13. The Use of a Liposomal Formulation Incorporating an Antimicrobial Peptide from Tilapia as a New Adjuvant to Epirubicin in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pluripotent Testicular Embryonic Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Li; Lee, Hsin-Pin; Tu, Wei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects and mechanisms of hepcidin, a potential antimicrobial peptide from Tilapia, and epirubicin (Epi), an antineoplastic agent, on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and link the ROS levels to the reversal mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) by epirubicin and hepcidin in human squamous cell carcinoma SCC15 and human embryonal carcinoma NT2D1 cells. The cells, pretreated with hepcidin, epirubicin, or a combination of these compounds in PEGylated liposomes, were used to validate the molecular mechanisms involved in inhibiting efflux transporters and inducing apoptosis as evaluated by cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation, mRNA levels, cell cycle distribution, and caspase activity of this combination. We found that hepcidin significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of epirubicin in liposomes. The co-incubation of epirubicin with hepcidin in liposomes intensified the ROS production, including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide free radicals. Hepcidin significantly increased epirubicin intracellular uptake into NT2D1 and SCC15 cells, as supported by the diminished mRNA expressions of MDR1, MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2. Hepcidin and/or epirubicin in liposomes triggered apoptosis, as verified by the reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, increased sub-G1 phase of cell cycle, incremental populations of apoptosis using annexin V/PI assay, and chromatin condensation. As far as we know, this is the first example showing that PEGylated liposomal TH1-5 and epirubicin gives rise to cell death in human squamous carcinoma and testicular embryonic carcinoma cells through the reduced epirubicin efflux via ROS-mediated suppression of P-gp and MRPs and concomitant initiation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Hence, hepcidin in PEGylated liposomes may function as an adjuvant to anticancer drugs, thus demonstrating a novel strategy for reversing MDR. PMID:26393585

  14. Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banco, B; Ferrari, R; Stefanello, D; Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Faverzani, S; Longo, M; Zani, D D; Ravasio, G; Caniatti, M; Grieco, V

    2017-11-01

    A 17-month-old female doberman pinscher was referred for an abdominal mass and ascites. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the presence of a large neoplastic mass replacing the right ovary and associated with multiple mesovarian, mesometrial and peritoneal nodules. An ovariohysterectomy was performed. Grossly, the tumour was soft and multilocular with large areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. Microscopically, it was infiltrative and composed of round and polygonal cells arranged respectively in solid sheets or forming distorted tubular structures separated by thick fibrovascular septae. Tubules contained necrotic debris, proteinaceous fluid or small endoluminal papillary structures. Marked cellular atypia, multiple neoplastic emboli and high mitotic count were observed. Immunohistochemically, the round cells uniformly expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, while the polygonal cells arranged in tubules and papillae expressed cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and CK7. A final diagnosis of metastasizing ovarian embryonal carcinoma (EC), a primitive germ cell tumour characterized by rudimentary epithelial differentiation was made. Canine ovarian EC should be considered as a differential diagnosis for undifferentiated aggressive ovarian tumours in young dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marked change in microRNA expression during neuronal differentiation of human teratocarcinoma NTera2D1 and mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Fukushima, Tatsunobu

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, with a length of 19-23 nucleotides, which appear to be involved in the regulation of gene expression by inhibiting the translation of messenger RNAs carrying partially or nearly complementary sequences to the miRNAs in their 3' untranslated regions. Expression analysis of miRNAs is necessary to understand their complex role in the regulation of gene expression during the development, differentiation and proliferation of cells. Here we report on the expression profile analysis of miRNAs in human teratocarcinoma NTere2D1, mouse embryonic carcinoma P19, mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a and rat pheochromocytoma PC12D cells, which can be induced into differentiated cells with long neuritic processes, i.e., after cell differentiation, such that the resultant cells look similar to neuronal cells. The data presented here indicate marked changes in the expression of miRNAs, as well as genes related to neuronal development, occurred in the differentiation of NTera2D1 and P19 cells. Significant changes in miRNA expression were not observed in Neuro2a and PC12D cells, although they showed apparent morphologic change between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Of the miRNAs investigated, the expression of miRNAs belonging to the miR-302 cluster, which is known to be specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells, and of miR-124a specific to the brain, appeared to be markedly changed. The miR-302 cluster was potently expressed in undifferentiated NTera2D1 and P19 cells, but hardly in differentiated cells, such that miR-124a showed an opposite expression pattern to the miR-302 cluster. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the miR-302 cluster and miR-124a may be useful molecular indicators in the assessment of degree of undifferentiation and/or differentiation in the course of neuronal differentiation

  16. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  17. Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, National Research Council

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, the volume of research being conducted using human embryonic stem (hES) cells has expanded primarily using private funds because of restrictions on the use of federal funds for such research...

  18. Imaging Findings of Embryonal Cell Carcinoma in Ovary:A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Park, Cheol Min; Choi, Jae Woong; Seol, Hae Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2004-01-01

    Embryonal cell carcinoma is one of the malignant germ cell tumors. This tumor is commonly encountered in the testis, however, it rarely occurs in the ovary. To the best of our knowledge, no imaging findings of ovarian embryonal cell carcinoma have previously been reported. We describe the US and MRI findings of such a case

  19. Induction of differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate by ouabain at concentrations which inhibit Na + , K + -ATPase activity as measured by inhibition of 86 Rb + uptake. Since the pharmacologic action of ouabain is thought to be specific, the authors investigated the role of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition and specific metabolic consequences of this inhibition in the induction of EC differentiation, and explored whether this might be a common mode of action for a variety of structurally diverse inducers. The Na + , K + -ATPase maintains ionic gradients in cells. However, results of studies utilizing specific ionophores, channel blockers, and media deficient in specific components failed to demonstrate a consistent role for ion flux or concentration in the differentiation process. The Na + , K + -ATPase is a major consumer of ATP. They therefore examined the effect of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition on the adenylate energy charge as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of adenylate nucleotides. Ouabain was found to significantly decrease the energy charge in sensitive cells suggesting a role for suppression of ATP turnover is triggering differentiation. However, direct inhibition of glycolysis also induced differentiation without decreasing the energy charge, suggesting that reduction of the energy charge is not a common mechanism for induction of differentiation of EC

  20. Hyperthyroidism as a clinical manifestation of a embryonal carcinoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, M A; Jimenez-Pacheco, A; Arrabal-Martin, M; Moreno-Jimenez, J; Gutierrez-Tejero, F; Galisteo-Moya, R; Zuluaga-Gomez, A

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a case of hyperthyroidism as manifestation of an embryonal carcinoma, and illustrates the causes that led to it. The case describes a 33-year-old male patient who complained of chest pain, palpitations, mild dyspnoea, and weight loss. Blood analysis reveals high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (833818 mlU/ml), T3 (16.90 pg/ml), and T4 (7.77 ng/dl), as well as a fall of TSH (0.01 ulU/ml). Physical examination and imaging procedures confirm the occurrence of a left testicular tumour associated with numerous lung, hepatic and retroperitoneal metastases. Treatment with carbimazol and propanolol is established to manage hyperthyroidism, and an urgent orchiectomy is performed; the histologic diagnosis confirms an embryonal carcinoma (organoid type), but the patient died unexpectedly 24 hours later after having suffered sudden dyspnoea, tachypnoea, and tachyarrhythmia. Hyperthyroidism is a rare manifestation of a testicular tumour that should be borne in mind with regard to the patient's symptomatology and HCG levels.

  1. Culture in embryonic kidney serum and xeno-free media as renal cell carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma cancer stem cells research model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Szczylik, Cezary; Porta, Camillo; Czarnecka, Anna M

    2018-04-01

    The use of fetal bovine serum hinders obtaining reproducible experimental results and should also be removed in hormone and growth factor studies. In particular hormones found in FBS act globally on cancer cell physiology and influence transcriptome and metabolome. The aim of our study was to develop a renal carcinoma serum free culture model optimized for (embryonal) renal cells in order to select the best study model for downstream auto-, para- or endocrine research. Secondary aim was to verify renal carcinoma stem cell culture for this application. In the study, we have cultured renal cell carcinoma primary tumour cell line (786-0) as well as human kidney cancer stem cells in standard 2D monolayer cultures in Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium or Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and Complete Human Kidney Cancer Stem Cell Medium, respectively. Serum-free, animal-component free Human Embryonic Kidney 293 media were tested. Our results revealed that xeno-free embryonal renal cells optimized culture media provide a useful tool in RCC cancer biology research and at the same time enable effective growth of RCC. We propose bio-mimic RCC cell culture model with specific serum-free and xeno-free medium that promote RCC cell viability.

  2. GLI1 is involved in cell cycle regulation and proliferation of NT2 embryonal carcinoma stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Janni; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Pedersen, Mikkel W.

    2008-01-01

    of altered HH signaling are interpreted by specific cell types. We have investigated the role of the HH transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) in the human Ntera2=D1 (NT2) embryonal carcinoma stem cell line. The study revealed that expression of GLI1 and its direct transcriptional......1 phase cyclins. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLI1 is involved in cell cycle and proliferation control in the embryonal carcinoma stem cell line NT2....... target Patched (PTCH) is downregulated in the early stages of retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells. To identify transcriptional targets of the HH transcription factor GLI1 in NT2 cells, we performed global expression profiling following GLI1 RNA interference (RNAi). Of the similar...

  3. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  4. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  5. Vitronectin in human breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Christensen, Anni

    2003-01-01

    We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters and in the subendothe......We have analysed the occurrence of the extracellular glycoprotein vitronectin in carcinomas and normal tissue of human breast. Immunohistochemical analysis of carcinomas revealed a strong vitronectin accumulation in extracellular matrix (ECM) around some cancer cell clusters...... and in the subendothelial area of some blood vessels. In normal tissue, vitronectin had a homogeneous periductal occurrence, with local accumulation much lower than that in the carcinomas. Using a new solid phase radioligand assay, the vitronectin concentrations of extracts of carcinomas and normal breast tissue were...... is not synthesised locally in breast tissue but derived by leakage from vessels, followed by extracellular accumulation in patterns distinctly different in carcinomas and normal tissue. The observation of a high vitronectin content in the carcinomas and its localisation in the tissue contributes to the clarification...

  6. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational

  7. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  8. CHANGES IN THE GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM IN P19 EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS UNDER HYPOXIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Orlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to modern perceptions, tumor growth, along with oxidative stress formation, is accompanied by hypoxia. Nowadays studying the regulation of cellular molecular system functioning by conformational changes in proteins appears to be a topical issue. Research goal was to evaluate the state of the glutathione system and the level of protein glutathionylation in P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC cells under hypoxic conditions.Material and methods. P19 EC cells (mouse embryonal carcinoma cultured under normoxic and hypox-ic conditions served the research material.The concentration of total, oxidized, reduced and protein-bound glutathione, the reduced to oxidized thiol ratio as well as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity were determined by spectropho-tometry.Results. Glutathione imbalance was accompanied by a decrease in P19 EC cell redox status under hypox-ic conditions against the backdrop of a rise in protein-bound glutathione.Conclusions. As a result of the conducted study oxidative stress formation was identified when modeling hypoxia in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. The rise in the concentration of protein-bound glutathione may indicate the role of protein glutathionylation in regulation of P19 cell metabolism and functions un-der hypoxia. 

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-enhanced ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay for the carcinoma embryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Souvik; Bhand, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is reported for the determination of carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. It was realized using a microplate reader using a 384-well plate. Monoclonal antibody (Ab) against CEA (1° Ab) acting as the capture probe was immobilized on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in the form of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). CEA captured by 1° Ab was quantified using a sandwich ELISA wherein a polyclonal second antibody against CEA (2° Ab) was used for detection and quantified using an HRP-labeled secondary antibody (3° Ab). The ZnO-NPs-CEA capture probe was deposited on the bottom of the wells in order to enhance capture of CEA. A 3-fold enhancement in the chemiluminescence (CL) signal of luminol is found (compared to a conventional ELISA). CEA can be quantified by this method in concentrations as low as 1 pg · mL −1 . The upper limit of detection is 20 ng · mL −1 . The use of ZnO-NPs also imparts improved thermal stability. When stored at 4 °C in phosphate-buffered saline of pH 7.4, the probe displays stability of up to 30 days. (author)

  10. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  11. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  12. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  13. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  14. Human embryonic stem cell lines model experimental human cytomegalovirus latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2013-05-28

    Herpesviruses are highly successful pathogens that persist for the lifetime of their hosts primarily because of their ability to establish and maintain latent infections from which the virus is capable of productively reactivating. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, establishes latency in CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells during natural infections in the body. Experimental infection of CD34(+) cells ex vivo has demonstrated that expression of the viral gene products that drive productive infection is silenced by an intrinsic immune defense mediated by Daxx and histone deacetylases through heterochromatinization of the viral genome during the establishment of latency. Additional mechanistic details about the establishment, let alone maintenance and reactivation, of HCMV latency remain scarce. This is partly due to the technical challenges of CD34(+) cell culture, most notably, the difficulty in preventing spontaneous differentiation that drives reactivation and renders them permissive for productive infection. Here we demonstrate that HCMV can establish, maintain, and reactivate in vitro from experimental latency in cultures of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for which spurious differentiation can be prevented or controlled. Furthermore, we show that known molecular aspects of HCMV latency are faithfully recapitulated in these cells. In total, we present ESCs as a novel, tractable model for studies of HCMV latency.

  15. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute

    2004-01-01

    in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported......Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly...

  16. Generation of Corneal Keratocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsenberg, Andrew J; Funderburgh, James L

    2016-01-01

    Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) offer an important resource as a limitless supply of any differentiated cell type of the human body. Keratocytes, cells from the corneal stroma, may have the potential for restoration of vision in cell therapy and biomedical engineering applications, but these specialized cells are not readily expanded in vitro. Here we describe a two-part method to produce keratocytes from the H1 hESC cell line. The hESC cells, maintained and expanded in feeder-free culture medium are first differentiated to neural crest cells using the stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) of the PA6 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The resulting neural crest cells are selected by their expression of cell-surface CD271 and subsequently cultured as 3D pellets in a defined differentiation medium to induce a keratocyte phenotype.

  17. Epigenetic stability, adaptability, and reversibility in human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tompkins, Joshua D.; Hall, Christine; Chen, Vincent Chang-yi; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Hsu, David; Couture, Larry A.; Riggs, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    The stability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is of critical importance for both experimental and clinical applications. We find that as an initial response to altered culture conditions, hESCs change their transcription profile for hundreds of genes and their DNA methylation profiles for several genes outside the core pluripotency network. After adaption to conditions of feeder-free defined and/or xeno-free culture systems, expression and DNA methylation profiles are quite stable for a...

  18. Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Darja; Campos, Iván Marcos; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Koren, Ana; Petridis, Petros; Zhang, Geping; Spitalnik, Patrice F.; Grayson, Warren L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the i...

  19. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  20. Generation of a heterozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line for the OCIAD1 locus using CRISPR/CAS9 mediated targeting: BJNhem20-OCIAD1-CRISPR-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeti K. Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma immuno-reactive antigen domain containing 1(OCIAD1 single copy was knocked out generating an OCIAD1 heterozygous knockout human embryonic stem line named BJNhem20-OCIAD1-CRISPR-20. The line was generated using CRISPR-Cas9D10A double nickase knockout strategy (Mali et al., 2013.

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of embryonal marker TRA-1-60 in carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Alexander; Andrews, P W; Jørgensen, N

    1993-01-01

    Testicular cancer is preceded by the noninvasive stage of carcinoma in situ (CIS). According to a recent hypothesis, testicular CIA cells are germ cells transformed in fetal life. The idea of an embryonal origin of testicular germ cell neoplasia would be strengthened by the finding of antigenic...

  2. Notch signaling activation in human embryonic stem cells is required for embryonic but not trophoblastic lineage commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaobing; Zou, Jizhong; Ye, Zhaohui; Hammond, Holly; Chen, Guibin; Tokunaga, Akinori; Mali, Prashant; Li, Yue-Ming; Civin, Curt; Gaiano, Nicholas; Cheng, Linzhao

    2008-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in cell fate determination during embryonic development and adult life. In this study, we focus on the role of Notch signaling in governing cell fate choices in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we achieved both blockade and conditional activation of Notch signaling in several hES cell lines. We report here that activation of Notch signaling is required for undifferentiated hES cells to form the pr...

  3. Negative regulation of retrovirus expression in embryonal carcinoma cells mediated by an intragenic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, T P; Sievert, L L; Scott, R W

    1988-11-01

    An intragenic region spanning the tRNA primer binding site of a Moloney murine leukemia virus recombinant retrovirus was found to restrict expression specifically in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. When the inhibitory domain was present, the levels of steady-state RNA synthesized from integrated recombinant templates in stable cotransformation assays were reduced 20-fold in EC cells but not in C2 myoblast cells. Transient-cotransfection assays showed that repression of a template containing the EC-specific inhibitory component was relieved by an excess of specific competitor DNA. In addition, repression mediated by the inhibitory component was orientation independent. This evidence demonstrates the presence of a saturable, trans-acting negative regulatory factor(s) in EC cells and suggests that the interaction of the factor(s) with the intragenic inhibitory component occurs at the DNA level.

  4. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that drive proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Chemical low-dose exposures can disrupt morphogenesis across space and time by interfering with key embryonic fusion events. The Morphogenetic Fusion Task uses computer and in vitro models to elucidate consequences of developmental exposures. The Morphogenetic Fusion Task integrates multiple approaches to model responses to chemicals that leaad to birth defects, including integrative mining on ToxCast DB, ToxRefDB, and chemical structures, advanced computer agent-based models, and human cell-based cultures that model disruption of cellular and molecular behaviors including mechanisms predicted from integrative data mining and agent-based models. The purpose of the poster is to indicate progress on the CSS 17.02 Virtual Tissue Models Morphogenesis Task 1 products for the Board of Scientific Counselors meeting on Nov 16-17.

  5. Regulation and patterns of endogenous and exogenous gene expression during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astigiano, S.; Sherman, M.I.; Abarzua, P.

    1989-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells offer an interesting model system for evaluating differentiation because the cells are pluripotent, thus resembling germ cells and embryonic stem cells, and because a number of agents have been defined that are capable of promoting the differentiation of these cells. This chapter examines how EC cells might be triggered to differentiate, with emphasis on retinoic acid because this compound is a potent, naturally occurring inducer that has been studied extensively in this system. The nature of alterations in gene expression during EC cell differentiation is reviewed from the perspective of evaluating whether these changes are likely to be responsible for, or a result of, the differentiation event. Finally, the authors consider in molecular terms why EC cells, but not their differentiated derivatives, are refractory to the expression of many viral genomes following infection. Based upon these studies, they propose that fundamental changes in gene expression that are observed when differentiation is triggered in EC cells are likely to be due to the disappearance or neutralization of strong repressor elements

  6. Phase resolved and coherence gated en face reflection imaging of multilayered embryonal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Fukami, Tadashi; Iwai, Hidenao; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2012-03-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, which are cell lines derived from teratocarcinomas, have characteristics in common with stem cells and differentiate into many kinds of functional cells. Similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, undifferentiated EC cells form multi-layered spheroids. In order to visualize the three-dimensional structure of multilayered EC cells without labeling, we employed full-field interference microscopy with the aid of a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope, which is a reflection-type interference microscope employing the digital holographic technique with a low-coherent light source. Owing to the low-coherency of the light-source (halogen lamp), only the light reflected from reflective surface at a specific sectioning height generates an interference image on the CCD camera. P19CL6 EC cells, derived from mouse teratocarcinomas, formed spheroids that are about 50 to 200 micrometers in diameter. Since the height of each cell is around 10 micrometers, it is assumed that each spheroid has 5 to 20 cell layers. The P19CL6 spheroids were imaged in an upright configuration and the horizontally sectioned reflection images of the sample were obtained by sequentially and vertically scanning the zero-path-length height. Our results show the threedimensional structure of the spheroids, in which plasma and nuclear membranes were distinguishably imaged. The results imply that our technique is further capable of imaging induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for the assessment of cell properties including their pluripotency.

  7. Human Embryonic Stem Cells Suffer from Centrosomal Amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubcová, Z.; Matula, P.; Sedláčková, M.; Vinarský, Vladimír; Doležalová, Dáša; Bárta, Tomáš; Dvořák, Petr; Hampl, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-56 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/2044 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06052; EU FP6 project ESTOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2006-018739 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : human embryonic stem cells * centrosome * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.781, year: 2011

  8. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing...... cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal...

  9. Melatonin antiproliferative effects require active mitochondrial function in embryonal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Rute; Magalhães-Novais, Silvia; Mesquita, Katia A.; Baldeiras, Ines; Sousa, Isabel S.; Tavares, Ludgero C.; Barbosa, Ines A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Although melatonin oncostatic and cytotoxic effects have been described in different types of cancer cells, the specific mechanisms leading to its antitumoral effects and their metabolic context specificity are still not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of melatonin in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells (CSCs) and in their differentiated counterparts, cultured in either high glucose medium or in a galactose (glucose-free) medium which leads to glycolytic suppression and increased mitochondrial metabolism. We found that highly glycolytic P19 CSCs were less susceptible to melatonin antitumoral effects while cell populations relying on oxidative metabolism for ATP production were more affected. The observed antiproliferative action of melatonin was associated with an arrest at S-phase, decreased oxygen consumption, down-regulation of BCL-2 expression and an increase in oxidative stress culminating with caspase-3-independent cell death. Interestingly, the combined treatment of melatonin and dichloroacetate had a synergistic effect in cells grown in the galactose medium and resulted in an inhibitory effect in the highly resistant P19 CSCs. Melatonin appears to exert its antiproliferative activity in P19 carcinoma cells through a mitochondrially-mediated action which in turn allows the amplification of the effects of dichloroacetate, even in cells with a more glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26025920

  10. Self-organization of human embryonic stem cells on micropatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Etoc, Fred; Guerra, M. Cecilia; Martyn, Iain; Metzger, Jakob; Ruzo, Albert; Simunovic, Mijo; Yoney, Anna; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Siggia, Eric; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2018-01-01

    Fate allocation in the gastrulating embryo is spatially organized as cells differentiate to specialized cell types depending on their positions with respect to the body axes. There is a need for in vitro protocols that allow the study of spatial organization associated with this developmental transition. While embryoid bodies and organoids can exhibit some spatial organization of differentiated cells, these methods do not yield consistent and fully reproducible results. Here, we describe a micropatterning approach where human embryonic stem cells are confined to disk-shaped, sub-millimeter colonies. After 42 hours of BMP4 stimulation, cells form self-organized differentiation patterns in concentric radial domains, which express specific markers associated with the embryonic germ layers, reminiscent of gastrulating embryos. Our protocol takes 3 days; it uses commercial microfabricated slides (CYTOO), human laminin-521 (LN-521) as extra-cellular matrix coating, and either conditioned or chemically-defined medium (mTeSR). Differentiation patterns within individual colonies can be determined by immunofluorescence and analyzed with cellular resolution. Both the size of the micropattern and the type of medium affect the patterning outcome. The protocol is appropriate for personnel with basic stem cell culture training. This protocol describes a robust platform for quantitative analysis of the mechanisms associated with pattern formation at the onset of gastrulation. PMID:27735934

  11. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  12. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  13. Tracking the mechanical dynamics of human embryonic stem cell chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinde Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plastic chromatin structure has emerged as fundamental to the self-renewal and pluripotent capacity of embryonic stem (ES cells. Direct measurement of chromatin dynamics in vivo is, however, challenging as high spatiotemporal resolution is required. Here, we present a new tracking-based method which can detect high frequency chromatin movement and quantify the mechanical dynamics of chromatin in live cells. Results We use this method to study how the mechanical properties of chromatin movement in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are modulated spatiotemporally during differentiation into cardiomyocytes (CM. Notably, we find that pluripotency is associated with a highly discrete, energy-dependent frequency of chromatin movement that we refer to as a ‘breathing’ state. We find that this ‘breathing’ state is strictly dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and is progressively silenced during differentiation. Conclusions We thus propose that the measured chromatin high frequency movements in hESCs may represent a hallmark of pluripotency and serve as a mechanism to maintain the genome in a transcriptionally accessible state. This is a result that could not have been observed without the high spatial and temporal resolution provided by this novel tracking method.

  14. Proteomic analysis of human oral verrucous carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... This study is about proteomic analysis of oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC). The total proteins ..... receptor protein (recoverin) through autoimmunity ..... chromosome 8q21.1 and overexpressed in human prostate cancer. Cancer ...

  15. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines: policy, ethics and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy discussions relating to their establishment or maintenance. It is argued (1) that 'ethical arguments' are often more important in the establishment phase and 'efficiency arguments' more important in the maintenance phase, and (2) that arguments relating to the interests of embryo and gamete donors are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being ignored in the policy making process.

  16. Raman microscopy of individual living human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S. M.; Beermann, J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Harkness, L. M.; Kassem, M.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of mapping the distribution of different biomolecules in living human embryonic stem cells grown on glass substrates, without the need for fluorescent markers. In our work we improve the quality of measurements by finding a buffer that gives low fluorescence, growing cells on glass substrates (whose Raman signals are relatively weak compared to that of the cells) and having the backside covered with gold to improve the image contrast under direct white light illumination. The experimental setup used for Raman microscopy is the commercially available confocal scanning Raman microscope (Alpha300R) from Witec and sub-μm spatially resolved Raman images were obtained using a 532 nm excitation wavelength.

  17. The Expression of Embryonic Liver Development Genes in Hepatitis C Induced Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Martha, E-mail: mbehnke@mcvh-vcu.edu [Transplant Program Administration, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, 1200 E. Broad St., Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Reimers, Mark [Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, 800 E Leigh St., Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Fisher, Robert [Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1200 E. Broad St., Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2012-09-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a difficult disease to study even after a decade of genomic analysis. Patient and disease heterogeneity, differences in statistical methods and multiple testing issues have resulted in a fragmented understanding of the molecular basis of tumor biology. Some researchers have suggested that HCC appears to share pathways with embryonic development. Therefore we generated targeted hypotheses regarding changes in developmental genes specific to the liver in HCV-cirrhosis and HCV-HCC. We obtained microarray studies from 30 patients with HCV-cirrhosis and 49 patients with HCV-HCC and compared to 12 normal livers. Genes specific to non-liver development have known associations with other cancer types but none were expressed in either adult liver or tumor tissue, while 98 of 179 (55%) genes specific to liver development had differential expression between normal and cirrhotic or HCC samples. We found genes from each developmental stage dysregulated in tumors compared to normal and cirrhotic samples. Although there was no single tumor marker, we identified a set of genes (Bone Morphogenetic Protein inhibitors GPC3, GREM1, FSTL3, and FST) in which at least one gene was over-expressed in 100% of the tumor samples. Only five genes were differentially expressed exclusively in late-stage tumors, indicating that while developmental genes appear to play a profound role in cirrhosis and malignant transformation, they play a limited role in late-stage HCC.

  18. Agonist-induced desensitization of human β3-adrenoceptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel-Reher, Martina B.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    β3-Adrenoceptors are resistant to agonist-induced desensitization in some cell types but susceptible in others including transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Therefore, we have studied cellular and molecular changes involved in agonist-induced β3-adrenoceptor desensitization in HEK cells.

  19. Human embryonic stem cell technologies and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janne; Hyllner, Johan; Björquist, Petter

    2009-06-01

    Development of new drugs is costly and takes huge resources into consideration. The big pharmaceutical companies are currently facing increasing developmental costs and a lower success-rate of bringing new compounds to the market. Therefore, it is now of outmost importance that the drug-hunting companies minimize late attritions due to sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties or unexpected toxicity when entering the clinical programs. To achieve this, a strong need to test new candidate drugs in assays of high human relevance in vitro as early as possible has been identified. The traditionally used cell systems are however remarkably limited in this sense, and new improved technologies are of greatest importance. The human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is one of the most powerful cell types known. They have not only the possibility to divide indefinitely; these cells can also differentiate into all mature cell types of the human body. This makes them potentially very valuable for pharmaceutical development, spanning from use as tools in early target studies, DMPK or safety assessment, as screening models to find new chemical entities modulating adult stem cell fate, or as the direct use in cell therapies. This review illustrates the use of hESC in the drug discovery process, today, as well as in a future perspective. This will specifically be exemplified with the most important cell type for pharmaceutical development-the hepatocyte. We discuss how hESC-derived hepatocyte-like cells could improve this process, and how these cells should be cultured if optimized functionality and usefulness should be achieved. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 513-519, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Agulnick, Alan D; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Kroon, Evert; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2005-12-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to differentiate into cell types of a variety of organs has generated much excitement over the possible use of hES cells in therapeutic applications. Of great interest are organs derived from definitive endoderm, such as the pancreas. We have focused on directing hES cells to the definitive endoderm lineage as this step is a prerequisite for efficient differentiation to mature endoderm derivatives. Differentiation of hES cells in the presence of activin A and low serum produced cultures consisting of up to 80% definitive endoderm cells. This population was further enriched to near homogeneity using the cell-surface receptor CXCR4. The process of definitive endoderm formation in differentiating hES cell cultures includes an apparent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a dynamic gene expression profile that are reminiscent of vertebrate gastrulation. These findings may facilitate the use of hES cells for therapeutic purposes and as in vitro models of development.

  1. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  2. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Epsztejn-Litman

    Full Text Available We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX human embryonic stem cell (HESC line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19, monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19 and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve.

  3. Non-Serotonergic Neurotoxicity by MDMA (Ecstasy in Neurons Derived from Mouse P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Popova

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays. The P19-derived neurons express both the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT, that is functionally active, and the serotonin metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A. The involvement of these proteins in the MDMA-induced toxicity was investigated by a pharmacological approach. The MAO inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl, and the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine, per se or in combination, were not able to mimic the toxic effects of MDMA in the P19-derived neurons or block the MDMA-induced cell toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but pre-treatment with the antioxidants α-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine did not reveal any protective effects in the P19 neurons. Involvement of mitochondria in the MDMA-induced cytotoxicity was also examined, but MDMA did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm in the P19 neurons. We conclude that MDMA produce a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent neurotoxicity and our results suggest that the mechanism behind MDMA-induced toxicity in mouse-derived neurons do not involve the serotonergic system, oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Non-Serotonergic Neurotoxicity by MDMA (Ecstasy) in Neurons Derived from Mouse P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Dina; Forsblad, Andréas; Hashemian, Sanaz; Jacobsson, Stig O P

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays. The P19-derived neurons express both the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), that is functionally active, and the serotonin metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). The involvement of these proteins in the MDMA-induced toxicity was investigated by a pharmacological approach. The MAO inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl, and the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine, per se or in combination, were not able to mimic the toxic effects of MDMA in the P19-derived neurons or block the MDMA-induced cell toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but pre-treatment with the antioxidants α-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine did not reveal any protective effects in the P19 neurons. Involvement of mitochondria in the MDMA-induced cytotoxicity was also examined, but MDMA did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in the P19 neurons. We conclude that MDMA produce a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent neurotoxicity and our results suggest that the mechanism behind MDMA-induced toxicity in mouse-derived neurons do not involve the serotonergic system, oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction.

  5. Linking incomplete reprogramming to the improved pluripotency of murine embryonal carcinoma cell-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chang

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been proved capable of reprogramming various differentiated somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS have been successfully derived from mouse and human somatic cells by the over-expression of a combination of transcription factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming mediated by either the SCNT or iPS approach are poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that many tumor pathways play roles in the derivation of iPS cells. Embryonal carcinoma (EC cells have the characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells and thus they might be the better candidates for elucidating the details of the reprogramming process. Although previous studies indicate that EC cells cannot be reprogrammed into real pluripotent stem cells, the reasons for this remain unclear. Here, nuclei from mouse EC cells (P19 were transplanted into enucleated oocytes and pluripotent stem cells (P19 NTES cells were subsequently established. Interestingly, P19 NTES cells prolonged the development of tetraploid aggregated embryos compared to EC cells alone. More importantly, we found that the expression recovery of the imprinted H19 gene was dependent on the methylation state in the differential methylation region (DMR. The induction of Nanog expression, however, was independent of the promoter region DNA methylation state in P19 NTES cells. A whole-genome transcriptome analysis further demonstrated that P19 NTES cells were indeed the intermediates between P19 cells and ES cells and many interesting genes were uncovered that may be responsible for the failed reprogramming of P19 cells. To our knowledge, for the first time, we linked incomplete reprogramming to the improved pluripotency of EC cell-derived pluripotent stem cells. The candidate genes we discovered may be useful not only for understanding the mechanisms of reprogramming, but also for deciphering the

  6. Contested embryonic culture in Japan--public discussion, and human embryonic stem cell research in an aging welfare society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the reasons for the lack of a broad discussion on bioethical regulation of human embryonic stem cell research (hESR) in Japan and asks why scientists experience difficulties accessing resources for hESR despite the acclaimed indifference of dominant Japanese culture to embryo research. The article shows how various social actors express their views on the embryo and oocyte donation in terms of dominant Japanese culture, foiled against what is regarded as Western culture. Second, it shows how the lack of concern with hESR should be understood in the context of public health policies and communications and bioethics decision making in Japan. Finally, it interprets the meaning of the embryo in the context of Japan as an aging modern welfare society, explaining how policymakers have come to emphasize the urgency of infertility problems over issues around abortion and embryonic life.

  7. 78 FR 25091 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ...; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH-Funded Research, 0925-0601, Expiration Date 04/30... Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be...

  8. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research. OMB No. 0925-0601-- Expiration Date... and Use of Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem...

  9. Directed neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noggle Scott A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a culture system for the efficient and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs to neural precursors and neurons. HESC were maintained by manual passaging and were differentiated to a morphologically distinct OCT-4+/SSEA-4- monolayer cell type prior to the derivation of embryoid bodies. Embryoid bodies were grown in suspension in serum free conditions, in the presence of 50% conditioned medium from the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 (MedII. Results A neural precursor population was observed within HESC derived serum free embryoid bodies cultured in MedII conditioned medium, around 7–10 days after derivation. The neural precursors were organized into rosettes comprised of a central cavity surrounded by ring of cells, 4 to 8 cells in width. The central cells within rosettes were proliferating, as indicated by the presence of condensed mitotic chromosomes and by phosphoHistone H3 immunostaining. When plated and maintained in adherent culture, the rosettes of neural precursors were surrounded by large interwoven networks of neurites. Immunostaining demonstrated the expression of nestin in rosettes and associated non-neuronal cell types, and a radial expression of Map-2 in rosettes. Differentiated neurons expressed the markers Map-2 and Neurofilament H, and a subpopulation of the neurons expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion This novel directed differentiation approach led to the efficient derivation of neuronal cultures from HESCs, including the differentiation of tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons. HESC were morphologically differentiated to a monolayer OCT-4+ cell type, which was used to derive embryoid bodies directly into serum free conditions. Exposure to the MedII conditioned medium enhanced the derivation of neural precursors, the first example of the effect of this conditioned medium on HESC.

  10. Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 42 ? Female, 30 Final Diagnosis: Human embryonic stem cells showed good therapeutic potential for treatment of multiple sclerosis with lyme disease Symptoms: Fatigue ? weakness in limbs Medication: ? Clinical Procedure: Human embryonic stem cells transplantation Specialty: Transplantology Objective: Rare disease Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease in which the myelin sheath of nerve cells is damaged. It can cause dela...

  11. Derivation of Two New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines from Nonviable Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gavrilov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the derivation and characterization of two new human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines (CU1 and CU2 from embryos with an irreversible loss of integrated organismic function. In addition, we analyzed retrospective data of morphological progression from embryonic day (ED 5 to ED6 for 2480 embryos not suitable for clinical use to assess grading criteria indicative of loss of viability on ED5. Our analysis indicated that a large proportion of in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos not suitable for clinical use could be used for hESC derivation. Based on these combined findings, we propose that criteria commonly used in IVF clinics to determine optimal embryos for uterine transfer can be employed to predict the potential for hESC derivation from poor quality embryos without the destruction of vital human embryos.

  12. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy in Crohn’s Disease: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 21 Final Diagnosis: Crohn’s disease Symptoms: Intolerance to specific foods • abdominal pain and diarrhea Medication: Human embryonic stem cell therapy Clinical Procedure: Human embryonic stem cell transplantation Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, mainly the colon and ileum, related with ulcers and fistulae. It is estimated to affect 565 000 people in the United States. Currently available therapies, such as antibiotics, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents, are only observed to reduce the complications associated with Crohn’s disease and to improve quality of life, but cannot cure the disease. Stem cell therapy appears to have certain advantages over conventional therapies. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of human embryonic stem cell therapy in a patient with Crohn’s disease. Case Report: A 21-year-old male with chief complaints of intolerance to specific foods, abdominal pain, and diarrhea underwent human embryonic stem cell therapy for two months. After undergoing human embryonic stem cell therapy, the patient showed symptomatic relief. He had no complaints of back pain, abdominal pain, or diarrhea and had improved digestion. The patient had no signs and symptoms of skin infection, and had improved limb stamina, strength, and endurance. The condition of patient was stable after the therapy. Conclusions: Human embryonic stem cell therapy might serve as a new optimistic treatment approach for Crohn’s disease. PMID:26923312

  13. Derivation of novel genetically diverse human embryonic stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Valentina T; Grifo, James A; Hansis, Christoph

    2012-06-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to revolutionize many biomedical fields ranging from basic research to disease modeling, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. A multitude of hESC lines have been derived worldwide since the first 5 lines by Thomson et al. 13 years ago, but many of these are poorly characterized, unavailable, or do not represent desired traits, thus making them unsuitable for application purposes. In order to provide the scientific community with better options, we have derived 12 new hESC lines at New York University from discarded genetically normal and abnormal embryos using the latest techniques. We examined the genetic status of the NYUES lines in detail as well as their molecular and cellular features and DNA fingerprinting profile. Furthermore, we differentiated our hESCs into the tissues most affected by a specific condition or into clinically desired cell types. To our knowledge, a number of characteristics of our hESCs have not been previously reported, for example, mutation for alpha thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome, linkage to conditions with a genetic component such as asthma or poor sperm morphology, and novel combinations of ethnic backgrounds. Importantly, all of our undifferentiated euploid female lines tested to date did not show X chromosome inactivation, believed to result in superior potency. We continue to derive new hESC lines and add them to the NIH registry and other registries. This should facilitate the use of our hESCs and lead to advancements for patient-benefitting applications.

  14. Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

  15. Extract of mouse embryonic stem cells induces the expression of pluripotency genes in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Paria Motamen; Foroutan, Tahereh; Javeri, Arash; Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr

    2017-11-01

    In some previous studies, the extract of embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to reprogram somatic cells to more dedifferentiated state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mouse ESCs extract on the expression of some pluripotency markers in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Human ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and characterized by flow cytometric analysis for the expression of some mesenchymal stem cell markers and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Frequent freeze-thaw technique was used to prepare cytoplasmic extract of ESCs. Plasma membranes of the ADSCs were reversibly permeabilized by streptolysin-O (SLO). Then the permeabilized ADSCs were incubated with the ESC extract and cultured in resealing medium. After reprogramming, the expression of some pluripotency genes was evaluated by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses. Third-passaged ADSCs showed a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers. They also showed adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. QPCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of some pluripotency genes including OCT4 , SOX2 , NANOG , REX1 and ESG1 in the reprogrammed ADSCs compared to the control group. These findings showed that mouse ESC extract can be used to induce reprogramming of human ADSCs. In fact, this method is applicable for reprogramming of human adult stem cells to a more pluripotent sate and may have a potential in regenerative medicine.

  16. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute; Blake, Jonathon; Schwager, Christian; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Leffers, Henrik

    2004-07-15

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly expressed in testicular CIS, including many never reported in testicular neoplasms. Expression was further verified by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. Among the highest expressed genes were NANOG and POU5F1, and reverse transcription-PCR revealed possible changes in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported as unstable in cultured ESCs. The close similarity between CIS and ESCs explains the pluripotency of CIS. Moreover, the findings are consistent with an early prenatal origin of TGCTs and thus suggest that etiologic factors operating in utero are of primary importance for the incidence trends of TGCTs. Finally, some of the highly expressed genes identified in this study are promising candidates for new diagnostic markers for CIS and/or TGCTs.

  17. Bilobalide induces neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Guo, Jingjing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao; Liao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Bilobalide, a natural product extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaf, is known to exhibit a number of pharmacological activities. So far, whether it could affect embryonic stem cell differentiation is still unknown. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bilobalide on P19 embryonic carcinoma cells differentiation and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that bilobalide induced P19 cells differentiation into neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also found that bilobalide promoted neuronal differentiation through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Exposure to bilobalide increased inactive GSK-3β phosphorylation, further induced the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and also up-regulated the expression of Wnt ligands Wnt1 and Wnt7a. Neuronal differentiation induced by bilobalide was totally abolished by XAV939, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results revealed a novel role of bilobalide in neuronal differentiation from P19 embryonic cells acting through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which would provide a better insight into the beneficial effects of bilobalide in brain diseases.

  18. L1TD1 Is a Marker for Undifferentiated Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Raymond Ching-Bong; Ibrahim, Abel; Fong, Helen; Thompson, Noelle; Lock, Leslie F.; Donovan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are stem cells capable of differentiating into cells representative of the three primary embryonic germ layers. There has been considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms regulating stem cell pluripotency, which will ultimately lead to development of more efficient methods to derive and culture hESC. In particular, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog are transcription factors known to be important in maintenance of hESC. However, many of the downstream ...

  19. Human embryonic stem cells in culture possess primary cilia with hedgehog signaling machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiprilov, Enko N; Awan, Aashir; Desprat, Romain

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potential therapeutic tools and models of human development. With a growing interest in primary cilia in signal transduction pathways that are crucial for embryological development and tissue differentiation and interest in mechanisms regulating human hESC d...

  20. [Intracranial remote epidural haematoma as a complication after resection of an occipital lobe metastatic tumour from a testicular embryonal carcinoma – a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusewicz, Wojciech; Limanówka, Bartosz; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz

    We present the case of a patient who suffered from intracranial epidural haematoma in the left fronto -temporo -parietal region as a complication after left parieto -occipital craniotomy and a resection of a metastatic lesion from a testicular embryonal carcinoma to the left occipital lobe. We also discuss possible causes of this complication.

  1. Combinatorial binding in human and mouse embryonic stem cells identifies conserved enhancers active in early embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Göke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to cis-regulatory sequences such as promoters and enhancers. In embryonic stem (ES cells, binding of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG is essential to maintain the capacity of the cells to differentiate into any cell type of the developing embryo. It is known that transcription factors interact to regulate gene expression. In this study we show that combinatorial binding is strongly associated with co-localization of the transcriptional co-activator Mediator, H3K27ac and increased expression of nearby genes in embryonic stem cells. We observe that the same loci bound by Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 in ES cells frequently drive expression in early embryonic development. Comparison of mouse and human ES cells shows that less than 5% of individual binding events for OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG are shared between species. In contrast, about 15% of combinatorial binding events and even between 53% and 63% of combinatorial binding events at enhancers active in early development are conserved. Our analysis suggests that the combination of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG binding is critical for transcription in ES cells and likely plays an important role for embryogenesis by binding at conserved early developmental enhancers. Our data suggests that the fast evolutionary rewiring of regulatory networks mainly affects individual binding events, whereas "gene regulatory hotspots" which are bound by multiple factors and active in multiple tissues throughout early development are under stronger evolutionary constraints.

  2. PGC-1α and Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birket, Matthew J.; Casini, Simona; Kosmidis, Georgios; Elliott, David A.; Gerencser, Akos A.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Schumacher, Cees; Mastroberardino, Pier G.; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Stanley, Ed G.; Mummery, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Diminished mitochondrial function is causally related to some heart diseases. Here, we developed a human disease model based on cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), in which an important pathway of mitochondrial gene expression was inactivated. Repression of PGC-1α, which is

  3. Molecular characterisation of stromal populations derived from human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, L.; Twine, N. A.; Abu Dawud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (BM-hMSC) are being employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration. A limiting factor for their clinical use is the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can provide an un...

  4. Human embryonic stem cells have enhanced repair of multiple forms of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Swistowska, Anna Maria; Lee, Jae Wan

    2008-01-01

    cells compared with various differentiated murine cells. Using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) we found that human embryonic stem cells (BG01, I6) have more efficient repair of different types of DNA damage (generated from H2O2, UV-C, ionizing radiation, or psoralen) than human primary...

  5. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

  6. The Evolution of Lineage-Specific Regulatory Activities in the Human Embryonic Limb

    OpenAIRE

    Cotney, Justin; Leng, Jing; Yin, Jun; Reilly, Steven K.; DeMare, Laura E.; Emera, Deena; Ayoub, Albert E.; Rakic, Pasko; Noonan, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human anatomical features likely involved changes in gene regulation during development. However, the nature and extent of human-specific developmental regulatory functions remain unknown. We obtained a genome-wide view of cis-regulatory evolution in human embryonic tissues by comparing the histone modification H3K27ac, which provides a quantitative readout of promoter and enhancer activity, during human, rhesus, and mouse limb development. Based on increased H3K27ac, we find...

  7. TET2 deficiency inhibits mesoderm and hematopoietic differentiation in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langlois, Thierry; da Costa Reis Monte Mor, Barbara; Lenglet, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    . Here, we show that TET2 expression is low in human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and increases during hematopoietic differentiation. ShRNA-mediated TET2 knockdown had no effect on the pluripotency of various ES cells. However, it skewed their differentiation into neuroectoderm at the expense...... profile, including abnormal expression of neuronal genes. Intriguingly, when TET2 was knockdown in hematopoietic cells, it increased hematopoietic development. In conclusion, our work suggests that TET2 is involved in different stages of human embryonic development, including induction of the mesoderm...... and hematopoietic differentiation. Stem Cells 2014....

  8. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma using the Bradford Hill criteria. The strength of the association is supported by, detection of human papillomavirus infection and antibodies prior to oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This is furthermore reinforced by the absence of human papillomavirus DNA in healthy tonsils...... incidence in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with sexual behaviour. These associations have been repeatedly observed and are in accordance with our current knowledge. The time relation between cause and effect remains the main challenge, due to the lack...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  9. Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn; Møller, Jonas Bech

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types in the body and can potentially provide an unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. Current differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells towards insulin...... and consistent differentiation of stem cells to definitive endoderm. The results shed light on the importance of extracellular matrix proteins for differentiation and also points to a cost effective and easy method to improve differentiation....... embryonic stem cells to the definitive endoderm lineage. The percentage of definitive endoderm cells after differentiation on collagen I and fibronectin was >85% and 65%, respectively. The cells on collagen I substrates displayed different morphology and gene expression during differentiation as assessed...

  10. Combined sequencing of mRNA and DNA from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Mertes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined transcriptome and whole genome sequencing of the same ultra-low input sample down to single cells is a rapidly evolving approach for the analysis of rare cells. Besides stem cells, rare cells originating from tissues like tumor or biopsies, circulating tumor cells and cells from early embryonic development are under investigation. Herein we describe a universal method applicable for the analysis of minute amounts of sample material (150 to 200 cells derived from sub-colony structures from human embryonic stem cells. The protocol comprises the combined isolation and separate amplification of poly(A mRNA and whole genome DNA followed by next generation sequencing. Here we present a detailed description of the method developed and an overview of the results obtained for RNA and whole genome sequencing of human embryonic stem cells, sequencing data is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE69471.

  11. Identification of molecules derived from human fibroblast feeder cells that support the proliferation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Christophersen, Nicolaj S.; Correia, Ana S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of human embryonic stem cell lines depend on a feeder cell layer for continuous growth in vitro, so that they can remain in an undifferentiated state. Limited knowledge is available concerning the molecular mechanisms that underlie the capacity of feeder cells to support both...... the proliferation and pluripotency of these cells. Importantly, feeder cells generally lose their capacity to support human embryonic stem cell proliferation in vitro following long-term culture. In this study, we performed large-scale gene expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts during early...... foreskin fibroblasts to serve as feeder cells for human embryonic stem cell cultures. Among these, the C-KIT, leptin and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) genes were the most interesting candidates....

  12. Asynchronous replication and autosome-pair non-equivalence in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devkanya Dutta

    Full Text Available A number of mammalian genes exhibit the unusual properties of random monoallelic expression and random asynchronous replication. Such exceptional genes include genes subject to X inactivation and autosomal genes including odorant receptors, immunoglobulins, interleukins, pheromone receptors, and p120 catenin. In differentiated cells, random asynchronous replication of interspersed autosomal genes is coordinated at the whole chromosome level, indicative of chromosome-pair non-equivalence. Here we have investigated the replication pattern of the random asynchronously replicating genes in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells, using fluorescence in situ hybridization based assay. We show that allele-specific replication of X-linked genes and random monoallelic autosomal genes occur in human embryonic stem cells. The direction of replication is coordinated at the whole chromosome level and can cross the centromere, indicating the existence of autosome-pair non-equivalence in human embryonic stem cells. These results suggest that epigenetic mechanism(s that randomly distinguish between two parental alleles are emerging in the cells of the inner cell mass, the source of human embryonic stem cells.

  13. NANOG reporter cell lines generated by gene targeting in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Yvonne; Ganic, Elvira; Ameri, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is mediated by a complex interplay between extra- and intracellular signaling pathways, which regulate the expression of pluripotency-specific transcription factors. The homeodomain transcription factor NANOG plays a central role...

  14. Enhanced cardiomyogenesis of human embryonic stem cells by a small molecular inhibitor of p38 MAPK.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graichen, R.; Xu, X.; Braam, S.R.; Balakrishnan, T.; Norfiza, S.; Sieh, S.; Soo, S.Y.; Tham, S.C.; Mummery, C.L.; Colman, A.; Zweigerdt, R.; Davidson, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can differentiate to cardiomyocytes in vitro but with generally poor efficiency. Here, we describe a novel method for the efficient generation of cardiomyocytes from hESC in a scalable suspension culture process. Differentiation in serum-free medium conditioned by

  15. Procedures for Derivation and Characterisation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells from Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, a development occurred in stem cell biology with the fi rst report of the derivation of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line. Since then a number of techniques have been used to derive and characterise hESCs. Here, we describe the derivation methods used by our laboratory for isolatio...

  16. Embryonic stem cell-like cells derived from adult human testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizrak, S. C.; Chikhovskaya, J. V.; Sadri-Ardekani, H.; van Daalen, S.; Korver, C. M.; Hovingh, S. E.; Roepers-Gajadien, H. L.; Raya, A.; Fluiter, K.; de Reijke, Th M.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.; Knegt, A. C.; Belmonte, J. C.; van der Veen, F.; de rooij, D. G.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the significant drawbacks of using human embryonic stem (hES) cells for regenerative medicine, the search for alternative sources of multipotent cells is ongoing. Studies in mice have shown that multipotent ES-like cells can be derived from neonatal and adult testis. Here we report the

  17. Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, C.M.A.H.; Ward-van Oostwaard, D.; Monshouwer-Kloots, J.; van den Brink, S.; van Rooijen, M.A.; Xu, X.; Zweigerdt, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Passier, R.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can proliferate indefinitely while retaining the capacity to form derivatives of all three germ layers. We have reported previously that hESC differentiate into cardiomyocytes when cocultured with a visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2). Insulin/insulin-like

  18. Activin B mediated induction of Pdx1 in human embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Pørneki, Ann Dorte Storm; Floridon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    embryonic and fetal pancreas anlage in humans. Pdx1(+) cells are found in cell clusters also expressing Serpina1 and FABP1, suggesting activation of intestinal/liver developmental programs. Moreover, Activin B up-regulates Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its target Gli1, which during normal development...

  19. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy in Crohn's Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-02-29

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, mainly the colon and ileum, related with ulcers and fistulae. It is estimated to affect 565,000 people in the United States. Currently available therapies, such as antibiotics, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents, are only observed to reduce the complications associated with Crohn's disease and to improve quality of life, but cannot cure the disease. Stem cell therapy appears to have certain advantages over conventional therapies. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of human embryonic stem cell therapy in a patient with Crohn's disease. A 21-year-old male with chief complaints of intolerance to specific foods, abdominal pain, and diarrhea underwent human embryonic stem cell therapy for two months. After undergoing human embryonic stem cell therapy, the patient showed symptomatic relief. He had no complaints of back pain, abdominal pain, or diarrhea and had improved digestion. The patient had no signs and symptoms of skin infection, and had improved limb stamina, strength, and endurance. The condition of patient was stable after the therapy. Human embryonic stem cell therapy might serve as a new optimistic treatment approach for Crohn's disease.

  20. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories : The Rotterdam Predict Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Irene V; Groenenberg, Irene A L; Gotink, Anniek W; Willemsen, Sten P; Gijtenbeek, Manon; Dudink, Jeroen; Go, Attie T J I; Reiss, Irwin K M; Steegers, Eric A P; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks

  1. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  2. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: Current State of Knowledge and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V. Sokolov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, have become an object of intense study over the last decade. They possess two unique properties that distinguish them from many other cell types: (i the ability to self-renew indefinitely in culture under permissive conditions, and (ii the pluripotency, defined as the capability of giving rise to all cell types of embryonic lineage under the guidance of the appropriate developmental cues. The focus of many recent efforts has been on the elucidating the signaling pathways and molecular networks operating in human embryonic stem cells. These cells hold great promise in cell-based regenerative therapies, disease modeling, drug screening and testing, assessing genotoxic and mutagenic risks associated with exposures to a variety of environmental factors, and so forth. Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous in nature, and it is widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine. In this paper, our goal is to summarize the recent progress in understanding how human embryonic stem cells respond to ionizing radiation exposures, using novel methodologies based on “omics” approaches, and to provide a critical discussion of what remains unknown; thus proposing a roadmap for the future research in this area.

  3. Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Influences Human Embryonic Stem Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD is a highly conserved pathway that selectively degrades specific subsets of RNA transcripts. Here, we provide evidence that NMD regulates early human developmental cell fate. We found that NMD factors tend to be expressed at higher levels in human pluripotent cells than in differentiated cells, raising the possibility that NMD must be downregulated to permit differentiation. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs demonstrated that, indeed, NMD downregulation is essential for efficient generation of definitive endoderm. RNA-seq analysis identified NMD target transcripts induced when NMD is suppressed in hESCs, including many encoding signaling components. This led us to test the role of TGF-β and BMP signaling, which we found NMD acts through to influence definitive endoderm versus mesoderm fate. Our results suggest that selective RNA decay is critical for specifying the developmental fate of specific human embryonic cell lineages.

  4. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  5. Observation of human embryonic behavior in vitro by high-resolution time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kyoko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has yielded vast amounts of information and knowledge on human embryonic development in vitro; however, still images provide limited data on dynamic changes in the developing embryos. Using our high-resolution time-lapse cinematography (hR-TLC) system, we were able to describe normal human embryonic development continuously from the fertilization process to the hatched blastocyst stage in detail. Our hR-TLC observation also showed the embryonic abnormality of a third polar body (PB)-like substance likely containing a small pronucleus being extruded and resulting in single-pronucleus (1PN) formation, while our molecular biological investigations suggested the possibility that some 1PN embryos could be diploid, carrying both maternal and paternal genomes. Furthermore, in some embryos the extruded third PB-like substance was eventually re-absorbed into the ooplasm resulting in the formation of an uneven-sized, two-PN zygote. In addition, other hR-TLC observations showed that cytokinetic failure was correlated with equal-sized, multi-nucleated blastomeres that were also observed in the embryo showing early initiation of compaction. Assessment combining our hR-TLC with molecular biological techniques enables a better understanding of embryonic development and potential improvements in ART outcomes.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for tumor antigen of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Torigoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A heterologous antiserum for human cervical squamous cell carcinoma was prepared and specificity determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence studies. With this antiserum, a tumor antigen was purified from human cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The specificities of the antigen and the antiserum were then re-examined by a radioimmunoassay method using 125 I-labeled purified antigen. Although normal cervical tissue extract showed a moderate cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassay, the circulating antigen activity could not be detected in normal women or in several patients with other carcinomas, whereas 27 of 35 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable serum antigen activity. All patients with advanced stages of cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable antigen levels. These results indicate that there is a quantitative abnormality, at least, of this tumor antigen in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and that the radioimmunoassay for the antigen is a potentially useful tool in clinical care

  7. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Yeung, Chin-Yan C; Kadler, Karl E

    2010-01-01

    Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts t...

  8. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  9. Self-organization of spatial patterning in human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Etoc, Fred; Ozair, M. Zeeshan; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2017-01-01

    The developing embryo is a remarkable example of self-organization, where functional units are created in a complex spatio-temporal choreography. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to recapitulate in vitro the self-organization programs that are executed in the embryo in vivo. This represents a unique opportunity to address self-organization in humans that is otherwise not addressable with current technologies. In this essay, we review the recent literature on self-organization of human ESCs, with a particular focus on two examples: formation of embryonic germ layers and neural rosettes. Intriguingly, both activation and elimination of TGFβ signaling can initiate self-organization, albeit with different molecular underpinnings. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the formation of these structures in vitro and explore future challenges in the field. PMID:26970615

  10. Self-Organization of Spatial Patterning in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Etoc, Fred; Ozair, M Zeeshan; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The developing embryo is a remarkable example of self-organization, where functional units are created in a complex spatiotemporal choreography. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used to recapitulate in vitro the self-organization programs that are executed in the embryo in vivo. This represents an unique opportunity to address self-organization in humans that is otherwise not addressable with current technologies. In this chapter, we review the recent literature on self-organization of human ESCs, with a particular focus on two examples: formation of embryonic germ layers and neural rosettes. Intriguingly, both activation and elimination of TGFβ signaling can initiate self-organization, albeit with different molecular underpinnings. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the formation of these structures in vitro and explore future challenges in the field. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of proliferation and differentiation and promotion of apoptosis by cyclin L2 in mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, Lili; Gong, Jie; Yang, Rong; Sheng, Yanhui; Zhou, Lei; Kong, Xiangqing; Cao, Kejiang

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin L2 (CCNL2) is a novel member of the cyclin gene family. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CCNL2 expression was upregulated in ventricular septum tissues from patients with ventricular septal defect compared to healthy controls. In the present study, we established a stable CCNL2-overexpressing P19 cell line that can differentiate to myocardial cells when treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our data showed that stable CCNL2-overexpressing P19 cells were less differentiated after treatment with 1% DMSO and that expression of myocardial cell differentiation-related genes (such as cardiac actin, GATA4, Mef2C, Nkx2.5, and BNP) were reduced compared to vector-only transfected P19. Moreover, P19 cells overexpressing the CCNL2 gene had a reduced growth rate and a remarkably decreased S phase. We also found that these cells underwent apoptosis, as detected by two different apoptosis assays. The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was also downregulated in these cells. In addition, real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression of Wnt and β-catenin was suppressed and GSK3β was induced in the CCNL2-overexpressing P19 cells. These data suggest that overexpression of CCNL2 inhibited proliferation and differentiation of mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells and induced them to undergo apoptosis, possibly through the Wnt signal transduction pathway.

  12. Complexes of γ-tubulin with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases Src and Fyn in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukharskyy, Vitaliy; Sulimenko, Vadym; Macurek, Libor; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Draberova, Eduarda; Draber, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family have been shown to play an important role in signal transduction as well as in regulation of microtubule protein interactions. Here we show that γ-tubulin (γ-Tb) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing neuronal differentiation is phosphorylated and forms complexes with protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family, Src and Fyn. Elevated expression of both kinases during differentiation corresponded with increased level of proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine. Immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies against Src, Fyn, γ-tubulin, and with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that γ-tubulin appeared in complexes with these kinases. In vitro kinase assays showed tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in γ-tubulin complexes isolated from differentiated cells. Pretreatment of cells with Src family selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 reduced the amount of phosphorylated γ-tubulin in the complexes. Binding experiments with recombinant SH2 and SH3 domains of Src and Fyn kinases revealed that protein complexes containing γ-tubulin bound to SH2 domains and that these interactions were of SH2-phosphotyrosine type. The combined data suggest that Src family kinases might have an important role in the regulation of γ-tubulin interaction with tubulin dimers or other proteins during neurogenesis

  13. Clinicopathologic assessment of pancreatic ductal carcinoma located at the head of the pancreas, in relation to embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Fujii, Tsutomu; Kanzaki, Akiyuki; Yamada, Suguru; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Takeda, Shin; Nakao, Akimasa

    2012-05-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is performed for pancreatic head cancer that originated from the dorsal or ventral primordium. Although the extent of lymph node (LN) dissection is the same irrespective of the origin, the lymphatic continuities may differ between the 2 primordia. Between March 2003 and September 2010, 152 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. One hundred six patients were assigned into 2 groups according to tumor location on preoperative computed tomography, and their clinical and pathological features were retrospectively analyzed in view of the embryonic development of the pancreas. Sixty of 106 patients were classified with tumors that were derived from the dorsal pancreas (D group) and 46 from the ventral pancreas (V group). The frequency of LN involvement around the middle colic artery (LN 15) in the D group was higher than in the V group (P = 0.008). The rate of additional resection of the pancreas tended to be higher in the D group (P = 0.067). The present study showed the detailed pattern of spread of pancreatic ductal carcinoma to the LNs and provided important information for determining the optimal surgical strategy.

  14. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds

  15. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiugong, E-mail: xiugong.gao@fda.hhs.gov; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  16. Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, I V; Baken, L; Groenenberg, I A L; Husen, S C; Dudink, J; Willemsen, S P; Gijtenbeek, M; Koning, A H J; Reiss, I K M; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-05-01

    Can growth trajectories of the human embryonic head be created using 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and virtual reality (VR) technology, and be associated with second trimester fetal head size and periconceptional maternal conditions? Serial first trimester head circumference (HC) and head volume (HV) measurements were used to create reliable growth trajectories of the embryonic head, which were significantly associated with fetal head size and periconceptional maternal smoking, age and ITALIC! in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fetal growth is influenced by periconceptional maternal conditions. We selected 149 singleton pregnancies with a live born non-malformed fetus from the Rotterdam periconception cohort. Bi-parietal diameter and occipital frontal diameter to calculate HC, HV and crown-rump length (CRL) were measured weekly between 9 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks gestational age (GA) using 3D-US and VR. Fetal HC was obtained from second trimester structural anomaly scans. Growth trajectories of the embryonic head were created with general additive models and linear mixed models were used to estimate associations with maternal periconceptional conditions as a function of GA and CRL, respectively. A total of 303 3D-US images of 149 pregnancies were eligible for embryonic head measurements (intra-class correlation coefficients >0.99). Associations were found between embryonic HC and fetal HC ( ITALIC! ρ = 0.617, ITALIC! P head measured by HC and HV (All ITALIC! P head may be of benefit in future early antenatal care. This study was funded by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre and Sophia Foundation for Medical Research, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (SSWO grant number 644). No competing interests are declared. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  17. Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Paul R.; Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R.; Cezar, Gabriela G.

    2010-01-01

    Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

  18. Recombinant human laminin isoforms can support the undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Futaki, Sugiko; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Kawasaki, Miwa; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Kawase, Eihachiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Nakatsuji, Norio; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be a promising cell source for cell transplantation therapy. For such a clinical application, the hESCs should be manipulated using appropriate and qualified materials. In this study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant human laminin (rhLM) isoforms on the undifferentiated growth of hESCs. We first determined the major integrins expressed on the hESCs to reveal the preference of the hESCs for rhLMs, and found that the hESCs mainly expressed integrin α6β1, which binds predominantly to laminin-111, -332 and -511/-521. When the hESCs were seeded onto rhLMs, the cells indeed adhered markedly to rhLM-332, and to rhLM-511 and rhLM-111 to a lesser extent. The hESCs proliferated on these three rhLMs for several passages while preserving their pluripotency. These results show that rhLM-111, -332, and -511 are good substrates to expand undifferentiated hESCs due to their high affinity to integrin α6β1 expressed on hESCs

  19. Transplantation of human neonatal foreskin stromal cells in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    NSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types. Changes in femurs gross morphology......We have previously reported that human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs) promote angiogenesis in vitro and in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. To examine the in vivo relevance of this observation, we examined in the present study the differentiation potential of h......NSSC + HUVEC cultures. Our data suggest that organotypic cultures can be employed to test the differentiation potential of stem cells and demonstrate the importance of stem cell interaction with 3D-intact tissue microenvironment for their differentiation....

  20. Developmental neurotoxicity screening using human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, Zeljko J

    2012-09-01

    Research in the area of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine, along with neuroscience, will further our understanding of drug-induced death of neurons during their development. With the development of an in vitro model of stem cell-derived human neural cell lines investigators can, under control conditions and during intense neuronal growth, examine molecular mechanisms of various drugs and conditions on early developmental neuroapoptosis in humans. If the use of this model will lead to fewer risks, or identification of drugs and anesthetics that are less likely to cause the death of neurons, this approach will be a major stride toward assuring the safety of drugs during the brain development. The ultimate goal would be not only to find the trigger for the catastrophic chain of events, but also to prevent neuronal cell death itself. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  2. Bioenergetic Changes during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells along the Hepatic Lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden M; Madsen, Claus Desler; Kalisz, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated to result in premature aging due to its effects on stem cells. Nevertheless, a full understanding of the role of mitochondrial bioenergetics through differentiation is still lacking. Here we show the bioenergetics profile of human stem cells...... of embryonic origin differentiating along the hepatic lineage. Our study reveals especially the transition between hepatic specification and hepatic maturation as dependent on mitochondrial respiration and demonstrates that even though differentiating cells are primarily dependent on glycolysis until induction...

  3. Derivation and characterization of the NYSCFe003-A human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sevilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe003-A was derived from a day 5 to day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe003-A line expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. The line presents normal karyotype and is mycoplasma free.

  4. The influence of IVF/ICSI treatment on human embryonic growth trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eindhoven, S C; van Uitert, E M; Laven, J S E; Willemsen, S P; Koning, A H J; Eilers, P H C; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2014-12-01

    groups (βIVF/ICSI = 6 g; P = 0.36 and βIVF/ICSI = 80 g; P = 0.24, respectively). Variations in embryonic growth trajectories of spontaneously conceived pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating may partially be a result of less precise pregnancy dating and differences in endometrium receptivity compared with IVF/ICSI pregnancies. The absence of a significant difference in embryonic and fetal growth trajectories suggests safety of IVF/ICSI treatment with regard to early embryonic growth. However, further research is warranted to ascertain the influence of IVF/ICSI treatments in a larger study population, and to estimate the impact of the underlying causes of the subfertility and other periconceptional exposures on human embryonic and fetal growth trajectories. This study was supported by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre. No competing interests are declared. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Model for the Study of Neural Development and Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piya Prajumwongs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the mechanism of neurogenesis has been well documented in other organisms, there might be fundamental differences between human and those species referring to species-specific context. Based on principles learned from other systems, it is found that the signaling pathways required for neural induction and specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs recapitulated those in the early embryo development in vivo at certain degree. This underscores the usefulness of hESCs in understanding early human neural development and reinforces the need to integrate the principles of developmental biology and hESC biology for an efficient neural differentiation.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  8. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  9. Comparison of the glycosphingolipids of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Karin; Barone, Angela; Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta; Johansson, Bengt R; Breimer, Michael E; Funa, Keiko; Teneberg, Susann

    2017-04-01

    High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry. A high similarity between the nonacid glycosphingolipids of hiPSC and hESC was found. The nonacid glycosphingolipids P1 pentaosylceramide, x2 pentaosylceramide and H type 1 heptaosylceramide, not previously described in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), were characterized in both hiPSC and hESC. The composition of acid glycosphingolipids differed, with increased levels of GM3 ganglioside, and reduced levels of GD1a/GD1b in hiPSC when compared with hESC. In addition, the hESC glycosphingolipids sulf-globopentaosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide were lacking in hiPSC. Neural stem cells differentiating from hiPSC had a reduced expression of sialyl-lactotetra, whereas expression of the GD1a ganglioside was significantly increased. Thus, while sialyl-lactotetra is a marker of undifferentiated hPSC, GD1a is a novel marker of neural differentiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  11. Human papillomas virus infection in the case of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowska, W.; Rogozinski, T.; Zawadowski, J.; Waloryszak, B.

    1993-01-01

    The case of 59 year old man treated (with surgery and radiotherapy) for larynx carcinoma was presented. The potentially oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16/18 was detected in the tissue surrounding the tumor. (author)

  12. Inhibition of Rho kinase regulates specification of early differentiation events in P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman J Krawetz

    Full Text Available The Rho kinase pathway plays a key role in many early cell/tissue determination events that take place in embryogenesis. Rho and its downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK play pivotal roles in cell migration, apoptosis (membrane blebbing, cell proliferation/cell cycle, cell-cell adhesion and gene regulation. We and others have previously demonstrated that inhibition of ROCK blocks endoderm differentiation in embryonal carcinoma stem cells, however, the effect of ROCK inhibition on mesoderm and ectoderm specification has not been fully examined. In this study, the role of ROCK within the specification and differentiation of all three germ layers was examined.P19 cells were treated with the specific ROCK inhibitor Y-27623, and increase in differentiation efficiency into neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal lineages was observed. However, as expected a dramatic decrease in early endodermal markers was observed when ROCK was inhibited. Interestingly, within these ROCK-inhibited RA treated cultures, increased levels of mesodermal or ectodermal markers were not observed, instead it was found that the pluripotent markers SSEA-1 and Oct-4 remained up-regulated similar to that seen in undifferentiated cultures. Using standard and widely accepted methods for reproducible P19 differentiation into all three germ layers, an enhancement of mesoderm and ectoderm differentiation with a concurrent loss of endoderm lineage specification was observed with Y-27632 treatment. Evidence would suggest that this effect is in part mediated through TGF-β and SMAD signaling as ROCK-inhibited cells displayed aberrant SMAD activation and did not return to a 'ground' state after the inhibition had been removed.Given this data and the fact that only a partial rescue of normal differentiation capacity occurred when ROCK inhibition was alleviated, the effect of ROCK inhibition on the differentiation capacity of pluripotent cell populations should be further examined to elucidate the

  13. Human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, A; Cincik, H; Baloglu, H; Cekin, E; Dogru, S; Dursun, E

    2007-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls. Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case). In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.

  14. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  15. The periconception maternal cardiovascular risk profile influences human embryonic growth trajectories in IVF/ICSI pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, K P J; van Uitert, E M; Roeters van Lennep, J E; Koning, A H J; Mulders, A G M G J; Laven, J S E; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-06-01

    Is the maternal cardiovascular (CV) risk profile associated with human embryonic growth trajectories and does the mode of conception affect this association? This small study suggests that the maternal CV risk profile is inversely associated with first trimester embryonic growth trajectories in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies, but not in spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Maternal high-blood pressure and smoking affect placental function, accompanied by increased risk of fetal growth restriction and low-birthweight. Mothers who experience pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction are at increased risk of CV disease in later life. In a prospective periconception birth cohort conducted in a tertiary hospital, 111 singleton ongoing pregnancies with reliable pregnancy dating, no pre-existing maternal disease and no malformed live borns were investigated. Spontaneously conceived pregnancies with a reliable first day of the last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle of 25-31 days only (n = 66) and IVF/ICSI pregnancies (n = 45) were included. Women underwent weekly three-dimensional ultrasound scans (3D US) from 6- to 13-week gestational age. To estimate embryonic growth, serial crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were performed using the V-Scope software in a BARCO I-Space. Maternal characteristics and CV risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. The CV risk profile was created based on a score of risk factors, including maternal age, body-mass index, CV disease in the family, diet and smoking. Quartiles of the CV risk score were calculated. Associations between the CV risk score and embryonic growth were assessed using square root transformed CRL in multivariable linear mixed model analyses. From the 111 included pregnancies, 696 3D US data sets were obtained of which 637 (91.5%) CRLs could be measured. In the total group, The CV risk score was inversely, but not significantly

  16. Progressing a human embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy towards the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Paul; Kerby, Julie; Coffey, Peter; da Cruz, Lyndon; McKernan, Ruth

    2015-10-19

    Since the first publication of the derivation of human embryonic stem cells in 1998, there has been hope and expectation that this technology will lead to a wave of regenerative medicine therapies with the potential to revolutionize our approach to managing certain diseases. Despite significant resources in this direction, the path to the clinic for an embryonic stem-cell-based regenerative medicine therapy has not proven straightforward, though in the past few years progress has been made. Here, with a focus upon retinal disease, we discuss the current status of the development of such therapies. We also highlight some of our own experiences of progressing a retinal pigment epithelium cell replacement therapy towards the clinic. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Actin-myosin contractility is responsible for the reduced viability of dissociated human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guokai; Hou, Zhonggang; Gulbranson, Daniel R; Thomson, James A

    2010-08-06

    Human ESCs are the pluripotent precursor of the three embryonic germ layers. Human ESCs exhibit basal-apical polarity, junctional complexes, integrin-dependent matrix adhesion, and E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion, all characteristics shared by the epiblast epithelium of the intact mammalian embryo. After disruption of epithelial structures, programmed cell death is commonly observed. If individualized human ESCs are prevented from reattaching and forming colonies, their viability is significantly reduced. Here, we show that actin-myosin contraction is a critical effector of the cell death response to human ESC dissociation. Inhibition of myosin heavy chain ATPase, downregulation of myosin heavy chain, and downregulation of myosin light chain all increase survival and cloning efficiency of individualized human ESCs. ROCK inhibition decreases phosphorylation of myosin light chain, suggesting that inhibition of actin-myosin contraction is also the mechanism through which ROCK inhibitors increase cloning efficiency of human ESCs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe014-A (RC-10 was derived from a fresh oocyte voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a mixed 46XY and 47XY +12 male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  19. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe006-A (RC-2 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line exhibits expression of expected pluripotency markers and in vitro differentiation potential to three germinal lineage representative cell populations. It has a male trisomy 12 karyotype (47XY, +12. Microsatellite DNA marker identity and HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  20. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe010-A (RC-6 was derived from a frozen and thawed blastocyst voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XY male karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data are available.

  1. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe012-A (RC-8 was derived from a frozen and thawed day 5 embryo cultivated to the blastocyst stage. The embryo was voluntarily donated as unsuitable and surplus to fertility requirements following ethics committee approved informed consent under licence from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to the three germ layers in vitro. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  2. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1–60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  3. Left-Right Asymmetry of Maturation Rates in Human Embryonic Neural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Lisgo, Steven; Karlebach, Guy; Ju, Jia; Cheng, Gang; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-08-01

    Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks postconception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fiber tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. We used RNA sequencing to measure gene expression levels in the left and right spinal cords, and the left and right hindbrains, of 18 postmortem human embryos aged 4 to 8 weeks postconception. Genes showing embryonic lateralization were tested for an enrichment of signals in genome-wide association data for schizophrenia. The left side of the embryonic spinal cord was found to mature faster than the right side. Both sides transitioned from transcriptional profiles associated with cell division and proliferation at earlier stages to neuronal differentiation and function at later stages, but the two sides were not in synchrony (p = 2.2 E-161). The hindbrain showed a left-right mirrored pattern compared with the spinal cord, consistent with the well-known crossing over of function between these two structures. Genes that showed lateralization in the embryonic spinal cord were enriched for association signals with schizophrenia (p = 4.3 E-05). These are the earliest stage left-right differences of human neural development ever reported. Disruption of the lateralized developmental program may play a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic recombination pathways and their application for genome modification of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Mikko; Tuuri, Timo; Savilahti, Harri

    2010-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from early human embryo and retain a potential to differentiate into all adult cell types. They provide vast opportunities in cell replacement therapies and are expected to become significant tools in drug discovery as well as in the studies of cellular and developmental functions of human genes. The progress in applying different types of DNA recombination reactions for genome modification in a variety of eukaryotic cell types has provided means to utilize recombination-based strategies also in human embryonic stem cells. Homologous recombination-based methods, particularly those utilizing extended homologous regions and those employing zinc finger nucleases to boost genomic integration, have shown their usefulness in efficient genome modification. Site-specific recombination systems are potent genome modifiers, and they can be used to integrate DNA into loci that contain an appropriate recombination signal sequence, either naturally occurring or suitably pre-engineered. Non-homologous recombination can be used to generate random integrations in genomes relatively effortlessly, albeit with a moderate efficiency and precision. DNA transposition-based strategies offer substantially more efficient random strategies and provide means to generate single-copy insertions, thus potentiating the generation of genome-wide insertion libraries applicable in genetic screens. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of transient down-regulation of DREAM in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán-Lozano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the functions of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, DREAM interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a Ca2+-dependent manner, preventing CREB binding protein (CBP recruitment. Furthermore, CREB and CBP are involved in maintaining ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. However, a previous knockout study revealed the protective function of DREAM depletion in brain aging degeneration and that aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cells (SCs function. Interestingly, we found that DREAM is expressed in different cell types, including human ESCs (hESCs, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs, and human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs, and that transitory inhibition of DREAM in hESCs reduces their pluripotency, increasing differentiation. We stipulate that these changes are partly mediated by increased CREB transcriptional activity. Overall, our data indicates that DREAM acts in the regulation of hESC pluripotency and could be a target to promote or prevent differentiation in embryonic cells.

  6. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, A.; Mavilio, F.; Acampora, D.

    1987-01-01

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomains identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hybridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny

  7. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, A; Mavilio, F; Acampora, D; Giampaolo, A; Faiella, A; Zappavigna, V; D'Esposito, M; Pannese, M; Russo, G; Boncinelli, E

    1987-07-01

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomain identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hydridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny.

  8. Systematically profiling and annotating long intergenic non-coding RNAs in human embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xing; Hou, Mei; Ding, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Ren, Lichen; Gao, Ge

    2013-01-01

    While more and more long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were identified to take important roles in both maintaining pluripotency and regulating differentiation, how these lincRNAs may define and drive cell fate decisions on a global scale are still mostly elusive. Systematical profiling and comprehensive annotation of embryonic stem cells lincRNAs may not only bring a clearer big picture of these novel regulators but also shed light on their functionalities. Based on multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically identified 300 human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs (hES lincRNAs). Of which, one forth (78 out of 300) hES lincRNAs were further identified to be biasedly expressed in human ES cells. Functional analysis showed that they were preferentially involved in several early-development related biological processes. Comparative genomics analysis further suggested that around half of the identified hES lincRNAs were conserved in mouse. To facilitate further investigation of these hES lincRNAs, we constructed an online portal for biologists to access all their sequences and annotations interactively. In addition to navigation through a genome browse interface, users can also locate lincRNAs through an advanced query interface based on both keywords and expression profiles, and analyze results through multiple tools. By integrating multiple RNA-Seq datasets, we systematically characterized and annotated 300 hES lincRNAs. A full functional web portal is available freely at http://scbrowse.cbi.pku.edu.cn. As the first global profiling and annotating of human embryonic stem cell lincRNAs, this work aims to provide a valuable resource for both experimental biologists and bioinformaticians.

  9. 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 Uptake Kinetics Difference among KMB17 Human Embryonic Lung Diploid Fibroblast and Different Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei JIA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective PET/CT imaging is expensive, so searching the tumor imaging agent for SPECT/CT is necessary. 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 [bis (N-ethoxy-N-ethyl dithiocarbamato nitrido99Tcm (V] can be uptaken by lung cancer cells and other cells alike. The aim of this study is to evaluate the distinctive value in lung tumor with 99Tcm-N(NOEt2, the difference in its uptake kinetics in human embryonic lung diploid fibroblasts KMB17 and several kinds of lung cancer cells lines. Methods Firstly, six different cell culture medium which contained YTMLC Gejiu human lung squamous carcinoma cell, SPC-A1 human lung adenocarcinoma cell, AGZY low metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma, 973 high metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma cell, GLC-82 Gejiu human lung adenocarcinoma cell, and KMB17 human embryonic lung diploid fibroblast, respectively with equal cell density of 1×106/mL and the same volume were prepared; secondly, the same radioactive dose of 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 was added into each sample and then 300 μL mixed sample was taken out respectively and cultured in 37 oC culture box; Finally, 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min, 75 min, 90 min after cultivation, centrifuged each cultured sample and determined the intracellular radiocounts of each sample, calculated each cell sample’s uptake rate of 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 at different time. Results Statistical difference was found among six cell samples, and the uptake rate sequence from high to low is 973 and SPC-A1>YTMLC>GLC-82>AGZY>KMB17 respectively; furthermore, 30 min-45 min after culture, the uptake rate reached stability, and the 45 min uptake rate of each sample was higher than its 96.7% uptake peak. Conclusion Based on the results above mentioned, it is supposed that there are discriminative clinical value when using 99Tcm-N(NOEt2 as a tumor targeting imaging agent, and 30 min or so after injection may be the best imaging time in the early imaging stage.

  10. Derivation of the clinical grade human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCe016-A (RC-12 was derived under quality assured compliance with UK regulations, EU Directives and International guidance for tissue procurement, processing and storage according to good manufacturing practice (GMP standards. The cell line was derived from a cryopreserved blastocyst stage embryo voluntarily donated as surplus to fertility requirements following informed consent. RCe016-A (RC-12 shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro. Karyology revealed a mixed male karyotype at early passage (P15, which resolved as normal 46XY by passage 33. Microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  11. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  12. Stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture for human embryonic stem cell proteomic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    The identification and quantitative measurements of proteins in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a fast growing interdisciplinary area with an enormous impact on understanding the biology of hESC and the mechanism controlling self-renewal and differentiation. Using a quantitative mass...... spectroscopic method of stable isotope labelling with amino acids during cell culture (SILAC), we are able to analyse differential expression of proteins from different cellular compartments and to identify intracellular signalling pathways involved in self-renewal and differentiation. In this chapter, we...

  13. Plasticity of Calcium Signaling Cascades in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forostyak, Oksana; Romanyuk, Nataliya; Verkhratsky, A.; Syková, Eva; Dayanithi, Govindan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2013), s. 1506-1521 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/2373; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Grant - others:FP7(XE) PITN-GA-2008-214003 project AXREGEN; FP7(XE) PITN-GA-2009-237956 project EdU-GLIA Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : human embryonic stem cells * voltage-operated Ca2+ channels * spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.202, year: 2013

  14. Regional differences in expression of specific markers for human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steen B; Møllgård, Kjeld; Olesen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts generally includes expression analysis of markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Expression is usually detected by immunocytochemical staining of entire colonies...... of hESC, using one colony for each individual marker. Four newly established hESC lines showed the expected expression pattern and were capable of differentiating into the three germ layers in vitro. Neighbouring sections of entire colonies grown for 4, 11, 21 and 28 days respectively were stained...

  15. Two sides of the same coin? Unraveling subtle differences between human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Parrotta, Elvira

    2017-11-28

    Background: Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous promise for many biomedical applications, such as regenerative medicine, drug testing, and disease modeling. Although induced pluripotent stem cells resemble embryonic stem cells both morphologically and functionally, the extent to which these cell lines are truly equivalent, from a molecular point of view, remains controversial. Methods: Principal component analysis and K-means cluster analysis of collected Raman spectroscopy data were used for a comparative study of the biochemical fingerprint of human induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells. The Raman spectra analysis results were further validated by conventional biological assays. Results: Raman spectra analysis revealed that the major difference between human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells is due to the nucleic acid content, as shown by the strong positive peaks at 785, 1098, 1334, 1371, 1484, and 1575 cm–1, which is enriched in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Conclusions: Here, we report a nonbiological approach to discriminate human induced pluripotent stem cells from their native embryonic stem cell counterparts.

  16. Two sides of the same coin? Unraveling subtle differences between human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrotta, Elvira; De Angelis, Maria Teresa; Scalise, Stefania; Candeloro, Patrizio; Santamaria, Gianluca; Paonessa, Mariagrazia; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Perozziello, Gerardo; De Vitis, Stefania; Sgura, Antonella; Coluzzi, Elisa; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo Mario; Cuda, Giovanni

    2017-11-28

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous promise for many biomedical applications, such as regenerative medicine, drug testing, and disease modeling. Although induced pluripotent stem cells resemble embryonic stem cells both morphologically and functionally, the extent to which these cell lines are truly equivalent, from a molecular point of view, remains controversial. Principal component analysis and K-means cluster analysis of collected Raman spectroscopy data were used for a comparative study of the biochemical fingerprint of human induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells. The Raman spectra analysis results were further validated by conventional biological assays. Raman spectra analysis revealed that the major difference between human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells is due to the nucleic acid content, as shown by the strong positive peaks at 785, 1098, 1334, 1371, 1484, and 1575 cm -1 , which is enriched in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Here, we report a nonbiological approach to discriminate human induced pluripotent stem cells from their native embryonic stem cell counterparts.

  17. Two sides of the same coin? Unraveling subtle differences between human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Parrotta, Elvira; De Angelis, Maria Teresa; Scalise, Stefania; Candeloro, Patrizio; Santamaria, Gianluca; Paonessa, Mariagrazia; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Perozziello, Gerardo; De Vitis, Stefania; Sgura, Antonella; Coluzzi, Elisa; Mollace, Vincenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Cuda, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous promise for many biomedical applications, such as regenerative medicine, drug testing, and disease modeling. Although induced pluripotent stem cells resemble embryonic stem cells both morphologically and functionally, the extent to which these cell lines are truly equivalent, from a molecular point of view, remains controversial. Methods: Principal component analysis and K-means cluster analysis of collected Raman spectroscopy data were used for a comparative study of the biochemical fingerprint of human induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells. The Raman spectra analysis results were further validated by conventional biological assays. Results: Raman spectra analysis revealed that the major difference between human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells is due to the nucleic acid content, as shown by the strong positive peaks at 785, 1098, 1334, 1371, 1484, and 1575 cm–1, which is enriched in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Conclusions: Here, we report a nonbiological approach to discriminate human induced pluripotent stem cells from their native embryonic stem cell counterparts.

  18. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  19. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  20. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human embryonic renal cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Chen, Ruifang; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Hailiang; Sun, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) emerges as a prospective therapeutic angle in regenerative medicine and a tool for drug screening. Although increasing numbers of iPSCs from different sources have been generated, there has been limited progress in yield of iPSC. Here, we show that four Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can convert human embryonic renal cortical cells (hERCCs) to pluripotent stem cells with a roughly 40-fold higher reprogramming efficiency compared with that of adult human dermal fibroblasts. These iPSCs show pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by expression of pluripotency associated genes, differentiation into three embryonic germ layers by teratoma tests, as well as neuronal fate specification by embryoid body formation. Moreover, the four exogenous genes are effectively silenced in these iPSCs. This study highlights the use of hERCCs to generate highly functional human iPSCs which may aid the study of genetic kidney diseases and accelerate the development of cell-based regenerative therapy.

  1. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Sorrell, Alice M.; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Woo, Jae-Seok; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Chang, Won-Kyong; Shim, Hosup

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. → hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. → hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Supportive and Unsupportive Extracellular Matrix Substrates for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Maintenance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, Despina; Iskender, Banu; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Borg-Bartolo, Simon; Haddock, Marie-Claire; Baxter, Melissa A.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.; Kimber, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have indefinite replicative potential and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. hESCs are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeder cells of human origin. In addition, feeder-free culture systems can be used to support hESCs, in which the adhesive substrate plays a key role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal or differentiation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components define the microenvironment of the niche for many types of stem cells, but their role in the maintenance of hESCs remains poorly understood. We used a proteomic approach to characterize in detail the composition and interaction networks of ECMs that support the growth of self-renewing hESCs. Whereas many ECM components were produced by supportive and unsupportive MEF and human placental stromal fibroblast feeder cells, some proteins were only expressed in supportive ECM, suggestive of a role in the maintenance of pluripotency. We show that identified candidate molecules can support attachment and self-renewal of hESCs alone (fibrillin-1) or in combination with fibronectin (perlecan, fibulin-2), in the absence of feeder cells. Together, these data highlight the importance of specific ECM interactions in the regulation of hESC phenotype and provide a resource for future studies of hESC self-renewal. PMID:23658023

  3. Identification of human embryonic progenitor cell targeting peptides using phage display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Bignone

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells are capable of differentiation into derivatives of all three primary embryonic germ layers and can self-renew indefinitely. They therefore offer a potentially scalable source of replacement cells to treat a variety of degenerative diseases. The ability to reprogram adult cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has now enabled the possibility of patient-specific hPS cells as a source of cells for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially, cell replacement therapies. While reprogramming technology has dramatically increased the availability of normal and diseased hPS cell lines for basic research, a major bottleneck is the critical unmet need for more efficient methods of deriving well-defined cell populations from hPS cells. Phage display is a powerful method for selecting affinity ligands that could be used for identifying and potentially purifying a variety of cell types derived from hPS cells. However, identification of specific progenitor cell-binding peptides using phage display may be hindered by the large cellular heterogeneity present in differentiating hPS cell populations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that peptides selected for their ability to bind a clonal cell line derived from hPS cells would bind early progenitor cell types emerging from differentiating hPS cells. The human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell line, W10, was used and cell-targeting peptides were identified. Competition studies demonstrated specificity of peptide binding to the target cell surface. Efficient peptide targeted cell labeling was accomplished using multivalent peptide-quantum dot complexes as detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The cell-binding peptides were selective for differentiated hPS cells, had little or no binding on pluripotent cells, but preferential binding to certain embryonic progenitor cell lines and early endodermal hPS cell derivatives. Taken

  4. Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn S; Ernst, Emil H; Borup, Rehannah

    2017-01-01

    The precise timing and sequence of changes in expression of key genes and proteins during human sex-differentiation and onset of steroidogenesis was evaluated by whole-genome expression in 67 first trimester human embryonic and fetal ovaries and testis and confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry...... (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1...... was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human...

  5. Cardiotoxicity evaluation using human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Wang, Xijie; Wang, Shuyan; Song, Zheng; Wang, Jiaxian; Ma, Jing

    2017-03-09

    Cardiotoxicity remains an important concern in drug discovery. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) have become an attractive platform to evaluate cardiotoxicity. However, the consistency between human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) in prediction of cardiotoxicity has yet to be elucidated. Here we screened the toxicities of four representative drugs (E-4031, isoprenaline, quinidine, and haloperidol) using both hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs, combined with an impedance-based bioanalytical method. It showed that both hESC-CMs and hiPSC-CMs can recapitulate cardiotoxicity and identify the effects of well-characterized compounds. The combined platform of hPSC-CMs and an impedance-based bioanalytical method could improve preclinical cardiotoxicity screening, holding great potential for increasing drug development accuracy.

  6. Human fetal liver stromal cells that overexpress bFGF support growth and maintenance of human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    Full Text Available In guiding hES cell technology toward the clinic, one key issue to be addressed is to culture and maintain hES cells much more safely and economically in large scale. In order to avoid using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs we isolated human fetal liver stromal cells (hFLSCs from 14 weeks human fetal liver as new human feeder cells. hFLSCs feeders could maintain hES cells for 15 passages (about 100 days. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is known to play an important role in promoting self-renewal of human embryonic stem (hES cells. So, we established transgenic hFLSCs that stably express bFGF by lentiviral vectors. These transgenic human feeder cells--bFGF-hFLSCs maintained the properties of H9 hES cells without supplementing with any exogenous growth factors. H9 hES cells culturing under these conditions maintained all hES cell features after prolonged culture, including the developmental potential to differentiate into representative tissues of all three embryonic germ layers, unlimited and undifferentiated proliferative ability, and maintenance of normal karyotype. Our results demonstrated that bFGF-hFLSCs feeder cells were central to establishing the signaling network among bFGF, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, thereby providing the framework in which hES cells were instructed to self-renew or to differentiate. We also found that the conditioned medium of bFGF-hFLSCs could maintain the H9 hES cells under feeder-free conditions without supplementing with bFGF. Taken together, bFGF-hFLSCs had great potential as feeders for maintaining pluripotent hES cell lines more safely and economically.

  7. Prevention of carcinoma of cervix with human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavarasana, S; Kalasapudi, R S; Rao, T D; Thirumala, S

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer found among the women of India. Though cervical cytology screening was effective in preventing carcinoma of cervix in developed nations, it is considered unsuitable in developing countries. Recent research has established an etiological link between human papillomavirus infection and carcinoma of cervix. In this review, an attempt is made to answer the question, 'whether carcinoma of cervix can be prevented with human papillomavirus vaccine?' Literature search using Pubmed and Medline was carried out and relevant articles were reviewed. There is ample experimental evidence to show that DNA of human papillomavirus integrates with cervical cell genome. Viral genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 and 18 inactivate p53 function and Rb gene, thus immortalize the cervical epithelial cells. Recombinant vaccines blocked the function of E6 and E7 genes preventing development of papillomas in animals. Vaccination with HPV-VLPs encoding for genes of E6 and E7 neutralizes HPV integrated genome of malignant cells of uterine cervix. Based on experimental evidence, it is possible to prevent carcinoma of cervix with human papillomavirus vaccine, Further research is necessary to identify a effective and safe HPV vaccine, routes of administration and characteristics of potential beneficiaries.

  8. REST/NRSF Knockdown Alters Survival, Lineage Differentiation and Signaling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushali Thakore-Shah

    Full Text Available REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor, also known as NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor, is a well-known transcriptional repressor of neural genes in non-neural tissues and stem cells. Dysregulation of REST activity is thought to play a role in diverse diseases including epilepsy, cancer, Down's syndrome and Huntington's disease. The role of REST/NRSF in control of human embryonic stem cell (hESC fate has never been examined. To evaluate the role of REST in hESCs we developed an inducible REST knockdown system and examined both growth and differentiation over short and long term culture. Interestingly, we have found that altering REST levels in multiple hESC lines does not result in loss of self-renewal but instead leads to increased survival. During differentiation, REST knockdown resulted in increased MAPK/ERK and WNT signaling and increased expression of mesendoderm differentiation markers. Therefore we have uncovered a new role for REST in regulation of growth and early differentiation decisions in human embryonic stem cells.

  9. Early embryonic failure: Expression and imprinted status of candidate genes on human chromosome 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, L.S.; Bennett, P.R.; Moore, G.E. [Queen Charlotte`s and Chelsea Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Two cases of maternal uniparental (hetero)disomy for human chromosome 21 (mUPD21) have been identified in a systematic search for UPD in 23 cases of early embryonic failure (EEF). Bi-parental origin of the other chromosome pairs was confirmed using specific VNTR probes or dinucleotide repeat analysis. Both maternally and paternally derived isochromosomes 21q have previously been identified in two individuals with normal phenotypes. Full UPD21 has a different mechanism of origin than uniparental isochromosome 21q and its effect on imprinted genes and phenotypic outcome will therefore not necessarily be the same. EEF associated with mUPD21 suggests that developmentally important genes on HSA 21 may be imprinted such that they are only expressed from either the maternally or paternally derived alleles. We have searched for monoallelic expression of candidate genes on HSA 21 in human pregnancy (CBS, IFNAR, COL6A1) using intragenic DNA polymorphisms. These genes were chosen either because their murine homologues lie in imprinted regions or because they are potentially important in embryogenesis. Once imprinted candidate genes have been identified, their methylation status and expression in normal, early embryonic failure and uniparental disomy 21 pregnancies will be studied. At the same time, a larger number of cases of EEF are being examined to further investigate the incidence of UPD21 in this group.

  10. Derivation and characterisation of the human embryonic stem cell lines, NOTT1 and NOTT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddle, Helen; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Burridge, Paul; Munoz, Maria; Smith, Nigel M; Devlin, Lyndsey; Sjoblom, Cecilia; Chamberlain, Sarah; Watson, Sue; Young, Lorraine E; Denning, Chris

    2010-04-01

    The ability to maintain human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during long-term culture and yet induce differentiation to multiple lineages potentially provides a novel approach to address various biomedical problems. Here, we describe derivation of hESC lines, NOTT1 and NOTT2, from human blastocysts graded as 3BC and 3CB, respectively. Both lines were successfully maintained as colonies by mechanical passaging on mouse embryonic feeder cells or as monolayers by trypsin-passaging in feeder-free conditions on Matrigel. Undifferentiated cells retained expression of pluripotency markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), a stable karyotype during long-term culture and could be transfected efficiently with plasmid DNA and short interfering RNA. Differentiation via formation of embryoid bodies resulted in expression of genes associated with early germ layers and terminal lineage specification. The electrophysiology of spontaneously beating NOTT1-derived cardiomyocytes was recorded and these cells were shown to be pharmacologically responsive. Histological examination of teratomas formed by in vivo differentiation of both lines in severe immunocompromised mice showed complex structures including cartilage or smooth muscle (mesoderm), luminal epithelium (endoderm) and neuroectoderm (ectoderm). These observations show that NOTT1 and NOTT2 display the accepted characteristics of hESC pluripotency.

  11. ROCK inhibitor is not required for embryoid body formation from singularized human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three embryonic germ layers and tissues derived from each of the germ layers. This simplified hEB production technique offers homogeneity in hEB size and shape to support synchronous differentiation, elimination of the ROCKi xeno-factor and rate-limiting centrifugation treatment, and low-cost scalability, which will directly support automated, large-scale production of hEBs and hESC-derived cells needed for clinical, research, or therapeutic applications.

  12. CARCINOMA OF THE LARYNX AND HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi N. Nikolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common form of head and neck cancer. During the last two decades, it has been recognized that this cancer is causally related to human papillomavirus (HPV. Objective: We presented a study on prevalence of human papilloma viruses (HPV in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Methods: This study consists of 43 patients with laryngeal carcinoma who were diagnosed and treated with surgical techniques in Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria. Immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a and Ki-67 were used to prove the relationship between high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV and carcinogenesis. Results: Papilloma virus infection with high-risk oncogenic types of HPV was determined in more than 39.5% of surgically treated patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. HPV-induced carcinogenesis was assumed in 17 (13.9% of all patients whose spouses were operated from cervical cancer. The patients with HPV-positive laryngeal carcinoma were younger than the others in the group (8 years on average. Risk factors for development of HPV-associated laryngeal carcinoma were related to higher number of sexual partners and the practice of oral sex. Frequently, in patients with HPV-associated laryngeal carcinoma we find data for so-called “family’s carcinogenesis”. The possibility of appearance (either preceding or following the treatment of a second carcinoma and/or tumour recurrence is higher in HPV-positive laryngeal carcinomas. Conclusion: It is recommended to extend the diagnostic methods for laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancer with a routine search for high-risk oncogenic HPV strains.

  13. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; van Meer, Berend; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G. J.; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes

  14. Generation of a constitutively expressing Tetracycline repressor (TetR human embryonic stem cell line BJNhem20-TetR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell line BJNhem20-TetR was generated using non-viral method. The construct pCAG-TetRnls was transfected using microporation procedure. BJNhem20-TetR can subsequently be transfected with any vector harbouring a TetO (Tet operator sequence to generate doxycycline based inducible line. For example, in human embryonic stem cells, the pSuperior based TetO system has been transfected into a TetR containing line to generate OCT4 knockdown cell line (Zafarana et al., 2009. Thus BJNhem20-TetR can be used as a tool to perturb gene expression in human embryonic stem cells.

  15. Derivation of NEM2 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea079

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea079 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying compound heterozygous mutations in the NEB gene, exon 55 deletion & c.15110dupA, indicative of Nemaline Myopathy Type 2 (NEM2. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XY and STR analysis demonstrated a male Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 86% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 54% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.25, Novelty of 1.21. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  16. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  17. Embryonic development of human lice: rearing conditions and susceptibility to spinosad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Mougabure Cueto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of human lice was evaluated according to the changes in the morphology of the embryo observed through the transparent chorion. Based on ocular and appendage development, three stages of embryogenesis were established: early, medium, and late. Influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH on the laboratory rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis eggs was assessed. The optimal ranges for temperature and RH were 27-31°C and 45-75%. The susceptibility of human louse eggs to insecticide spinosad (a macrocyclic lactone was assessed by immersion method. The results showed similar susceptibility to spinosad in early, medium, and late stages of head lice eggs. In addition, this study showed similar susceptibility of head and body lice eggs to spinosad, an insecticide that has not been used as pediculicide in Argentina (lethal concentration 50: 0.01%.

  18. A feeder-free, human plasma-derived hydrogel for maintenance of a human embryonic stem cell phenotype in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Fiona C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs represent a tremendous resource for cell therapies and the study of human development; however to maintain their undifferentiated state in vitro they routinely require the use of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF feeder-layers and exogenous protein media supplementation. Results These well established requirements can be overcome and in this study, it will be demonstrated that phenotypic stability of hESCs can be maintained using a novel, human plasma protein-based hydrogel as an extracellular culture matrix without the use of feeder cell co-culture. hESCs were resuspended in human platelet poor plasma (PPP, which was gelled by the addition of calcium containing DMEM-based hESC culture medium. Phenotypic and genomic expression of the pluripotency markers OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 were measured using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR respectively. Typical hESC morphology was demonstrated throughout in vitro culture and both viability and phenotypic stability were maintained throughout extended culture, up to 25 passages. Conclusions PPP-derived hydrogel has demonstrated to be an efficacious alternative to MEF co-culture with its hydrophilicity allowing for this substrate to be delivered via minimally invasive procedures in a liquid phase with polymerization ensuing in situ. Together this provides a novel technique for the study of this unique group of stem cells in either 2D or 3D both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Modeling Niemann Pick type C1 using human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, M Paulina; Steele, John W

    2017-02-01

    Data generated in Niemann Pick type C1 (NPC1) human embryonic and human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neurons complement on-going studies in animal models and provide the first example, in disease-relevant human cells, of processes that underlie preferential neuronal defects in a NPC1. Our work and that of other investigators in human neurons derived from stem cells highlight the importance of performing rigorous mechanistic studies in relevant cell types to guide drug discovery and therapeutic development, alongside of existing animal models. Through the use of human stem cell-derived models of disease, we can identify and discover or repurpose drugs that revert early events that lead to neuronal failure in NPC1. Together with the study of disease pathogenesis and efficacy of therapies in animal models, these strategies will fulfill the promise of stem cell technology in the development of new treatments for human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Exploiting human neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Function of FEZF1 during early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Su, Pei; Lu, Lisha; Feng, Zicen; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiaxi

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development. FEZF1 is rapidly up-regulated during neural differentiation in hESCs and expressed before PAX6, a well-established marker of early human neural induction. We generated FEZF1-knockout H1 hESC lines using CRISPR-CAS9 technology and found that depletion of FEZF1 abrogates neural differentiation of hESCs. Moreover, loss of FEZF1 impairs the pluripotency exit of hESCs during neural specification, which partially explains the neural induction defect caused by FEZF1 deletion. However, enforced expression of FEZF1 itself fails to drive neural differentiation in hESCs, suggesting that FEZF1 is necessary but not sufficient for neural differentiation from hESCs. Taken together, our findings identify one of the earliest regulators expressed upon neural induction and provide insight into early neural development in human.

  1. Developing de novo human artificial chromosomes in embryonic stem cells using HSV-1 amplicon technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralli, Daniela; Monaco, Zoia L

    2015-02-01

    De novo artificial chromosomes expressing genes have been generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) and are maintained following differentiation into other cell types. Human artificial chromosomes (HAC) are small, functional, extrachromosomal elements, which behave as normal chromosomes in human cells. De novo HAC are generated following delivery of alpha satellite DNA into target cells. HAC are characterized by high levels of mitotic stability and are used as models to study centromere formation and chromosome organisation. They are successful and effective as gene expression vectors since they remain autonomous and can accommodate larger genes and regulatory regions for long-term expression studies in cells unlike other viral gene delivery vectors currently used. Transferring the essential DNA sequences for HAC formation intact across the cell membrane has been challenging for a number of years. A highly efficient delivery system based on HSV-1 amplicons has been used to target DNA directly to the ES cell nucleus and HAC stably generated in human embryonic stem cells (hESc) at high frequency. HAC were detected using an improved protocol for hESc chromosome harvesting, which consistently produced high-quality metaphase spreads that could routinely detect HAC in hESc. In tumour cells, the input DNA often integrated in the host chromosomes, but in the host ES genome, it remained intact. The hESc containing the HAC formed embryoid bodies, generated teratoma in mice, and differentiated into neuronal cells where the HAC were maintained. The HAC structure and chromatin composition was similar to the endogenous hESc chromosomes. This review will discuss the technological advances in HAC vector delivery using HSV-1 amplicons and the improvements in the identification of de novo HAC in hESc.

  2. Generation of OCIAD1 inducible overexpression human embryonic stem cell line: BJNhem20-OCIAD1-Tet-On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeti K. Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell line BJNhem20-OCIAD1-Tet-On was generated using non-viral method. The constructs pCAG-Tet-On and pTRE-Tight vector driving OCIAD1 expression were transfected using microporation procedure. pCAG-Tet-On cells can be used for inducible expression of any coding sequence cloned into pTRE-Tight vector. For example, in human embryonic stem cells, Tet-On system has been used to generate SOX2 overexpression cell line (Adachi et al., 2010.

  3. Changes in glycosaminoglycan structure on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards mesoderm and endoderm lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Hickey, Anne Marie; Yang, Bo; Li, Guoyun; dela Rosa, Mitche; Nairn, Alison V; Kulik, Michael J; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Dalton, Stephen; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Proteoglycans are found on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, and serve as prime sites for interaction with signaling molecules. Proteoglycans help regulate pathways that control stem cell fate, and therefore represent an excellent tool to manipulate these pathways. Despite their importance, there is a dearth of data linking glycosaminoglycan structure within proteoglycans with stem cell differentiation. Human embryonic stem cell line WA09 (H9) was differentiated into early mesoderm and endoderm lineages, and the glycosaminoglycanomic changes accompanying these transitions were studied using transcript analysis, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and disaccharide analysis. Pluripotent H9 cell lumican had no glycosaminoglycan chains whereas in splanchnic mesoderm lumican was glycosaminoglycanated. H9 cells have primarily non-sulfated heparan sulfate chains. On differentiation towards splanchnic mesoderm and hepatic lineages N-sulfo group content increases. Differences in transcript expression of NDST1, HS6ST2 and HS6ST3, three heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes, within splanchnic mesoderm cells compared to H9 cells correlate to changes in glycosaminoglycan structure. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells markedly changes the proteoglycanome. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic pathway is complex and highly regulated, and therefore, understanding the details of this pathway should enable better control with the aim of directing stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The promise of human embryonic stem cells in aging-associated diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabut, Odessa; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2011-01-01

    Aging-associated diseases are often caused by progressive loss or dysfunction of cells that ultimately affect the overall function of tissues and organs. Successful treatment of these diseases could benefit from cell-based therapy that would regenerate lost cells or otherwise restore tissue function. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) promise to be an important therapeutic candidate in treating aging-associated diseases due to their unique capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. To date, there are numerous hESC lines that have been developed and characterized. We will discuss how hESC lines are derived, their molecular and cellular properties, and how their ability to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers is determined. We will also outline the methods currently employed to direct their differentiation into populations of tissue-specific, functional cells. Finally, we will highlight the general challenges that must be overcome and the strategies being developed to generate highly-purified hESC-derived cell populations that can safely be used for clinical applications. PMID:21566262

  5. Systematic identification of cis-regulatory sequences active in mouse and human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Grskovic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transcriptional regulation of pluripotent cells is of fundamental interest and will greatly inform efforts aimed at directing differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells or reprogramming somatic cells. We first analyzed the transcriptional profiles of mouse ES cells and primordial germ cells and identified genes upregulated in pluripotent cells both in vitro and in vivo. These genes are enriched for roles in transcription, chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and DNA repair. We developed a novel computational algorithm, CompMoby, which combines analyses of sequences both aligned and non-aligned between different genomes with a probabilistic segmentation model to systematically predict short DNA motifs that regulate gene expression. CompMoby was used to identify conserved overrepresented motifs in genes upregulated in pluripotent cells. We show that the motifs are preferentially active in undifferentiated mouse ES and embryonic germ cells in a sequence-specific manner, and that they can act as enhancers in the context of an endogenous promoter. Importantly, the activity of the motifs is conserved in human ES cells. We further show that the transcription factor NF-Y specifically binds to one of the motifs, is differentially expressed during ES cell differentiation, and is required for ES cell proliferation. This study provides novel insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks of pluripotent cells. Our results suggest that this systematic approach can be broadly applied to understanding transcriptional networks in mammalian species.

  6. Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Luciana Sanches; Neto, Cyro Festa; Sanches, José A; Ruiz, Itamar R G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50) of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287) and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280). Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251) were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180) and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280). The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic keratoses and

  7. Rat embryonic fibroblasts improve reprogramming of human keratinocytes into induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linta, Leonhard; Stockmann, Marianne; Kleinhans, Karin N; Böckers, Anja; Storch, Alexander; Zaehres, Holm; Lin, Qiong; Barbi, Gotthold; Böckers, Tobias M; Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan

    2012-04-10

    Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells not only provide a promising tool for cellular disease models in general, but also open up the opportunity to establish cell-type-specific systems for personalized medicine. One of the crucial prerequisites for these strategies, however, is a fast and efficient reprogramming strategy from easy accessible somatic cell populations. Keratinocytes from plucked human hair had been introduced as a superior cell source for reprogramming purposes compared with the widely used skin fibroblasts. The starting cell population is, however, limited and thereby further optimization in terms of time, efficiency, and quality is inevitable. Here we show that rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs) should replace mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder cells in the reprogramming process. REFs enable a significantly more efficient reprogramming procedure as shown by colony number and total amount of SSEA4-positive cells. We successfully produced keratinocyte-derived hiPS (k-hiPS) cells from various donors. The arising k-hiPS cells display the hallmarks of pluripotency such as expression of stem cell markers and differentiation into all 3 germ layers. The increased reprogramming efficiency using REFs as a feeder layer occurred independent of the proliferation rate in the parental keratinocytes and acts, at least in part, in a non-cell autonomous way by secreting factors known to facilitate pluripotency such as Tgfb1, Inhba and Grem1. Hence, we provide an easy to use and highly efficient reprogramming system that could be very useful for a broad application to generate human iPS cells. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  8. GROα regulates human embryonic stem cell self-renewal or adoption of a neuronal fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtolica, Ana; Larocque, Nick; Genbacev, Olga; Ilic, Dusko; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher K.; Zdravkovic, Tamara; McMaster, Michael; Campisi, Judith; Fisher, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Previously we reported that feeders formed from human placental fibroblasts (hPFs) support derivation and long-term self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) under serum-free conditions. Here, we show, using antibody array and ELISA platforms, that hPFs secrete ~6-fold higher amounts of the CXC-type chemokine, GROα, than IMR 90, a human lung fibroblast line, which does not support hESC growth. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry and immunoblot approaches revealed that hESCs express CXCR, a GROα receptor. We used this information to develop defined culture medium for feeder-free propagation of hESCs in an undifferentiated state. Cells passaged as small aggregates and maintained in the GROα-containing medium had a normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers, and exhibited apical–basal polarity, i.e., had the defining features of pluripotent hESCs. They also differentiated into the three primary (embryonic) germ layers and formed teratomas in immunocompromised mice. hESCs cultured as single cells in the GROα-containing medium also had a normal karyotype, but they downregulated markers of pluripotency, lost apical–basal polarity, and expressed markers that are indicative of the early stages of neuronal differentiation—βIII tubulin, vimentin, radial glial protein, and nestin. These data support our hypothesis that establishing and maintaining cell polarity is essential for the long-term propagation of hESCs in an undifferentiated state and that disruption of cell–cell contacts can trigger adoption of a neuronal fate. PMID:21396766

  9. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  10. Comprehensive quantitative comparison of the membrane proteome and PTM-ome of human embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Marcella Nunes de Melo; Schulz, Melanie; Jakobsen, Lene

    Introduction: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into all three germ layers and self-renew. Due to its ability to differentiate in vitro into human neural stem cells (hNSCs), which can further be differentiated into motor neurons and dopaminergic neurons, these cells are potential...... identified phosphorylated and SA glycosylated proteins, respectively. This study allowed us to identify several significantly regulated proteins during the differentiation process, including proteins involved in the early embryonic development as well as in the neural development. In the latter group...... of proteins we could identify a number of proteins associated with synaptic vesicles, which are vesicles that store neurotransmitters in the nerve-terminals. An example of an upregulated protein in hESCs is the gap junction alpha 1 (GJA1), a phosphorylated protein which plays a crucial role in embryonic...

  11. Distinctive Roles of Canonical and Noncanonical Wnt Signaling in Human Embryonic Cardiomyocyte Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzotta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is a key regulator of vertebrate heart development; however, specific roles for human cardiomyocyte development remain uncertain. Here we use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to analyze systematically in human cardiomyocyte development the expression of endogenous Wnt signaling components, monitor pathway activity, and dissect stage-specific requirements for canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling mechanisms using small-molecule inhibitors. Our analysis suggests that WNT3 and WNT8A, via FZD7 and canonical signaling, regulate BRACHYURY expression and mesoderm induction; that WNT5A/5B, via ROR2 and noncanonical signaling, regulate MESP1 expression and cardiovascular development; and that later in development WNT2, WNT5A/5B, and WNT11, via FZD4 and FZD6, regulate functional cardiomyocyte differentiation via noncanonical Wnt signaling. Our findings confirm in human development previously proposed roles for canonical Wnt signaling in sequential stages of vertebrate cardiomyogenesis, and identify more precise roles for noncanonical signaling and for individual Wnt signal and Wnt receptor genes in human cardiomyocyte development.

  12. Preferential radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Samuel; Brown, Stephen L.; Kim, Sang-Hie; Khil, Mark S.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Recent cell culture studies by us and others suggest that some human carcinoma cells are more sensitive to heat than are rodent cells following mild hyperthermia. In studying the cellular mechanism of enhanced thermosensitivity of human tumor cells to hyperthermia, prostatic carcinoma cells of human origin were found to be more sensitive to mild hyperthermia than other human cancer cells. The present study was designed to determine the magnitude of radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia and to examine whether the thermal radiosensitization is related to the intrinsic thermosensitivity of cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Two human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145 and PC-3) and other carcinoma cells of human origin, in particular, colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), lung (A-549), and brain (U-251) were exposed to temperatures of 40-41 deg. C. Single acute dose rate radiation and fractionated radiation were combined with mild hyperthermia to determine thermal radiosensitization. The end point of the study was the colony-forming ability of single-plated cells. Results: DU-145 and PC-3 cells were found to be exceedingly thermosensitive to 41 deg. C for 24 h, relative to other cancer cell lines. Ninety percent of the prostatic cancer cells were killed by a 24 h heat exposure. Prostatic carcinoma cells exposed to a short duration of heating at 41 deg. C for 2 h resulted in a substantial enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) of single acute dose radiation following heat treatment 41 deg. C for 2 h were 2.0 in DU-145 cells and 1.4 in PC-3 cells. The TERs of fractionated irradiation combined with continuous heating at 40 deg. C were similarly in the range of 2.1 to 1.4 in prostate carcinoma cells. No significant radiosensitization was observed in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells under the same conditions. Conclusion: The present data suggest that a significant radiosensitization of

  13. Nocodazole treatment decreases expression of pluripotency markers Nanog and Oct4 in human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallas, Ade; Pook, Martin; Maimets, Martti

    2011-01-01

    in the expression of transcription markers Nanog and Oct4 as well as SSEA-3 and SSEA-4 in human embryonic cells after their treatment with nocodazole. Multivariate permeabilised-cell flow cytometry was applied for characterising the expression of Nanog and Oct4 during different cell cycle phases. Among untreated h......ESC we detected Nanog-expressing cells, which also expressed Oct4, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4. We also found another population expressing SSEA-4, but without Nanog, Oct4 and SSEA-3 expression. Nocodazole treatment resulted in a decrease of cell population positive for all four markers Nanog, Oct4, SSEA-3, SSEA-4....... Nocodazole-mediated cell-cycle arrest was accompanied by higher rate of apoptosis and upregulation of p53. Twenty-four hours after the release from nocodazole block, the cell cycle of hESC normalised, but no increase in the expression of transcription markers Nanog and Oct4 was detected. In addition...

  14. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-478 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-478 cell line carried a compound heterozygous mutation, c.896G>A(p.Arg299His) and c.929_930insC(p.Pro310Glnfs*9), of TYR gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-478 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Art and human embryonic stem cells: from the bench to the high street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, Sebastien

    2009-03-01

    ESTOOLS, a project funded by the European Commission (FP6), gathers expertise on human embryonic stem cells in 10 countries of the European Research Area. The ESTOOLS outreach program uses Art extensively as the only universal cross-cultural and cross-religion means of communication. The Smile of a Stem Cell photo exhibition, a major component of this program, aims to fill a missing link between public dissemination of science and science-illiterate citizens. Scientists are also engaged to stand at a distance from their work and observe it with an outsider's perspective, which enhances their competency to communicate science. The photo exhibition, by its situation upstream of scientific education, makes itself open to interest and enthusiasm among a public with no prerequired scientific knowledge or abilities.

  16. Comparing independent microarray studies: the case of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmati-Brivanlou Ali

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies of the same phenomenon in different labs often appear at variance because the published lists of regulated transcripts have disproportionately small intersections. We demonstrate that comparing studies by intersecting lists in this manner is methodologically flawed by reanalyzing three studies of the molecular signature of "stemness" in human embryonic stem cells. There are only 7 genes common to all three published lists, suggesting disagreement. Results Carefully reanalyzing all three together from the raw data we detect 111 genes upregulated and 95 downregulated in all three studies. The upregulated list was subject to rtRTPCR analysis and 75% of the genes were confirmed. Conclusion Our findings show that the three studies have a substantial core of common genes, which is missed if only the published lists are examined. Combined analysis of multiple experiments can be a powerful way to distil coherent conclusions.

  17. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  18. Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Bang, Anne G; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Agulnick, Alan D; Smart, Nora G; Moorman, Mark A; Kroon, Evert; Carpenter, Melissa K; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2006-11-01

    Of paramount importance for the development of cell therapies to treat diabetes is the production of sufficient numbers of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. We have developed a differentiation process that converts human embryonic stem (hES) cells to endocrine cells capable of synthesizing the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, gut-tube endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and endocrine precursor--en route to cells that express endocrine hormones. The hES cell-derived insulin-expressing cells have an insulin content approaching that of adult islets. Similar to fetal beta-cells, they release C-peptide in response to multiple secretory stimuli, but only minimally to glucose. Production of these hES cell-derived endocrine cells may represent a critical step in the development of a renewable source of cells for diabetes cell therapy.

  19. Enhanced Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Definitive Endoderm on Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Reynolds, Paul M.; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn

    2016-01-01

    highlighted that the properties of the physical environment, such as substrate stiffness, affect cellular behavior. Here, mass-produced, injection molded polycarbonate nanopillars are presented, where the surface mechanical properties, i.e., stiffness, can be controlled by the geometric design...... of the ultrahigh aspect ratio nanopillars (stiffness can be reduced by 25.000X). It is found that tall nanopillars, yielding softer surfaces, significantly enhance the induction of defi nitive endoderm cells from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, resulting in more consistent differentiation of a pure...... population compared to planar control. By contrast, further differentiation toward the pancreatic endoderm is less successful on “soft” pillars when compared to “stiff ” pillars or control, indicating differential cues during the different stages of differentiation. To accompany the mechanical properties...

  20. System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer T.G.; Prokhorova, Tatyana; Akimov, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    by feeder cells. We profiled 6521 proteins and 23,522 phosphorylation sites, of which almost 50% displayed dynamic changes in phosphorylation status during 24 hours of differentiation. These data are a resource for studies of the events associated with the maintenance of hESC pluripotency and those...... of the matching sequence motif. In addition to identifying previously unknown phosphorylation sites on factors associated with differentiation, such as kinases and transcription factors, we observed dynamic phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). We found a specific interaction of DNMTs during early......To elucidate cellular events underlying the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we performed parallel quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of hESCs during differentiation initiated by a diacylglycerol analog or transfer to media that had not been conditioned...

  1. A review on stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis: special focus on human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized with axonal loss underlying long-term progressive disability. Currently available therapies for its management are able to slow down the progression but fail to treat it completely. Moreover, these therapies are associated with major CNS and cardiovascular adverse events, and prolonged use of these treatments may cause life-threatening diseases. Recent research has shown that cellular therapies hold a potential for CNS repair and may be able to provide protection from inflammatory damage caused after injury. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) transplantation is one of the promising cell therapies; hESCs play an important role in remyelination and help in preventing demylenation of the axons. In this study, an overview of the current knowledge about the unique properties of hESC and their comparison with other cell therapies has been presented for the treatment of patients with MS.

  2. Molecular Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Expressing Human PET Reporter Genes After Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Ordovas, Laura; Breuls, Natacha; Helsen, Nicky; Schönberger, Matthias; Raitano, Susanna; Struys, Tom; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Van Laere, Koen; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of nonhuman genes. Methods: We used zinc finger nucleases to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe-harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 in human embryonic stem cells. Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging, and human PET reporter genes. Results: In vitro assays confirmed their functionality, and embryonic stem cells retained differentiation capacity. Teratoma formation assays were performed, and tumors were imaged over time with PET and bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the application of genome editing for targeted integration of human imaging reporter genes in human embryonic stem cells for long-term molecular imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. CTP synthase forms the cytoophidium in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chun; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Peng, Min; Keppeke, Gerson Dierley; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2017-12-15

    CTP synthase (CTPS) can aggregate into an intracellular macrostructure, the cytoophidium, in various organisms including human cells. Previous studies have shown that assembly of human CTPS cytoophidia may be correlated with the cellular metabolic status, and is able to promote the activity of CTPS. A correlation between the cytoophidium and cancer metabolism has been proposed but not yet been revealed. In the current study we provide clear evidence of the presence of CTPS cytoophidia in various human cancers and some non-cancerous tissues. Moreover, among 203 tissue samples of hepatocellular carcinoma, 56 (28%) samples exhibited many cytoophidia, whereas no cytoophidia were detected in adjacent non-cancerous hepatocytes for all samples. Our findings suggest that the CTPS cytoophidium may participate in the adaptive metabolism of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...... hyperplasia. EGF-R was identified on frozen tissue sections by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against the external domain of the EGF-R. Seventy-one percent of the carcinomas expressed positive EGF-R immunoreactivity. In general, staining was most prominent...

  5. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs =1:1 and HFFs feeder respectively, and then were differentiated into DA neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of TH positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1 and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons.

  6. Characterization of Tetraploid Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeoung-Eun; Eum, Jin Hee; Chung, Young Gie; Lee, Hoon Taek; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2017-12-01

    Polyploidy is occurred by the process of endomitosis or cell fusion and usually represent terminally differentiated stage. Their effects on the developmental process were mainly investigated in the amphibian and fishes, and only observed in some rodents as mammalian model. Recently, we have established tetraploidy somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived human embryonic stem cells (SCNT-hESCs) and examined whether it could be available as a research model for the polyploidy cells existed in the human tissues. Two tetraploid hESC lines were artificially acquired by reintroduction of remained 1st polar body during the establishment of SCNT-hESC using MII oocytes obtained from female donors and dermal fibroblasts (DFB) from a 35-year-old adult male. These tetraploid SCNT-hESC lines (CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3) were identified by the cytogenetic genotyping (91, XXXY,-6, t[2:6] / 92,XXXY,-12,+20) and have shown of indefinite proliferation, but slow speed when compared to euploid SCNT-hESCs. Using the eight Short Tendem Repeat (STR) markers, it was confirmed that both CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3 lines contain both nuclear and oocyte donor genotypes. These hESCs expressed pluripotency markers and their embryoid bodies (EB) also expressed markers of the three embryonic germ layers and formed teratoma after transplantation into immune deficient mice. This study showed that tetraploidy does not affect the activities of proliferation and differentiation in SCNT-hESC. Therefore, tetraploid hESC lines established after SCNT procedure could be differentiated into various types of cells and could be an useful model for the study of the polyploidy cells in the tissues.

  7. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical Views of Buddhist, Hindu and Catholic Leaders in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Mathana Amaris Fiona; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Embryonic Stem Cell Research (ESCR) raises ethical issues. In the process of research, embryos may be destroyed and, to some, such an act entails the 'killing of human life'. Past studies have sought the views of scientists and the general public on the ethics of ESCR. This study, however, explores multi-faith ethical viewpoints, in particular, those of Buddhists, Hindus and Catholics in Malaysia, on ESCR. Responses were gathered via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Three main ethical quandaries emerged from the data: (1) sanctity of life, (2) do no harm, and (3) 'intention' of the research. Concerns regarding the sanctity of life are directed at particular research protocols which interfere with religious notions of human ensoulment and early consciousness. The principle of 'do no harm' which is closely related to ahimsa prohibits all acts of violence. Responses obtained indicate that respondents either discourage research that inflicts harm on living entities or allow ESCR with reservations. 'Intention' of the research seems to be an interesting and viable rationale that would permit ESCR for the Buddhists and Hindus. Research that is intended for the purpose of alleviating human suffering is seen as being ethical. This study also notes that Catholics oppose ESCR on the basis of the inviolability of human life.

  8. Efficient Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Corneal Endothelial Cells by Directed Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L McCabe

    Full Text Available To generate human embryonic stem cell derived corneal endothelial cells (hESC-CECs for transplantation in patients with corneal endothelial dystrophies.Feeder-free hESC-CECs were generated by a directed differentiation protocol. hESC-CECs were characterized by morphology, expression of corneal endothelial markers, and microarray analysis of gene expression.hESC-CECs were nearly identical morphologically to primary human corneal endothelial cells, expressed Zona Occludens 1 (ZO-1 and Na+/K+ATPaseα1 (ATPA1 on the apical surface in monolayer culture, and produced the key proteins of Descemet's membrane, Collagen VIIIα1 and VIIIα2 (COL8A1 and 8A2. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed expression of all corneal endothelial pump transcripts. hESC-CECs were 96% similar to primary human adult CECs by microarray analysis.hESC-CECs are morphologically similar, express corneal endothelial cell markers and express a nearly identical complement of genes compared to human adult corneal endothelial cells. hESC-CECs may be a suitable alternative to donor-derived corneal endothelium.

  9. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wu; Huimin Dai; Lei Qian; Qing Tian; Lei Xiao; Xiaojun Tan; Hui Li; Lingjun Rao; Lixiazi He; Lei Bao; Jing Liao; Chun Cui; Zhenyu Zuo; Qiao Li

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into all cell types in the human body. Therefore, they are valuable in regenerative medicine, human developmental biology and drug discovery. A number of hESC lines have been derived from the Chinese population,but limited of them are available for research purposes. Here we report the derivation and characterization of two hESC lines derived from human blastocysts of Chinese origin. These hESCs express alkaline phosphatase and hESC-specific markers, including Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3, SSEA-4,TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. They also have high levels of telomerase activity and normal karyotypes. These cells can form embryoid body in vitro and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vivo by teratoma formation. The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes.The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups.

  10. Self-contained induction of neurons from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurons and glial cells can be efficiently induced from mouse embryonic stem (ES cells in a conditioned medium collected from rat primary-cultured astrocytes (P-ACM. However, the use of rodent primary cells for clinical applications may be hampered by limited supply and risk of contamination with xeno-proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an alternative method for unimpeded production of human neurons under xeno-free conditions. Initially, neural stem cells in sphere-like clusters were induced from human ES (hES cells after being cultured in P-ACM under free-floating conditions. The resultant neural stem cells could circumferentially proliferate under subsequent adhesive culture, and selectively differentiate into neurons or astrocytes by changing the medium to P-ACM or G5, respectively. These hES cell-derived neurons and astrocytes could procure functions similar to those of primary cells. Interestingly, a conditioned medium obtained from the hES cell-derived astrocytes (ES-ACM could successfully be used to substitute P-ACM for induction of neurons. Neurons made by this method could survive in mice brain after xeno-transplantation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: By inducing astrocytes from hES cells in a chemically defined medium, we could produce human neurons without the use of P-ACM. This self-serving method provides an unlimited source of human neural cells and may facilitate clinical applications of hES cells for neurological diseases.

  11. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) as an elastic biodegradable film for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkio, Anni; Haimi, Suvi; Verdoold, Vincent; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Grijpma, Dirk; Skottman, Heli

    2017-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell therapies show tremendous potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. A tissue engineering approach, where cells are delivered to the subretinal space on a biodegradable carrier as a sheet, shows great

  12. The Postischemic Environment Differentially Impacts Teratoma or Tumor Formation After Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seminatore, CH.; Polentes, J.; Ellman, D.; Kozubenko, Nataliya; Itier, V.; Tine, S.; Tritschler, L.; Brenot, M.; Guidou, E.; Blondeau, J.; Lhuillier, M.; Bugi, A.; Aubry, L.; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva; Perrier, A. L.; Finsen, B.; Onteniente, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2010), s. 153-159 ISSN 0039-2499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : brain transplantation * human embryonic stem cells * neural differentiation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.756, year: 2010

  13. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) as an elastic biodegradable film for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorkio, Anni; Haimi, Suvi; Verdoold, Vincent; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Grijpma, Dirk; Skottman, Heli

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (hESC-RPE) cell therapies show tremendous potential for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. A tissue engineering approach, where cells are delivered to the subretinal space on a biodegradable carrier as a sheet, shows great

  14. Recombinant vitronectin is a functionally defined substrate that supports human embryonic stem cell self-renewal via alphavbeta5 integrin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Zeinstra, L.M.; Litjens, S.H.M.; Ward-van Oostwaard, D.; van den Brink, S.; van Laake, L.W.; Lebrin, F.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Sonnenberg, A.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Defined growth conditions are essential for many applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Most defined media are presently used in combination with Matrigel, a partially defined extracellular matrix (ECM) extract from mouse sarcoma. Here, we defined ECM requirements of hESC by analyzing

  15. Effects of oxidative stress on human embryonic stem cells; global gene expression, advanced glycation end products and NEDD1 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barandalla Sobrados, M.

    2017-01-01

    A number of unfavorable conditions can affect the development of the early embryo inducing oxidative stress both in vivo, for instance in gestational diabetes, and in vitro, when embryos are derived from Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) potentially offer a

  16. Teratoma Formation by Human Embryonic Stem Cells is site-dependent and enhanced by the presence of Matrigel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Harkness, Linda M; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    When implanted into immunodeficient mice, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) give rise to teratoma, tumour-like formations containing tissues belonging to all three germ layers. The ability to form teratoma is a sine qua non characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. However, limited data...

  17. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast™ chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultur...

  18. Epidermal growth factor and its receptors in human pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.F.; Pan, G.Z.; Hou, X.; Liu, T.H.; Chen, J.; Yanaihara, C.; Yanaihara, N.

    1990-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in oncogenesis and progression of malignant tumors is a subject of vast interest. In this study, radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay of EGF were established. EGF contents in malignant and benign pancreatic tumors, in normal pancreas tissue, and in culture media of a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line were determined. EGF receptor binding studies were performed. It was shown that EGF contents in pancreatic carcinomas were significantly higher than those in normal pancreas or benign pancreatic tumors. EGF was also detected in the culture medium of a pancreatic carcinoma cell line. The binding of 125I-EGF to the pancreatic carcinoma cells was time and temperature dependent, reversible, competitive, and specific. Scatchard analysis showed that the dissociation constant of EGF receptor was 2.1 X 10(-9) M, number of binding sites was 1.3 X 10(5) cell. These results indicate that there is an over-expression of EGF/EGF receptors in pancreatic carcinomas, and that an autocrine regulatory mechanism may exist in the growth-promoting effect of EGF on tumor cells

  19. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V., E-mail: sokolovm@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Irina V., E-mail: ipanyutinv@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Igor G., E-mail: igorp@helix.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Neumann, Ronald D., E-mail: rneumann@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  20. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Panyutin, Irina V.; Panyutin, Igor G.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  1. Storing live embryonic and adult human cartilage grafts for transplantation using a joint simulating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I; Robinson, D; Cohen, N; Nevo, Z

    2000-11-01

    Cartilage transplantation as a means to replace damaged articular surfaces is of interest. A major obstacle is the long-term preservation of cartilage grafts. The commonly used technique of freezing the grafts inevitably leads to cellular death. The current study compares the technique to an innovative approach using a pulsed-pressure perfusion system termed a joint simulating device (JSD), intended to simulate intra-articular mechanical forces. Human articular cartilage explants were harvested from both embryonic epiphyseal tissue and femoral heads of elderly women (over 70 years of age) undergoing a partial joint replacement (hemi-arthroplasty) and were divided in two groups: half of the samples were incubated in the JSD while the remaining half were grown in static culture within tissue culture plates. After 10 days all samples were evaluated for: (a) cell vitality as assessed by image analysis and XTT assay; (b) biosynthetic activity as expressed by radioactive sulfate incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG's); and (c) proteoglycan content as assessed by alcian blue staining intensity. A 10-fold increase in sulfate incorporation in samples held in the JSD compared to the static culture group was observed in embryonic cartilage. In adult cartilage culture in the JSD elevated sulfate incorporation by threefold as compared to static culture. Central necrosis was observed in specimens grown in the static culture plates, while it did not occur in the samples held in the JSD. Cell vitality as assessed by XTT assay was significantly better in the JSD group as compared to static culture. The difference was more pronounced in the embryonic specimens as compared to adult cartilage. The specimens cultured within the JSD retained proteoglycans significantly better than those cultured in static culture. Maintenance of cartilage specimens in a JSD was highly effective in keeping the vitality of cartilage explants in vitro over a 10-day period. A possible future

  2. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V. D.; Becker-Santos, D. D.; Vucic, E. A.; Lam, S.; Lam, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epi genomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans.

  3. Expression of Leukemia/Lymphoma-Related Factor (LRF/POKEMON) in Human Breast Carcinoma and Other Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anshu; Hunter, William J.; Aggarwal, Himanshu; Silva, Edibaldo D.; Davey, Mary S.; Murphy, Richard F.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2010-01-01

    The POK family of proteins plays an important role in not only embryonic development and cell differentiation, but also in oncogenesis. Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) belongs to the POK family of transcriptional repressors and is also known as POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (POKEMON), which binds to short transcripts of HIV-1 (FBI-1) and TTF-1 interacting peptide (TIP21). Its oncogenic role is known only in lymphoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and malignant gliomas. The functional expression of LRF in human breast carcinoma has not yet been confirmed. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression of LRF in human breast cancer tissues and other human tumors. The expression of LRF mRNA transcripts and protein was observed in twenty human benign and malignant breast biopsy tissues. Expression of LRF was observed in several formalin-fixed tissues by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. All malignant breast tissues expressed mRNA transcripts and protein for LRF. However, 40% and 15% benign breast biopsy tissues expressed LRF mRNA transcripts and protein, respectively. The overall expression of LRF mRNA transcripts and total protein was significantly more in malignant breast tissues than the benign breast tissues. LRF expression was also observed in the nuclei of human colon, renal, lung, hepatocellular carcinomas and thymoma tumor cells. In general, a significantly higher expression of LRF was seen in malignant tissues than in the corresponding benign or normal tissue. Further studies are warranted to determine the malignant role of LRF in human breast carcinoma. PMID:20471975

  4. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell-cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  5. Topoisomerase I inhibitor, camptothecin, induces apoptogenic signaling in human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Paola García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage to safeguard the integrity of the organism. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and, if not repaired correctly, they can lead to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESCs (hESCs maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. In the present study we aim to determine the hESC response to the DSB inducing agent camptothecin (CPT. We find that hESCs are hypersensitive to CPT, as evidenced by high levels of apoptosis. CPT treatment leads to DNA-damage sensor kinase (ATM and DNA-PKcs phosphorylation on serine 1981 and serine 2056, respectively. Activation of ATM and DNA-PKcs was followed by histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser 139, a sensitive reporter of DNA damage. Nuclear accumulation and ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 were also observed. Remarkably, hESC viability was further decreased when ATM or DNA-PKcs kinase activity was impaired by the use of specific inhibitors. The hypersensitivity to CPT treatment was markedly reduced by blocking p53 translocation to mitochondria with pifithrin-μ. Importantly, programmed cell death was achieved in the absence of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Waf1, a bona fide p53 target gene. Conversely, differentiated hESCs were no longer highly sensitive to CPT. This attenuated apoptotic response was accompanied by changes in cell cycle profile and by the presence of p21Waf1. The results presented here suggest that p53 has a key involvement in preventing the propagation of damaged hESCs when genome is threatened. As a whole, our findings support the concept that the phenomenon of apoptosis is a prominent player in normal embryonic development.

  6. High-content screening of small compounds on human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaric, Ivana; Gokhale, Paul J; Andrews, Peter W

    2010-08-01

    Human ES (embryonic stem) cells and iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells have been heralded as a source of differentiated cells that could be used in the treatment of degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease or diabetes. Despite the great potential for their use in regenerative therapy, the challenge remains to understand the basic biology of these remarkable cells, in order to differentiate them into any functional cell type. Given the scale of the task, high-throughput screening of agents and culture conditions offers one way to accelerate these studies. The screening of small-compound libraries is particularly amenable to such high-throughput methods. Coupled with high-content screening technology that enables simultaneous assessment of multiple cellular features in an automated and quantitative way, this approach is proving powerful in identifying both small molecules as tools for manipulating stem cell fates and novel mechanisms of differentiation not previously associated with stem cell biology. Such screens performed on human ES cells also demonstrate the usefulness of human ES/iPS cells as cellular models for pharmacological testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, possibly a more imminent use of these cells than in regenerative medicine.

  7. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Development of human nervous tissue upon differentiation of embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Suter, David M; Tirefort, Diderik; Turchi, Laurent; Virolle, Thierry; Chneiweiss, Herve; Foti, Michelangelo; Lobrinus, Johannes-Alexander; Stoppini, Luc; Feki, Anis; Dubois-Dauphin, Michel; Krause, Karl Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Researches on neural differentiation using embryonic stem cells (ESC) require analysis of neurogenesis in conditions mimicking physiological cellular interactions as closely as possible. In this study, we report an air-liquid interface-based culture of human ESC. This culture system allows three-dimensional cell expansion and neural differentiation in the absence of added growth factors. Over a 3-month period, a macroscopically visible, compact tissue developed. Histological coloration revealed a dense neural-like neural tissue including immature tubular structures. Electron microscopy, immunochemistry, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated a dense network of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes able to propagate signals. Within this tissue, tubular structures were niches of cells resembling germinal layers of human fetal brain. Indeed, the tissue contained abundant proliferating cells expressing markers of neural progenitors. Finally, the capacity to generate neural tissues on air-liquid interface differed for different ESC lines, confirming variations of their neurogenic potential. In conclusion, this study demonstrates in vitro engineering of a human neural-like tissue with an organization that bears resemblance to early developing brain. As opposed to previously described methods, this differentiation (a) allows three-dimensional organization, (b) yields dense interconnected neural tissue with structurally and functionally distinct areas, and (c) is spontaneously guided by endogenous developmental cues.

  9. VE-cadherin expression allows identification of a new class of hematopoietic stem cells within human embryonic liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Estelle; Fleury, Maud; Clay, Denis; Petit-Cocault, Laurence; Candelier, Jean-Jacques; Mennesson, Benoît; Jaffredo, Thierry; Souyri, Michèle

    2010-11-25

    Edification of the human hematopoietic system during development is characterized by the production of waves of hematopoietic cells separated in time, formed in distinct embryonic sites (ie, yolk sac, truncal arteries including the aorta, and placenta). The embryonic liver is a major hematopoietic organ wherein hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expand, and the future, adult-type, hematopoietic cell hierarchy becomes established. We report herein the identification of a new, transient, and rare cell population in the human embryonic liver, which coexpresses VE-cadherin, an endothelial marker, CD45, a pan-hematopoietic marker, and CD34, a common endothelial and hematopoietic marker. This population displays an outstanding self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation potential, as detected by in vitro and in vivo hematopoietic assays compared with its VE-cadherin negative counterpart. Based on VE-cadherin expression, our data demonstrate the existence of 2 phenotypically and functionally separable populations of multipotent HSCs in the human embryo, the VE-cadherin(+) one being more primitive than the VE-cadherin(-) one, and shed a new light on the hierarchical organization of the embryonic liver HSC compartment.

  10. Alternative splicing events identified in human embryonic stem cells and neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene W Yeo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and neural progenitor (NP cells are excellent models for recapitulating early neuronal development in vitro, and are key to establishing strategies for the treatment of degenerative disorders. While much effort had been undertaken to analyze transcriptional and epigenetic differences during the transition of hESC to NP, very little work has been performed to understand post-transcriptional changes during neuronal differentiation. Alternative RNA splicing (AS, a major form of post-transcriptional gene regulation, is important in mammalian development and neuronal function. Human ESC, hESC-derived NP, and human central nervous system stem cells were compared using Affymetrix exon arrays. We introduced an outlier detection approach, REAP (Regression-based Exon Array Protocol, to identify 1,737 internal exons that are predicted to undergo AS in NP compared to hESC. Experimental validation of REAP-predicted AS events indicated a threshold-dependent sensitivity ranging from 56% to 69%, at a specificity of 77% to 96%. REAP predictions significantly overlapped sets of alternative events identified using expressed sequence tags and evolutionarily conserved AS events. Our results also reveal that focusing on differentially expressed genes between hESC and NP will overlook 14% of potential AS genes. In addition, we found that REAP predictions are enriched in genes encoding serine/threonine kinase and helicase activities. An example is a REAP-predicted alternative exon in the SLK (serine/threonine kinase 2 gene that is differentially included in hESC, but skipped in NP as well as in other differentiated tissues. Lastly, comparative sequence analysis revealed conserved intronic cis-regulatory elements such as the FOX1/2 binding site GCAUG as being proximal to candidate AS exons, suggesting that FOX1/2 may participate in the regulation of AS in NP and hESC. In summary, a new methodology for exon array analysis was introduced

  11. Ectopic expression of PTTG1/securin promotes tumorigenesis in human embryonic kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Mohammed T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumor transforming gene1 (PTTG1 is a novel oncogene that is expressed in most tumors. It encodes a protein that is primarily involved in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during cell division. The oncogenic potential of PTTG1 has been well characterized in the mouse, particularly mouse fibroblast (NIH3T3 cells, in which it induces cell proliferation, promotes tumor formation and angiogenesis. Human tumorigenesis is a complex and a multistep process often requiring concordant expression of a number of genes. Also due to differences between rodent and human cell biology it is difficult to extrapolate results from mouse models to humans. To determine if PTTG1 functions similarly as an oncogene in humans, we have characterized its effects on human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells. Results We report that introduction of human PTTG1 into HEK293 cells through transfection with PTTG1 cDNA resulted in increased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and formation of tumors after subcutaneous injection of nu/nu mice. Pathologic analysis revealed that these tumors were poorly differentiated. Both analysis of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with PTTG1 cDNA and analysis of tumors developed on injection of HEK293 cells that had been stably transfected with PTTG1 cDNA indicated significantly higher levels of secretion and expression of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8 compared to HEK293 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 vector or uninvolved tissues collected from the mice. Mutation of the proline-rich motifs at the C-terminal of PTTG1 abolished its oncogenic properties. Mice injected with this mutated PTTG1 either did not form tumors or formed very small tumors. Taken together our results suggest that PTTG1 is a human oncogene that possesses the ability to promote tumorigenesis in human cells at least in part through the regulation of expression or secretion of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8. Conclusions Our results

  12. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Jacques A. Hatzfeld

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  13. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  14. Embryonic stem cells as an ectodermal cellular model of human p63-related dysplasia syndromes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostagno, P.; Wolchinsky, Z.; Vigano, A.M.; Shivtiel, S.; Zhou, Huiqing; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Ferone, G.; Missero, C.; Mantovani, R.; Aberdam, D.; Virolle, T.

    2010-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the TP63 transcription factor underlie the molecular basis of several similar autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes. Here we provide a novel cellular model derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells that recapitulates in vitro the main steps of embryonic skin

  15. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic morphogenetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell...

  16. Disruption of cardiogenesis in human embryonic stem cells exposed to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Guoxing; Wang, Guoqing; Tong, Jian; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is ubiquitous in our living environment, and prenatal exposure to TCE is reported to cause congenital heart disease in humans. Although multiple studies have been performed using animal models, they have limited value in predicting effects on humans due to the unknown species-specific toxicological effects. To test whether exposure to low doses of TCE induces developmental toxicity in humans, we investigated the effect of TCE on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and cardiomyocytes (derived from the hESCs). In the current study, hESCs cardiac differentiation was achieved by using differentiation medium consisting of StemPro-34. We examined the effects of TCE on cell viability by cell growth assay and cardiac inhibition by analysis of spontaneously beating cluster. The expression levels of genes associated with cardiac differentiation and Ca 2+ channel pathways were measured by immunofluorescence and qPCR. The overall data indicated the following: (1) significant cardiac inhibition, which was characterized by decreased beating clusters and beating rates, following treatment with low doses of TCE; (2) significant up-regulation of the Nkx2.5/Hand1 gene in cardiac progenitors and down regulation of the Mhc-7/cTnT gene in cardiac cells; and (3) significant interference with Ca 2+ channel pathways in cardiomyocytes, which contributes to the adverse effect of TCE on cardiac differentiation during early embryo development. Our results confirmed the involvement of Ca 2+ turnover network in TCE cardiotoxicity as reported in animal models, while the inhibition effect of TCE on the transition of cardiac progenitors to cardiomyocytes is unique to hESCs, indicating a species-specific effect of TCE on heart development. This study provides new insight into TCE biology in humans, which may help explain the development of congenital heart defects after TCE exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1372-1380, 2016. © 2015 Wiley

  17. Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, H; Wulf-Goldenberg, A; Eckert, K; Jensen, J; Edsbagge, J; Björquist, P; Rivero, M; Strehl, R; Jozefczuk, J; Prigione, A; Adjaye, J; Urbaniak, T; Bussmann, P; Zeilinger, K; Gerlach, J C

    2013-09-01

    Teratoma formation in mice is today the most stringent test for pluripotency that is available for human pluripotent cells, as chimera formation and tetraploid complementation cannot be performed with human cells. The teratoma assay could also be applied for assessing the safety of human pluripotent cell-derived cell populations intended for therapeutic applications. In our study we examined the spontaneous differentiation behaviour of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a perfused 3D multi-compartment bioreactor system and compared it with differentiation of hESCs and human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) cultured in vitro as embryoid bodies and in vivo in an experimental mouse model of teratoma formation. Results from biochemical, histological/immunohistological and ultrastuctural analyses revealed that hESCs cultured in bioreactors formed tissue-like structures containing derivatives of all three germ layers. Comparison with embryoid bodies and the teratomas revealed a high degree of similarity of the tissues formed in the bioreactor to these in the teratomas at the histological as well as transcriptional level, as detected by comparative whole-genome RNA expression profiling. The 3D culture system represents a novel in vitro model that permits stable long-term cultivation, spontaneous multi-lineage differentiation and tissue formation of pluripotent cells that is comparable to in vivo differentiation. Such a model is of interest, e.g. for the development of novel cell differentiation strategies. In addition, the 3D in vitro model could be used for teratoma studies and pluripotency assays in a fully defined, controlled environment, alternatively to in vivo mouse models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A Novel Role of Silibinin as a Putative Epigenetic Modulator in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Anestopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L., has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin’s pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2, Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12, and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, as evidenced by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that silibinin-mediated reduction of EZH2 levels was accompanied by an increase in trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine (Κ-27 residue (H3K27me3 levels and that such response was, in part, dependent on decreased expression levels of phosphorylated Akt (ser473 (pAkt and phosphorylated EZH2 (ser21 (pEZH2. Additionally silibinin exerted other epigenetic effects involving an increase in total DNA methyltransferase (DNMT activity while it decreased histone deacetylases 1-2 (HDACs1-2 expression levels. We conclude that silibinin induces epigenetic alterations in human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that subsequent disruptions of central processes in chromatin conformation may account for some of its diverse anticancer effects.

  19. Automated grouping of action potentials of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Giann; Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie; Vidal, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Methods for obtaining cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are improving at a significant rate. However, the characterization of these cardiomyocytes (CMs) is evolving at a relatively slower rate. In particular, there is still uncertainty in classifying the phenotype (ventricular-like, atrial-like, nodal-like, etc.) of an hESC-derived cardiomyocyte (hESC-CM). While previous studies identified the phenotype of a CM based on electrophysiological features of its action potential, the criteria for classification were typically subjective and differed across studies. In this paper, we use techniques from signal processing and machine learning to develop an automated approach to discriminate the electrophysiological differences between hESC-CMs. Specifically, we propose a spectral grouping-based algorithm to separate a population of CMs into distinct groups based on the similarity of their action potential shapes. We applied this method to a dataset of optical maps of cardiac cell clusters dissected from human embryoid bodies. While some of the nine cell clusters in the dataset are presented with just one phenotype, the majority of the cell clusters are presented with multiple phenotypes. The proposed algorithm is generally applicable to other action potential datasets and could prove useful in investigating the purification of specific types of CMs from an electrophysiological perspective.

  20. Transcriptome variations among human embryonic stem cell lines are associated with their differentiation propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbin Sun

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to form any cell type in the body, making them attractive cell sources in drug screening, regenerative medicine, disease and developmental processes modeling. However, not all hESC lines have the equal potency to generate desired cell types in vitro. Significant variations have been observed for the differentiation efficiency of various human ESC lines. The precise underpinning molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, we compared transcriptome variations of four hESC lines H7, HUES1, HUES8 and HUES9. We found that hESC lines have different gene expression profiles, and these differentially expressed genes (DEGs are significantly enriched in developmental processes, such as ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal development. The enrichment difference between hESC lines was consistent with its lineage bias. Among these DEGs, some pluripotency factors and genes involved in signaling transduction showed great variations as well. The pleiotropic functions of these genes in controlling hESC identity and early lineage specification, implicated that different hESC lines may utilize distinct balance mechanisms to maintain pluripotent state. When the balance is broken in a certain environment, gene expression variation between them could impact on their different lineage specification behavior.

  1. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells: A Vehicle for Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing, Structural Biology, and Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianwen; Han, Jizhong; Li, Haoran; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Lan Lan; Chen, Fei; Zeng, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian cells, e.g., CHO, BHK, HEK293, HT-1080, and NS0 cells, represent important manufacturing platforms in bioengineering. They are widely used for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins, vaccines, anticancer agents, and other clinically relevant drugs. HEK293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cells and their derived cell lines provide an attractive heterologous system for the development of recombinant proteins or adenovirus productions, not least due to their human-like posttranslational modification of protein molecules to provide the desired biological activity. Secondly, they also exhibit high transfection efficiency yielding high-quality recombinant proteins. They are easy to maintain and express with high fidelity membrane proteins, such as ion channels and transporters, and thus are attractive for structural biology and electrophysiology studies. In this article, we review the literature on HEK293 cells regarding their origins but also stress their advancements into the different cell lines engineered and discuss some significant aspects which make them versatile systems for biopharmaceutical manufacturing, drug screening, structural biology research, and electrophysiology applications. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. SMAD7 directly converts human embryonic stem cells to telencephalic fate by a default mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Noggle, Scott; Warmflash, Aryeh; Krzyspiak, Joanna Ela; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a valuable window into the dissection of the molecular circuitry underlying the early formation of the human forebrain. However, dissection of signaling events in forebrain development using current protocols is complicated by non-neural contamination and fluctuation of extrinsic influences. Here we show that SMAD7, a cell-intrinsic inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, is sufficient to directly convert pluripotent hESCs to an anterior neural fate. Time-course gene expression revealed down-regulation of MAPK components, and combining MEK1/2 inhibition with SMAD7-mediated TGFβ inhibition promoted telencephalic conversion. FGF-MEK and TGFβ-SMAD signaling maintain hESCs by promoting pluripotency genes and repressing neural genes. Our findings suggest that in the absence of these cues, pluripotent cells simply revert to a program of neural conversion. Hence the “primed” state of hESCs requires inhibition of the “default” state of neural fate acquisition. This has parallels in amphibians, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. PMID:23034881

  3. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cells rescue visual function in dystrophic RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Raymond D; Wang, Shaomei; Klimanskaya, Irina; Holmes, Toby; Ramos-Kelsey, Rebeca; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Bischoff, N; Sauvé, Yves; Lanza, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells promise to provide a well-characterized and reproducible source of replacement tissue for human clinical studies. An early potential application of this technology is the use of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases such as macular degeneration. Here we show the reproducible generation of RPE (67 passageable cultures established from 18 different hES cell lines); batches of RPE derived from NIH-approved hES cells (H9) were tested and shown capable of extensive photoreceptor rescue in an animal model of retinal disease, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, in which photoreceptor loss is caused by a defect in the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium. Improvement in visual performance was 100% over untreated controls (spatial acuity was approximately 70% that of normal nondystrophic rats) without evidence of untoward pathology. The use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and/or the creation of banks of reduced complexity human leucocyte antigen (HLA) hES-RPE lines could minimize or eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs and/or immunomodulatory protocols.

  4. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Kidwai, Fahad K.; Kopher, Ross A.; Motl, Jason; Kellum, Cory A.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo studies demonstrate the hESC-derived YFP+ cells can repair a calvarial defect in immunodeficient mice. Using the engineered hESCs, we monitored the osteogenic development and explored the roles of osteogenic supplements BMP2 and FGF9 in osteogenic differentiation of these hESCs in vitro. Taken together, this reporter system provides a novel system to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of hESCs and becomes useful to identify soluble agents and cell signaling pathways that mediate early stages of human bone development. PMID:25680477

  5. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo studies demonstrate the hESC-derived YFP+ cells can repair a calvarial defect in immunodeficient mice. Using the engineered hESCs, we monitored the osteogenic development and explored the roles of osteogenic supplements BMP2 and FGF9 in osteogenic differentiation of these hESCs in vitro. Taken together, this reporter system provides a novel system to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of hESCs and becomes useful to identify soluble agents and cell signaling pathways that mediate early stages of human bone development.

  6. Sex Differences in Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived β Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nelly; Bruin, Jennifer E; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Schuster, Hellen; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2018-04-01

    Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are now in clinical trials for insulin replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Animal studies indicate that pancreatic progenitor cells can mature into a mixed population of endocrine cells, including glucose-responsive β cells several months after implantion. However, it remains unclear how conditions in the recipient may influence the maturation and ultimately the function of these hESC-derived cells. Here, we investigated the effects of (1) pregnancy on the maturation of human stage 4 (S4) pancreatic progenitor cells and (2) the impact of host sex on both S4 cells and more mature stage 7 (S7) pancreatic endocrine cells implanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient SCID-beige mice. Pregnancy led to increased proliferation of endogenous pancreatic β cells, but did not appear to affect proliferation or maturation of S4 cells at midgestation. Interestingly, S4 and S7 cells both acquired glucose-stimulated C-peptide secretion in females before males. Moreover, S4 cells lowered fasting blood glucose levels in females sooner than in males, whereas the responses with S7 cells were similar. These data indicate that the host sex may impact the maturation of hESC-derived cells in vivo and that this effect can be minimized by more advanced differentiation of the cells before implantation.

  7. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  8. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G 2 /M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S 3 ) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 μM) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G 2 /M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Mechanism of cisplatin resistance in human urothelial carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Min; Wang, Tsing-Cheng

    2012-05-01

    An isogenic pair of cisplatin-susceptible (NTUB1) and -resistant (NTUB1/P) human urothelial carcinoma cell lines was used to elucidate the mechanism of cisplatin resistance. The significantly lower intracellular platinum (IP) concentration, which resulted from the decreased cisplatin uptake, was found in NTUB1/P cells. The enhancement of IP concentration did not increase the susceptibility of NTUB1/P cells to cisplatin treatment. The reduction of IP concentration as well was unable to enhance the cisplatin-resistance in susceptible NTUB1 cells. This indicated that reduction of IP concentration was not the account for the development of cisplatin resistance here. Instead, the over expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, anti-oxidative heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cell cycle regulator p16INK4 seemed to be more important for the gaining of cisplatin in these human urothelial carcinoma cell. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Johansen, Julia S; Larsen, Lars A

    2012-01-01

    oxygen tension, in culture medium with or without basic fibroblast growth factor, and on feeder layers comprising mouse embryonic fibroblasts or human foreskin fibroblasts to evaluate whether hESCs and their progeny produced YKL-40 and to characterize YKL-40 expression during differentiation. Secreted......The secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 participates in cell differentiation, inflammation, and cancer progression. High YKL-40 expression is reported during early human development, but its functions are unknown. Six human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines were cultured in an atmosphere of low or high...... YKL-40 protein and YKL-40 mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Serial-sectioned colonies were stained for YKL-40 protein and for pluripotent hESC (OCT4, NANOG) and germ layer (HNF-3ß, PDX1, CD34, p63, nestin, PAX6) markers. Double...

  11. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Guian [Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Fan, Dongsheng, E-mail: dsfan@yahoo.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Deng, Min, E-mail: dengmin1706@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. {yields} MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. {yields} Increase the expression of HB9. {yields} Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and {beta}III-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 {mu}M) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 {mu}M). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  12. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing; Chen, Guian; Fan, Dongsheng; Deng, Min

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. → MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. → Increase the expression of HB9. → Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and βIII-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 μM) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 μM). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  13. [The characters and specific features of new human embryonic stem cells lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, T A; Kol'tsova, A M; Zenin, V V; Gordeeva, O F; Musorina, A S; Goriachaia, T S; Shlykova, S A; Kamenetskaia, Iu K; Pinaev, G P; Polianskaia, G G

    2009-01-01

    Four continuous human embryonic stem cell lines (SC1, SC2, SC3 and SC4), derived from the blastocysts has been described. The cell lines were cultivated on mitotically inactivated human feeder cells. The cell lines SC1 and SC2 have passed through 150 population doublings and the cell lines SC3 and SC4 -- near 120 populations doublings, which exceeds Hayflick limit sufficiently. These cell lines maintain high activity of alkaline phosphatase, expression of transcription factor OCT-4 and cell surface antigens (SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), confirming their ESC status and human specificity. Immunofluorescent detection of antigens, characteristic of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm confirms the ability of these cells to retain their pluripotency under in vitro condition. PCR analysis revealed expression of six genes specific for pluripotent cells (OCT-4, NANOG, DPPA3/STELLA, TDGF/CRIPTO and LEFTYA). Correlation between the level of proliferative activity and the character of DNA-bound fluorescent staining was found. Fluorescent dyes, Hoechst 33342 and PI, produced diffuse staining of the nuclei in slowly proliferating cells of the SC1 and SC2 lines. In contrast, in actively proliferating cells of the SC3 and SC4 lines, the clear staining of the nuclei was observed. Upon changing the cultivation condition, proliferative activity of SC3 and SC4 lines decreased and became similar to that of SC1 and SC2 lines. The character of the fluorescent staining of all these lines was also shown to be similar. These results show that quality of the fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33342 and PI reflects the level of proliferation. Possible causes and mechanisms of this feature of human ESC are discussed.

  14. Periconception Maternal Folate Status and Human Embryonic Cerebellum Growth Trajectories: The Rotterdam Predict Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene V Koning

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether periconceptional maternal folate status affects human embryonic cerebellar size and growth trajectories. In a prospective periconceptional cohort participants filled out questionnaires and received weekly transvaginal 3D-ultrasounds between 7+0 and 12+6 weeks gestational age (GA. Viable non-malformed singleton pregnancies were selected for cerebellar measurements; transcerebellar diameter, (TCD, left and right cerebellar diameters (LCD, RCD. Linear mixed models were performed to estimate associations between questionnaire data on the timing of maternal folic acid supplement initiation and longitudinal cerebellar measurements as a function of crown-rump length (CRL and GA. Maternal red blood cell folate concentrations were analysed before 8 weeks GA to validate the associations. A total of 263 serial high quality three-dimensional ultrasound scans of 135 pregnancies were studied. Preconceptional compared to postconceptional initiation of folic acid use was associated with slightly larger cerebellar diameters per millimetre increase of CRL (TCD: β = 0.260mm, 95%CI = 0.023-0.491, p<0.05; LCD: β = 0.171mm, 95%CI = 0.038-0.305, p<0.05; RCD: β = 0.156mm, 95%CI = 0.032-0.280, p<0.05 and with proportional cerebellar growth (TCD/CRL:β = 0.015mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.024, p<0.01; LCD/CRL:β = 0.012mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.018, p<0.01; RCD/CRL:β = 0.011mm/mm, 95%CI = 0.005-0.017, p<0.01. Cerebellar growth was significantly highest in the third quartile of maternal red blood cell folate levels (1538-1813 nmol/L. These first findings show that periconceptional maternal folate status is associated with human embryonic cerebellar development. Implications of these small but significant variations for fetal cerebellar growth trajectories and the child's neurodevelopmental outcome are yet unknown and warrant further investigation.

  15. Human BCAS3 expression in embryonic stem cells and vascular precursors suggests a role in human embryogenesis and tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Siva

    Full Text Available Cancer is often associated with multiple and progressive genetic alterations in genes that are important for normal development. BCAS3 (Breast Cancer Amplified Sequence 3 is a gene of unknown function on human chromosome 17q23, a region associated with breakpoints of several neoplasms. The normal expression pattern of BCAS3 has not been studied, though it is implicated in breast cancer progression. Rudhira, a murine WD40 domain protein that is 98% identical to BCAS3 is expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. This suggests that BCAS3 expression also may not be restricted to mammary tissue and may have important roles in other normal as well as malignant tissues. We show that BCAS3 is also expressed in human ES cells and during their differentiation into blood vascular precursors. We find that BCAS3 is aberrantly expressed in malignant human brain lesions. In glioblastoma, hemangiopericytoma and brain abscess we note high levels of BCAS3 expression in tumor cells and some blood vessels. BCAS3 may be associated with multiple cancerous and rapidly proliferating cells and hence the expression, function and regulation of this gene merits further investigation. We suggest that BCAS3 is mis-expressed in brain tumors and could serve as a human ES cell and tumor marker.

  16. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2008-01-31

    One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR) invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event) as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical operation. Finally, I will end the

  17. Are human embryos Kantian persons?: Kantian considerations in favor of embryonic stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Bertha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One argument used by detractors of human embryonic stem cell research (hESCR invokes Kant's formula of humanity, which proscribes treating persons solely as a means to an end, rather than as ends in themselves. According to Fuat S. Oduncu, for example, adhering to this imperative entails that human embryos should not be disaggregated to obtain pluripotent stem cells for hESCR. Given that human embryos are Kantian persons from the time of their conception, killing them to obtain their cells for research fails to treat them as ends in themselves. This argument assumes two points that are rather contentious given a Kantian framework. First, the argument assumes that when Kant maintains that humanity must be treated as an end in itself, he means to argue that all members of the species Homo sapiens must be treated as ends in themselves; that is, that Kant regards personhood as co-extensive with belonging to the species Homo sapiens. Second, the argument assumes that the event of conception is causally responsible for the genesis of a Kantian person and that, therefore, an embryo is a Kantian person from the time of its conception. In this paper, I will present challenges against these two assumptions by engaging in an exegetical study of some of Kant's works. First, I will illustrate that Kant did not use the term "humanity" to denote a biological species, but rather the capacity to set ends according to reason. Second, I will illustrate that it is difficult given a Kantian framework to denote conception (indeed any biological event as causally responsible for the creation of a person. Kant ascribed to a dualistic view of human agency, and personhood, according to him, was derived from the supersensible capacity for reason. To argue that a Kantian person is generated due to the event of conception ignores Kant's insistence in various aspects of his work that it is not possible to understand the generation of a person qua a physical

  18. Central vagal sensory and motor connections: human embryonic and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Ashwell, Ken W S; Paxinos, G

    2004-07-30

    The embryonic and fetal development of the nuclear components and pathways of vagal sensorimotor circuits in the human has been studied using Nissl staining and carbocyanine dye tracing techniques. Eight fetal brains ranging from 8 to 28 weeks of development had DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) inserted into either the thoracic vagus nerve at the level of the sternal angle (two specimens of 8 and 9 weeks of gestation) or into vagal rootlets at the surface of the medulla (at all other ages), while a further five were used for study of cytoarchitectural development. The first central labeling resulting from peripheral application of DiI to the thoracic vagus nerve was seen at 8 weeks. By 9 weeks, labeled bipolar cells at the ventricular surface around the sulcus limitans (sl) were seen after DiI application to the thoracic vagus nerve. Subnuclear organization as revealed by both Nissl staining and carbocyanine dye tracing was found to be advanced at a relatively early fetal age, with afferent segregation in the medial Sol apparent at 13 weeks and subnuclear organization of efferent magnocellular divisions of dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve noticeable at the same stage. The results of the present study also confirm that vagal afferents are distributed to the dorsomedial subnuclei of the human nucleus of the solitary tract, with particular concentrations of afferent axons in the gelatinosus subnucleus. These vagal afferents appeared to have a restricted zone of termination from quite early in development (13 weeks) suggesting that there is no initial exuberance in the termination field of vagal afferents in the developing human nucleus of the solitary tract. On the other hand, the first suggestion of afferents invading 10N from the medial Sol was not seen until 20 weeks and was not well developed until 24 weeks, suggesting that direct monosynaptic connections between the sensory and effector components of the vagal

  19. No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Susanne; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Holm, Frida; Bergström, Rosita; Eklund, Linda; Strömberg, Anne-Marie; Hovatta, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Background The large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo quality is important as regards the likelihood of pregnancy, but there is little information regarding likelihood of stem cell derivation. Methods We evaluated the relationship of pronuclear zygote stage, the score based on embryo morphology and developmental rate at cleavage state, and the morphology of the blastocyst at the time of donation to stem cell research, to see how they correlated to successful establishment of new hESC lines. Results Derivation of hESC lines succeeded from poor quality and good quality embryos in the same extent. In several blastocysts, no real inner cell mass (ICM) was seen, but permanent well growing hESC lines could be established. One tripronuclear (3PN) zygote, which developed to blastocyst stage, gave origin to a karyotypically normal hESC line. Conclusion Even very poor quality embryos with few cells in the ICM can give origin to hESC lines. PMID:21217828

  20. Non-canonical TAF complexes regulate active promoters in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maston, Glenn A; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Chamberlain, Lynn; Lin, Ling; Fang, Minggang; Green, Michael R

    2012-11-13

    The general transcription factor TFIID comprises the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) and approximately 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Here we find, unexpectedly, that undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) contain only six TAFs (TAFs 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 11), whereas following differentiation all TAFs are expressed. Directed and global chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses reveal an unprecedented promoter occupancy pattern: most active genes are bound by only TAFs 3 and 5 along with TBP, whereas the remaining active genes are bound by TBP and all six hESC TAFs. Consistent with these results, hESCs contain a previously undescribed complex comprising TAFs 2, 6, 7, 11 and TBP. Altering the composition of hESC TAFs, either by depleting TAFs that are present or ectopically expressing TAFs that are absent, results in misregulated expression of pluripotency genes and induction of differentiation. Thus, the selective expression and use of TAFs underlies the ability of hESCs to self-renew.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00068.001.

  1. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Cologne (Germany); Liu, Siyuan [National Institutes of Health, Language Section, Voice, Speech and Language Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 {mu}g/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  2. Electrophysiological properties of neurosensory progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Needham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In severe cases of sensorineural hearing loss where the numbers of auditory neurons are significantly depleted, stem cell-derived neurons may provide a potential source of replacement cells. The success of such a therapy relies upon producing a population of functional neurons from stem cells, to enable precise encoding of sound information to the brainstem. Using our established differentiation assay to produce sensory neurons from human stem cells, patch-clamp recordings indicated that all neurons examined generated action potentials and displayed both transient sodium and sustained potassium currents. Stem cell-derived neurons reliably entrained to stimuli up to 20 pulses per second (pps, with 50% entrainment at 50 pps. A comparison with cultured primary auditory neurons indicated similar firing precision during low-frequency stimuli, but significant differences after 50 pps due to differences in action potential latency and width. The firing properties of stem cell-derived neurons were also considered relative to time in culture (31–56 days and revealed no change in resting membrane potential, threshold or firing latency over time. Thus, while stem cell-derived neurons did not entrain to high frequency stimulation as effectively as mammalian auditory neurons, their electrical phenotype was stable in culture and consistent with that reported for embryonic auditory neurons.

  3. Analysis of mitochondrial function and localisation during human embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B J Prowse

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC derivatives show promise as viable cell therapy options for multiple disorders in different tissues. Recent advances in stem cell biology have lead to the reliable production and detailed molecular characterisation of a range of cell-types. However, the role of mitochondria during differentiation has yet to be fully elucidated. Mitochondria mediate a cells response to altered energy requirements (e.g. cardiomyocyte contraction and, as such, the mitochondrial phenotype is likely to change during the dynamic process of hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that manipulating mitochondrial biogenesis alters mesendoderm commitment. To investigate mitochondrial localisation during early lineage specification of hESCs we developed a mitochondrial reporter line, KMEL2, in which sequences encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP are targeted to the mitochondria. Differentiation of KMEL2 lines into the three germ layers showed that the mitochondria in these differentiated progeny are GFP positive. Therefore, KMEL2 hESCs facilitate the study of mitochondria in a range of cell types and, importantly, permit real-time analysis of mitochondria via the GFP tag.

  4. Safety paradigm: genetic evaluation of therapeutic grade human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Emma; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Patel, Heema; Cornwell, Glenda; Jacquet, Laureen; Kadeva, Neli; Braude, Peter; Ilic, Dusko

    2010-12-06

    The use of stem cells for regenerative medicine has captured the imagination of the public, with media attention contributing to rising expectations of clinical benefits. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are the best model for capital investment in stem cell therapy and there is a clear need for their robust genetic characterization before scaling-up cell expansion for that purpose. We have to be certain that the genome of the starting material is stable and normal, but the limited resolution of conventional karyotyping is unable to give us such assurance. Advanced molecular cytogenetic technologies such as array comparative genomic hybridization for identifying chromosomal imbalances, and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis for identifying ethnic background and loss of heterozygosity should be introduced as obligatory diagnostic tests for each newly derived hESC line before it is deposited in national stem cell banks. If this new quality standard becomes a requirement, as we are proposing here, it would facilitate and accelerate the banking process, since end-users would be able to select the most appropriate line for their particular application, thus improving efficiency and streamlining the route to manufacturing therapeutics. The pharmaceutical industry, which may use hESC-derived cells for drug screening, should not ignore their genomic profile as this may risk misinterpretation of results and significant waste of resources.

  5. Three-dimensional epithelial tissues generated from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kyle J; Shamis, Yulia; Carlson, Mark W; Aberdam, Edith; Aberdam, Daniel; Garlick, Jonathan A

    2009-11-01

    The use of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells for tissue engineering may provide advantages over traditional sources of progenitor cells because of their ability to give rise to multiple cell types and their unlimited expansion potential. We derived cell populations with properties of ectodermal and mesenchymal cells in two-dimensional culture and incorporated these divergent cell populations into three-dimensional (3D) epithelial tissues. When grown in specific media and substrate conditions, two-dimensional cultures were enriched in cells (EDK1) with mesenchymal morphology and surface markers. Cells with a distinct epithelial morphology (HDE1) that expressed cytokeratin 12 and beta-catenin at cell junctions became the predominant cell type when EDK1 were grown on surfaces enriched in keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix proteins. When these cells were incorporated into the stromal and epithelial tissue compartments of 3D tissues, they generated multilayer epithelia similar to those generated with foreskin-derived epithelium and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional tissues demonstrated stromal cells with morphologic features of mature fibroblasts, type IV collagen deposition in the basement membrane, and a stratified epithelium that expressed cytokeratin 12. By deriving two distinct cell lineages from a common hES cell source to fabricate complex tissues, it is possible to explore environmental cues that will direct hES-derived cells toward optimal tissue form and function.

  6. Elasticity of human embryonic stem cells as determined by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Robert; Bock, Henry; Pells, Steve; Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K; Moore, Andrew J; De Sousa, Paul; Willoughby, Nicholas A

    2011-10-01

    The expansive growth and differentiation potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) make them a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. However, this promise is off set by the propensity for spontaneous or uncontrolled differentiation to result in heterogeneous cell populations. Cell elasticity has recently been shown to characterize particular cell phenotypes, with undifferentiated and differentiated cells sometimes showing significant differences in their elasticities. In this study, we determined the Young's modulus of hESCs by atomic force microscopy using a pyramidal tip. Using this method we are able to take point measurements of elasticity at multiple locations on a single cell, allowing local variations due to cell structure to be identified. We found considerable differences in the elasticity of the analyzed hESCs, reflected by a broad range of Young's modulus (0.05-10 kPa). This surprisingly high variation suggests that elasticity could serve as the basis of a simple and efficient large scale purification/separation technique to discriminate subpopulations of hESCs.

  7. Higher-Density Culture in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Results in DNA Damage and Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESC show great promise for clinical and research applications, but their well-known proneness to genomic instability hampers the development to their full potential. Here, we demonstrate that medium acidification linked to culture density is the main cause of DNA damage and genomic alterations in hESC grown on feeder layers, and this even in the short time span of a single passage. In line with this, we show that increasing the frequency of the medium refreshments minimizes the levels of DNA damage and genetic instability. Also, we show that cells cultured on laminin-521 do not present this increase in DNA damage when grown at high density, although the (long-term impact on their genomic stability remains to be elucidated. Our results explain the high levels of genome instability observed over the years by many laboratories worldwide, and show that the development of optimal culture conditions is key to solving this problem.

  8. Localized decrease of β-catenin contributes to the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Hayley; Patel, Shyam; Wong, Janelle; Chu, Julia; Li, Adrian; Li, Song

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are pluripotent, and can be directed to differentiate into different cell types for therapeutic applications. To expand hESCs, it is desirable to maintain hESC growth without differentiation. As hESC colonies grow, differentiated cells are often found at the periphery of the colonies, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we utilized micropatterning techniques to pattern circular islands or strips of matrix proteins, and examined the spatial pattern of hESC renewal and differentiation. We found that micropatterned matrix restricted hESC differentiation at colony periphery but allowed hESC growth into multiple layers in the central region, which decreased hESC proliferation and induced hESC differentiation. In undifferentiated hESCs, β-catenin primarily localized at cell-cell junctions but not in the nucleus. The amount of β-catenin in differentiating hESCs at the periphery of colonies or in multiple layers decreased significantly at cell-cell junctions. Consistently, knocking down β-catenin decreased Oct-4 expression in hESCs. These results indicate that localized decrease of β-catenin contributes to the spatial pattern of differentiation in hESC colonies

  9. Synthetic niches for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells bypassing embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarong; Fox, Victoria; Lei, Yuning; Hu, Biliang; Joo, Kye-Il; Wang, Pin

    2014-07-01

    The unique self-renewal and pluripotency features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the potential for unlimited development of novel cell therapies. Currently, hESCs are cultured and differentiated using methods, such as monolayer culture and embryoid body (EB) formation. As such, achieving efficient differentiation into higher order structures remains a challenge, as well as maintaining cell viability during differentiation into homogeneous cell populations. Here, we describe the application of highly porous polymer scaffolds as synthetic stem cell niches. Bypassing the EB formation step, these scaffolds are capable of three-dimensional culture of undifferentiated hESCs and subsequent directed differentiation into three primary germ layers. H9 hESCs were successfully maintained and proliferated in biodegradable polymer scaffolds based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The results showed that cells within PLGA scaffolds retained characteristics of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, the scaffolds allowed differentiation towards the lineage of interest by the addition of growth factors to the culture system. The in vivo transplantation study revealed that the scaffolds could provide a microenvironment that enabled hESCs to interact with their surroundings, thereby promoting cell differentiation. Therefore, this approach, which provides a unique culture/differentiation system for hESCs, will find its utility in various stem cell-based tissue-engineering applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. SON connects the splicing-regulatory network with pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyi; Göke, Jonathan; Sachs, Friedrich; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Liang, Hongqing; Feng, Bo; Bourque, Guillaume; Bubulya, Paula A; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) harbour the ability to undergo lineage-specific differentiation into clinically relevant cell types. Transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are known to play important roles in the maintenance of pluripotency of hESCs. However, little is known about regulation of pluripotency through splicing. In this study, we identify the spliceosome-associated factor SON as a factor essential for the maintenance of hESCs. Depletion of SON in hESCs results in the loss of pluripotency and cell death. Using genome-wide RNA profiling, we identified transcripts that are regulated by SON. Importantly, we confirmed that SON regulates the proper splicing of transcripts encoding for pluripotency regulators such as OCT4, PRDM14, E4F1 and MED24. Furthermore, we show that SON is bound to these transcripts in vivo. In summary, we connect a splicing-regulatory network for accurate transcript production to the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal of hESCs.

  11. Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2016-12-13

    BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease in which the myelin sheath of nerve cells is damaged. It can cause delayed neurologic symptoms similar to those seen in Lyme disease (LD) patients. Thymus derived T-cells (myelin reactive) migrate to the blood brain barrier and stimulate an inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. Cell based therapies play an important role in treating neurological diseases such as MS and LD. CASE REPORT Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy was used to treat two patients with both MS and LD. The hESCs were administered via different routes including intramuscular, intravenous, and supplemental routes (e.g., deep spinal, caudal, intercostal through eye drops) to regenerate the injured cells. Both the patients showed remarkable improvement in their functional skills, overall stamina, cognitive abilities, and muscle strength. Furthermore, the improvement in the patients' conditions were assessed by magnetic resonance tractography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CONCLUSIONS Therapy with hESCs might emerge as an effective and safe treatment for patients with both MS and LD. Well-designed clinical trials and follow-up studies are needed to prove the long-term efficacy and safety of hESC therapy in the treatment of patients with MS and LD.

  12. Pathway of 3-MCPD-induced apoptosis in human embryonic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiadi; An, Lu; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2017-01-01

    3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-produced contaminant formed during the preparation of soy sauce worldwide. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of 3-MCPD toxicity on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in response to exposure to 3-MCPD using the MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS). DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. Genes related with apoptosis were detected by qPCR-array for further understanding the 3-MCPD induced cell apoptosis signaling pathway. Our results clearly showed that 3-MCPD treatment inhibits cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species generation. qPCR-array indicated that nine apoptotic genes were up-regulated more than 2-fold and six down-regulated more than 2-fold. Genes associated with the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, especially BCL2 family genes, changed significantly, indicating that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated. Death receptor pathway-related genes, TNFRSF11B and TNFRSF1A, changed significantly, indicating that the death receptor pathway is also activated, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation as well as induction of apoptosis. To sum up, the experiment results indicated that 3-MCPD induced HEK293 cell toxicity through the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathway.

  13. Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Fagan, B Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H; Pevny, Larysa H; Samulski, R Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.

  14. Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hirsch

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.

  15. A unique epigenetic signature is associated with active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Su, Trent; Ferrari, Roberto; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-02-01

    The cellular epigenetic landscape changes as pluripotent stem cells differentiate to somatic cells or when differentiated cells transform to a cancerous state. These epigenetic changes are commonly correlated with differences in gene expression. Whether active DNA replication is also associated with distinct chromatin environments in these developmentally and phenotypically diverse cell types has not been known. Here, we used BrdU-seq to map active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), normal primary fibroblasts and a cancer cell line, and correlated these maps to the epigenome. In all cell lines, the majority of BrdU peaks were enriched in euchromatin and at DNA repetitive elements, especially at microsatellite repeats, and coincided with previously determined replication origins. The most prominent BrdU peaks were shared between all cells but a sizable fraction of the peaks were specific to each cell type and associated with cell type-specific genes. Surprisingly, the BrdU peaks that were common to all cell lines were associated with H3K18ac, H3K56ac, and H4K20me1 histone marks only in hESCs but not in normal fibroblasts or cancer cells. Depletion of the histone acetyltransferases for H3K18 and H3K56 dramatically decreased the number and intensity of BrdU peaks in hESCs. Our data reveal a unique epigenetic signature that distinguishes active replication loci in hESCs from normal somatic or malignant cells.

  16. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia; Henning, Tobias D.; Liu, Siyuan

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 μg/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  17. Human embryonic stem cell derived mesenchymal progenitors express cardiac markers but do not form contractile cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe M Raynaud

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal progenitors or stromal cells have shown promise as a therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases including heart failure. In this context, we explored the growth and differentiation potential of mesenchymal progenitors (MPs derived in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Similar to MPs isolated from bone marrow, hESC derived MPs (hESC-MPs efficiently differentiated into archetypical mesenchymal derivatives such as chondrocytes and adipocytes. Upon treatment with 5-Azacytidine or TGF-β1, hESC-MPs modified their morphology and up-regulated expression of key cardiac transcription factors such as NKX2-5, MEF2C, HAND2 and MYOCD. Nevertheless, NKX2-5+ hESC-MP derivatives did not form contractile cardiomyocytes, raising questions concerning the suitability of these cells as a platform for cardiomyocyte replacement therapy. Gene profiling experiments revealed that, although hESC-MP derived cells expressed a suite of cardiac related genes, they lacked the complete repertoire of genes associated with bona fide cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that whilst agents such as TGF-β1 and 5-Azacytidine can induce expression of cardiac related genes, but treated cells retain a mesenchymal like phenotype.

  18. Microencapsulation Technology: A Powerful Tool for Integrating Expansion and Cryopreservation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpique, Rita; Brito, Catarina; Jensen, Janne; Bjorquist, Petter; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) aggregates and iii) immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors. The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration) and high cell recovery yields (>70%) after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics. Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks. This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications. PMID:21850261

  19. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Alison; Mitalipova, Maisam; Lyons, Ian; Jones, Karen; Shin, Soojung; Pierce, Michael; Stice, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomato)esculetum lectin (TL), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), and Concanavalin A (Con A) bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA), Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E), and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the pluripotent

  20. Lectin binding profiles of SSEA-4 enriched, pluripotent human embryonic stem cell surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Soojung

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to form every cell type in the body. These cells must be appropriately characterized prior to differentiation studies or when defining characteristics of the pluripotent state. Some developmentally regulated cell surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies in a variety of species and stem cell types have proven to be side chains of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. Therefore, to examine hESC surfaces for other potential pluripotent markers, we used a panel of 14 lectins, which were chosen based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4, to determine binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. Results Enriching cells for SSEA-4 expression increased the percentage of SSEA-4 positive cells to 98–99%. Using enriched high SSEA-4-expressing hESCs, we then analyzed the binding percentages of selected lectins and found a large variation in binding percentages ranging from 4% to 99% binding. Lycopersicon (tomatoesculetum lectin (TL, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, and Concanavalin A (Con A bound to SSEA-4 positive regions of hESCs and with similar binding percentages as SSEA-4. In contrast, we found Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA and Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL did not bind to hESCs while Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L, Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, Phaseolus vulgaris erythro-agglutinin (PHA-E, and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA bound partially to hESCs. These binding percentages correlated well with immunocytochemistry results. Conclusion Our results provide information about types of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages found on pluripotent hESC surfaces. We propose that TL, RCA and Con A may be used as markers that are associated with the

  1. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in human embryonic stem cells reduces the threshold of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N Alsayegh

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a role for the Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein 1 (CDK2AP1 in stem cell differentiation and self-renewal. In studies with mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs derived from generated mice embryos with targeted deletion of the Cdk2ap1 gene, CDK2AP1 was shown to be required for epigenetic silencing of Oct4 during differentiation, with deletion resulting in persistent self-renewal and reduced differentiation potential. Differentiation capacity was restored in these cells following the introduction of a non-phosphorylatible form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb or exogenous Cdk2ap1. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK2AP1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Using a shRNA to reduce its expression in hESCs, we found that CDK2AP1 knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of the pluripotency genes, OCT4 and NANOG. We also found that CDK2AP1 knockdown increased the number of embryoid bodies (EBs formed when differentiation was induced. In addition, the generated EBs had significantly higher expression of markers of all three germ layers, indicating that CDK2AP1 knockdown enhanced differentiation. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in reduced proliferation and reduced the percentage of cells in the S phase and increased cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Further investigation revealed that a higher level of p53 protein was present in the CDK2AP1 knockdown hESCs. In hESCs in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, OCT4 and NANOG expression was not affected and percentage of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle was not reduced. Taken together, our results indicate that the knockdown of CDK2AP1 in hESCs results in increased p53 and enhances differentiation and favors it over a self-renewal fate.

  2. Variations in Humanized and Defined Culture Conditions Supporting Derivation of New Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Judy M; Ferrier, Patricia M; Gardner, John O

    2006-01-01

    matrix substrate of purified human laminin (Ln) with transitional reliance on mitotically inactivated human fibroblast (HDF) feeder cells. With this integrated system hESC lines were isolated using either HDF conditioned medium supplemented with a bovine-sourced serum replacement (bSRM), or a defined...

  3. Temporal morphologic changes in human colorectal carcinomas following xenografting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1983-03-01

    The temporal morphologic changes of human colorectal carcinomas following xenografting into immunosuppressed mice were investigated by the use of light and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that colorectal carcinomas undergo a series of morphologic changes during the initial 30-day period following transplantation. During the initial 1-5-day period the majority of tumor cells die, and during the following 5-10-day period the necrotic debris created during the 1-5-day period is removed by host-supplied inflammatory cells. Only small groups of peripherally placed tumor cells survived at the end of the first 10 days. During the 10-20-day period the tumor cell populations of xenografts were reestablished by a morphologically heterogeneous population of tumor cells, and during the 20-30 day period consolidation of this process continued and some xenografts showed macroscopic evidence of growth. The authors hypothesize that human colorectal carcinomas, like the antecedent epithelium, contain subpopulations of undifferentiated cells that give rise to populations of more-differentiated cells.

  4. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  5. Engineering human cell spheroids to model embryonic tissue fusion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions drive embryonic fusion events during development and upon perturbation can result in birth defects. Cleft palate and neural tube defects can result from genetic defects or environmental exposures during development, yet very little is known abo...

  6. Data for human cell spheroid model of embryonic tissue fusion in vitro.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions drive embryonic fusion events during development and upon perturbation can result in birth defects. Cleft palate and neural tube...

  7. Distinct gene expression signatures in human embryonic stem cells differentiated towards definitive endoderm at single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize...... of anterior definitive endoderm (DE). Here, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells towards DE using three different activin A based treatments. Differentiation efficiencies were evaluated by gene expression profiling over time at cell population level. A panel of key markers was used to study DE...... formation. Final DE differentiation was also analyzed with immunocytochemistry and single-cell gene expression profiling. We found that cells treated with activin A in combination with sodium butyrate and B27 serum-free supplement medium generated the most mature DE cells. Cell population studies were...

  8. Publishing SNP genotypes of human embryonic stem cell lines: policy statement of the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Murray, Thomas H; Lee, Eng Hin; Perry, Margery; Richardson, Genevra; Sipp, Douglas; Tanner, Klaus; Wahlström, Jan; de Wert, Guido; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-09-01

    Novel methods and associated tools permitting individual identification in publicly accessible SNP databases have become a debatable issue. There is growing concern that current technical and ethical safeguards to protect the identities of donors could be insufficient. In the context of human embryonic stem cell research, there are no studies focusing on the probability that an hESC line donor could be identified by analyzing published SNP profiles and associated genotypic and phenotypic information. We present the International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF) Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement on "Publishing SNP Genotypes of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (hESC)". The Statement prospectively addresses issues surrounding the publication of genotypic data and associated annotations of hESC lines in open access databases. It proposes a balanced approach between the goals of open science and data sharing with the respect for fundamental bioethical principles (autonomy, privacy, beneficence, justice and research merit and integrity).

  9. Human Papilloma Virus and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayedeh Haeri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV has been suggested as an etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in esophageal SCCs in our region with strict contamination control to prevent false positive results. Thirty cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were chosen by simple random selection in a period of two years. PCR for target sequence of HPV L1 gene was performed on nucleic acid extracted from samples by means of GP5+/GP6+ primers. All tissue samples in both case and control groups were negative for HPV-DNA. Although the number of cases in this study was limited, the contribution of HPV in substantial number of esophageal SCCs in our region is unlikely.

  10. Human papilloma virus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayedeh Haeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has also been suggested as an etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in esophageal SCCs in our region with strict contamination control to prevent false positive results. Thirty cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were chosen by simple random selection in a period of two years. PCR for target sequence of HPV L1 gene was performed on nucleic acid extracted from samples by means of GP5+/GP6+ primers. All tissue samples in both case and control groups were negative for HPV-DNA. Although the number of cases in this study was limited, the contribution of HPV in the substantial number of esophageal SCCs in our region is unlikely.

  11. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into rat spinal cord injuries does not cause harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Frank; Siegenthaler, Monica M; Nistor, Gabriel; Keirstead, Hans S

    2006-07-01

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function following spinal cord injury. We have shown previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into adult rat 200 kD contusive spinal cord injury sites enhances remyelination and promotes recovery of motor function. Previous studies using oligodendrocyte lineage cells have noted a correlation between the presence of demyelinating pathology and the survival and migration rate of the transplanted cells. The present study compared the survival and migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors injected 7 days after a 200 or 50 kD contusive spinal cord injury, as well as the locomotor outcome of transplantation. Our findings indicate that a 200 kD spinal cord injury induces extensive demyelination, whereas a 50 kD spinal cord injury induces no detectable demyelination. Cells transplanted into the 200 kD injury group survived, migrated, and resulted in robust remyelination, replicating our previous studies. In contrast, cells transplanted into the 50 kD injury group survived, exhibited limited migration, and failed to induce remyelination as demyelination in this injury group was absent. Animals that received a 50 kD injury displayed only a transient decline in locomotor function as a result of the injury. Importantly, human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor transplants into the 50 kD injury group did not cause a further decline in locomotion. Our studies highlight the importance of a demyelinating pathology as a prerequisite for the function of transplanted myelinogenic cells. In addition, our results indicate that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells into the injured spinal cord is not associated with a decline in locomotor function.

  12. Expression and potential role of fibroblast growth factor 2 and its receptors in human embryonic stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Petr; Dvořáková, D.; Košková, S.; Vidinská, M.; Najvirtová, M.; Krekáč, D.; Hampl, Aleš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2005), s. 1200-1211 ISSN 1066-5099 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/03/1122; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0434; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : growth factor * human embryonic stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.094, year: 2005

  13. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Desprez, Pierre-Yves, E-mail: pydesprez@cpmcri.org [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); California Pacific Medical Center, Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5-7 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5-7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  14. Hydroxychloroquine susceptibility determination of Coxiella burnetii in human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Khalil, Jacques Bou; Le Bideau, Marion; Perreal, Celine; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, survives and replicates in the acidic environment of monocytes/macrophages; hydroxychloroquine, through alkalinisation of the acidic vacuoles, is critical for the management of Q fever. In this study, a collection of C. burnetii strains isolated from human samples was tested to evaluate the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. Serial two-fold dilutions of doxycycline (0.25-8 mg/L) and hydroxychloroquine (0.25-4 mg/L) were added to C. burnetii-infected human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblast cells after 48 h of incubation, in duplicate. DNA was detected by C. burnetii-specific semi-quantitative PCR with primers and probes designed for amplification of the IS1111 and IS30A spacers. A total of 29 C. burnetii isolates obtained from 29 patients were tested. Doxycycline MICs ranged from 0.25 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L and hydroxychloroquine MICs from 0.25 mg/L to >4 mg/L. Four C. burnetii stains had hydroxychloroquine MICs ≤ 1 mg/L. The concentration of hydroxychloroquine was associated with a significant decrease in C. burnetii DNA copies in HEL cells based on linear regression analysis (P= 0.01). Recommended serum concentrations of hydroxychloroquine significantly reduced the growth of C. burnetii. Moreover, some C. burnetii strains presented hydroxychloroquine MICs below the recommended serum concentrations, indicating that, for these cases, hydroxychloroquine treatment alone may even be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of human embryonic stem cells conditioning media by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A MacIntyre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell culture media conditioned by human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs provide a complex supplement of protein and metabolic factors that support in vitro proliferation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. However, the conditioning process is variable with different media batches often exhibiting differing capacities to maintain hESCs in culture. While recent studies have examined the protein complement of conditioned culture media, detailed information regarding the metabolic component of this media is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a (1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1H-NMR metabonomics approach, 32 metabolites and small compounds were identified and quantified in media conditioned by passage 11 HFFs (CMp11. A number of metabolites were secreted by HFFs with significantly higher concentration of lactate, alanine, and formate detected in CMp11 compared to non-conditioned media. In contrast, levels of tryptophan, folate and niacinamide were depleted in CMp11 indicating the utilisation of these metabolites by HFFs. Multivariate statistical analysis of the (1H-NMR data revealed marked age-related differences in the metabolic profile of CMp11 collected from HFFs every 24 h over 72 h. Additionally, the metabolic profile of CMp11 was altered following freezing at -20°C for 2 weeks. CM derived from passage 18 HFFs (CMp18 was found to be ineffective at supporting hESCs in an undifferentiated state beyond 5 days culture. Multivariate statistical comparison of CMp11 and CMp18 metabolic profiles enabled rapid and clear discrimination between the two media with CMp18 containing lower concentrations of lactate and alanine as well as higher concentrations of glucose and glutamine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: (1H-NMR-based metabonomics offers a rapid and accurate method of characterising hESC conditioning media and is a valuable tool for monitoring, controlling and optimising hESC culture media preparation.

  16. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. ► Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5–7 h. ► Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. ► Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. ► This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5–7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  17. DNA damage responses in human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Momcilovic

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have the capability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation into all somatic cell types. Since they can be produced through somatic cell reprogramming, which uses a defined set of transcription factors, iPS cells represent important sources of patient-specific cells for clinical applications. However, before these cells can be used in therapeutic designs, it is essential to understand their genetic stability.Here, we describe DNA damage responses in human iPS cells. We observe hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents resulting in rapid induction of apoptosis after γ-irradiation. Expression of pluripotency factors does not appear to be diminished after irradiation in iPS cells. Following irradiation, iPS cells activate checkpoint signaling, evidenced by phosphorylation of ATM, NBS1, CHEK2, and TP53, localization of ATM to the double strand breaks (DSB, and localization of TP53 to the nucleus of NANOG-positive cells. We demonstrate that iPS cells temporary arrest cell cycle progression in the G(2 phase of the cell cycle, displaying a lack of the G(1/S cell cycle arrest similar to human embryonic stem (ES cells. Furthermore, both cell types remove DSB within six hours of γ-irradiation, form RAD51 foci and exhibit sister chromatid exchanges suggesting homologous recombination repair. Finally, we report elevated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling, checkpoint function, and repair of various types of DNA lesions in ES and iPS cells relative to their differentiated counterparts.High degrees of similarity in DNA damage responses between ES and iPS cells were found. Even though reprogramming did not alter checkpoint signaling following DNA damage, dramatic changes in cell cycle structure, including a high percentage of cells in the S phase, increased radiosensitivity and loss of DNA damage-induced G(1/S cell cycle arrest, were observed in stem cells generated by induced pluripotency.

  18. Albumin-associated lipids regulate human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc R Garcia-Gonzalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs hold great promise as a source of differentiated cells to treat several human diseases, many obstacles still need to be surmounted before this can become a reality. First among these, a robust chemically-defined system to expand hESCs in culture is still unavailable despite recent advances in the understanding of factors controlling hESC self-renewal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we attempted to find new molecules that stimulate long term hESC self-renewal. In order to do this, we started from the observation that a commercially available serum replacement product has a strong positive effect on the expansion of undifferentiated hESCs when added to a previously reported chemically-defined medium. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that the active ingredient within the serum replacement is lipid-rich albumin. Furthermore, we show that this activity is trypsin-resistant, strongly suggesting that lipids and not albumin are responsible for the effect. Consistent with this, lipid-poor albumin shows no detectable activity. Finally, we identified the major lipids bound to the lipid-rich albumin and tested several lipid candidates for the effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our discovery of the role played by albumin-associated lipids in stimulating hESC self-renewal constitutes a significant advance in the knowledge of how hESC pluripotency is maintained by extracellular factors and has important applications in the development of increasingly chemically defined hESC culture systems.

  19. Human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm alleviates diabetic pathology and improves reproductive outcome in C57BL/KsJ-Lep(db/+) gestational diabetes mellitus mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Baoheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Qin; Cao, Yalei; Dong, Xiujuan; Liang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a condition commonly encountered during mid to late pregnancy with pathologic manifestations including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and fetal maldevelopment. The cause of gestational diabetes mellitus can be attributed to both genetic and environmental factors, hence complicating its diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells were shown to be able to effectively treat diabetes in mice. In this study, we have developed a system of treating diabetes using human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm in a mouse model of gestational diabetes mellitus. Human embryonic stem cells were differentiated in vitro into pancreatic endoderm, which were then transplanted into db/+ mice suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus. The transplant greatly improved glucose metabolism and reproductive outcome of the females compared with the control groups. Our findings support the feasibility of using differentiated human embryonic stem cells for treating gestational diabetes mellitus patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  1. Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khil, Mark S.; Sang, Hie Kim; Pinto, John T.; Jae, Ho Kim

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 μg/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of

  2. Cannabinoids as modulators of cancer cell viability, neuronal differentiation, and embryonal development

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) are compounds that activate the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB receptors mediate many different physiological functions, and cannabinoids have been reported to decrease tumor cell viability, proliferation, migration, as well as to modulate metastasis. In this thesis, the effects of cannabinoids on human colorectal carcinoma Caco-2 cells (Paper I) and mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells (Paper III) were studied.  In both cell lines, the compounds examined produced a concentr...

  3. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conrad, S.; Azizi, H.; Hatami, M.; Kubista, Mikael; Bonin, M.; Hennenlotter, J.; Renninger, M.; Skutella, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 138350 (2014) ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : ADULT HUMAN TESTIS * GERM-CELL DEVELOPMENT * HUMAN EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  4. Retinal vascular injuries and intravitreal human embryonic stem cell-derived haemangioblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Lanza, Robert; Lu, Shi-Jiang; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate whether intravitreally applied haemangioblasts (HB) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are helpful for the repair of vascular damage caused in animals by an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), by an induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) or by an induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Human embryonic stem cell-derived HBs were transplanted intravitreally into C57BL/6J mice (OIR model), into male Wistar rats with an induced DR and into male Wistar rats undergoing induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Control groups of animals received an intravitreal injection of endothelial cells (ECs) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). We examined the vasculature integrity in the mice with OIR, the blood-retina barrier in the rats with induced DR, and retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density in retina flat mounts of the rats with the retinal ischaemic-reperfusion retinopathy. In the OIR model, the study group versus control groups showed a significantly (p < 0.001) smaller retinal avascular area [5.1 ± 2.7%;n = 18 animals versus 12.2 ± 2.8% (PBS group; n = 10 animals) and versus 11.8 ± 3.7% (EC group; n = 8 animals)] and less retinal neovascularization [6.3 ± 2.5%;n = 18 versus 15.2 ± 6.3% (n = 10; PBS group) and versus 15.8 ± 3.3% (n = 8; EC group)]. On retinal flat mounts, hESC-HBs were integrated into damaged retinal vessels and stained positive for PECAM (CD31) as EC marker. In the DR model, the study group versus the EC control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) better blood-retina barrier function as measured at 2 days after the intravitreal injections [study group: 20.2 ± 12.8 μl/(g × hr); n = 6; versus EC control group: 52.9 ± 9.9 μl/(g × hr; n = 6)]. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, the groups did not differ significantly in retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density at 2, 5 and 7 days after baseline. By integrating into

  5. Requirement of mitoses for the reversal of X-inactivation in cell hybrids between murine embryonal carcinoma cells and normal female thymocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, N. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1988-04-01

    By means of a 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and acridine orange fluorescence staining method the authors studied reactivation of the inactivated X chromosome (X{sub i}) in newly formed cell hybrids between the near-diploid HPRT-deficient OTF9-63 murine embryonal carcinoma cell (ECC) with an XO sex chromosome constitution and the normal female mouse thymocyte. Synchronization of the late replicating S chromosome in such hybrid cells, indicative of reactivation, was found for the first time on Day 3, and the frequency of reactivation was attained 90% on Day 5. Inhibition of cell cycle progression either by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of polyamine metabolism, or by isoleucine-deficient medium after cell fusion delayed reactivation of the X{sub i}, which implied that the number of cell division cycles traversed by individual cells rather than the length of time after cell fusion is critical for the reactivation. Double-labeling experiments using ({sup 3}H)thymidine and BrdU indicated that hybrid cells had undergone three or four mitoses before reactivation of the X{sub i}. Most probably reactivation of the X{sub i} is consequent to reversion of the thymocyte genome to an undifferentiated state under the influence of OTF9 genome. DNA demethylation or dilution of X{sub i}-specific factors by mitoses may be involved in this process.

  6. Requirement of mitoses for the reversal of X-inactivation in cell hybrids between murine embryonal carcinoma cells and normal female thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.

    1988-01-01

    By means of a 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and acridine orange fluorescence staining method the authors studied reactivation of the inactivated X chromosome (X i ) in newly formed cell hybrids between the near-diploid HPRT-deficient OTF9-63 murine embryonal carcinoma cell (ECC) with an XO sex chromosome constitution and the normal female mouse thymocyte. Synchronization of the late replicating S chromosome in such hybrid cells, indicative of reactivation, was found for the first time on Day 3, and the frequency of reactivation was attained 90% on Day 5. Inhibition of cell cycle progression either by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of polyamine metabolism, or by isoleucine-deficient medium after cell fusion delayed reactivation of the X i , which implied that the number of cell division cycles traversed by individual cells rather than the length of time after cell fusion is critical for the reactivation. Double-labeling experiments using [ 3 H]thymidine and BrdU indicated that hybrid cells had undergone three or four mitoses before reactivation of the X i . Most probably reactivation of the X i is consequent to reversion of the thymocyte genome to an undifferentiated state under the influence of OTF9 genome. DNA demethylation or dilution of X i -specific factors by mitoses may be involved in this process

  7. Embryonal carcinoma cell induction of miRNA and mRNA changes in co-cultured prostate stromal fibromuscular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    VÊNCIO, ENEIDA F.; PASCAL, LAURA E.; PAGE, LAURA S.; DENYER, GARETH; WANG, AMY J.; RUOHOLA-BAKER, HANNELE; ZHANG, SHILE; WANG, KAI; GALAS, DAVID J.; LIU, ALVIN Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prostate stromal mesenchyme controls organ-specific development. In cancer, the stromal compartment shows altered gene expression compared to non-cancer. The lineage relationship between cancer-associated stromal cells and normal tissue stromal cells is not known. Nor is the cause underlying the expression difference. Previously, the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, NCCIT, was used by us to study the stromal induction property. In the current study, stromal cells from non-cancer (NP) and cancer (CP) were isolated from tissue specimens and co-cultured with NCCIT cells in a trans-well format to preclude heterotypic cell contact. After 3 days, the stromal cells were analyzed by gene arrays for microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression. In co-culture, NCCIT cells were found to alter the miRNA and mRNA expression of NP stromal cells to one like that of CP stromal cells. In contrast, NCCIT had no significant effect on the gene expression of CP stromal cells. We conclude that the gene expression changes in stromal cells can be induced by diffusible factors synthesized by EC cells, and suggest that cancer-associated stromal cells represent a more primitive or less differentiated stromal cell type. PMID:20945389

  8. Composition and function of macroencapsulated human embryonic stem cell-derived implants: comparison with clinical human islet cell grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motté, Evi; Szepessy, Edit; Suenens, Krista; Stangé, Geert; Bomans, Myriam; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Ling, Zhidong; Kroon, Evert; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    β-Cells generated from large-scale sources can overcome current shortages in clinical islet cell grafts provided that they adequately respond to metabolic variations. Pancreatic (non)endocrine cells can develop from human embryonic stem (huES) cells following in vitro derivation to pancreatic endoderm (PE) that is subsequently implanted in immune-incompetent mice for further differentiation. Encapsulation of PE increases the proportion of endocrine cells in subcutaneous implants, with enrichment in β-cells when they are placed in TheraCyte-macrodevices and predominantly α-cells when they are alginate-microencapsulated. At posttransplant (PT) weeks 20-30, macroencapsulated huES implants presented higher glucose-responsive plasma C-peptide levels and a lower proinsulin-over-C-peptide ratio than human islet cell implants under the kidney capsule. Their ex vivo analysis showed the presence of single-hormone-positive α- and β-cells that exhibited rapid secretory responses to increasing and decreasing glucose concentrations, similar to isolated human islet cells. However, their insulin secretory amplitude was lower, which was attributed in part to a lower cellular hormone content; it was associated with a lower glucose-induced insulin biosynthesis, but not with lower glucagon-induced stimulation, which together is compatible with an immature functional state of the huES-derived β-cells at PT weeks 20-30. These data support the therapeutic potential of macroencapsulated huES implants but indicate the need for further functional analysis. Their comparison with clinical-grade human islet cell grafts sets references for future development and clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. ISL1 protein transduction promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananeh Fonoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to provide an unlimited source of cardiomyocytes, which are invaluable resources for drug or toxicology screening, medical research, and cell therapy. Currently a number of obstacles exist such as the insufficient efficiency of differentiation protocols, which should be overcome before hESC-derived cardiomyocytes can be used for clinical applications. Although the differentiation efficiency can be improved by the genetic manipulation of hESCs to over-express cardiac-specific transcription factors, these differentiated cells are not safe enough to be applied in cell therapy. Protein transduction has been demonstrated as an alternative approach for increasing the efficiency of hESCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes. METHODS: We present an efficient protocol for the differentiation of hESCs in suspension by direct introduction of a LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Islet1 (ISL1 recombinant protein into the cells. RESULTS: We found that the highest beating clusters were derived by continuous treatment of hESCs with 40 µg/ml recombinant ISL1 protein during days 1-8 after the initiation of differentiation. The treatment resulted in up to a 3-fold increase in the number of beating areas. In addition, the number of cells that expressed cardiac specific markers (cTnT, CONNEXIN 43, ACTININ, and GATA4 doubled. This protocol was also reproducible for another hESC line. CONCLUSIONS: This study has presented a new, efficient, and reproducible procedure for cardiomyocytes differentiation. Our results will pave the way for scaled up and controlled differentiation of hESCs to be used for biomedical applications in a bioreactor culture system.

  10. Electrospun polyurethane scaffolds for proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Bjoern; Liu, Johan; Axell, Mathilda Zetterstroem; Kuhn, H Georg; Nannmark, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Hence, tissue engineering scaffolds intended for CNS repair and rehabilitation have been subject to intense research effort. Electrospun porous scaffolds, mimicking the natural three-dimensional environment of the in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) and providing physical support, have been identified as promising candidates for CNS tissue engineering. The present study demonstrates in vitro culturing and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on electrospun fibrous polyurethane scaffolds. Electrospun scaffolds composed of biocompatible polyurethane resin (Desmopan 9370A, Bayer MaterialScience AG) were prepared with a vertical electrospinning setup. Resulting scaffolds, with a thickness of approximately 150 μm, exhibited high porosity (84%) and a bimodal pore size distribution with peaks at 5-6 and 1 μm. The mean fiber diameter was measured to approximately 360 nm with a standard deviation of 80 nm. The undifferentiated hESC line SA002 (Cellartis AB, Goeteborg, Sweden) was seeded and cultured on the produced scaffolds and allowed propagation and then differentiation for up to 47 days. Cultivation of hESC on electrospun fibrous scaffolds proved successful and neuronal differentiation was observed via standard immunocytochemistry. The results indicate that predominantly dopaminergic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons are derived in co-culture with fibrous scaffolds, in comparison to reference cultures under the same differentiation conditions displaying large proportions of GFAP positive cell types. Scanning electron micrographs confirm neurite outgrowth and connection to adjacent cells, as well as cell attachment to individual fibers of the fibrous scaffold. Consequently, electrospun polyurethane scaffolds have been proven feasible as a substrate for hESC propagation and neuronal differentiation. The physical interaction between cells

  11. Lineage specific expression of Polycomb Group Proteins in human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Prasad; Pursani, Varsha; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2015-05-01

    Human embryonic (hES) stem cells are an excellent model to study lineage specification and differentiation into various cell types. Differentiation necessitates repression of specific genes not required for a particular lineage. Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are key histone modifiers, whose primary function is gene repression. PcG proteins form complexes called Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs), which catalyze histone modifications such as H2AK119ub1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3. PcG proteins play a crucial role during differentiation of stem cells. The expression of PcG transcripts during differentiation of hES cells into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineage is yet to be shown. In-house derived hES cell line KIND1 was differentiated into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages; followed by characterization using RT-PCR for HNF4A, CDX2, MEF2C, TBX5, SOX1, and MAP2. qRT-PCR and western blotting was performed to compare expression of PcG transcripts and proteins across all the three lineages. We observed that cells differentiated into endoderm showed upregulation of RING1B, BMI1, EZH2, and EED transcripts. Mesoderm differentiation was characterized by significant downregulation of all PcG transcripts during later stages. BMI1 and RING1B were upregulated while EZH2, SUZ12, and EED remained low during ectoderm differentiation. Western blotting also showed distinct expression of BMI1 and EZH2 during differentiation into three germ layers. Our study shows that hES cells differentiating into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages show distinct PcG expression profile at transcript and protein level. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  12. A scalable system for production of functional pancreatic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Schulz

    Full Text Available Development of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based therapy for type 1 diabetes will require the translation of proof-of-principle concepts into a scalable, controlled, and regulated cell manufacturing process. We have previously demonstrated that hESC can be directed to differentiate into pancreatic progenitors that mature into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells in vivo. In this study we describe hESC expansion and banking methods and a suspension-based differentiation system, which together underpin an integrated scalable manufacturing process for producing pancreatic progenitors. This system has been optimized for the CyT49 cell line. Accordingly, qualified large-scale single-cell master and working cGMP cell banks of CyT49 have been generated to provide a virtually unlimited starting resource for manufacturing. Upon thaw from these banks, we expanded CyT49 for two weeks in an adherent culture format that achieves 50-100 fold expansion per week. Undifferentiated CyT49 were then aggregated into clusters in dynamic rotational suspension culture, followed by differentiation en masse for two weeks with a four-stage protocol. Numerous scaled differentiation runs generated reproducible and defined population compositions highly enriched for pancreatic cell lineages, as shown by examining mRNA expression at each stage of differentiation and flow cytometry of the final population. Islet-like tissue containing glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells was generated upon implantation into mice. By four- to five-months post-engraftment, mature neo-pancreatic tissue was sufficient to protect against streptozotocin (STZ-induced hyperglycemia. In summary, we have developed a tractable manufacturing process for the generation of functional pancreatic progenitors from hESC on a scale amenable to clinical entry.

  13. Unraveling the global microRNAome responses to ionizing radiation in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA comprise a group of short ribonucleic acid molecules implicated in regulation of key biological processes and functions at the post-transcriptional level. Ionizing radiation (IR causes DNA damage and generally triggers cellular stress response. However, the role of miRNAs in IR-induced response in human embryonic stem cells (hESC has not been defined yet. Here, by using system biology approaches, we show for the first time, that miRNAome undergoes global alterations in hESC (H1 and H9 lines after IR. Interrogation of expression levels of 1,090 miRNA species in irradiated hESC showed statistically significant changes in 54 genes following 1 Gy of X-ray exposures; global miRNAome alterations were found to be highly temporally and cell line--dependent in hESC. Time-course studies showed that the 16 hr miRNAome radiation response of hESC is much more robust compared to 2 hr-response signature (only eight genes, and may be involved in regulating the cell cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR performed on some miRNA species confirms the robustness of our miRNA microarray platform. Positive regulation of differentiation-, cell cycle-, ion transport- and endomembrane system-related processes were predicted to be negatively affected by miRNAome changes in irradiated hESC. Our findings reveal a fundamental role of miRNAome in modulating the radiation response, and identify novel molecular targets of radiation in hESC.

  14. Electrospun polyurethane scaffolds for proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Bjoern; Liu, Johan [BioNano Systems Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg, SE-412 96 (Sweden); Axell, Mathilda Zetterstroem; Kuhn, H Georg [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, SE-413 45 (Sweden); Nannmark, Ulf, E-mail: bjorn.carlberg@chalmers.s, E-mail: mathilda.zetterstrom@neuro.gu.s, E-mail: georg.kuhn@neuro.gu.s, E-mail: ulf.nannmark@anatcell.gu.s, E-mail: jliu@chalmers.s [Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, SE-405 30 (Sweden)

    2009-08-15

    Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Hence, tissue engineering scaffolds intended for CNS repair and rehabilitation have been subject to intense research effort. Electrospun porous scaffolds, mimicking the natural three-dimensional environment of the in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) and providing physical support, have been identified as promising candidates for CNS tissue engineering. The present study demonstrates in vitro culturing and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on electrospun fibrous polyurethane scaffolds. Electrospun scaffolds composed of biocompatible polyurethane resin (Desmopan 9370A, Bayer MaterialScience AG) were prepared with a vertical electrospinning setup. Resulting scaffolds, with a thickness of approximately 150{mu}m, exhibited high porosity (84%) and a bimodal pore size distribution with peaks at 5-6 and 1{mu}m. The mean fiber diameter was measured to approximately 360 nm with a standard deviation of 80 nm. The undifferentiated hESC line SA002 (Cellartis AB, Goeteborg, Sweden) was seeded and cultured on the produced scaffolds and allowed propagation and then differentiation for up to 47 days. Cultivation of hESC on electrospun fibrous scaffolds proved successful and neuronal differentiation was observed via standard immunocytochemistry. The results indicate that predominantly dopaminergic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons are derived in co-culture with fibrous scaffolds, in comparison to reference cultures under the same differentiation conditions displaying large proportions of GFAP positive cell types. Scanning electron micrographs confirm neurite outgrowth and connection to adjacent cells, as well as cell attachment to individual fibers of the fibrous scaffold. Consequently, electrospun polyurethane scaffolds have been proven feasible as a substrate for hESC propagation and neuronal differentiation. The physical interaction between

  15. Environmental oxygen tension regulates the energy metabolism and self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristal, Catherine E; Christensen, David R; Chinnery, Fay E; Petruzzelli, Raffaella; Parry, Kate L; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Houghton, Franchesca D

    2013-01-01

    Energy metabolism is intrinsic to cell viability but surprisingly has been little studied in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The current study aims to investigate the effect of environmental O2 tension on carbohydrate utilisation of hESCs. Highly pluripotent hESCs cultured at 5% O2 consumed significantly more glucose, less pyruvate and produced more lactate compared to those maintained at 20% O2. Moreover, hESCs cultured at atmospheric O2 levels expressed significantly less OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG than those maintained at 5% O2. To determine whether this difference in metabolism was a reflection of the pluripotent state, hESCs were cultured at 5% O2 in the absence of FGF2 for 16 hours leading to a significant reduction in the expression of SOX2. In addition, these cells consumed less glucose and produced significantly less lactate compared to those cultured in the presence of FGF2. hESCs maintained at 5% O2 were found to consume significantly less O2 than those cultured in the absence of FGF2, or at 20% O2. GLUT1 expression correlated with glucose consumption and using siRNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation was found to be directly regulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α at 5% O2. In conclusion, highly pluripotent cells associated with hypoxic culture consume low levels of O2, high levels of glucose and produce large amounts of lactate, while at atmospheric conditions glucose consumption and lactate production are reduced and there is an increase in oxidative metabolism. These data suggest that environmental O2 regulates energy metabolism and is intrinsic to the self-renewal of hESCs.

  16. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  17. In Vitro Osteogenic Potential of Green Fluorescent Protein Labelled Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteoprogenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intekhab Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy using stem cells in bone regeneration has gained increasing interest. Various studies suggest the clinical utility of osteoprogenitors-like mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration. However, limited availability of mesenchymal stem cells and conflicting evidence on their therapeutic efficacy limit their clinical application. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are potentially an unlimited source of healthy and functional osteoprogenitors (OPs that could be utilized for bone regenerative applications. However, limited ability to track hESC-derived progenies in vivo greatly hinders translational studies. Hence, in this study, we aimed to establish hESC-derived OPs (hESC-OPs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP and to investigate their osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. We fluorescently labelled H9-hESCs using a plasmid vector encoding GFP. The GFP-expressing hESCs were differentiated into hESC-OPs. The hESC-OPsGFP+ stably expressed high levels of GFP, CD73, CD90, and CD105. They possessed osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro as demonstrated by increased expression of COL1A1, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and OPG transcripts and mineralized nodules positive for Alizarin Red and immunocytochemical expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen-I. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs can maintain their GFP expression for the long term and their potential for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In future, these fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs could be used for noninvasive assessment of bone regeneration, safety, and therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Comprehensive quantitative comparison of the membrane proteome, phosphoproteome, and sialiome of human embryonic and neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella Nunes; Schulz, Melanie; Liu, Qiuyue

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into neural stem cells (NSCs), which can further be differentiated into neurons and glia cells. Therefore, these cells have huge potential as source for treatment of neurological diseases. Membrane-associated proteins are very important......ESCs and NSCs as well as to investigate potential new markers for these two cell stages, we performed large-scale quantitative membrane-proteomic of hESCs and NSCs. This approach employed membrane purification followed by peptide dimethyl labeling and peptide enrichment to study the membrane subproteome as well...... in which 78% of phosphopeptides were identified with ≥99% confidence in site assignment and 1810 unique formerly sialylated N-linked glycopeptides. Several proteins were identified as significantly regulated in hESCs and NSC, including proteins involved in the early embryonic and neural development...

  19. Dynamic expression of calretinin in embryonic and early fetal human cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eGonzalez-Gomez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calretinin (CR is one of the earliest neurochemical markers in human corticogenesis. In embryos from Carnegie stages (CS 17 to 23, calbindin (CB and CR stain opposite poles of the incipient cortex suggesting early regionalization: CB marks the neuroepithelium of the medial boundary of the cortex with the choroid plexus (cortical hem. By contrast, CR is confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral and caudal ganglionic eminences at the pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB, or antihem, from where CR+/Tbr1- neurons migrate toward piriform cortex and amygdala as a component of the lateral cortical stream. At CS 19, columns of CR+ cells arise in the rostral cortex, and contribute at CS 20 to the monolayer of horizontal Tbr1+/CR+ and GAD+ cells in the preplate. At CS 21, the pioneer cortical plate appears as a radial aggregation of CR+/Tbr1+ neurons, which cover the entire future neocortex and extend the first corticofugal axons. CR expression in early human corticogenesis is thus not restricted to interneurons, but is also present in the first excitatory projection neurons of the cortex. At CS 21/22, the cortical plate is established following a lateral to medial gradient, when Tbr1+/CR- neurons settle within the pioneer cortical plate, and thus separate superficial and deep pioneer neurons. CR+ pioneer neurons disappear shortly after the formation of the cortical plate. Reelin+ Cajal-Retzius cells begin to express CR around CS21 (7/8 PCW. At CS 21-23, the CR+ SVZ at the PSB is the source of CR+ interneurons migrating into the cortical SVZ. In turn, CB+ interneurons migrate from the subpallium into the intermediate zone following the fibers of the internal capsule. Early CR+ and CB+ interneurons thus have different origins and migratory routes. CR+ cell populations in the embryonic telencephalon take part in a complex sequence of events not analyzed so far in other mammalian species, which may represent a distinctive trait of the initial steps

  20. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal and Mesenchymal) Stem-Like Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M.; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S.; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  1. Stem cell pluripotency factor NANOG is expressed in human fetal gonocytes, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Almstrup, K; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: NANOG is a key regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pluripotency. Our recent genome-wide gene expression profiling study of the precursor of testicular germ cell tumours, carcinoma in situ testis (CIS), showed close similarity between ESC and CIS, including high NANOG...... earlier than for OCT-4. We detected no expression at the protein level in normal testis. CONCLUSIONS: NANOG is a new marker for testicular CIS and germ cell tumours and the high level of NANOG along with OCT-4 are determinants of the stem cell-like pluripotency of the preinvasive CIS cell. Timing of NANOG...... expression. In the present study we analysed the protein expression of NANOG during normal development of human testis and in a large series of neoplastic/dysgenetic specimens. METHODS AND RESULTS: We detected abundant expression of NANOG in CIS and in CIS-derived testicular tumours with marked differences...

  2. Generation of KCL025 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in NF1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL025 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739–3742 ΔTTTG. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  3. Generation of KCL018 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the DMPK gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the DMPK gene encoding the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (2200 trinucleotide repeats; 14 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  4. Generation of KCL028 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Jacquet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL028 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  5. Efficient Generation of Functional Hepatocytes From Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by HNF4α Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Kazuo; Inamura, Mitsuru; Kawabata, Kenji; Katayama, Kazufumi; Higuchi, Maiko; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Nonaka, Aki; Sakurai, Fuminori; Hayakawa, Takao; Kusuda Furue, Miho; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to be a useful source of cells drug discovery. Although we recently reported that hepatic commitment is promoted by transduction of SOX17 and HEX into human ESC- and iPSC-derived cells, these hepatocyte-like cells were not sufficiently mature for drug screening. To promote hepatic maturation, we utilized transduction of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) gene, which is kn...

  6. A small molecule-based strategy for endothelial differentiation and three-dimensional morphogenesis from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yijie; Feng, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The emerging models of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-organizing organoids provide a valuable in vitro platform for studying self-organizing processes that presumably mimic in vivo human developmental events. Here we report that through a chemical screen, we identified two novel and structurally similar small molecules BIR1 and BIR2 which robustly induced the self-organization of a balloon-shaped three-dimensional structure when applied to two-dimensional adherent hESC cultures in the ...

  7. LAT1 acts as a crucial transporter of amino acids in human thymic carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Hayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5 incorporates essential amino acids into cells. Recent studies have shown that LAT1 is a predominant transporter in various human cancers. However, the function of LAT1 in thymic carcinoma remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that LAT1 is a critical transporter for human thymic carcinoma cells. LAT1 was strongly expressed in human thymic carcinoma tissues. LAT1-specific inhibitor significantly suppressed leucine uptake and growth of Ty82 human thymic carcinoma cell lines, suggesting that thymic carcinoma takes advantage of LAT1 as a quality transporter and that LAT1-specific inhibitor might be clinically beneficial in therapy for thymic carcinoma.

  8. Comparison of the early response of human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Łukjanow, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    Despite the well-demonstrated efficacy of stem cell (SC) therapy, this approach has a number of key drawbacks. One important concern is the response of pluripotent SCs to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), given that SCs used in regenerative medicine will eventually be exposed to IR for diagnostic or treatment‑associated purposes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine and compare early IR‑induced responses of pluripotent SCs to assess their radioresistance and radiosensitivity. In the present study, 3 cell lines; human embryonic SCs (hESCs), human induced pluripotent SCs (hiPSCs) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs); were exposed to IR at doses ranging from 0 to 15 gray (Gy). Double strand breaks (DSBs), and the gene expression of the following DNA repair genes were analyzed: P53; RAD51; BRCA2; PRKDC; and XRCC4. hiPSCs demonstrated greater radioresistance, as fewer DSBs were identified, compared with hESCs. Both pluripotent SC lines exhibited distinct gene expression profiles in the most common DNA repair genes that are involved in homologous recombination, non‑homologous end‑joining and enhanced DNA damage response following IR exposure. Although hESCs and hiPSCs are equivalent in terms of capacity for pluripotency and differentiation into 3 germ layers, the results of the present study indicate that these 2 types of SCs differ in gene expression following exposure to IR. Consequently, further research is required to determine whether hiPSCs and hESCs are equally safe for application in clinical practice. The present study contributes to a greater understanding of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms activated in pluripotent SCs and may aid in the future development of safe SC‑based clinical protocols.

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  10. Utilization of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as feeder layers to sustain propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the undifferentiated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehua; Cai, Zhe; Li, Yang; Shu, Jun; Pan, Lin; Wan, Fang; Li, Hong; Huang, Xiaojie; He, Chun; Liu, Yanqiu; Cui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yang; Gao, Yan; Wu, Liqun; Cao, Shanxia; Li, Lingsong

    2011-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are usually maintained in the undifferentiated state by culturing on feeder cells layers of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). However, MEFs are not suitable to support human ES cells used for clinical purpose because of risk of zoonosis from animal cells. Therefore, human tissue-based feeder layers need to be developed for human ES cells for clinical purpose. Hereof we report that human amniotic mesenchymal cells (hAMCs) could act as feeder cells for human ES cells, because they are easily obtained and relatively exempt from ethical problem. Like MEFs, hAMCs could act as feeder cells for human ES cells to grow well on. The self-renewal rate of human ES cells cultured on hAMCs feeders was higher than that on MEFs and human amniotic epithelial cells determined by measurement of colonial diameters and growth curve as well as cell cycle analysis. Both immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting showed that human ES cells cultured on hAMCs expressed stem cell markers such as Oct-3/4, Sox2, and NANOG. Verified by embryoid body formation in vitro and teratoma formation in vivo, we found out that after 20 passages of culture, human ES cells grown on hAMCs feeders could still retain the potency of differentiating into three germ layers. Taken together, our data suggested hAMCs may be safe feeder cells to sustain the propagation of human ES cells in undifferentiated state for future therapeutic use.

  11. Induction of anchorage-independent growth of human embryonic fibroblasts with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 by human papillomavirus type 16 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, H.L.; Raadsheer, E.; Rood, I.; Mehendale, S.; Slater, R.M.; van der Noordaa, J.; Ter Schegget, J.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic fibroblasts with a large deletion (11p11.11p15.1) in the short arm of one chromosome 11 (del-11 cells) appeared to be susceptible to transformation by early human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA, whereas diploid human embryonic fibroblasts were not. This difference in susceptibility might be explained by the absence of a tumor suppressor gene located within the deleted part on the short arm of chromosome 11. The presence of abundant viral early-gene transcripts in transformed cells suggests that transformation was induced by an elevated level of an HPV-16 early-gene product(s). The low transcriptional activity of HPV-16 in diploid cells may indicate that cellular genes affect viral transcription. Interruption of the HPV-16 E2 early open reading frame is probably required for high-level HPV-16 early-gene expression driven from the homologous enhancer-promoter region

  12. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  13. Ethical Assessment of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research According to Turkish Muslim Scholars: First Critical Analysis and Some Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ilkilic, Ilhan

    2016-08-01

    Turkey, with a Muslim population of officially over 99 %, is one of the few secular states in the Muslim world. Although state institutions are not based on Islamic juridical and ethical norms, the latter play a significant role in defining people's attitudes towards controversial issues in the modern world, especially when backed by opinions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey. Accordingly, opinions of Muslim scholars undoubtedly have an important effect on bioethical decisions made by institutions and individuals. To explore the ethical positions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey and their arguments used in the ethical assessment of embryonic stem cell research; to discuss the biological-moral tensions arising in medical research on human embryos. Qualitative study. Muslim scholars located in different parts of Turkey. Qualitative method, involving the collection of opinions of various scholars, by means of 15 individual semi-structured interviews, evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. Positions regarding embryonic stem cell research differ among Muslim scholars in Turkey. On the other hand, even where positions are similar, they are often supported by different arguments. Despite the heterogeneity of the arguments presented, the dominant position considers embryonic stem cell research as morally acceptable.

  14. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat(b)/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug=GD 1), exposed for 24h to 2 or 4mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (pcatalase (PEG-cat) 8h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (pcatalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-throughput identification of small molecules that affect human embryonic vascular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazão, Helena; Rosa, Susana; Barata, Tânia; Costa, Ricardo; Pitrez, Patrícia R.; Honório, Inês; De Vries, Margreet R.; Papatsenko, Dimitri; Benedito, Rui; Saris, Daniel; Khademhosseini, Ali; Quax, Paul H.A.; Pereira, Carlos F.; Mercader, Nadia; Fernandes, Hugo; Ferreira, Lino

    2017-01-01

    Birth defects, which are in part caused by exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs, affect 1 in every 33 babies born in the United States each year. The current standard to screen drugs that affect embryonic development is based on prenatal animal testing; however, this approach

  16. Fucoidan promotes early step of cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells and long-term maintenance of beating areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Sofiane; Letourneur, Didier; Aid-Launais, Rachida; Di Stefano, Antonio; Vainchenker, William; Norol, Françoise; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Somatic stem cells require specific niches and three-dimensional scaffolds provide ways to mimic this microenvironment. Here, we studied a scaffold based on Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide known to influence morphogen gradients during embryonic development, to support human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiation toward the cardiac lineage. A macroporous (pore 200 μm) Fucoidan scaffold was selected to support hESCs attachment and proliferation. Using a protocol based on the cardiogenic morphogen bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ) followed by tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), an effector of cardiopoietic priming, we examined the cardiac differentiation in the scaffold compared to culture dishes and embryoid bodies (EBs). At day 8, Fucoidan scaffolds supported a significantly higher expression of the 3 genes encoding for transcription factors marking the early step of embryonic cardiac differentiation NKX2.5 (prelease TGFβ and TNFα was confirmed by Luminex technology. We also found that Fucoidan scaffolds supported the late stage of embryonic cardiac differentiation marked by a significantly higher atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression (pstress in the soft hydrogel impaired sarcomere formation, as confirmed by molecular analysis of the cardiac muscle myosin MYH6 and immunohistological staining of sarcomeric α-actinin. Nevertheless, Fucoidan scaffolds contributed to the development of thin filaments connecting beating areas through promotion of smooth muscle cells, thus enabling maintenance of beating areas for up to 6 months. In conclusion, Fucoidan scaffolds appear as a very promising biomaterial to control cardiac differentiation from hESCs that could be further combined with mechanical stress to promote sarcomere formation at terminal stages of differentiation.

  17. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV Mediated Knock-in at NRL Locus in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglian Ge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9-mediated genome engineering technologies are sparking a new revolution in biological research. This technology efficiently induces DNA double strand breaks at the targeted genomic sequence and results in indel mutations by the error-prone process of nonhomologous end joining DNA repair or homologous recombination with a DNA repair template. The efficiency of genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 alone in human embryonic stem cells is still low. Gene targeting with adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors has been demonstrated in multiple human cell types with maximal targeting frequencies without engineered nucleases. However, whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated double strand breaks and AAV based donor DNA mediated homologous recombination approaches could be combined to create a novel CRISPR/Cas9-AAV genetic tool for highly specific gene editing is not clear. Here we demonstrate that using CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, we could successfully knock-in a DsRed reporter gene at the basic motifleucine zipper transcription factor (NRL locus in human embryonic stem cells. For the first time, this study provides the proof of principle that these two technologies can be used together. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, a new genome editing tool, offers a platform for the manipulation of human genome.

  19. Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Hepatic Endoderm and Its Role in Bioartificial Liver Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays.

  20. Differential proteome analysis of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293 following mycophenolic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycophenolic acid (MPA is widely used as a post transplantation medicine to prevent acute organ rejection. In the present study we used proteomics approach to identify proteome alterations in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293 after treatment with therapeutic dose of MPA. Following 72 hours MPA treatment, total protein lysates were prepared, resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Expressional regulations of selected proteins were further validated by real time PCR and Western blotting. Results The proliferation assay demonstrated that therapeutic MPA concentration causes a dose dependent inhibition of HEK-293 cell proliferation. A significant apoptosis was observed after MPA treatment, as revealed by caspase 3 activity. Proteome analysis showed a total of 12 protein spots exhibiting differential expression after incubation with MPA, of which 7 proteins (complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit, peroxiredoxin 1, thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12, myosin regulatory light chain 2, and profilin 1 showed significant increase in their expression. The expression of 5 proteins (protein SET, stathmin, 40S ribosomal protein S12, histone H2B type 1 A, and histone H2B type 1-C/E/F/G/I were down-regulated. MPA mainly altered the proteins associated with the cytoskeleton (26%, chromatin structure/dynamics (17% and energy production/conversion (17%. Both real time PCR and Western blotting confirmed the regulation of myosin regulatory light chain 2 and peroxiredoxin 1 by MPA treatment. Furthermore, HT-29 cells treated with MPA and total kidney cell lysate from MMF treated rats showed similar increased expression of myosin regulatory light chain 2. Conclusion The emerging use of MPA in diverse pathophysiological conditions demands in-depth studies to

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate MHC and antigen processing molecules in human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Suárez-Alvarez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored.We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and NTera2 (NT2 teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1 and tapasin (TPN components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and beta2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs. Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation.Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance.

  2. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulate MHC and Antigen Processing Molecules in Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Ramón M.; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Blanco-Gelaz, Miguel A.; Suhr, Steve T.; Ortega, Francisco; Otero, Jesus; Cibelli, Jose B.; Moore, Harry; Fraga, Mario F.; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an attractive resource for new therapeutic approaches that involve tissue regeneration. hESCs have exhibited low immunogenicity due to low levels of Mayor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class-I and absence of MHC class-II expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms regulating MHC expression in hESCs had not been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the expression levels of classical and non-classical MHC class-I, MHC class-II molecules, antigen-processing machinery (APM) components and NKG2D ligands (NKG2D-L) in hESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and NTera2 (NT2) teratocarcinoma cell line. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of these genes were investigated by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We showed that low levels of MHC class-I molecules were associated with absent or reduced expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP-1) and tapasin (TPN) components in hESCs and iPSCs, which are involved in the transport and load of peptides. Furthermore, lack of β2-microglobulin (β2m) light chain in these cells limited the expression of MHC class I trimeric molecule on the cell surface. NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB) were observed in all pluripotent stem cells lines. Epigenetic analysis showed that H3K9me3 repressed the TPN gene in undifferentiated cells whilst HLA-B and β2m acquired the H3K4me3 modification during the differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs). Absence of HLA-DR and HLA-G expression was regulated by DNA methylation. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide fundamental evidence for the epigenetic control of MHC in hESCs and iPSCs. Reduced MHC class I and class II expression in hESCs and iPSCs can limit their recognition by the immune response against these cells. The knowledge of these mechanisms will further allow the development of strategies to induce tolerance and improve stem cell allograft acceptance

  3. Podocalyxin as a major pluripotent marker and novel keratan sulfate proteoglycan in human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hidenao; Nagai, Yuko; Kojima, Aya; Kinoshita-Toyoda, Akiko

    2017-04-01

    Podocalyxin (PC) was first identified as a heavily sialylated transmembrane protein of glomerular podocytes. Recent studies suggest that PC is a remarkable glycoconjugate that acts as a universal glyco-carrier. The glycoforms of PC are responsible for multiple functions in normal tissue, human cancer cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). PC is employed as a major pluripotent marker of hESCs and hiPSCs. Among the general antibodies for human PC, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 recognize the keratan sulfate (KS)-related structures. Therefore, It is worthwhile to summarize the outstanding chemical characteristic of PC, including the KS-related structures. Here, we review the glycoforms of PC and discuss the potential of PC as a novel KS proteoglycan in undifferentiated hESCs and hiPSCs.

  4. Eighteen-Year Cryopreservation Does Not Negatively Affect the Pluripotency of Human Embryos: Evidence from Embryonic Stem Cell Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Numchaisrika, Pranee; Ahnonkitpanit, Vichuda; Isarasena, Nipan; Virutamasen, Pramuan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are considered to be a potential source for the therapy of human diseases, drug screening, and the study of developmental biology. In the present study, we successfully derived hES cell lines from blastocysts developed from frozen and fresh embryos. Seventeen- to eighteen-year-old frozen embryos were thawed, cultured to the blastocyst stage, and induced to form hES cells using human foreskin fibroblasts. The Chula2.hES cell line and the Chula4.hES and Chula5.hES cell lines were derived from blastocysts developed from frozen and fresh embryos, respectively. The cell lines expressed pluripotent markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), Oct3/4, stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4, and tumor recognition antigen (TRA)-1-60 and TRA-1-81 as detected with immunocytochemistry. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the cell lines expressed pluripotent genes, including OCT3/4, SOX2, NANOG, UTF, LIN28, REX1, NODAL, and E-Cadherin. In addition, the telomerase activities of the cell lines were higher than in the fibroblast cells. Moreover, the cell lines differentiated into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The cell lines had distinct identities, as revealed with DNA fingerprinting, and maintained their normal karyotype after a long-term culture. This study is the first to report the successful derivation of hES cell lines in Thailand and that frozen embryos maintained their pluripotency similar to fresh embryos, as shown by the success of hES cell derivation, even after years of cryopreservation. Therefore, embryos from prolonged cryopreservation could be an alternative source for embryonic stem cell research. PMID:23514952

  5. Regulation of microRNA biosynthesis and expression in 2102Ep embryonal carcinoma stem cells is mirrored in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Michael F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumours with high proportions of differentiated cells are considered to be of a lower grade to those containing high proportions of undifferentiated cells. This property may be linked to the differentiation properties of stem cell-like populations within malignancies. We aim to identify molecular mechanism associated with the generation of tumours with differing grades from malignant stem cell populations with different differentiation potentials. In this study we assessed microRNA (miRNA regulation in two populations of malignant Embryonal Carcinoma (EC stem cell, which differentiate (NTera2 or remain undifferentiated (2102Ep during tumourigenesis, and compared this to miRNA regulation in ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC patient samples. Methods miRNA expression was assessed in NTera2 and 2102Ep cells in the undifferentiated and differentiated states and compared to that of OSC samples using miRNA qPCR. Results Our analysis reveals a substantial overlap between miRNA regulation in 2102Ep cells and OSC samples in terms of miRNA biosynthesis and expression of mature miRNAs, particularly those of the miR-17/92 family and clustering to chromosomes 14 and 19. In the undifferentiated state 2102Ep cells expressed mature miRNAs at up to 15,000 fold increased levels despite decreased expression of miRNA biosynthesis genes Drosha and Dicer. 2102Ep cells avoid differentiation, which we show is associated with consistent levels of expression of miRNA biosynthesis genes and mature miRNAs while expression of miRNAs clustering to chromosomes 14 and 19 is deemphasised. OSC patient samples displayed decreased expression of miRNA biosynthesis genes, decreased expression of mature miRNAs and prominent clustering to chromosome 14 but not 19. This indicates that miRNA biosynthesis and levels of miRNA expression, particularly from chromosome 14, are tightly regulated both in progenitor cells and in tumour samples. Conclusion miRNA biosynthesis and

  6. Immunoflourescence and mRNA analysis of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown under feeder-free conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Aashir; Oliveri, Roberto S; Jensen, Pernille L

    2010-01-01

    onto 16-well glass chambers, and continuing with the general IF and qPCR steps will be provided. The techniques will be illustrated with new results on cellular localization of transcriptional factors and components of the Hedgehog, Wnt, and PDGF signaling pathways to primary cilia in stem cell......This chapter describes the procedures in order to do immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown specifically under feeder-free conditions. A detailed protocol outlining the steps from initially growing the cells, passaging...

  7. Generation of a Nrf2 homozygous knockout human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Jung Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2 is a well-known transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large number of anti-oxidant genes in mammalian cells (J.H. Kim et al., 2014. Here, we generated a homozygous Nrf2 knockout human embryonic stem cell (hESC line, H9Nrf2KO-A13, using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method. The Nrf2 homozygous knockout H9 cell line maintains pluripotency, differentiation potential into three germ layers, and a normal karyotype.

  8. Simultaneous determination of the repertoire of classical neurotransmitters released from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ya-Bin; Sun, Fan; Teng, Lin; Li, Wen-Bin; An, Shi-Min; Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xin-Jie; Lv, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xu-Ping; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An online MD-HILIC–MS/MS method for simultaneously measuring the repertoire of classical transmitters was developed and validated. • Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was successfully employed to online system. • Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. • The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg for dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glycine). - Abstract: Dynamic, continuous, and simultaneous multi-analysis of transmitters is important for the delineation of the complex interactions between the neuronal and intercellular communications. But the analysis of the whole repertoire of classical transmitters of diverse structure is challenging due to their different physico-chemical properties and to their high polarity feature which leads to poor retention in traditional reversed-phase columns during LC–MS analysis. Here, an online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (online MD-HILIC–MS/MS) detection method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the repertoire of classical transmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine). Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. The method was successfully employed to reveal the characteristics of transmitter release from embryonal carcinoma stem cells. The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg

  9. Simultaneous determination of the repertoire of classical neurotransmitters released from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ya-Bin [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Sun, Fan [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Teng, Lin [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Department of Cardiology and Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, The First College of Clinical Medical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443000, Hubei (China); Li, Wen-Bin; An, Shi-Min [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Chun; Yang, Xin-Jie; Lv, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xu-Ping [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhu, Liang, E-mail: zhuliang17@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); and others

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • An online MD-HILIC–MS/MS method for simultaneously measuring the repertoire of classical transmitters was developed and validated. • Hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) was successfully employed to online system. • Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. • The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg for dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glycine). - Abstract: Dynamic, continuous, and simultaneous multi-analysis of transmitters is important for the delineation of the complex interactions between the neuronal and intercellular communications. But the analysis of the whole repertoire of classical transmitters of diverse structure is challenging due to their different physico-chemical properties and to their high polarity feature which leads to poor retention in traditional reversed-phase columns during LC–MS analysis. Here, an online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (online MD-HILIC–MS/MS) detection method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the repertoire of classical transmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine). Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. The method was successfully employed to reveal the characteristics of transmitter release from embryonal carcinoma stem cells. The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (≥73%), high accuracy (89.36% ≤ RE ≤ 116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18% ≤ RSD ≤ 14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2 pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10 pg

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with [17 alpha-methyl- 3 H]promegestone ([ 3 H]R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of [3H]R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of [ 3 H]R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V

  11. [Yes to research, no to utilization? Medical, pharmacological and toxicological utilization of human embryonic stem cells from an ethical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H

    2008-09-01

    In exceptional cases, the German Stem Cell Act allows research on human embryonic stem cells. However, it does not allow the implementation of the research results if this in turn requires the use of further embryonic stem cell lines. It has, in the meantime, transpired that such research results could be of concrete use. Thus, in the distant future, it could be used in the clinical treatment of patients. Already in the nearer future the use of human embryonic stem cell lines can be envisaged for both the development and testing of medicines as well as in the field of toxicology. To this end, research concerning embryo toxicity and neurotoxicity is ground-breaking. The toxicological and pharmacological use of human embryonic stem cell lines should serve the protection of human health as well as the safe and reliable use of medicines. In addition, animal experiments could be reduced, which is desirable from a point of view of animal protection ethics. Since research on human embryonic stem cell lines is actually permitted in Germany, the use of the respective research results should be allowed all the more. This follows from the basic human right to health protection and health care. Legal ambiguities, which still exist in this respect, should be removed.

  12. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors) and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Matrix Organization and Adhesion. Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data. PMID:12356337

  13. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madore Steven J

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data.

  14. Aberrant patterns of X chromosome inactivation in a new line of human embryonic stem cells established in physiological oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Georges, Juliana Andrea; Vergani, Naja; Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Fraga, Ana Maria; de Mello, Joana Carvalho Moreira; Albuquerque, Maria Cecília R Maciel; Fujihara, Litsuko Shimabukuro; Pereira, Lygia Veiga

    2014-08-01

    One of the differences between murine and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is the epigenetic state of the X chromosomes in female lines. Murine ESCs (mESCs) present two transcriptionally active Xs that will undergo the dosage compensation process of XCI upon differentiation, whereas most human ESCs (hESCs) spontaneously inactivate one X while keeping their pluripotency. Whether this reflects differences in embryonic development of mice and humans, or distinct culture requirements for the two kinds of pluripotent cells is not known. Recently it has been shown that hESCs established in physiological oxygen levels are in a stable pre-XCI state equivalent to that of mESCs, suggesting that culture in low oxygen concentration is enough to preserve that epigenetic state of the X chromosomes. Here we describe the establishment of two new lines of hESCs under physiological oxygen level and the characterization of the XCI state in the 46,XX line BR-5. We show that a fraction of undifferentiated cells present XIST RNA accumulation and single H3K27me foci, characteristic of the inactive X. Moreover, analysis of allele specific gene expression suggests that pluripotent BR-5 cells present completely skewed XCI. Our data indicate that physiological levels of oxygen are not sufficient for the stabilization of the pre-XCI state in hESCs.

  15. Knockdown of Fanconi anemia genes in human embryonic stem cells reveals early developmental defects in the hematopoietic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulpule, Asmin; Lensch, M William; Miller, Justine D; Austin, Karyn; D'Andrea, Alan; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Shimamura, Akiko; Daley, George Q

    2010-04-29

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pediatric bone marrow failure and congenital anomalies. The effect of FA gene deficiency on hematopoietic development in utero remains poorly described as mouse models of FA do not develop hematopoietic failure and such studies cannot be performed on patients. We have created a human-specific in vitro system to study early hematopoietic development in FA using a lentiviral RNA interference (RNAi) strategy in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We show that knockdown of FANCA and FANCD2 in hESCs leads to a reduction in hematopoietic fates and progenitor numbers that can be rescued by FA gene complementation. Our data indicate that hematopoiesis is impaired in FA from the earliest stages of development, suggesting that deficiencies in embryonic hematopoiesis may underlie the progression to bone marrow failure in FA. This work illustrates how hESCs can provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of genetic disease.

  16. Application of response surface methodology to maximize the productivity of scalable automated human embryonic stem cell manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Hourd, Paul; Guijarro-Leach, Juan; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Commercial regenerative medicine will require large quantities of clinical-specification human cells. The cost and quality of manufacture is notoriously difficult to control due to highly complex processes with poorly defined tolerances. As a step to overcome this, we aimed to demonstrate the use of 'quality-by-design' tools to define the operating space for economic passage of a scalable human embryonic stem cell production method with minimal cell loss. Design of experiments response surface methodology was applied to generate empirical models to predict optimal operating conditions for a unit of manufacture of a previously developed automatable and scalable human embryonic stem cell production method. Two models were defined to predict cell yield and cell recovery rate postpassage, in terms of the predictor variables of media volume, cell seeding density, media exchange and length of passage. Predicted operating conditions for maximized productivity were successfully validated. Such 'quality-by-design' type approaches to process design and optimization will be essential to reduce the risk of product failure and patient harm, and to build regulatory confidence in cell therapy manufacturing processes.

  17. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat b /J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • EtOH developmental

  18. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat{sup b}/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • Et

  19. Comparison of a teratogenic transcriptome-based predictive test based on human embryonic versus inducible pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Perumal Srinivasan, Sureshkumar; Henry, Margit; Rotshteyn, Tamara; Hescheler, Jürgen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Grinberg, Marianna; Meisig, Johannes; Blüthgen, Nils; Waldmann, Tanja; Leist, Marcel; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2016-12-30

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) partially recapitulate early embryonic three germ layer development, allowing testing of potential teratogenic hazards. Because use of hESCs is ethically debated, we investigated the potential for human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to replace hESCs in such tests. Three cell lines, comprising hiPSCs (foreskin and IMR90) and hESCs (H9) were differentiated for 14 days. Their transcriptome profiles were obtained on day 0 and day 14 and analyzed by comprehensive bioinformatics tools. The transcriptomes on day 14 showed that more than 70% of the "developmental genes" (regulated genes with > 2-fold change on day 14 compared to day 0) exhibited variability among cell lines. The developmental genes belonging to all three cell lines captured biological processes and KEGG pathways related to all three germ layer embryonic development. In addition, transcriptome profiles were obtained after 14 days of exposure to teratogenic valproic acid (VPA) during differentiation. Although the differentially regulated genes between treated and untreated samples showed more than 90% variability among cell lines, VPA clearly antagonized the expression of developmental genes in all cell lines: suppressing upregulated developmental genes, while inducing downregulated ones. To quantify VPA-disturbed development based on developmental genes, we estimated the "developmental potency" (D p ) and "developmental index" (D i ). Despite differences in genes deregulated by VPA, uniform D i values were obtained for all three cell lines. Given that the D i values for VPA were similar for hESCs and hiPSCs, D i can be used for robust hazard identification, irrespective of whether hESCs or hiPSCs are used in the test systems.

  20. The fine structure of human germ layers in vivo: clues to the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathananthan, Henry; Selvaraj, Kamala; Clark, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The fine structure of the three germ layers in human ectopic embryos (stage 7) have been documented by digital light and electron microscopy. The formation of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm and notochordal cells, and also the extraembryonic membranes, amnion and yolk sac, are imaged. The germ layers give rise to all the cells and tissues of the human body. Possible clues to the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro were obtained, since these events are more or less mimicked in cultures of ESC derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. The findings are discussed with reference to previous studies on the fine structure of ESC using the same technique. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. AMP-activated protein kinase α2 and E2F1 transcription factor mediate doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by forming a positive signal loop in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and non-carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wookyeom; Park, In-Ja; Yun, Hee; Im, Dong-Uk; Ock, Sangmi; Kim, Jaetaek; Seo, Seon-Mi; Shin, Ha-Yeon; Viollet, Benoit; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2014-02-21

    Doxorubicin is one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs, but its clinical application is compromised by severe adverse effects in different organs including cardiotoxicity. In the present study we explored mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by revealing a novel role for the AMP-activated protein kinase α2 (AMPKα2) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Doxorubicin robustly induced the expression of AMPKα2 in MEFs but slightly reduced AMPKα1 expression. Our data support the previous notion that AMPKα1 harbors survival properties under doxorubicin treatment. In contrast, analyses of Ampkα2(-/-) MEFs, gene knockdown of AMPKα2 by shRNA, and inhibition of AMPKα2 activity with an AMPK inhibitor indicated that AMPKα2 functions as a pro-apoptotic molecule under doxorubicin treatment. Doxorubicin induced AMPKα2 at the transcription level via E2F1, a transcription factor that regulates apoptosis in response to DNA damage. E2F1 directly transactivated the Ampkα2 gene promoter. In turn, AMPKα2 significantly contributed to stabilization and activation of E2F1 by doxorubicin, forming a positive signal amplification loop. AMPKα2 directly interacted with and phosphorylated E2F1. This signal loop was also detected in H9c2, C2C12, and ECV (human epithelial cells) cells as well as mouse liver under doxorubicin treatment. Resveratrol, which has been suggested to attenuate doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity, significantly blocked induction of AMPKα2 and E2F1 by doxorubicin, leading to protection of these cells. This signal loop appears to be non-carcinoma-specific because AMPKα2 was not induced by doxorubicin in five different tested cancer cell lines. These results suggest that AMPKα2 may serve as a novel target for alleviating the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  2. Expression of human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 or formamidopyrimidine glycosylase in human embryonic kidney 293 cells exacerbates methylmercury toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondovcik, Stephanie L.; Preston, Thomas J.; McCallum, Gordon P. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) acutely at high levels, or via chronic low-level dietary exposure from daily fish consumption, can lead to adverse neurological effects in both the adult and developing conceptus. To determine the impact of variable DNA repair capacity, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidatively damaged DNA in the mechanism of toxicity, transgenic human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells that stably express either human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOgg1) or its bacterial homolog, formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg), which primarily repair the oxidative lesion 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), were used to assess the in vitro effects of MeHg. Western blotting confirmed the expression of hOgg1 or Fpg in both the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments of their respective cell lines. Following acute (1–2 h) incubations with 0–10 μM MeHg, concentration-dependent decreases in clonogenic survival and cell growth accompanied concentration-dependent increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, ROS formation, 8-oxodG levels and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, consistent with the onset of cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, hOgg1- and Fpg-expressing HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than wild-type cells stably transfected with the empty vector control to MeHg across all cellular and biochemical parameters, exhibiting reduced clonogenic survival and cell growth, and increased LDH release and DNA damage. Accordingly, upregulation of specific components of the base excision repair (BER) pathway may prove deleterious potentially due to the absence of compensatory enhancement of downstream processes to repair toxic intermediary abasic sites. Thus, interindividual variability in DNA repair activity may constitute an important risk factor for environmentally-initiated, oxidatively damaged DNA and its pathological consequences. - Highlights: • hOgg1 and Fpg repair oxidatively damaged DNA. • hOgg1- and Fpg-expressing cells are more

  3. Establishment of new murine embryonic stem cell lines for the generation of mouse models of human genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sukoyan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are totipotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Recently, the development of appropriate culture conditions for the differentiation of these cells into specific cell types has permitted their use as potential therapeutic agents for several diseases. In addition, manipulation of their genome in vitro allows the creation of animal models of human genetic diseases and for the study of gene function in vivo. We report the establishment of new lines of murine embryonic stem cells from preimplantation stage embryos of 129/Sv mice. Most of these cells had a normal karyotype and an XY sex chromosome composition. The pluripotent properties of the cell lines obtained were analyzed on the basis of their alkaline phosphatase activity and their capacity to form complex embryoid bodies with rhythmically contracting cardiomyocytes. Two lines, USP-1 and USP-3, with the best in vitro characteristics of pluripotency were used in chimera-generating experiments. The capacity to contribute to the germ line was demonstrated by the USP-1 cell line. This cell line is currently being used to generate mouse models of human diseases.

  4. Human and murine very small embryonic-like cells represent multipotent tissue progenitors, in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Aaron M; Sun, Hongli; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Jung, Younghun; Wang, Jingcheng; Mishra, Anjali; Jiang, Yajuan; O'Neill, David W; Krebsbach, Paul H; Rodgerson, Denis O; Taichman, Russell S

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lineage progression of human and murine very small embryonic-like (HuVSEL or MuVSEL) cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, HuVSEL and MuVSEL cells differentiated into cells of all three embryonic germ layers. HuVSEL cells produced robust mineralized tissue of human origin compared with controls in calvarial defects. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the HuVSEL cells gave rise to neurons, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts within the calvarial defects. MuVSEL cells were also able to differentiate into similar lineages. First round serial transplants of MuVSEL cells into irradiated osseous sites demonstrated that ∼60% of the cells maintained their VSEL cell phenotype while other cells differentiated into multiple tissues at 3 months. Secondary transplants did not identify donor VSEL cells, suggesting limited self renewal but did demonstrate VSEL cell derivatives in situ for up to 1 year. At no point were teratomas identified. These studies show that VSEL cells produce multiple cellular structures in vivo and in vitro and lay the foundation for future cell-based regenerative therapies for osseous, neural, and connective tissue disorders.

  5. Enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine hydrogels for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keming; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Lee, Fan; Bae, Ki Hyun; Gao, Shujun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds facilitates the cell expansion process and supplies pluripotent cells of high quality for broad-spectrum applications in regenerative medicine. Herein, we report an enzyme-mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. HA-Tyr hydrogels were formed by crosslinking the tyramine moieties with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). By changing the HRP and H2O2 concentration, we prepared HA-Tyr hydrogels of different mechanical strength and studied the self-renewal properties of hESCs in these scaffolds. We observed that both the chemical composition and mechanical strength of substrates were important factors affecting cell proliferation and pluripotency. The HA-Tyr hydrogel with a compressive modulus of ∼350Pa supported the proliferation of hESCs at the pluripotent state in both mTeSR1 medium and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-conditioned medium. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that hESCs proliferated well and formed spheroid structures in 3D, without undergoing apoptosis. The hESCs cultured in HA-Tyr hydrogels showed high expression of CD44 and pluripotency markers. These cells exhibited the capability to form cell derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the genetic integrity of the hESCs was unaffected in the 3D cultivation system. The scope of this study is to provide a stable 3D cultivation system for the expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards clinical applications. We report an enzyme mediated hyaluronic acid-tyramine (HA-Tyr) hydrogel that encapsulated and propagated hESCs in 3D. Unlike other HA-based photo-crosslinked hydrogel systems reported, we investigated the effects of mechanical strength of hydrogels on the self-renewal properties of hESCs in 3D. Then, we characterized hESCs cultured in hydrogels with lower mechanical strength

  6. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalova, Larisa; Gambaryan, Alexandra; Romanova, Julia; Tuzikov, Alexander; Chinarev, Alexander; Katinger, Dietmar; Katinger, Herman; Egorov, Andrej; Bovin, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  8. Carcino-embryonic antigen in monitoring the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma tumour cells SK-CO-1 and HT-29 in vitro and in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Fogh, J M; Sehested-Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    A set of experimental model systems were designed to investigate (a) the inter-relationship between growth of two human cancer cell lines (SK-CO-1, HT-29) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) kinetics; and (b) whether neoplastic growth or CEA concentration is modulated by human growth hormone (hGH...

  9. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor imaging in human breast carcinoma versus immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wiele, Christophe Van; Phonteyne, Philippe; Pauwels, Patrick; Goethals, Ingeborg; Van den Broecke, Rudi; Cocquyt, Veronique; Dierckx, Rudi Andre

    This study reports on the uptake of (99m)Tc-RP527 by human breast carcinoma and its relationship to gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRIP-R) expression as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods: Nine patients referred because of a clinical diagnosis suggestive of breast carcinoma and 5

  10. Cloning and characterization of a novel human zinc finger gene, hKid3, from a C2H2-ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Li; Sun Chong; Qiu Hongling; Liu Hui; Shao Huanjie; Wang Jun; Li Wenxin

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the zinc finger genes involved in human embryonic development, we constructed a C 2 H 2 -ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library, from which a novel human gene named hKid3 was identified. The hKid3 cDNA encodes a 554 amino acid protein with an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 11 carboxyl-terminal C 2 H 2 zinc finger motifs. Northern blot analysis indicates that two hKid3 transcripts of 6 and 8.5 kb express in human fetal brain and kidney. The 6 kb transcript can also be detected in human adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle while the 8.5 kb transcript appears to be embryo-specific. GFP-fused hKid3 protein is localized to nuclei and the ZF domain is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization. To explore the DNA-binding specificity of hKid3, an oligonucleotide library was selected by GST fusion protein of hKid3 ZF domain, and the consensus core sequence 5'-CCAC-3' was evaluated by competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, The KRAB domain of hKid3 exhibits transcription repressor activity when tested in GAL4 fusion protein assay. These results indicate that hKid3 may function as a transcription repressor with regulated expression pattern during human development of brain and kidney

  11. Revocation of European patent for neural progenitors highlights patent challenges for inventions relating to human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Cells derived from human embryonic stem cells have great therapeutic potential. Patents are key to allowing companies that develop methods of generating such cells to recuperate their investment. However, in Europe, inventions relating to the use of human embryos for commercial purposes are excluded from patentability on moral grounds. The scope of this morality exclusion was recently tested before Germany's highest court and before the European Patent Office (EPO), with diverging results. The decision by the EPO's Opposition Division to revoke EP1040185 relating to neural precursors and methods for their generation has received a mixed reception. The decision has very recently been appealed, and the outcome of this Appeal should provide more definitive guidance on the scope of the morality exclusion.

  12. An Abbreviated Protocol for In Vitro Generation of Functional Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-Like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massumi, Mohammad; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2016-01-01

    developed an abbreviated five-stage protocol (25-30 days) to generate human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-like Cells (ES-DBCs). We showed that Geltrex, as an extracellular matrix, could support the generation of ES-DBCs more efficiently than that of the previously described culture systems......The ability to yield glucose-responsive pancreatic beta-cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro will facilitate the development of the cell replacement therapies for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. Here, through the sequential in vitro targeting of selected signaling pathways, we have...... positive cells, 1% insulin and glucagon positive cells and 30% insulin and NKX6.1 co-expressing cells. Functionally, ES-DBCs were responsive to high glucose in static incubation and perifusion studies, and could secrete insulin in response to successive glucose stimulations. Mitochondrial metabolic flux...

  13. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  14. Integration-deficient lentivectors: an effective strategy to purify and differentiate human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghua; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Corbineau, Sébastien; Vernet, Rémi; Gayon, Régis; Dianat, Noushin; Martinet, Clémence; Clay, Denis; Goulinet-Mainot, Sylvie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Tachdjian, Gérard; Burks, Deborah; Vallier, Ludovic; Bouillé, Pascale; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Weber, Anne

    2013-07-19

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for applications in regenerative medicine. However, the safety of cell therapy using differentiated hPSC derivatives must be improved through methods that will permit the transplantation of homogenous populations of a specific cell type. To date, purification of progenitors and mature cells generated from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells remains challenging with use of conventional methods. We used lentivectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the liver-specific apoliprotein A-II (APOA-II) promoter to purify human hepatic progenitors. We evaluated both integrating and integration-defective lentivectors in combination with an HIV integrase inhibitor. A human embryonic stem cell line was differentiated into hepatic progenitors using a chemically defined protocol. Subsequently, cells were transduced and sorted at day 16 of differentiation to obtain a cell population enriched in hepatic progenitor cells. After sorting, more than 99% of these APOA-II-GFP-positive cells expressed hepatoblast markers such as α-fetoprotein and cytokeratin 19. When further cultured for 16 days, these cells underwent differentiation into more mature cells and exhibited hepatocyte properties such as albumin secretion. Moreover, they were devoid of vector DNA integration. We have developed an effective strategy to purify human hepatic cells from cultures of differentiating hPSCs, producing a novel tool that could be used not only for cell therapy but also for in vitro applications such as drug screening. The present strategy should also be suitable for the purification of a broad range of cell types derived from either pluripotent or adult stem cells.

  15. Generation of megakaryocytic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells in a feeder- and serum-free medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Pick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The production of human platelets from embryonic stem cells in a defined culture system is a prerequisite for the generation of platelets for therapeutic use. As an important step towards this goal, we report the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs towards the megakaryocyte (Mk lineage using a 'spin embryoid body' method in serum-free differentiation medium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunophenotypic analyses of differentiating hESC identified a subpopulation of cells expressing high levels of CD41a that expressed other markers associated with the Mk lineage, including CD110, CD42b and CD61. Differentiated cells were sorted on the basis of their expression of CD41a, CD34 and CD45 and assessed for Mk colony formation, expression of myeloid and Mk genes and ability to endoreplicate DNA. In a collagen-based colony assay, the CD41a⁺ cells sorted from these differentiation cultures produced 100-800 Mk progenitors at day 13 and 25-160 Mk progenitors at day 20 of differentiation per 100,000 cells assayed. Differentiated Mk cells produced platelet-like particles which expressed CD42b and were activated by ADP, similar to platelets generated from precursors in cord blood. These studies were complemented by real time PCR analyses showing that subsets of cells enriched for CD41a⁺ Mk precursors expressed high levels of Mk associated genes such as PF4 and MPL. Conversely, high levels of myeloid and erythroid related transcripts, such as GATA1, TAL1/SCL and PU.1, were detected in sorted fractions containing CD34⁺ and CD45⁺ cells. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a serum- and feeder-free culture system that enabled the generation of Mk progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. These cells formed colonies that included differentiated Mks that fragmented to form platelet-like particles. This protocol represents an important step towards the generation of human platelets for therapeutic use.

  16. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:20633288

  17. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.W.; Fishman, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12%) were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas) occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on...

  18. Human embryonic stem cells and good manufacturing practice: Report of a 1- day workshop held at Stem Cell Biology Research Center, Yazd, 27th April 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Akyash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; “human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and good manufacturing practice (GMP” held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications.

  19. Human embryonic stem cells and good manufacturing practice: Report of a 1- day workshop held at Stem Cell Biology Research Center, Yazd, 27th April 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyash, Fatemeh; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Tahajjodi, Somayyeh Sadat; Nikukar, Habib; Farashahi Yazd, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Mostafa; D Moore, Harry; Aflatoonian, Behrouz

    2017-05-01

    This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; "human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and good manufacturing practice (GMP)" held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27 th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications.

  20. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ERK PROTEIN IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 李柏林; 宋敏; 宋继谒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of ERK and p-ERK protein in human breast cancer and their corresponding tissue, to assess the significance of ERK signal pathway in tumorigenesis and progression of breast carcinoma. Methods: 40 breast cancer cases were used in S-P immunohistochemistry technique and Western Blot study. Results: The expression of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK protein levels increased remarkably in breast cancer tissues in comparison to normal tissues (P<0.01). The expression was upregulated by 1.32-, 1.53-and 4.27-fold, respectively. The overexpressions of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK proteins were obviously correlated with clinical stage of breast cancer. Protein levels of ERK and p-ERK were higher in stage III patients than in stage I and stage II patients (P<0.05). These proteins were strongly related with axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, but not correlated with histopathological type and status of ER and PR of breast cancer. Expression of ERK1, and ERK2, protein showed a positive linear correlation. Conclusion: ERK signal transduction pathway is a key factor during human breast tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression.

  1. Three-dimensional neuroepithelial culture from human embryonic stem cells and its use for quantitative conversion to retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhu

    Full Text Available A goal in human embryonic stem cell (hESC research is the faithful differentiation to given cell types such as neural lineages. During embryonic development, a basement membrane surrounds the neural plate that forms a tight, apico-basolaterally polarized epithelium before closing to form a neural tube with a single lumen. Here we show that the three-dimensional epithelial cyst culture of hESCs in Matrigel combined with neural induction results in a quantitative conversion into neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen. Cells attain a defined neuroepithelial identity by 5 days. The neuroepithelial cysts naturally generate retinal epithelium, in part due to IGF-1/insulin signaling. We demonstrate the utility of this epithelial culture approach by achieving a quantitative production of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from hESCs within 30 days. Direct transplantation of this RPE into a rat model of retinal degeneration without any selection or expansion of the cells results in the formation of a donor-derived RPE monolayer that rescues photoreceptor cells. The cyst method for neuroepithelial differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is not only of importance for RPE generation but will also be relevant to the production of other neuronal cell types and for reconstituting complex patterning events from three-dimensional neuroepithelia.

  2. Inhibition of IKK/NF-κB Signaling Enhances Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Zhou, Chenchen; Alvarez, Ruth; Hong, Christine; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2016-04-12

    Embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs; also known as mesenchymal stem cells) represent a promising source for bone regenerative medicine. Despite remarkable advances in stem cell biology, the molecular mechanism regulating differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into MSCs remains poorly understood. Here, we report that inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling enhances differentiation of hESCs into MSCs by expediting the loss of pluripotent markers and increasing the expression of MSC surface markers. In addition, a significantly higher quantity of MSCs was produced from hESCs with IKK/NF-κB suppression. These isolated MSCs displayed evident multipotency with capacity to terminally differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro and to form bone in vivo. Collectively, our data provide important insights into the role of NF-κB in mesenchymal lineage specification during hESC differentiation, suggesting that IKK inhibitors could be utilized as an adjuvant in generating MSCs for cell-mediated therapies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of caffeine on p53-dependent radioresponses in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cells after X-ray and UV-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taga, Masataka; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Shimura, Tsutomu; Uematsu, Norio; Kato, Tomohisa; Niwa, Ohtsura; Nishimune, Yoshitake; Aizawa, Shinichi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2000-01-01

    The effect of caffeine was studied on the radioresponses of undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cells (EC cells) with or without the functional p53. The radioresponses studied included radiosensitivity, the activation of p53, apoptosis with characteristic DNA ladder formation and cell cycle progression. An undifferentiated mouse EC cell line, ECA2, and a newly established p53-deficient EC cell line, p53δ, were used in the present study. The status of the p53 gene did not significantly affect the colony survivals of undifferentiated EC cells to X-rays and UV. Although a post-irradiation treatment with caffeine sensitized both lines to X-rays marginally, the sensitization was prominent for UV regardless of the p53 status of the cells. The activation of a p53 responsible lacZ reporter construct was observed in stably transfected ECA2 cells after X-ray and UV irradiations. Caffeine suppressed the X-ray induced activation of the lacZ reporter, while it drastically enhanced the activation after UV irradiation. X-rays and UV readily triggered the apoptosis of ECA2 cells with the characteristic DNA ladder. Although UV-induced DNA ladder formation was enhanced by caffeine, that induced by X-rays was unaffected. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on the p53-dependent radioresponses were found to be agent specific: suppression for the X-ray induced and augmentation for the UV induced. In contrast to p53-proficient ECA2 cells, smear-like DNA degradation was observed for irradiated p53δ cells, suggesting the presence of a mode of cell death without DNA ladder formation. UV induction of the smear-like DNA degradation was enhanced in the presence of caffeine. Regardless of the state of the p53 gene, G1/S arrest was not observed in X-ray and UV irradiated EC cells. X-rays induced G2/M arrest in both lines, which was abrogated by caffeine, while G2/M arrest after UV was unaffected by a caffeine treatment. These results indicate that the radioresponses of undifferentiated

  4. The effect of caffeine on p53-dependent radioresponses in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cells after X-ray and UV-irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taga, Masataka; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Shimura, Tsutomu; Uematsu, Norio; Kato, Tomohisa; Niwa, Ohtsura [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center; Nishimune, Yoshitake; Aizawa, Shinichi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2000-09-01

    The effect of caffeine was studied on the radioresponses of undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cells (EC cells) with or without the functional p53. The radioresponses studied included radiosensitivity, the activation of p53, apoptosis with characteristic DNA ladder formation and cell cycle progression. An undifferentiated mouse EC cell line, ECA2, and a newly established p53-deficient EC cell line, p53{delta}, were used in the present study. The status of the p53 gene did not significantly affect the colony survivals of undifferentiated EC cells to X-rays and UV. Although a post-irradiation treatment with caffeine sensitized both lines to X-rays marginally, the sensitization was prominent for UV regardless of the p53 status of the cells. The activation of a p53 responsible lacZ reporter construct was observed in stably transfected ECA2 cells after X-ray and UV irradiations. Caffeine suppressed the X-ray induced activation of the lacZ reporter, while it drastically enhanced the activation after UV irradiation. X-rays and UV readily triggered the apoptosis of ECA2 cells with the characteristic DNA ladder. Although UV-induced DNA ladder formation was enhanced by caffeine, that induced by X-rays was unaffected. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on the p53-dependent radioresponses were found to be agent specific: suppression for the X-ray induced and augmentation for the UV induced. In contrast to p53-proficient ECA2 cells, smear-like DNA degradation was observed for irradiated p53{delta} cells, suggesting the presence of a mode of cell death without DNA ladder formation. UV induction of the smear-like DNA degradation was enhanced in the presence of caffeine. Regardless of the state of the p53 gene, G1/S arrest was not observed in X-ray and UV irradiated EC cells. X-rays induced G2/M arrest in both lines, which was abrogated by caffeine, while G2/M arrest after UV was unaffected by a caffeine treatment. These results indicate that the radioresponses of

  5. Efficient and simple production of insulin-producing cells from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using mouse neonate pancreas extract, as a natural inducer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ebrahimie

    Full Text Available An attractive approach to replace the destroyed insulin-producing cells (IPCs is the generation of functional β cells from stem cells. Embryonal carcinoma (EC stem cells are pluripotent cells which can differentiate into all cell types. The present study was carried out to establish a simple nonselective inductive culture system for generation of IPCs from P19 EC cells by 1-2 weeks old mouse pancreas extract (MPE. Since, mouse pancreatic islets undergo further remodeling and maturation for 2-3 weeks after birth, we hypothesized that the mouse neonatal MPE contains essential factors to induce in vitro differentiation of pancreatic lineages. Pluripotency of P19 cells were first confirmed by expression analysis of stem cell markers, Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog. In order to induce differentiation, the cells were cultured in a medium supplemented by different concentrations of MPE (50, 100, 200 and 300 µg/ml. The results showed that P19 cells could differentiate into IPCs and form dithizone-positive cell clusters. The generated P19-derived IPCs were immunoreactive to proinsulin, insulin and insulin receptor beta. The expression of pancreatic β cell genes including, PDX-1, INS1 and INS2 were also confirmed. The peak response at the 100 µg/ml MPE used for investigation of EP300 and CREB1 gene expression. When stimulated with glucose, these cells synthesized and secreted insulin. Network analysis of the key transcription factors (PDX-1, EP300, CREB1 during the generation of IPCs resulted in introduction of novel regulatory candidates such as MIR17, and VEZF1 transcription factors, as well as MORN1, DKFZp761P0212, and WAC proteins. Altogether, we demonstrated the possibility of generating IPCs from undifferentiated EC cells, with the characteristics of pancreatic β cells. The derivation of pancreatic cells from EC cells which are ES cell siblings would provide a valuable experimental tool in study of pancreatic development and function as well as rapid

  6. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Are Highly Permissive for Varicella-Zoster Virus Lytic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaoka, Tomohiko; Schwartz, Cindi L; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Venkatesan, Arun; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2018-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is highly cell associated when grown in culture and has a much higher (4,000- to 20,000-fold increased) particle-to-PFU ratio in vitro than herpes simplex virus (HSV). In contrast, VZV is highly infectious in vivo by airborne transmission. Neurons are major targets for VZV in vivo ; in neurons, the virus can establish latency and reactivate to produce infectious virus. Using neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell-free wild-type (WT) VZV, we demonstrated that neurons are nearly 100 times more permissive for WT VZV infection than very-early-passage human embryonic lung cells or MRC-5 diploid human fibroblasts, the cells used for vaccine production or virus isolation. The peak titers achieved after infection were ∼10-fold higher in human neurons than in MRC-5 cells, and the viral genome copy number-to-PFU ratio for VZV in human neurons was 500, compared with 50,000 for MRC-5 cells. Thus, VZV may not necessarily have a higher particle-to-PFU ratio than other herpesviruses; instead, the cells previously used to propagate virus in vitro may have been suboptimal. Furthermore, based on electron microscopy, neurons infected with VZV produced fewer defective or incomplete viral particles than MRC-5 cells. Our data suggest that neurons derived from hESC may have advantages compared to other cells for studies of VZV pathogenesis, for obtaining stocks of virus with high titers, and for isolating VZV from clinical specimens. IMPORTANCE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. Cell-free VZV has been difficult to obtain, both for in vitro studies and for vaccine production. While numerous cells lines have been tested for their ability to produce high titers of VZV, the number of total virus particles relative to the number of viral particles that can form plaques in culture has been reported to be extremely high relative to that in other viruses. We show that VZV grows to much higher titers in human

  7. YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Johansen, Julia S; Larsen, Lars A; Bak, Mads; Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2012-03-01

    The secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 participates in cell differentiation, inflammation, and cancer progression. High YKL-40 expression is reported during early human development, but its functions are unknown. Six human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines were cultured in an atmosphere of low or high oxygen tension, in culture medium with or without basic fibroblast growth factor, and on feeder layers comprising mouse embryonic fibroblasts or human foreskin fibroblasts to evaluate whether hESCs and their progeny produced YKL-40 and to characterize YKL-40 expression during differentiation. Secreted YKL-40 protein and YKL-40 mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Serial-sectioned colonies were stained for YKL-40 protein and for pluripotent hESC (OCT4, NANOG) and germ layer (HNF-3β, PDX1, CD34, p63, nestin, PAX6) markers. Double-labeling showed YKL-40 expression in OCT4-positive hESCs, PAX6-positive neuroectodermal cells, and HNF-3β-positive endodermal cells. The differentiating progeny showed strong YKL-40 expression. Abrupt transition between YKL-40 and OCT4-positive hESCs and YKL-40-positive ecto- and neuroectodermal lineages was observed within the same epithelial-like layer. YKL-40-positive cells within deeper layers lacked contact with OCT4-positive cells. YKL-40 may be important in initial cell differentiation from hESCs toward ectoderm and neuroectoderm, with retained epithelial morphology, whereas later differentiation into endoderm and mesoderm involves a transition into the deeper layers of the colony.

  8. Association of human papilloma virus infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Mahmuda; Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. Extracted DNA from the cancerous tissues was checked for PCR reaction to detect the subtypes of human papilloma virus. Data of the present study suggest that oral squamous cell carcinoma are almost absent in Bangladeshi patients with human papilloma virus, particularly HPV 16 and 18.

  9. Association of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. Extracted DNA from the cancerous tissues was checked for PCR reaction to detect the subtypes of human papilloma virus. Data of the present study suggest that oral squamous cell carcinoma are almost absent in Bangladeshi patients with human papilloma virus, particularly HPV 16 and 18. PMID:23617206

  10. Lobaplatin arrests cell cycle progression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chang-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC still is a big burden for China. In recent years, the third-generation platinum compounds have been proposed as potential active agents for HCC. However, more experimental and clinical data are warranted to support the proposal. In the present study, the effect of lobaplatin was assessed in five HCC cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms in terms of cell cycle kinetics were explored. Methods Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin to human HCC cell lines was examined using MTT cell proliferation assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-regulated genes was examined at both the mRNA (RT-PCR and protein (Western blot levels. The phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and retinoblastoma (Rb protein was also examined using Western blot analysis. Results Lobaplatin inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. For the most sensitive SMMC-7721 cells, lobaplatin arrested cell cycle progression in G1 and G2/M phases time-dependently which might be associated with the down-regulation of cyclin B, CDK1, CDC25C, phosphorylated CDK1 (pCDK1, pCDK4, Rb, E2F, and pRb, and the up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27. Conclusion Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin in human HCC cells might be due to its ability to arrest cell cycle progression which would contribute to the potential use of lobaplatin for the management of HCC.

  11. Association of Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Mahmuda; Ali, Liaquat; Hassan, Zahid; Khan, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. In Bangladesh, it comprises 20% of the whole body malignancies. Several studies found that 15% to 25% of oropharyngeal cancer cases are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV). This study is done to find the association of human papilloma virus subtypes, particularly HPV type 16 and HPV type 18, with the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Bangladeshi patients. In total, 34 diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell car...

  12. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  13. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirstead, Hans S; Nistor, Gabriel; Bernal, Giovanna; Totoiu, Minodora; Cloutier, Frank; Sharp, Kelly; Steward, Oswald

    2005-05-11

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. OPCs were injected 7 d or 10 months after injury. In both cases, transplanted cells survived, redistributed over short distances, and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. Animals that received OPCs 7 d after injury exhibited enhanced remyelination and substantially improved locomotor ability. In contrast, when OPCs were transplanted 10 months after injury, there was no enhanced remyelination or locomotor recovery. These studies document the feasibility of predifferentiating hESCs into functional OPCs and demonstrate their therapeutic potential at early time points after spinal cord injury.

  14. Generation and Characterization of Erythroid Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hsin Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the imbalance in the supply and demand of red blood cells (RBCs, especially for alloimmunized patients or patients with rare blood phenotypes, extensive research has been done to generate therapeutic quantities of mature RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells of various sources, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, and cord blood. Since human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be maintained indefinitely in vitro, they represent potentially inexhaustible sources of donor-free RBCs. In contrast to other ex vivo stem-cell-derived cellular therapeutics, tumorigenesis is not a concern, as RBCs can be irradiated without marked adverse effects on in vivo function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent publications relevant to the generation and characterization of hESC- and iPSC-derived erythroid cells and discuss challenges to be met before the eventual realization of clinical usage of these cells.

  15. Fibronectin-synthesizing activity of free and membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts and chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, V.M.; Volodarskaya, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The fibronectin-synthesizing activity of membrane-bound and free polyribosomes in a cell-free system was studied using immunochemical methods. It was found that fibronectin biosynthesis on membrane-bound polyribosomes from human embryonic fibroblasts accounts for 4.9% and those from 10-day-old chick embryos for 1.1% of the total amount of newly synthesized proteins, whereas on free polyribosomes it is 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively. Fibronectin monomers with a molecular weight of 220,000 were found only in the material of the cell-free system containing heavy fractions of membrane-bound polyribosomes newly synthesized in the presence of spermidine. Thus, it was shown that fibronectin is synthesized primarily on membrane-bound polyribosomes

  16. Physiological oxygen prevents frequent silencing of the DLK1-DIO3 cluster during human embryonic stem cells culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pingyuan; Sun, Yi; Ouyang, Qi; Hu, Liang; Tan, Yueqiu; Zhou, Xiaoying; Xiong, Bo; Zhang, Qianjun; Yuan, Ding; Pan, Yi; Liu, Tiancheng; Liang, Ping; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2014-02-01

    Genetic and epigenetic alterations are observed in long-term culture (>30 passages) of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); however, little information is available in early cultures. Through a large-scale gene expression analysis between initial-passage hESCs (ihESCs, cell derivatives, possibly through attenuation of the expression and phosphorylation of p53. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 5% oxygen, instead of the commonly used 20% oxygen, is required for preserving the expression of the DLK1-DIO3 cluster. Overall, the data suggest that active expression of the DLK1-DIO3 cluster represents a new biomarker for epigenetic stability of hESCs and indicates the importance of using a proper physiological oxygen level during the derivation and culture of hESCs. © AlphaMed Press.

  17. A homozygous Keap1-knockout human embryonic stem cell line generated using CRISPR/Cas9 mediates gene targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Jung Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (keap1 is a cysteine-rich protein that interacts with transcription factor Nrf2 in a redox-sensitive manner, leading to the degradation of Nrf2 (Kim et al., 2014a. Disruption of Keap1 results in the induction of Nrf2-related signaling pathways involving the expression of a set of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. We generated biallelic mutants of the Keap1 gene using a CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method in the H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC. The Keap1 homozygous-knockout H9 cell line retained normal morphology, gene expression, and in vivo differentiation potential.

  18. Combination of heterologous fibrin sealant and bioengineered human embryonic stem cells to improve regeneration following autogenous sciatic nerve grafting repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Roghayeh; Kyrylenko, Sergiy; Castro, Mateus Vidigal; Ferreira, Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem, and the preferred surgical method for treating it is the end-to-end neurorrhaphy. When it is not possible due to a large nerve gap, autologous nerve grafting is used. However, these surgical techniques result in nerve regeneration at highly variable degrees. It is thus very important to seek complementary techniques to improve motor and sensory recovery. One promising approach could be cell therapy. Transplantation therapy with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is appealing because these cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into specialized cell types and have self-renewal ability. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to find conditions under which functional recovery is improved after sciatic nerve neurorrhaphy. We assumed that hESC, either alone or in combination with heterologous fibrin sealant scaffold, could be used to support regeneration in a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury and repair via autografting with end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Five millimeters of the sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 J mice were transected off and rotated 180 degrees to simulate an injury, and then stumps were sutured. Next, we applied heterologous fibrin sealant and/or human embryonic stem cells genetically altered to overexpress fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) at the site of the injury. The study was designed to include six experimental groups comprising neurorrhaphy (N), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant (N + F), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + doxycycline (N + F + D), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + wild-type hESC (N + F + W), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + hESC off (N + F + T), and neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + hESC on via doxycycline (N + F + D + T). We evaluated the recovery rate using Catwalk and von Frey functional recovery tests, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis. The experiments indicated that

  19. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Fan Jia; Wang Xiaoying; Zhou Jian; Qiu Shuangjian; Yu Yao; Liu Yinkun; Tang Zhaoyou

    2007-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment

  20. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their cardiac derivatives using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J W; Lieu, D K; Huser, T R; Li, R A

    2008-09-08

    Self-renewable, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs), providing an unlimited source of cells for transplantation therapies. However, unlike certain cell lineages such as hematopoietic cells, CMs lack specific surface markers for convenient identification, physical separation, and enrichment. Identification by immunostaining of cardiac-specific proteins such as troponin requires permeabilization, which renders the cells unviable and non-recoverable. Ectopic expression of a reporter protein under the transcriptional control of a heart-specific promoter for identifying hESC-derived CMs (hESC-CMs) is useful for research but complicates potential clinical applications. The practical detection and removal of undifferentiated hESCs in a graft, which may lead to tumors, is also critical. Here, we demonstrate a non-destructive, label-free optical method based on Raman scattering to interrogate the intrinsic biochemical signatures of individual hESCs and their cardiac derivatives, allowing cells to be identified and classified. By combining the Raman spectroscopic data with multivariate statistical analysis, our results indicate that hESCs, human fetal left ventricular CMs, and hESC-CMs can be identified by their intrinsic biochemical characteristics with an accuracy of 96%, 98% and 66%, respectively. The present study lays the groundwork for developing a systematic and automated method for the non-invasive and label-free sorting of (i) high-quality hESCs for expansion, and (ii) ex vivo CMs (derived from embryonic or adult stem cells) for cell-based heart therapies.

  2. Methylation and Transcripts Expression at the Imprinted GNAS Locus in Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Grybek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature indicate that genomic imprint marks are disturbed in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs. GNAS is an imprinted locus that produces one biallelic (Gsα and four monoallelic (NESP55, GNAS-AS1, XLsα, and A/B transcripts due to differential methylation of their promoters (DMR. To document imprinting at the GNAS locus in PSCs, we studied GNAS locus DMR methylation and transcript (NESP55, XLsα, and A/B expression in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs derived from two human fibroblasts and their progenies. Results showed that (1 methylation at the GNAS locus DMRs is DMR and cell line specific, (2 changes in allelic transcript expression can be independent of a change in allele-specific DNA methylation, and (3 interestingly, methylation at A/B DMR is correlated with A/B transcript expression. These results indicate that these models are valuable to study the mechanisms controlling GNAS methylation, factors involved in transcript expression, and possibly mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B.

  3. Human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitors mature inside an encapsulation device without evidence of increased biomass or cell escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kaitlyn; Hao, Ergeng; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    There are several challenges to successful implementation of a cell therapy for insulin dependent diabetes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Among these are development of functional insulin producing cells, a clinical delivery method that eliminates the need for chronic immunosuppression, and assurance that hESC derived tumors do not form in the patient. We and others have shown that encapsulation of cells in a bilaminar device (TheraCyte) provides immunoprotection in rodents and primates. Here we monitored human insulin secretion and employed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to evaluate the maturation, growth, and containment of encapsulated islet progenitors derived from CyT49 hESC, transplanted into mice. Human insulin was detectable by 7 weeks post-transplant and increased 17-fold over the course of 8 weeks, yet during this period the biomass of encapsulated cells remained constant. Remarkably, by 20 weeks post-transplant encapsulated cells secreted sufficient levels of human insulin to ameliorate alloxan induced diabetes. Further, bioluminescent imaging revealed for the first time that hESCs remained fully contained in encapsulation devices for up to 150 days, the longest period tested. Collectively, the data suggest that encapsulated hESC derived islet progenitors hold great promise as an effective and safe cell replacement therapy for insulin dependent diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposures on Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of uncertainty on how low (≤0.1 Gy doses of ionizing radiation (IR affect human cells, partly due to a lack of suitable experimental model systems for such studies. The uncertainties arising from low-dose IR human data undermine practical societal needs to predict health risks emerging from diagnostic medical tests’ radiation, natural background radiation, and environmental radiological accidents. To eliminate a variability associated with remarkable differences in radioresponses of hundreds of differentiated cell types, we established a novel, human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based model to examine the radiobiological effects in human cells. Our aim is to comprehensively elucidate the gene expression changes in a panel of various hESC lines following low IR doses of 0.01; 0.05; 0.1 Gy; and, as a reference, relatively high dose of 1 Gy of IR. Here, we examined the dynamics of transcriptional changes of well-established IR-responsive set of genes, including CDKN1A, GADD45A, etc. at 2 and 16 h post-IR, representing “early” and “late” radioresponses of hESCs. Our findings suggest the temporal- and hESC line-dependence of stress gene radioresponses with no statistically significant evidence for a linear dose-response relationship within the lowest doses of IR exposures.

  5. Proliferation of germ cells and somatic cells in first trimester human embryonic gonads as indicated by S and S+G2+M phase fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær; Lutterodt, Melissa Catherine R; Mamsen, Linn S

    2011-01-01

    The number of germ cells and somatic cells in human embryonic and foetal gonads has previously been estimated by stereological methods, which are time- and labour-consuming with little information concerning cell proliferation. Here, we studied whether flow cytometry could be applied as an easier...

  6. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in ...

  7. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantitative comparison of the membrane proteomes of self-renewing and differentiating human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Johansen, Pia T

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a powerful quantitative proteomics platform for comprehensive characterization of complex biological systems. However, the potential of SILAC-based approaches has not been fully utilized in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research...... embryonic stem cell lines. Of the 811 identified membrane proteins, six displayed significantly higher expression levels in the undifferentiated state compared with differentiating cells. This group includes the established marker CD133/Prominin-1 as well as novel candidates for hESC surface markers......: Glypican-4, Neuroligin-4, ErbB2, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta (PTPRZ), and Glycoprotein M6B. Our study also revealed 17 potential markers of hESC differentiation as their corresponding protein expression levels displayed a dramatic increase in differentiated embryonic stem cell...

  8. β-Cell Replacement in Mice Using Human Type 1 Diabetes Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Lina; Danzl, Nichole; Campbell, Sean R; Viola, Ryan; Williams, Damian; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Neil; Poffenberger, Greg; Johannesson, Bjarki; Oberholzer, Jose; Powers, Alvin C; Leibel, Rudolph L; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sykes, Megan; Egli, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    β-Cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESs) derived from a patient with type 1 diabetes to differentiate into β-cells and provide a source of autologous islets for cell replacement. NT-ESs differentiate in vitro with an average efficiency of 55% into C-peptide-positive cells, expressing markers of mature β-cells, including MAFA and NKX6.1. Upon transplantation in immunodeficient mice, grafted cells form vascularized islet-like structures containing MAFA/C-peptide-positive cells. These β-cells adapt insulin secretion to ambient metabolite status and show normal insulin processing. Importantly, NT-ES-β-cells maintain normal blood glucose levels after ablation of the mouse endogenous β-cells. Cystic structures, but no teratomas, were observed in NT-ES-β-cell grafts. Isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed greater variability in β-cell differentiation. Even though different methods of somatic cell reprogramming result in stem cell lines that are molecularly indistinguishable, full differentiation competence is more common in ES cell lines than in induced pluripotent stem cell lines. These results demonstrate the suitability of NT-ES-β-cells for cell replacement for type 1 diabetes and provide proof of principle for therapeutic cloning combined with cell therapy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. On the possible effects of homeostatic shifts in human embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Espejo Acuna, C.

    1988-08-01

    Possible etiological factors of congenital malformations, as well as of human trisomies are considered. We discuss the evidence that hyperthermia in particular may be an etiological factor for trisomies in humans. (author). 19 refs

  10. Estrogen receptor beta-selective agonists stimulate calcium oscillations in human and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER in primary neurons or brain slices from the rodent brain. However, these cells can not be maintained continuously in culture because neurons are post-mitotic. Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells could be a potential continuous, cell-based model to study nongenomic actions of estrogens in neurons if they are responsive to estrogens after differentiation. In this study ER-subtype specific estrogens were used to examine the role of ERalpha and ERbeta on calcium oscillations in neurons derived from human (hES and mouse embryonic stem cells. Unlike the undifferentiated hES cells the differentiated cells expressed neuronal markers, ERbeta, but not ERalpha. The non-selective ER agonist 17beta-estradiol (E(2 rapidly increased [Ca2+]i oscillations and synchronizations within a few minutes. No change in calcium oscillations was observed with the selective ERalpha agonist 4,4',4''-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyltrisphenol (PPT. In contrast, the selective ERbeta agonists, 2,3-bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl-propionitrile (DPN, MF101, and 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl-7-vinyl-1,3 benzoxazol-5-ol (ERB-041; WAY-202041 stimulated calcium oscillations similar to E(2. The ERbeta agonists also increased calcium oscillations and phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK1/2 in neurons derived from mouse ES cells, which was inhibited by nifedipine demonstrating that ERbeta activates L-type voltage gated calcium channels to regulate neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate that ERbeta signaling regulates nongenomic pathways in neurons derived from ES cells, and suggest that these cells might be useful to study the nongenomic mechanisms of estrogenic compounds.

  11. Coculturing with endothelial cells promotes in vitro maturation and electrical coupling of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Gupta, Renuka; Rioult, Damien; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Courjaret, Raphael; Machaca, Khaled; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Stanley, Edouard G; Rafii, Shahin; Elliott, David A; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Rafii, Arash

    2017-06-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are a promising source of repopulating cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that we could improve maturation of cardiomyocytes and facilitate electrical interconnections by creating a model that more closely resembles heart tissue; that is, containing both endothelial cells (ECs) and cardiomyocytes. We induced cardiomyocyte differentiation in the coculture of an hESC line expressing the cardiac reporter NKX2.5-green fluorescent protein (GFP), and an Akt-activated EC line (E4 + ECs). We quantified spontaneous beating rates, synchrony, and coordination between different cardiomyocyte clusters using confocal imaging of Fura Red-detected calcium transients and computer-assisted image analysis. After 8 days in culture, 94% ± 6% of the NKX2-5GFP + cells were beating when hESCs embryonic bodies were plated on E4 + ECs compared with 34% ± 12.9% for controls consisting of hESCs cultured on BD Matrigel (BD Biosciences) without ECs at Day 11 in culture. The spatial organization of beating areas in cocultures was different. The GFP + cardiomyocytes were close to the E4 + ECs. The average beats/min of the cardiomyocytes in coculture was faster and closer to physiologic heart rates compared with controls (50 ± 14 [n = 13] vs 25 ± 9 [n = 8]; p < 0.05). The coculture with ECs led to synchronized beating relying on the endothelial network, as illustrated by the loss of synchronization upon the disruption of endothelial bridges. The coculturing of differentiating cardiomyocytes with Akt-activated ECs but not EC-conditioned media results in (1) improved efficiency of the cardiomyocyte differentiation protocol and (2) increased maturity leading to better intercellular coupling with improved chronotropy and synchrony. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Bioethical ambition, political opportunity and the European governance of patenting: the case of human embryonic stem cell science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel insights into embryonic stem cell self-renewal revealed through comparative human and mouse systems biology networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Karen G; Simons, Allen K; Bai, Hao; Kell, Braden; Wang, Zack Z; Yun, Kyuson; Hibbs, Matthew A

    2014-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages, are a powerful model for biomedical research and developmental biology. Human and mouse ESCs share many features, yet have distinctive aspects, including fundamental differences in the signaling pathways and cell cycle controls that support self-renewal. Here, we explore the molecular basis of human ESC self-renewal using Bayesian network machine learning to integrate cell-type-specific, high-throughput data for gene function discovery. We integrated high-throughput ESC data from 83 human studies (~1.8 million data points collected under 1,100 conditions) and 62 mouse studies (~2.4 million data points collected under 1,085 conditions) into separate human and mouse predictive networks focused on ESC self-renewal to analyze shared and distinct functional relationships among protein-coding gene orthologs. Computational evaluations show that these networks are highly accurate, literature validation confirms their biological relevance, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation supports our predictions. Our results reflect the importance of key regulatory genes known to be strongly associated with self-renewal and pluripotency in both species (e.g., POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG), identify metabolic differences between species (e.g., threonine metabolism), clarify differences between human and mouse ESC developmental signaling pathways (e.g., leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-activated JAK/STAT in mouse; NODAL/ACTIVIN-A-activated fibroblast growth factor in human), and reveal many novel genes and pathways predicted to be functionally associated with self-renewal in each species. These interactive networks are available online at www.StemSight.org for stem cell researchers to develop new hypotheses, discover potential mechanisms involving sparsely annotated genes, and prioritize genes of interest for experimental validation

  14. Effects of cholera toxin on human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Hayward, I P

    1992-10-01

    This study reports on changes in morphology and membrane transport in 5 human colon carcinoma cell lines treated with cholera toxin (CT). Three of the cell lines that grew as monolayers (LIM 1215, LIM 1899, LIM 2099) and 1 that grew as floating clumps (LIM 2408) did not show morphological changes after CT treatment. However, cell line LIM 1863 that grows as floating "crypt-like" organoids showed rapid and distinctive changes in morphology and membrane transport after CT treatment. At 1 and 6 hrs after CT treatment, light and transmission electron microscopy revealed rapid dilatation of the central lumen of organoids and the appearance of 2 populations of apical vesicular inclusions. The first population was unusual in being non-membrane bound and limited by fuzzy filamentous material. The second population was membrane bound. Scanning electron microscopy at 1-6 hr after CT treatment showed swelling and loss of surface microvilli on some, but not all, cells. At 24 hr after CT treatment the majority of organoids showed evidence of fluid accumulation and small apical vesicles coalesced to form large single vacuoles that obliterated normal cell morphology. By 48 hr, continued swelling produced extreme attenuation of the plasma membrane with cells taking on an "endothelial cell-like" appearance. The response to CT was dose-dependent. Uptake studies using 86Rubidium and blocking studies using ouabain and amiloride indicated that CT is acting on the Na+/K+ ATPase membrane pump to cause the increased fluid uptake by LIM 1863 cells. This study is the first to report specific morphological changes in intestine-derived cells in response to CT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Bredfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries.

  16. Endostar, a recombined humanized endostatin, enhances the radioresponse for human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qinglian; Meng Maobin; Tu Lingli; Jia Li; Zhou Lin; Xu Yong; Lu You; Yang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the efficacy of combining radiation therapy with endostar, a recombined humanized endostatin, in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Tumor xenografts were established in the hind limb of male athymic nude mice (BALB/c-nu) by subcutaneous transplantation. The tumor-bearing mice were assigned into four treatment groups: sham therapy (control), endostar (20 mg/kg, once daily for 10 days), radiation therapy (6 Gray per day to 30 Gray, once a day for 1 week), and endostar plus radiation therapy (combination). The experiment was repeated and mice were killed at days 3, 6, and 10 after initiation therapy, and the tumor tissues and blood samples were collected to analyze the kinetics of antitumor, antiangiogenesis, and antivascularization responses of different therapies. In human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts, endostar significantly enhanced the effects of tumor growth inhibition, endothelial cell and tumor cell apoptosis induction, and improved tumor cell hypoxia of radiation therapy. Histological analyses demonstrated that endostar plus radiation also induced a significant reduction in microvascular density, microvascular area, and vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression compared with radiation and endostar alone respectively. We concluded that endostar significantly sensitized the function of radiation in antitumor and antiangiogenesis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts by increasing the apoptosis of the endothelial cell and tumor cell, improving the hypoxia of the tumor cell, and changing the proangiogenic factors. These data provided a rational basis for clinical practice of this multimodality therapy. (author)

  17. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Induced Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishat, Roquaiya; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Kumar, Harish; Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath

    2015-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma accounts for the sixth most common malignancy occurring worldwide with tobacco and alcohol being the two well established risk factors. In the recent years, substantial evidence has been obtained that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers are on the rise. This article provides an insight into the structure of HPV genome, molecular pathogenesis, detection methods and clinical implications of HPV positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PMID:26266234

  18. Immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts by introduction of either the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 or E7 gene alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akito; Kumakura, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Minoru; Barrett, J Carl; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2003-09-01

    The ability of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 or E7 gene to induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblast WHE-7 cells was examined. WHE-7 cells at 9 population doublings (PD) were infected with retrovirus vectors encoding either HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone or both E6 and E7 (E6/E7). One of 4 isolated clones carrying E6 alone became immortal and is currently at >445 PD. Four of 4 isolated clones carrying E7 alone escaped from crisis and are currently at >330 PD. Three of 5 isolated clones carrying E6/E7 were also immortalized and are currently at >268 PD. The immortal clone carrying E6 only and 2 of the 3 immortal clones carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E6 protein, and all the immortal clones carrying E7 alone and the other immortal clone carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E7 protein when compared to their mortal or precrisis clones. The immortal clones expressing a high level of E6 or E7 protein were positive for telomerase activity or an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance, respectively, known as ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). All the mortal or precrisis clones were negative for both phenotypes. All the immortal clones exhibited abrogation of G1 arrest after DNA damage by X-ray irradiation. The expression of INK4a protein (p16(INK4a)) was undetectable in the E6-infected mortal and immortal clones, whereas Rb protein (pRb) was hyperphosphorylated only in the immortal clone. The p16(INK4a) protein was overexpressed in all the E7-infected immortal clones and their clones in the pre-crisis period as well as all the E6/E7-infected mortal and immortal clones, but the pRb expression was downregulated in all of these clones. These results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone can induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts. Inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRb pathways in combination with activation of a telomere maintenance mechanism is suggested to be necessary for

  19. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  20. Enhanced transfection efficiency of human embryonic stem cells by the incorporation of DNA liposomes in extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Diaz, Luis G; Garcia-Perez, Jose L; Krebsbach, Paul H

    2010-12-01

    Because human embryonic stem (hES) cells can differentiate into virtually any cell type in the human body, these cells hold promise for regenerative medicine. The genetic manipulation of hES cells will enhance our understanding of genes involved in early development and will accelerate their potential use and application for regenerative medicine. The objective of this study was to increase the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA into hES cells by modifying a standard reverse transfection (RT) protocol of lipofection. We hypothesized that immobilization of plasmid DNA in extracellular matrix would be a more efficient method for plasmid transfer due to the affinity of hES cells for substrates such as Matrigel and to the prolonged exposure of cells to plasmid DNA. Our results demonstrate that this modification doubled the transfection efficiency of hES cells and the generation of clonal cell lines containing a piece of foreign DNA stably inserted in their genomes compared to results obtained with standard forward transfection. In addition, treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide further increased the transfection efficiency of hES cells. In conclusion, modifications to the RT protocol of lipofection result in a significant and robust increase in the transfection efficiency of hES cells.

  1. A small molecule-based strategy for endothelial differentiation and three-dimensional morphogenesis from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Geng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The emerging models of human embryonic stem cell (hESC self-organizing organoids provide a valuable in vitro platform for studying self-organizing processes that presumably mimic in vivo human developmental events. Here we report that through a chemical screen, we identified two novel and structurally similar small molecules BIR1 and BIR2 which robustly induced the self-organization of a balloon-shaped three-dimensional structure when applied to two-dimensional adherent hESC cultures in the absence of growth factors. Gene expression analyses and functional assays demonstrated an endothelial identity of this balloon-like structure, while cell surface marker analyses revealed a VE-cadherin+CD31+CD34+KDR+CD43− putative endothelial progenitor population. Furthermore, molecular marker labeling and morphological examinations characterized several other distinct DiI-Ac-LDL+ multi-cellular modules and a VEGFR3+ sprouting structure in the balloon cultures that likely represented intermediate structures of balloon-formation.

  2. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Meer, Berend van; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Passier, Robert [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); MIRA, University of Twente (Netherlands); Tertoolen, Leon G.J.; Mummery, Christine L. [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Casini, Simona, E-mail: s.casini@amc.uva.nl [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-27

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. - Highlights: • Dexamethasone accelerates Ca{sup 2+} transient decay in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone enhances SERCA and NCX function in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone increases force of contraction and sarcomere length in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone does not alter I{sub Ca,L} and action potential characteristics in hESC-CMs.

  3. A Simple and Efficient Method of Slow Freezing for Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Iha, Momoe; Nishishita, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Nishikawa, Shinichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Protocols available for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are very inefficient and laborious compared to those for the cryopreservation of murine ES/iPS cells or other general cell lines. While the vitrification method may be adequate when working with small numbers of human ES/iPS cells, it requires special skills and is unsuitable when working with large cell numbers. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for the cryopreservation of hES/hiPS cells that is based on a conventional slow freezing method that uses a combination of Pronase/EDTA for Stem™ and CP-5E™ [final concentrations: 6 % hydroxyethyl starch, 5 % DMSO, and 5 % ethylene glycol in saline]. CP-5E™ is highly effective for the cryopreservation of small cell clumps produced by hES/hiPS colony detachment in the presence of Pronase and EDTA (Pronase/EDTA for Stem™, a formulation containing multiple digestive enzymes from Streptomyces griseus). This novel method would be quite useful for large-scale hES/iPS cell banking for use in clinical applications.

  4. miR-373 is regulated by TGFβ signaling and promotes mesendoderm differentiation in human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Alessandro; Papaioannou, Marilena D.; Krzyspiak, Joanna E.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to the evolutionary conserved miR-302 family play important functions in Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs). The expression of some members, such as the human miR-302 and mouse miR-290 clusters, is regulated by ESC core transcription factors. However, whether miRNAs act downstream of signaling pathways involved in human ESC pluripotency remains unknown. The maintenance of pluripotency in hESCs is under the control of the TGFβ pathway. Here, we show that inhibition of the Activin/Nodal branch of this pathway affects the expression of a subset of miRNAs in hESCs. Among them, we found miR-373, a member of the miR-302 family. Proper levels of miR-373 are crucial for the maintenance of hESC pluripotency, since its overexpression leads to differentiation towards the mesendodermal lineage. Among miR-373 predicted targets, involved in TGFβ signaling, we validated the Nodal inhibitor Lefty. Our work suggests a crucial role for the interplay between miRNAs and signaling pathways in ESCs. PMID:24709321

  5. Transcriptional profiling of MEF2-regulated genes in human neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Fai Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 family of transcription factors is highly expressed in the brain and constitutes a key determinant of neuronal survival, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. However, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of MEF2-regulated genes has not yet been fully elucidated, particularly at the neural stem cell stage. Here we report the results of microarray analysis comparing mRNAs isolated from human neural progenitor/stem cells (hNPCs derived from embryonic stem cells expressing a control vector versus progenitors expressing a constitutively-active form of MEF2 (MEF2CA, which increases MEF2 activity. Microarray experiments were performed using the Illumina Human HT-12 V4.0 expression beadchip (GEO#: GSE57184. By comparing vector-control cells to MEF2CA cells, microarray analysis identified 1880 unique genes that were differentially expressed. Among these genes, 1121 genes were up-regulated and 759 genes were down-regulated. Our results provide a valuable resource for identifying transcriptional targets of MEF2 in hNPCs.

  6. A small molecule-based strategy for endothelial differentiation and three-dimensional morphogenesis from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yijie; Feng, Bradley

    2016-07-01

    The emerging models of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-organizing organoids provide a valuable in vitro platform for studying self-organizing processes that presumably mimic in vivo human developmental events. Here we report that through a chemical screen, we identified two novel and structurally similar small molecules BIR1 and BIR2 which robustly induced the self-organization of a balloon-shaped three-dimensional structure when applied to two-dimensional adherent hESC cultures in the absence of growth factors. Gene expression analyses and functional assays demonstrated an endothelial identity of this balloon-like structure, while cell surface marker analyses revealed a VE-cadherin(+)CD31(+)CD34(+)KDR(+)CD43(-) putative endothelial progenitor population. Furthermore, molecular marker labeling and morphological examinations characterized several other distinct DiI-Ac-LDL(+) multi-cellular modules and a VEGFR3(+) sprouting structure in the balloon cultures that likely represented intermediate structures of balloon-formation.

  7. Nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB differentially contribute to intrinsic and directed migration of human embryonic lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuragano, Masahiro; Murakami, Yota; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2018-03-25

    Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) plays an essential role in directional cell migration. In this study, we investigated the roles of NMII isoforms (NMIIA and NMIIB) in the migration of human embryonic lung fibroblasts, which exhibit directionally persistent migration in an intrinsic manner. NMIIA-knockdown (KD) cells migrated unsteadily, but their direction of migration was approximately maintained. By contrast, NMIIB-KD cells occasionally reversed their direction of migration. Lamellipodium-like protrusions formed in the posterior region of NMIIB-KD cells prior to reversal of the migration direction. Moreover, NMIIB KD led to elongation of the posterior region in migrating cells, probably due to the lack of load-bearing stress fibers in this area. These results suggest that NMIIA plays a role in steering migration by maintaining stable protrusions in the anterior region, whereas NMIIB plays a role in maintenance of front-rear polarity by preventing aberrant protrusion formation in the posterior region. These distinct functions of NMIIA and NMIIB might promote intrinsic and directed migration of normal human fibroblasts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Meer, Berend van; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G.J.; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. - Highlights: • Dexamethasone accelerates Ca"2"+ transient decay in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone enhances SERCA and NCX function in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone increases force of contraction and sarcomere length in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone does not alter I_C_a_,_L and action potential characteristics in hESC-CMs.

  9. Efficient derivation of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells from non-human primate embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimada

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is a small New World primate that has been used as a non-human primate model for various biomedical studies. We previously demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs promote functional locomotor recovery of mouse spinal cord injury models. However, for the clinical application of such a therapeutic approach, we need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pluripotent stem cell-derived NS/PCs not only by xenotransplantation, but also allotransplantation using non-human primate models to assess immunological rejection and tumorigenicity. In the present study, we established a culture method to efficiently derive NS/PCs as neurospheres from common marmoset ESCs. Marmoset ESC-derived neurospheres could be passaged repeatedly and showed sequential generation of neurons and astrocytes, similar to that of mouse ESC-derived NS/PCs, and gave rise to functional neurons as indicated by calcium imaging. Although marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs could not differentiate into oligodendrocytes under default culture conditions, these cells could abundantly generate oligodendrocytes by incorporating additional signals that recapitulate in vivo neural development. Moreover, principal component analysis of microarray data demonstrated that marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs acquired similar gene expression profiles to those of fetal brain-derived NS/PCs by repeated passaging. Therefore, marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs may be useful not only for accurate evaluation by allotransplantation of NS/PCs into non-human primate models, but are also applicable to analysis of iPSCs established from transgenic disease model marmosets.

  10. Left-right asymmetry of maturation rates in human embryonic neural development

    OpenAIRE

    De Kovel, C.; Lisgo, S.; Karlebach, G.; Ju, J.; Cheng, G.; Fisher, S.; Francks, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuro-psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks post conception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fibre tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. Methods We used RNA seq...

  11. Role of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Robbie SR; O’Regan, Esther M; Kennedy, Susan; Martin, Cara; O’Leary, John J; Timon, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. As a result, traditional paradigms in relation to the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been changing. Research into HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is rapidly expanding, however many molecular pathological and clinical aspects of the role of HPV remain uncertain and are the subject of ongoing investigation. A detailed search of the literature pertaining to HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was performed and information on the topic was gathered. In this article, we present an extensive review of the current literature on the role of HPV in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in relation to epidemiology, risk factors, carcinogenesis, biomarkers and clinical implications. HPV has been established as a causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and biologically active HPV can act as a prognosticator with better overall survival than HPV-negative tumours. A distinct group of younger patients with limited tobacco and alcohol exposure have emerged as characteristic of this HPV-related subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not completely understood and further studies are needed to assist development of optimal prevention and treatment modalities. PMID:24945004

  12. Detection of the E7 transform gene of human papilloma virus type 16 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, J; Huang, H; Fu, Y

    1998-12-01

    To determine, with the use of polymerase chain reaction, the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 in 30 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 30 healthy control patients. DNA was extracted from freshly frozen tumor tissues of 30 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and from the oral mucosa of 30 controls. A pair of specific primers of the E7 early gene of HPV 16 were designed. PCR products were run by 1.5% agarose gel and the results of electrophoresis were photographed. HPV 16 was detected in 36.7% (11/30) of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and 11.1% (4/30) of controls. HPV 16 has a significant association with oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role HPV 16 plays in the tumorigenesis of oral cancer and its clinical significance remain to be investigated.

  13. Expression of Anti-apoptotic Protein BAG3 in Human Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), has been shown to play a role in anti-apoptosis of various malignant tumors. In this study, the expression of BAG3 was examined in human sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. The expression of BAG3 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of surgical samples from 5 patients with sebaceous gland carcinoma in the eyelid. BAG3 was positive diffusely in the cytoplasm in all patients. The average positive rate of BAG3 was 73.0±26.0% in tumor cells of all patients. BAG3 was highly expressed in sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. BAG3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. The negative impact of Wnt signaling on megakaryocyte and primitive erythroid progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasuna Paluru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt gene family consists of structurally related genes encoding secreted signaling molecules that have been implicated in many developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Previously, we found that Wnt signaling is required for primitive or yolk sac-derived-erythropoiesis using the murine embryonic stem cell (ESC system. Here, we examine the effect of Wnt signaling on the formation of early hematopoietic progenitors derived from human ESCs. The first hematopoietic progenitor cells in the human ESC system express the pan-hematopoietic marker CD41 and the erythrocyte marker, glycophorin A or CD235. We have developed a novel serum-free, feeder-free, adherent differentiation system that can efficiently generate large numbers of CD41 + CD235+ cells. We demonstrate that this cell population contains progenitors not just for primitive erythroid and megakaryocyte cells but for the myeloid lineage as well and term this population the primitive common myeloid progenitor (CMP. Treatment of mesoderm-specified cells with Wnt3a led to a loss of hematopoietic colony-forming ability while the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with DKK1 led to an increase in the number of primitive CMPs. Canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits the expansion and/or survival of primitive erythrocytes and megakaryocytes, but not myeloid cells, derived from this progenitor population. These findings are in contrast to the role of Wnt signaling during mouse ESC differentiation and demonstrate the importance of the human ESC system in studying species-specific differences in development.

  15. Subretinal Implantation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Improved Survival When Implanted as a Monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Bruno; Thomas, Padmaja; Thomas, Biju; Ribeiro, Ramiro; Hu, Yuntao; Brant, Rodrigo; Ahuja, Ashish; Zhu, Danhong; Liu, Laura; Koss, Michael; Maia, Mauricio; Chader, Gerald; Hinton, David R.; Humayun, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate cell survival and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cell–derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE) transplantation in immunocompromised nude rats. Cells were transplanted as a cell suspension (CS) or as a polarized monolayer plated on a parylene membrane (PM). Methods. Sixty-nine rats (38 male, 31 female) were surgically implanted with CS (n = 33) or PM (n = 36). Cohort subsets were killed at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Both ocular tissues and systemic organs (brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and lungs) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Every fifth section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histologically. Adjacent sections were processed for immunohistochemical analysis (as needed) using the following antibodies: anti-RPE65 (RPE-specific marker), anti-TRA-1-85 (human cell marker), anti-Ki67 (proliferation marker), anti-CD68 (macrophage), and anti-cytokeratin (epithelial marker). Results. The implanted cells were immunopositive for the RPE65 and TRA-1-85. Cell survival (P = 0.006) and the presence of a monolayer (P < 0.001) of hESC-RPE were significantly higher in eyes that received the PM. Gross morphological and histological analysis of the eye and the systemic organs after the surgery revealed no evidence of tumor or ectopic tissue formation in either group. Conclusions. hESC-RPE can survive for at least 12 months in an immunocompromised animal model. Polarized monolayers of hESC-RPE show improved survival compared to cell suspensions. The lack of teratoma or any ectopic tissue formation in the implanted rats bodes well for similar results with respect to safety in human subjects. PMID:23833067

  16. Notch signaling is required for maintaining stem-cell features of neuroprogenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hyung-Min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have provided important findings about the roles of Notch signaling in neural development. Unfortunately, however, most of these studies have investigated the neural stem cells (NSCs of mice or other laboratory animals rather than humans, mainly owing to the difficulties associated with obtaining human brain samples. It prompted us to focus on neuroectodermal spheres (NESs which are derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC and densely inhabited by NSCs. We here investigated the role of Notch signaling with the hESC-derived NESs. Results From hESCs, we derived NESs, the in-vitro version of brain-derived neurospheres. NES formation was confirmed by increased levels of various NSC marker genes and the emergence of rosette structures in which neuroprogenitors are known to reside. We found that Notch signaling, which maintains stem cell characteristics of in-vivo-derived neuroprogenitors, is active in these hESC-derived NESs, similar to their in-vivo counterpart. Expression levels of Notch signaling molecules such as NICD, DLLs, JAG1, HES1 and HES5 were increased in the NESs. Inhibition of the Notch signaling by a γ-secretase inhibitor reduced rosette structures, expression levels of NSC marker genes and proliferation potential in the NESs, and, if combined with withdrawal of growth factors, triggered differentiation toward neurons. Conclusion Our results indicate that the hESC-derived NESs, which share biochemical features with brain-derived neurospheres, maintain stem cell characteristics mainly through Notch signaling, which suggests that the hESC-derived NESs could be an in-vitro model for in-vivo neurogenesis.

  17. Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived from Human and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tamaki; Honda, Makoto; Minami, Itsunari; Tooi, Norie; Amagai, Yuji; Nakatsuji, Norio; Aiba, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no cures or efficacious treatments for severe motor neuron diseases. It is extremely difficult to obtain naïve spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human tissues for research due to both technical and ethical reasons. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are alternative sources. Several methods for MN differentiation have been reported. However, efficient production of naïve sMNs and culture cost were not taken into consideration in most of the methods. Methods/Principal Findings We aimed to establish protocols for efficient production and enrichment of sMNs derived from pluripotent stem cells. Nestin+ neural stem cell (NSC) clusters were induced by Noggin or a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling. After dissociation of NSC clusters, neurospheres were formed in a floating culture containing FGF2. The number of NSCs in neurospheres could be expanded more than 30-fold via several passages. More than 33% of HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were observed after differentiation of dissociated neurospheres by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and a Shh agonist for another week on monolayer culture. HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were enriched by gradient centrifugation up to 80% purity. These HB9+ cells differentiated into electrophysiologically functional cells and formed synapses with myotubes during a few weeks after ATRA/SAG treatment. Conclusions and Significance The series of procedures we established here, namely neural induction, NSC expansion, sMN differentiation and sMN purification, can provide large quantities of naïve sMNs derived from human and monkey pluripotent stem cells. Using small molecule reagents, reduction of culture cost could be achieved. PMID:19701462

  18. A COUP-TFII Human Embryonic Stem Cell Reporter Line to Identify and Select Atrial Cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwach, Verena; Verkerk, Arie O.; Mol, Mervyn; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine J.; Devalla, Harsha D.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Mummery, Christine L.; Davis, Richard P.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Reporter cell lines have already proven valuable in identifying, tracking, and purifying cardiac subtypes and progenitors during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We previously showed that chick ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is highly enriched

  19. Screening ethnically diverse human embryonic stem cells identifies a chromosome 20 minimal amplicon conferring growth advantage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amps, K.; Andrews, P.W.; Anyfantis, G.; Armstrong, L.; Avery, S.; Baharvand, H.; Baker, J.; Baker, D.; Munoz, M. N.; Beil, S.; Benvenisty, N.; Ben-Yosef, D.; Biancotti, J. C.; Bosman, A.; Brena, R. M.; Brison, D.; Caisander, G.; Camarasa, M. V.; Chen, J. M.; Chiao, E.; Choi, Y. M.; Choo, E.; Collins, D.; Colman, A.; Crook, J. M.; Daley, G. Q.; Dalton, A.; De Sousa, P. A.; Denning, C.; Downie, J.; Dvořák, P.; Hampl, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2011), s. 1132-1144 ISSN 1087-0156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : comparative genomic hybridization * copy number variation * human es cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 23.268, year: 2011

  20. Effect of gamma background on the dose absorbed by human embryon and foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloslavov, V.; Doncheva, B.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculation of absorbed radiation dose in different stages of human foetus development under normal or increased gamma background. On the base of ICRP-data for critical organ's mass (foetus, placenta, blood, uterus) a formula is given for absorbed dose evaluation of gonads. It is concluded that increased gamma background is insignificant compared to internal irradiation from absorbed radionuclides

  1. First steps towards the successful surface-based cultivation of human embryonic stem cells in hanging drop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Julia C; Stumpf, Patrick S; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Sachinidis, Agapios; Hescheler, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2012-11-01

    Miniaturization and parallelization of cell culture procedures are in focus of research in order to develop test platforms with low material consumption and increased standardization for toxicity and drug screenings. The cultivation in hanging drops (HDs) is a convenient and versatile tool for biological applications and represents an interesting model system for the screening applications due to its uniform shape, the advantageous gas supply, and the small volume. However, its application has so far been limited to non-adherent and aggregate forming cells. Here, we describe for the first time the proof-of-principle regarding the adherent cultivation of human embryonic stem cells in HD. For this microcarriers were added to the droplet as dynamic cultivation surfaces resulting in a maintained pluripotency and proliferation capacity for 10 days. This enables the HD technique to be extended to the cultivation of adherence-dependent stem cells. Also, the possible automation of this method by implementation of liquid handling systems opens new possibilities for miniaturized screenings, the improvement of cultivation and differentiation conditions, and toxicity and drug development.

  2. Cytotoxic effect of microbial biosurfactants against human embryonic kidney cancerous cell: HEK-293 and their possible role in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Mohapatra, Purusottam; Kundu, Chanakya Nath; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2014-11-01

    Two different microbial biosurfactants S9BS and CHBS were isolated from Lysinibacillus fusiformis S9 and Bacillus tequilensis CH. Cytotoxicity effect of these biosurfactants on human embryonic kidney cancerous cell (HEK-293) were studied with the help of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and morphological changes were observed under inverted microscope. The biosurfactants exhibited positive cytotoxic effect on HEK-293 cell line. It was found that LC50 of S9BS and CHBS were 75 and 100 μg ml(-1), respectively. Further cell cycle and apoptosis analysis of biosurfactant-treated HEK-293 cell line were done by FACS. In this study, cytotoxic effect of glycolipid biosurfactant against HEK-293 cell lines is reported for the first time. Mechanism towards increased membrane permeability of biosurfactant-treated cancer cell may be the incorporation of its lipid moiety into the plasma membrane leading to formation of pores and membrane disruption. Hence, these microbial biosurfactants can prove to be significant biomolecule for cancer treatment.

  3. Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Fibroblasts and an L-929 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus about the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs has not been reached, even though extensive attention has been paid to this issue. This confusion may be due to physicochemical factors of Ag-NPs and the cell model used for biological safety evaluation. In the present study, human embryonic stem cell-derived fibroblasts (EBFs, which have been considered a closer representative of the in vivo response, were used as a novel cell model to assess the cytotoxicity of Ag-NPs (~20 nm and ~100 nm in comparison with L-929 fibroblast cell line. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, p53 expression, and cellular uptake were examined. Results showed that Ag-NPs presented higher cytotoxicity to EBF than to L-929. EBF demonstrated a stronger capacity to ingest Ag-NPs, a higher G2/M arrest, and more upgraduated p53 expression after exposed to Ag-NPs for 48 h when compared with L-929. It could be concluded that EBF exhibited a more sensitive response to Ag-NPs compared with L-929 cells, indicating that EBF may be a valid candidate for cytotoxicity screening assays of nanoparticles.

  4. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy S. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs. We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo, to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling.

  5. An Efficient Method for Generation of Knockout Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaciakova, Dasa; Renzova, Tereza; Fedorova, Veronika; Barak, Martin; Kunova Bosakova, Michaela; Hampl, Ales; Cajanek, Lukas

    2017-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent a promising tool to study functions of genes during development, to model diseases, and to even develop therapies when combined with gene editing techniques such as CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) system. However, the process of disruption of gene expression by generation of null alleles is often inefficient and tedious. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a simple and efficient protocol to permanently downregulate expression of a gene of interest in hESCs using CRISPR/Cas9. We selected p53 for our proof of concept experiments. The methodology is based on series of hESC transfection, which leads to efficient downregulation of p53 expression even in polyclonal population (p53 Low cells), here proven by a loss of regulation of the expression of p53 target gene, microRNA miR-34a. We demonstrate that our approach achieves over 80% efficiency in generating hESC clonal sublines that do not express p53 protein. Importantly, we document by a set of functional experiments that such genetically modified hESCs do retain typical stem cells characteristics. In summary, we provide a simple and robust protocol to efficiently target expression of gene of interest in hESCs that can be useful for laboratories aiming to employ gene editing in their hESC applications/protocols.

  6. Derivation of xeno-free and GMP-grade human embryonic stem cells--platforms for future clinical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly E Tannenbaum

    Full Text Available Clinically compliant human embryonic stem cells (hESCs should be developed in adherence to ethical standards, without risk of contamination by adventitious agents. Here we developed for the first time animal-component free and good manufacturing practice (GMP-compliant hESCs. After vendor and raw material qualification, we derived xeno-free, GMP-grade feeders from umbilical cord tissue, and utilized them within a novel, xeno-free hESC culture system. We derived and characterized three hESC lines in adherence to regulations for embryo procurement, and good tissue, manufacturing and laboratory practices. To minimize freezing and thawing, we continuously expanded the lines from initial outgrowths and samples were cryopreserved as early stocks and banks. Batch release criteria included DNA-fingerprinting and HLA-typing for identity, characterization of pluripotency-associated marker expression, proliferation, karyotyping and differentiation in-vitro and in-vivo. These hESCs may be valuable for regenerative therapy. The ethical, scientific and regulatory methodology presented here may serve for development of additional clinical-grade hESCs.

  7. Influence of substrate composition on human embryonic stem cell differentiation and extracellular matrix production in embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperle, Alex; Masters, Kristyn S; Palecek, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells reside in specialized niches in vivo. Specific factors, including the extracellular matrix (ECM), in these niches are directly responsible for maintaining the stem cell population. During development, components of the stem cell microenvironment also control differentiation with precise spatial and temporal organization. The stem cell microenvironment is dynamically regulated by the cellular component, including stem cells themselves. Thus, a mechanism exists whereby stem cells modify the ECM, which in turn affects the fate of the stem cell. In this study, we investigated whether the type of ECM initially adsorbed to the culture substrate can influence the composition of the ECM deposited by human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiating in embryoid bodies, and whether different ECM composition and deposition profiles elicit distinct differentiation fates. We have shown that the initial ECM environment hESCs are exposed to affects the fate decisions of those cells and that this initial ECM environment is constantly modified during the differentiation process. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent or Embryonic Stem Cells Decreases the DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Mujoo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO-cyclic GMP pathway contributes to human stem cell differentiation, but NO free radical production can also damage DNA, necessitating a robust DNA damage response (DDR to ensure cell survival. How the DDR is affected by differentiation is unclear. Differentiation of stem cells, either inducible pluripotent or embryonic derived, increased residual DNA damage as determined by γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci, with increased S-phase-specific chromosomal aberration after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, suggesting reduced homologous recombination (HR repair as supported by the observation of decreased HR-related repair factor foci formation (RAD51 and BRCA1. Differentiated cells also had relatively increased fork stalling and R-loop formation after DNA replication stress. Treatment with NO donor (NOC-18, which causes stem cell differentiation has no effect on double-strand break (DSB repair by non-homologous end-joining but reduced DSB repair by HR. Present studies suggest that DNA repair by HR is impaired in differentiated cells.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Aharonowiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immune mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. A potential new therapeutic approach for MS is cell transplantation which may promote remyelination and suppress the inflammatory process. METHODS: We transplanted human embryonic stem cells (hESC-derived early multipotent neural precursors (NPs into the brain ventricles of mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS. We studied the effect of the transplanted NPs on the functional and pathological manifestations of the disease. RESULTS: Transplanted hESC-derived NPs significantly reduced the clinical signs of EAE. Histological examination showed migration of the transplanted NPs to the host white matter, however, differentiation to mature oligodendrocytes and remyelination were negligible. Time course analysis of the evolution and progression of CNS inflammation and tissue injury showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process in transplanted animals, which was correlated with the reduction of both axonal damage and demyelination. Co-culture experiments showed that hESC-derived NPs inhibited the activation and proliferation of lymph node-derived T cells in response to nonspecific polyclonal stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect of transplantation was not related to graft or host remyelination but was mediated by an immunosuppressive neuroprotective mechanism. The attenuation of EAE by hESC-derived NPs, demonstrated here, may serve as the first step towards further developments of hESC for cell therapy in MS.

  10. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Divya [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Dhanwal, Vandna [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Nayak, Debasis [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Saneja, Ankit [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Amin, Hina [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Rasool, Reyaz ur [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Gupta, Prem Narayan [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Goswami, Anindya, E-mail: agoswami@iiim.ac.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India)

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. - Highlights: • Subtoxic levels of CuCSNPs induce apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. • CuCSNPs mediate toxicity via nuclear cleavage and ROS generation. • CuCSNPs favor caspase activation and PARP cleavage to induce cell death.

  12. Immune modulatory mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells through a trophoblast-like stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Lazorchak, Adam S; Song, Li; Li, Enqin; Zhang, Zhenwu; Jiang, Bin; Xu, Ren-He

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have great clinical potential in modulating inflammation and promoting tissue repair. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have recently emerged as a potentially superior cell source for MSCs. However, the generation methods reported so far vary greatly in quality and efficiency. Here, we describe a novel method to rapidly and efficiently produce MSCs from hESCs via a trophoblast-like intermediate stage in approximately 11-16 days. We term these cells "T-MSCs" and show that T-MSCs express a phenotype and differentiation potential minimally required to define MSCs. T-MSCs exhibit potent immunomodulatory activity in vitro as they can remarkably inhibit proliferation of cocultured T and B lymphocytes. Unlike bone marrow MSCs, T-MSCs do not have increased expression of inflammatory mediators in response to IFNγ. Moreover, T-MSCs constitutively express a high level of the immune inhibitory ligand PD-L1 and elicit strong and durable efficacy in two distinct animal models of autoimmune disease, dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, at doses near those approved for clinical trials. Together, we present a simple and fast derivation method to generate MSCs from hESCs, which possess potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo and may serve as a novel and ideal candidate for MSC-based therapies. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from limb bud can differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fei; Wang, Juan; Dong, Zhao-Lun; Wu, Min-Juan; Zhao, Ting-Bao; Li, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from many sources, including adults and fetuses. Previous studies have demonstrated that, compared with their adult counterpart, fetal MSCs with several remarkable advantages may be a better resource for clinical applications. In this study, we successfully isolated a rapidly proliferating cell population from limb bud of aborted fetus and termed them "human limb bud-derived mesenchymal stem cells" (hLB-MSCs). Characteristics of their morphology, phenotype, cell cycle, and differentiation properties were analyzed. These adherent cell populations have a typically spindle-shaped morphology. Flow cytometry analysis showed that hLB-MSCs are positive for CD13, CD29, CD90, CD105, and CD106, but negative for CD3, CD4, CD5, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD34, CD45, CD45RA, and HLA-DR. The detection of cell cycle from different passages indicated that hLB-MSCs have a similar potential for propagation during long culture in vitro. The most novel finding here is that, in addition to their mesodermal differentiation (osteoblasts and adipocytes), hLB-MSCs can also differentiated into extramesenchymal lineages, such as neural (ectoderm) and hepatic (endoderm) progenies. These results indicate that hLB-MSCs have a high level of plasticity and can differentiate into cell lineages from all three embryonic layers in vitro.

  14. Magnetic cell sorting purification of differentiated embryonic stem cells stably expressing truncated human CD4 as surface marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Robert; Groebner, Michael; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2005-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer great potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Clinical applications are still hampered by the lack of protocols for gentle, high-yield isolation of specific cell types for transplantation expressing no immunogenic markers. We describe labeling of stably transfected ES cells expressing a human CD4 molecule lacking its intracellular domain (DeltaCD4) under control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for magnetic cell sorting (MACS). To track the labeled ES cells, we fused DeltaCD4 to an intracellular enhanced green fluorescent protein domain (DeltaCD4EGFP). We showed functionality of the membrane-bound fluorescent fusion protein and its suitability for MACS leading to purities greater than 97%. Likewise, expression of DeltaCD4 yielded up to 98.5% positive cells independently of their differentiation state. Purities were not limited by the initial percentage of DeltaCD4(+) cells, ranging from 0.6%-16%. The viability of MACS-selected cells was demonstrated by reaggregation and de novo formation of embryoid bodies developing all three germ layers. Thus, expression of DeltaCD4 in differentiated ES cells may enable rapid, high-yield purification of a desired cell type for tissue engineering and transplantation studies.

  15. Endogenous WNT Signals Mediate BMP-Induced and Spontaneous Differentiation of Epiblast Stem Cells and Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kurek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs requires precise control over their differentiation. However, spontaneous differentiation is prevalent, and growth factors induce multiple cell types; e.g., the mesoderm inducer BMP4 generates both mesoderm and trophoblast. Here we identify endogenous WNT signals as BMP targets that are required and sufficient for mesoderm induction, while trophoblast induction is WNT independent, enabling the exclusive differentiation toward either lineage. Furthermore, endogenous WNT signals induce loss of pluripotency in hESCs and their murine counterparts, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs. WNT inhibition obviates the need to manually remove differentiated cells to maintain cultures and improves the efficiency of directed differentiation. In EpiSCs, WNT inhibition stabilizes a pregastrula epiblast state with novel characteristics, including the ability to contribute to blastocyst chimeras. Our findings show that endogenous WNT signals function as hidden mediators of growth factor-induced differentiation and play critical roles in the self-renewal of hESCs and EpiSCs.

  16. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  17. Uncovering the Role of Hypermethylation by CTG Expansion in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Using Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovsky-Dagan, Shira; Avitzour, Michal; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Schonberger, Oshrat; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, Stella; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Birnbaum, Ramon Y; Gepstein, Lior; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-08-11

    CTG repeat expansion in DMPK, the cause of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), frequently results in hypermethylation and reduced SIX5 expression. The contribution of hypermethylation to disease pathogenesis and the precise mechanism by which SIX5 expression is reduced are unknown. Using 14 different DM1-affected human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, we characterized a differentially methylated region (DMR) near the CTGs. This DMR undergoes hypermethylation as a function of expansion size in a way that is specific to undifferentiated cells and is associated with reduced SIX5 expression. Using functional assays, we provide evidence for regulatory activity of the DMR, which is lost by hypermethylation and may contribute to DM1 pathogenesis by causing SIX5 haplo-insufficiency. This study highlights the power of hESCs in disease modeling and describes a DMR that functions both as an exon coding sequence and as a regulatory element whose activity is epigenetically hampered by a heritable mutation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expansion and maintenance of human embryonic stem cell–derived endothelial cells by TGFβ inhibition is Id1 dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daylon; Nam, Hyung-song; Seandel, Marco; Nolan, Daniel; Janovitz, Tyler; Tomishima, Mark; Studer, Lorenz; Lee, Gabsang; Lyden, David; Benezra, Robert; Zaninovic, Nikica; Rosenwaks, Zev; Rabbany, Sina Y; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Previous efforts to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into endothelial cells have not achieved sustained expansion and stability of vascular cells. To define vasculogenic developmental pathways and enhance differentiation, we used an endothelial cell–specific VE-cadherin promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) (hVPr-GFP) to screen for factors that promote vascular commitment. In phase 1 of our method, inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)β at day 7 of differentiation increases hVPr-GFP+ cells by tenfold. In phase 2, TGFβ inhibition maintains the proliferation and vascular identity of purified endothelial cells, resulting in a net 36-fold expansion of endothelial cells in homogenous monolayers, which exhibited a transcriptional profile of Id1highVEGFR2highVE-cadherin+ ephrinB2+. Using an Id1-YFP hESC reporter line, we showed that TGFβ inhibition sustains Id1 expression in hESC-derived endothelial cells and that Id1 is required for increased proliferation and preservation of endothelial cell commitment. Our approach provides a serum-free method for differentiation and long-term maintenance of hESC-derived endothelial cells at a scale relevant to clinical application. PMID:20081865

  19. Engineered Biomaterials Control Differentiation and Proliferation of Human-Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes via Timed Notch Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Tung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For cell-based treatments of myocardial infarction, a better understanding of key developmental signaling pathways and more robust techniques for producing cardiomyocytes are required. Manipulation of Notch signaling has promise as it plays an important role during cardiovascular development, but previous studies presented conflicting results that Notch activation both positively and negatively regulates cardiogenesis. We developed surface- and microparticle-based Notch-signaling biomaterials that function in a time-specific activation-tunable manner, enabling precise investigation of Notch activation at specific developmental stages. Using our technologies, a biphasic effect of Notch activation on cardiac differentiation was found: early activation in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs promotes ectodermal differentiation, activation in specified cardiovascular progenitor cells increases cardiac differentiation. Signaling also induces cardiomyocyte proliferation, and repeated doses of Notch-signaling microparticles further enhance cardiomyocyte population size. These results highlight the diverse effects of Notch activation during cardiac development and provide approaches for generating large quantities of cardiomyocytes.

  20. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bruin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  1. Alterations of the Human Skin N- and O-Glycome in Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Möginger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The glycome of one of the largest and most exposed human organs, the skin, as well as glycan changes associated with non-melanoma skin cancers have not been studied in detail to date. Skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are among the most frequent types of cancers with rising incidence rates in the aging population. We investigated the healthy human skin N- and O-glycome and its changes associated with BCC and SCC. Matched patient samples were obtained from frozen biopsy and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples for glycomics analyses using two complementary glycomics approaches: porous graphitized carbon nano-liquid chromatography electro spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection. The human skin N-glycome is dominated by complex type N-glycans that exhibit almost similar levels of α2-3 and α2-6 sialylation. Fucose is attached exclusively to the N-glycan core. Core 1 and core 2 type O-glycans carried up to three sialic acid residues. An increase of oligomannose type N-glycans and core 2 type O-glycans was observed in BCC and SCC, while α2-3 sialylation levels were decreased in SCC but not in BCC. Furthermore, glycopeptide analyses provided insights into the glycoprotein candidates possibly associated with the observed N-glycan changes, with glycoproteins associated with binding events being the most frequently identified class.

  2. Rapid, Directed Differentiation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic or Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, LP; Clegg, DO

    2017-01-01

    We describe a robust method to direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). The purpose of providing a detailed and thorough protocol is to clearly demonstrate each step and to make this readily available to researchers in the field. This protocol results in a homogenous layer of RPE with minimal or no manual dissection needed. The method presented here has been shown to be effective for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embry...

  3. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences in metaplastic breast carcinomas of Mexican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Vela-Chávez, Teresa; Carrillo-García, Adela; Lizano-Soberón, Marcela; Amador-Molina, Alfredo; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Hallmann, Rita Sotelo-Regil

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma. Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995–2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher’s exact tests, as appropriate. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24–72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30–73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV + and HPV– metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones

  5. Proteomic profiling of human embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reveals a risk of transfer of proteins of bovine and mouse origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubíková, I.; Konečná, H.; Šedo, O.; Zdráhal, Z.; Řehulka, Pavel; Hříbková, H.; Řehulková, Helena; Hampl, Aleš; Chmelík, Josef; Dvořák, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2009), s. 330-340 ISSN 1465-3249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : human embryonic stem cell * hESC * proteomic profiling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.204, year: 2009

  6. Progression of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma via Inhibition of RhoA-ROCK Axis by PARG1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Miyazaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most lethal urological malignancy with high risk of recurrence; thus, new prognostic biomarkers are needed. In this study, a new RCC antigen, PTPL1 associated RhoGAP1 (PARG1, was identified by using serological identification of recombinant cDNA expression cloning with sera from RCC patients. PARG1 protein was found to be differentially expressed in RCC cells among patients. High PARG1 expression is significantly correlated with various clinicopathological factors relating to cancer cell proliferation and invasion, including G3 percentage (P = .0046, Ki-67 score (p expression is also correlated with high recurrence of N0M0 patients (P = .0084 and poor prognosis in RCC patients (P = .0345. Multivariate analysis has revealed that high PARG1 expression is an independent factor for recurrence (P = .0149 of N0M0 RCC patients. In in vitro studies, depletion of PARG1by siRNA in human RCC cell lines inhibited their proliferation through inducing G1 cell cycle arrest via upregulation of p53 and subsequent p21Cip1/Waf1, which are mediated by increased RhoA-ROCK activities. Similarly, PARG1 depletion cells inhibited invasion ability via increasing RhoA-ROCK activities in the RCC cell lines. Conversely, overexpression of PARG1 on human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T promotes its cell proliferation and invasion. These results indicate that PARG1 plays crucial roles in progression of human RCC in increasing cell proliferation and invasion ability via inhibition of the RhoA-ROCK axis, and PARG1 is a poor prognostic marker, particularly for high recurrence of N0M0 RCC patients.

  7. [Primary study on fluro [ 19F] berberine derivative for human hepatocellular carcinoma targetting in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Wu, Xiaoai; Cai, Huawei; Liang, Meng; Fan, Chengzhong

    2017-04-01

    [ 18 F]HX-01, a Fluorine-18 labeled berberine derivative, is a potential positron emission tomography (PET) tumor imaging agent, while [ 19 F]HX-01 is a nonradioactive reference substance with different energy state and has the same physical and chemical properties. In order to collect data for further study of [ 18 F]HX-01 PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo , this study compared the uptake of [ 19 F]HX-01 by human hepatocellular carcinoma and normal hepatocytes in vitro . The target compound, [ 19 F]HX-01, was synthesized in one step using berberrubine and 3-fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. Cellular uptake and localization of [ 19 F]HX-01 were performed by a fluorescence microscope in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, SMMC-7721 and human normal hepatocyte HL-7702. Cellular proliferation inhibition and cell cytotoxicity assay of the [ 19 F]HX-01 were conducted using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on HepG2, SMMC-7721 and HL-7702 cells. Fluorescent microscopy showed that the combining ability of [ 19 F]HX-01 to the carcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 was higher than that to the normal HL-7702. Cellular proliferation inhibition assay demonstrated that [ 19 F]HX-01 leaded to a dose-dependent inhibition on SMMC-7721, HepG2, and HL-7702 proliferation. Cell cytotoxicity assay presented that the cytotoxicity of [ 19 F]HX-01 to SMMC-7721 and HepG2 was obviously higher than that to HL-7702. This in vitro study showed that [ 19 F]HX-01 had a higher selectivity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SMMC-7721, HepG2) but has less toxicity to normal hepatocytes (HL-7702). This could set up the idea that the radioactive reference substance [ 18 F]HX-01 may be worthy of further development as a potential molecular probe targeting human hepatocellular carcinoma using PET.

  8. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinstreuer, N.C.; Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R.; Weir-Hauptman, A.M.; Palmer, J.A.; Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J.; Donley, E.L.R.; Cezar, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast™ chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox® model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: ► We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. ► Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. ► Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal development and pregnancy. ► Arginine, proline, nicotinate, nicotinamide and glutathione pathways were affected.

  9. Glutamine synthetase gene knockout-human embryonic kidney 293E cells for stable production of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Da Young; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-05-01

    Previously, it was inferred that a high glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293E cells results in elevated resistance to methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and consequently hampers GS-mediated gene amplification and selection by MSX. To overcome this MSX resistance in HEK293E cells, a GS-knockout HEK293E cell line was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the endogenous human GS gene. The GS-knockout in the HEK293E cell line (RK8) was confirmed by Western blot analysis of GS and by observation of glutamine-dependent growth. Unlike the wild type HEK293E cells, the RK8 cells were successfully used as host cells to generate a recombinant HEK293E cell line (rHEK293E) producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb). When the RK8 cells were transfected with the GS expression vector containing the mAb gene, rHEK293E cells producing the mAb could be selected in the absence as well as in the presence of MSX. The gene copies and mRNA expression levels of the mAb in rHEK293E cells were also quantified using qRT-PCR. Taken together, the GS-knockout HEK293E cell line can be used as host cells to generate stable rHEK293E cells producing a mAb through GS-mediated gene selection in the absence as well as in the presence of MSX. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sean P; Pyle, April D

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  11. Small molecule screening with laser cytometry can be used to identify pro-survival molecules in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Sherman

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs provide an unlimited source of cells for use in regenerative medicine. The recent derivation of human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs provides a potential supply of pluripotent cells that avoid immune rejection and could provide patient-tailored therapy. In addition, the use of pluripotent cells for drug screening could enable routine toxicity testing and evaluation of underlying disease mechanisms. However, prior to establishment of patient specific cells for cell therapy it is important to understand the basic regulation of cell fate decisions in hESCs. One critical issue that hinders the use of these cells is the fact that hESCs survive poorly upon dissociation, which limits genetic manipulation because of poor cloning efficiency of individual hESCs, and hampers production of large-scale culture of hESCs. To address the problems associated with poor growth in culture and our lack of understanding of what regulates hESC signaling, we successfully developed a screening platform that allows for large scale screening for small molecules that regulate survival. In this work we developed the first large scale platform for hESC screening using laser scanning cytometry and were able to validate this platform by identifying the pro-survival molecule HA-1077. These small molecules provide targets for both improving our basic understanding of hESC survival as well as a tool to improve our ability to expand and genetically manipulate hESCs for use in regenerative applications.

  12. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinstreuer, N.C., E-mail: kleinstreuer.nicole@epa.gov [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir-Hauptman, A.M. [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States); Palmer, J.A. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J. [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Donley, E.L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, G.G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast Trade-Mark-Sign chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox Registered-Sign model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal

  13. Β-amyloid 1-42 oligomers impair function of human embryonic stem cell-derived forebrain cholinergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Wicklund

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients is associated with a decline in the levels of growth factors, impairment of axonal transport and marked degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs. Neurogenesis persists in the adult human brain, and the stimulation of regenerative processes in the CNS is an attractive prospect for neuroreplacement therapy in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. Currently, it is still not clear how the pathophysiological environment in the AD brain affects stem cell biology. Previous studies investigating the effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ peptide on neurogenesis have been inconclusive, since both neurogenic and neurotoxic effects on progenitor cell populations have been reported. In this study, we treated pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES cells with nerve growth factor (NGF as well as with fibrillar and oligomeric Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 (nM-µM concentrations and thereafter studied the differentiation in vitro during 28-35 days. The process applied real time quantitative PCR, immunocytochemistry as well as functional studies of intracellular calcium signaling. Treatment with NGF promoted the differentiation into functionally mature BFCNs. In comparison to untreated cells, oligomeric Aβ1-40 increased the number of functional neurons, whereas oligomeric Aβ1-42 suppressed the number of functional neurons. Interestingly, oligomeric Aβ exposure did not influence the number of hES cell-derived neurons compared with untreated cells, while in contrast fibrillar Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 induced gliogenesis. These findings indicate that Aβ1-42 oligomers may impair the function of stem cell-derived neurons. We propose that it may be possible for future AD therapies to promote the maturation of functional stem cell-derived neurons by altering the brain microenvironment with trophic support and by targeting different aggregation forms of Aβ.

  14. An Abbreviated Protocol for In Vitro Generation of Functional Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Massumi

    Full Text Available The ability to yield glucose-responsive pancreatic beta-cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro will facilitate the development of the cell replacement therapies for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. Here, through the sequential in vitro targeting of selected signaling pathways, we have developed an abbreviated five-stage protocol (25-30 days to generate human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-like Cells (ES-DBCs. We showed that Geltrex, as an extracellular matrix, could support the generation of ES-DBCs more efficiently than that of the previously described culture systems. The activation of FGF and Retinoic Acid along with the inhibition of BMP, SHH and TGF-beta led to the generation of 75% NKX6.1+/NGN3+ Endocrine Progenitors. The inhibition of Notch and tyrosine kinase receptor AXL, and the treatment with Exendin-4 and T3 in the final stage resulted in 35% mono-hormonal insulin positive cells, 1% insulin and glucagon positive cells and 30% insulin and NKX6.1 co-expressing cells. Functionally, ES-DBCs were responsive to high glucose in static incubation and perifusion studies, and could secrete insulin in response to successive glucose stimulations. Mitochondrial metabolic flux analyses using Seahorse demonstrated that the ES-DBCs could efficiently metabolize glucose and generate intracellular signals to trigger insulin secretion. In conclusion, targeting selected signaling pathways for 25-30 days was sufficient to generate ES-DBCs in vitro. The ability of ES-DBCs to secrete insulin in response to glucose renders them a promising model for the in vitro screening of drugs, small molecules or genes that may have potential to influence beta-cell function.

  15. Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J Palpant

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking is a risk factor for low birth weight and other adverse developmental outcomes.We sought to determine the impact of standard tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo.Zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to assess developmental effects in vivo and cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs was used as a model for in vitro cardiac development.In zebrafish, exposure to both types of cigarettes results in broad, dose-dependent developmental defects coupled with severe heart malformation, pericardial edema and reduced heart function. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than e-cigarettes at comparable nicotine concentrations. During cardiac differentiation of hESCs, tobacco smoke exposure results in a delayed transition through mesoderm. Both types of cigarettes decrease expression of cardiac transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells, suggesting a persistent delay in differentiation. In definitive human cardiomyocytes, both e-cigarette- and tobacco cigarette-treated samples showed reduced expression of sarcomeric genes such as MLC2v and MYL6. Furthermore, tobacco cigarette-treated samples had delayed onset of beating and showed low levels and aberrant localization of N-cadherin, reduced myofilament content with significantly reduced sarcomere length, and increased expression of the immature cardiac marker smooth muscle alpha-actin.These data indicate a negative effect of both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects.

  16. A meta-analysis of human embryonic stem cells transcriptome integrated into a web-based expression atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assou, Said; Le Carrour, Tanguy; Tondeur, Sylvie; Ström, Susanne; Gabelle, Audrey; Marty, Sophie; Nadal, Laure; Pantesco, Véronique; Réme, Thierry; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe; Gasca, Stéphan; Hovatta, Outi; Hamamah, Samir; Klein, Bernard; De Vos, John

    2007-04-01

    Microarray technology provides a unique opportunity to examine gene expression patterns in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We performed a meta-analysis of 38 original studies reporting on the transcriptome of hESCs. We determined that 1,076 genes were found to be overexpressed in hESCs by at least three studies when compared to differentiated cell types, thus composing a "consensus hESC gene list." Only one gene was reported by all studies: the homeodomain transcription factor POU5F1/OCT3/4. The list comprised other genes critical for pluripotency such as the transcription factors NANOG and SOX2, and the growth factors TDGF1/CRIPTO and Galanin. We show that CD24 and SEMA6A, two cell surface protein-coding genes from the top of the consensus hESC gene list, display a strong and specific membrane protein expression on hESCs. Moreover, CD24 labeling permits the purification by flow cytometry of hESCs cocultured on human fibroblasts. The consensus hESC gene list also included the FZD7 WNT receptor, the G protein-coupled receptor GPR19, and the HELLS helicase, which could play an important role in hESCs biology. Conversely, we identified 783 genes downregulated in hESCs and reported in at least three studies. This "consensus differentiation gene list" included the IL6ST/GP130 LIF receptor. We created an online hESC expression atlas, http://amazonia.montp.inserm.fr, to provide an easy access to this public transcriptome dataset. Expression histograms comparing hESCs to a broad collection of fetal and adult tissues can be retrieved with this web tool for more than 15,000 genes.

  17. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  18. Clinical Implication of Elevated Human Cervical Cancer Oncogene-1 Expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying; Li, Ke; Ren, Zhonghai; Li, Shenglei; Zhang, Hongyan; Fan, Qingxia

    2012-01-01

    The human cervical cancer oncogene 1 (HCCR-1), a novel human oncoprotein, has been shown to be upregulated in various human tumors and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Here, the authors investigated HCCR-1 level in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and assessed the correlation between HCCR-1 level and prognosis of the patients with ESCC. HCCR-1 levels were investigated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, real-time quantit...

  19. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy identifies early lineage commitment in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraud, Philip; Ng, Elizabeth S; Caine, Sally; Yu, Qing C; Hirst, Claire; Mayberry, Robyn; Bruce, Amanda; Wood, Bayden R; McNaughton, Don; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G

    2010-03-01

    Human ESCs (hESCs) are a valuable tool for the study of early human development and represent a source of normal differentiated cells for pharmaceutical and biotechnology applications and ultimately for cell replacement therapies. For all applications, it will be necessary to develop assays to validate the efficacy of hESC differentiation. We explored the capacity for FTIR spectroscopy, a technique that rapidly characterises cellular macromolecular composition, to discriminate mesendoderm or ectoderm committed cells from undifferentiated hESCs. Distinct infrared spectroscopic "signatures" readily distinguished hESCs from these early differentiated progeny, with bioinformatic models able to correctly classify over 97% of spectra. These data identify a role for FTIR spectroscopy as a new modality to complement conventional analyses of hESCs and their derivatives. FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to provide low-cost, automatable measurements for the quality control of stem and differentiated cells to be used in industry and regenerative medicine. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Proliferative capacity of mesenchymal stem cells from human fetal bone marrow and their ability to differentiate into the derivative cell types of three embryonic germ layers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Chun; Zhang, Yuan

    2008-06-25

    Strong proliferative capacity and the ability to differentiate into the derivative cell types of three embryonic germ layers are the two important characteristics of embryonic stem cells. To study whether the mesenchymal stem cells from human fetal bone marrow (hfBM-MSCs) possess these embryonic stem cell-like biological characteristics, hfBM-MSCs were isolated from bone barrows and further purified according to the different adherence of different kinds of cells to the wall of culture flask. The cell cycle of hfBM-MSCs and MSC-specific surface markers such as CD29, CD44, etc were identified using flow cytometry. The expressions of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the embryonic stem cell-specific antigens, such as Oct4 and SSEA-4 were detected with immunocytochemistry at the protein level and were also tested by RT-PCR at the mRNA level. Then, hfBM-MSCs were induced to differentiate toward neuron cells, adipose cells, and islet B cells under certain conditions. It was found that 92.3% passage-4 hfBM-MSCs and 96.1% passage-5 hfBM-MSCs were at G(0)/G(1) phase respectively. hfBM-MSCs expressed CD44, CD106 and adhesion molecule CD29, but not antigens of hematopoietic cells CD34 and CD45, and almost not antigens related to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), such as HLA-DR, CD40 and CD80. hfBM-MSCs expressed the embryonic stem cell-specific antigens such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and also hTERT. Exposure of these cells to various inductive agents resulted in morphological changes towards neuron-like cells, adipose-like cells, and islet B-like cells and they were tested to be positive for related characteristic markers. These results suggest that there are plenty of MSCs in human fetal bone marrow, and hfBM-MSCs possess the embryonic stem cell-like biological characteristics, moreover, they have a lower immunogenic nature. Thus, hfBM-MSCs provide an ideal source for tissue engineering and cellular therapeutics.

  1. Influence of human papillomavirus on the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal carcinoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Matthew H; Shumway, Dean; Guo, Cui; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Mierzwa, Michelle; Jagsi, Reshma; Griggs, Jennifer J; Banerjee, Mousumi

    2017-10-01

    Much of what is known about the significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is derived from single-institution retrospective studies, post hoc analyses of tissue specimens from clinical trials, and tissue bank studies with a small sample size. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of HPV on the frequency and clinical presentation of oropharyngeal carcinoma in a large, national sample with information from patients who underwent HPV testing. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. We identified a comprehensive national sample of 8,359 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma and known HPV status diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 within the National Cancer Database. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess correlates of patient and tumor characteristics on HPV status. Among patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, the frequency of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma in the United States was 65.4%. HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinoma was associated with younger age, male sex, and white race (P presentation (P clinical profile, supporting efforts to re-evaluate the staging and treatment paradigm for HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2270-2278, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. [Human papilloma viruses: other risk factor of head and neck carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woto-Gaye, G; M'Farrej, M K; Doh, K; Thiam, I; Touré, S; Diop, R; Dial, C

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck carcinoma (HNC) occupy the sixth place as the most frequent type of cancer worldwide. Next to alcohol and tobacco intoxication, other risk factors (RF) are suspected, including the human papilloma viruses (HPVs). The aim of this study was to highlight the prevalence of HPVs and histo-epidemiological characteristics of HNC HPV+ in Senegal. This is a prospective, multicenter preliminary study of 18 months (January 1, 2012-June 30, 2014). The cases of HNC histologically confirmed in Senegal were then sent to the bio-pathology department of the Curie Institute in Paris to search HPVs. In the 90 included cases, the PCR technique was successful in 54 cases (60%). HPVs were found in seven cases, that is, a prevalence of 13%. HPVs were associated with 5 cases of hypopharyngeal carcinoma and 2 cases of carcinoma of the oral cavity. Patients with HNC HPV+ had a median age of 42 years against 49 years for HPV-patients. Three patients (42.8%) with HPV+ carcinomas were smokers. Of the 47 HPV-patients, 40 patients (87.1%) had alcohol intoxication and/or smoking. The concept of oral sex was refuted by all our patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the only histological type found. HPV+ cell carcinoma showed no specific histological appearance. HPVs are another certain RF of HNC in Senegal. The major therapeutic and prognostic impact of HPVinduced cancers requires the systematic search of the viruses by the PCR technique.

  3. Systematic gene microarray analysis of the lncRNA expression profiles in human uterine cervix carcinoma.