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Sample records for human embryoid body

  1. Activin B mediated induction of Pdx1 in human embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies

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    Frandsen, Ulrik; Pørneki, Ann Dorte Storm; Floridon, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to provide alternative sources for pancreatic islet grafts. In the present study we have investigated the influence of Activin A and Activin B on the expression of the pancreas marker gene Pdx1 in hESCs differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs...

  2. Physical passaging of embryoid bodies generated from human pluripotent stem cells.

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    Mi-Young Son

    Full Text Available Spherical three-dimensional cell aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs, have been widely used in in vitro differentiation protocols for human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Recent studies highlight the new devices and techniques for hEB formation and expansion, but are not involved in the passaging or subculture process. Here, we provide evidence that a simple periodic passaging markedly improved hEB culture condition and thus allowed the size-controlled, mass production of human embryoid bodies (hEBs derived from both hESCs and hiPSCs. hEBs maintained in prolonged suspension culture without passaging (>2 weeks showed a progressive decrease in the cell growth and proliferation and increase in the apoptosis compared to 7-day-old hEBs. However, when serially passaged in suspension, hEB cell populations were significantly increased in number while maintaining the normal rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis and the differentiation potential. Uniform-sized hEBs produced by manual passaging using a 1∶4 split ratio have been successfully maintained for over 20 continuous passages. The passaging culture method of hEBs, which is simple, readily expandable, and reproducible, could be a powerful tool for improving a robust and scalable in vitro differentiation system of human pluripotent stem cells.

  3. A standardized human embryoid body platform for the detection and analysis of teratogens.

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    Flamier, Anthony; Singh, Supriya; Rasmussen, Theodore P

    2017-01-01

    Teratogens are compounds that can induce birth defects upon exposure of the developing fetus. To date, most teratogen studies utilize pregnant rodents to determine compound teratogenicity in vivo. However, this is a low throughput approach that cannot easily meet the need for comprehensive high-volume teratogen assessment, a goal of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, rodent and human development differ substantially, and therefore the use of assays using relevant human cells has utility. For these reasons, interest has recently focused on the use of human embryonic stem cells for teratogen assessment. Here we present a highly standardized and quantitative system for the detection and analysis of teratogens that utilizes well-characterized and purified highly pluripotent stem cells. We have devised strategies to mass-produce thousands of uniformly sized spheroids of human ESCs (hESCs) that can be caused to undergo synchronous differentiation to yield embryoid bodies (EBs) in the presence and absence of suspected teratogens. The system uses all human cells and rigorously controlled and standardized EB culture conditions. Furthermore, the approach has been made quantitative by using high-content imaging approaches. Our system offers distinct advantages over earlier EB systems that rely heavily on the use on mouse ESCs and EB aggregates of stochastic sizes. Together, our results show that thousands of suspected teratogens could be assessed using human EB-based approaches.

  4. Optimizing human embryonic stem cells differentiation efficiency by screening size-tunable homogenous embryoid bodies.

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    Moon, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Jongil; Park, Soon-Jung; Bae, Daekyeong; Chung, Hyung-Min; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are generally induced to differentiate by forming spherical structures termed embryoid bodies (EBs) in the presence of soluble growth factors. hEBs are generated by suspending small clumps of hESC colonies; however, the resulting hEBs are heterogeneous because this method lacks the ability to control the number of cells in individual EBs. This heterogeneity affects factors that influence differentiation such as cell-cell contact and the diffusion of soluble factors, and consequently, the differentiation capacity of each EB varies. Here, we fabricated size-tunable concave microwells to control the physical environment, thereby regulating the size of EBs formed from single hESCs. Defined numbers of single hESCs were forced to aggregate and generate uniformly sized EBs with high fidelity, and the size of the EBs was controlled using concave microwells of different diameters. Differentiation patterns in H9- and CHA15-hESCs were affected by EB size in both the absence and presence of growth factors. By screening EB size in the presence of various BMP4 concentrations, a two-fold increase in endothelial cell differentiation was achieved. Because each hESC line has unique characteristics, the findings of this study demonstrate that concave microwells could be used to screen different EB sizes and growth factor concentrations to optimize differentiation for each hESC line.

  5. Synthetic niches for differentiation of human embryonic stem cells bypassing embryoid body formation.

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    Liu, Yarong; Fox, Victoria; Lei, Yuning; Hu, Biliang; Joo, Kye-Il; Wang, Pin

    2014-07-01

    The unique self-renewal and pluripotency features of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the potential for unlimited development of novel cell therapies. Currently, hESCs are cultured and differentiated using methods, such as monolayer culture and embryoid body (EB) formation. As such, achieving efficient differentiation into higher order structures remains a challenge, as well as maintaining cell viability during differentiation into homogeneous cell populations. Here, we describe the application of highly porous polymer scaffolds as synthetic stem cell niches. Bypassing the EB formation step, these scaffolds are capable of three-dimensional culture of undifferentiated hESCs and subsequent directed differentiation into three primary germ layers. H9 hESCs were successfully maintained and proliferated in biodegradable polymer scaffolds based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The results showed that cells within PLGA scaffolds retained characteristics of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, the scaffolds allowed differentiation towards the lineage of interest by the addition of growth factors to the culture system. The in vivo transplantation study revealed that the scaffolds could provide a microenvironment that enabled hESCs to interact with their surroundings, thereby promoting cell differentiation. Therefore, this approach, which provides a unique culture/differentiation system for hESCs, will find its utility in various stem cell-based tissue-engineering applications.

  6. In Vivo Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Embryoid Bodies in an Injectable in Situ-Forming Hydrogel

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    Moon Suk Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the in vivo osteogenic differentiation of human embryoid bodies (hEBs by using an injectable in situ-forming hydrogel. A solution containing MPEG-b-(polycaprolactone-ran-polylactide (MCL and hEBs was easily prepared at room temperature. The MCL solution with hEBs and osteogenic factors was injected into nude mice and developed into in situ-forming hydrogels at the injection sites; these hydrogels maintained their shape even after 12 weeks in vivo, thereby indicating that the in situ-forming MCL hydrogel was a suitable scaffold for hEBs. The in vivo osteogenic differentiation was observed only in the in situ gel-forming MCL hydrogel in the presence of hEBs and osteogenic factors. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that hEBs and osteogenic factors embedded in an in situ-forming MCL hydrogel may provide numerous benefits as a noninvasive alternative for allogeneic tissue engineering applications.

  7. Sustained embryoid body formation and culture in a non-laborious three dimensional culture system for human embryonic stem cells.

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    Stenberg, Johan; Elovsson, Maria; Strehl, Raimund; Kilmare, Eva; Hyllner, Johan; Lindahl, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are a promising model system in developmental and tissue regeneration research. Differentiation of hESCs towards the three germ layers and finally tissue specific cell types is often performed through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension or hanging droplet culture systems. However, these systems are inefficient regarding embryoid body (EB) formation, structural support to the EB and long term differentiation capacity. The present study investigates if agarose, as a semi solid matrix, can facilitate EB formation and support differentiation of hESC lines. The results showed that agarose culture is able to enhance EB formation efficiency with 10% and increase EB growth by 300%. The agarose culture system was able to maintain expression of the three germ layers over 8 weeks of culture. All of the four hESC lines tested developed EBs in the agarose system although with a histological heterogeneity between cell lines as well as within cell lines. In conclusion, a 3-D agarose culture of spherical hESC colonies improves EB formation and growth in a cost effective, stable and non-laborious technique.

  8. BMPs regulate differentiation of a putative visceral endoderm layer within human embryonic stem-cell-derived embryoid bodies.

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    Conley, Brock J; Ellis, Sarah; Gulluyan, Lerna; Mollard, Richard

    2007-02-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs), pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of human blastocysts, represent a novel tool for the study of early human developmental events. When cultured in suspension with serum, HESCs form spherical structures resembling embryoid bodies (EBs). We show that differentiation of HESCs within EBs occurs radially, with central cells then undergoing apoptosis in association with EB cavitation. Cells within the outer layer of cavitating EBs display stage-specific immunoreactivity to pan-keratin, cytokeratin-8, GATA6, alpha-fetoprotein, and transthyretin specific antibodies, and hybridization to disabled-2, GATA4, and GATA6 specific riboprobes. Transmission electron microscopy of these cells reveals clathrin-coated micropinocytotic vesicles, microvilli, and many vacuoles, a phenotype consistent with mouse visceral endoderm (VE) rather than mouse definitive or parietal endoderm. When cultured in media supplemented with the BMP inhibitor noggin, or in the absence of serum, HESC derivatives do not develop the mouse VE-like phenotype. The addition of BMP-4 to noggin-treated HESCs cultured in serum or in serum-free conditions reconstituted development of the VE-like phenotype. These data demonstrate that human EBs undergo developmental events similar to those of mouse EBs and that in vitro BMP signalling induces derivatives of the human ICM to express a phenotype similar to mouse VE.

  9. Analysis of Embryoid Bodies Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Means to Assess Pluripotency

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    Steven D. Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have core properties of unlimited self-renewal and differentiation potential and have emerged as exciting cell sources for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, understanding of development, and disease etiology. Key among numerous criteria to assess pluripotency includes the in vivo teratoma assay that has been widely proposed as a standard functional assay to demonstrate the pluripotency of hiPSCs. Yet, the lack of reliability across methodologies, lack of definitive clinical significance, and associated expenses bring into question use of the teratoma assay as the “gold standard” for determining pluripotency. We propose use of the in vitro embryoid body (EB assay as an important alternative to the teratoma assay. This paper summarizes the methodologies for creating EBs from hiPSCs and the subsequent analyses to assess pluripotency and proposes its use as a cost-effective, controlled, and reproducible approach that can easily be adopted to determine pluripotency of generated hiPSCs.

  10. Superior Red Blood Cell Generation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Through a Novel Microcarrier-Based Embryoid Body Platform.

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    Sivalingam, Jaichandran; Lam, Alan Tin-Lun; Chen, Hong Yu; Yang, Bin Xia; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Reuveny, Shaul; Loh, Yuin-Han; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro generation of red blood cells (RBCs) from human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells appears to be a promising alternate approach to circumvent shortages in donor-derived blood supplies for clinical applications. Conventional methods for hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) rely on embryoid body (EB) formation and/or coculture with xenogeneic cell lines. However, most current methods for hPSC expansion and EB formation are not amenable for scale-up to levels required for large-scale RBC generation. Moreover, differentiation methods that rely on xenogenic cell lines would face obstacles for future clinical translation. In this study, we report the development of a serum-free and chemically defined microcarrier-based suspension culture platform for scalable hPSC expansion and EB formation. Improved survival and better quality EBs generated with the microcarrier-based method resulted in significantly improved mesoderm induction and, when combined with hematopoietic differentiation, resulted in at least a 6-fold improvement in hematopoietic precursor expansion, potentially culminating in a 80-fold improvement in the yield of RBC generation compared to a conventional EB-based differentiation method. In addition, we report efficient terminal maturation and generation of mature enucleated RBCs using a coculture system that comprised primary human mesenchymal stromal cells. The microcarrier-based platform could prove to be an appealing strategy for future scale-up of hPSC culture, EB generation, and large-scale generation of RBCs under defined and xeno-free conditions.

  11. Y-27632 enhances differentiation of blastocyst like cystic human embryoid bodies to endocrinologically active trophoblast cells on a biomimetic platform

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    Totey Satish M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trophoblast differentiation and formation of the placenta are important events linked to post-implantation embryonic development. Models mimicking the biology of trophoblast differentiation in a post-implantation maternal microenvironment are needed for understanding disorders like placental-ischemia or for applications in drug-screening, and would help in overcoming the ethical impasse on using human embryos for such research. Here we attempt to create such a model by using embryoid bodies (EBs and a biomimetic platform composed of a bilayer of fibronectin and gelatin on top of low-melting agarose. Using this model we test the hypothesis that cystic-EBs (day 30 that resemble blastocysts morphologically, are better sources as compared to noncytic EBs (day 10, for functional trophoblast differentiation; and that the Rho kinases inhibitor Y27632 can enhance this differentiation. Non/cytic EBs with/out Y27632 were grown on this platform for 28 days, and screened from secretion and expression of trophoblast and other lineage markers using ECLIA, RT-PCR, and Immunofluorescence. All EBs attached on this surface and rapidly proliferated into hCG and progesterone (P2 secreting functional trophoblast cells. However, the cells derived from cytic-EBs and cytic-EBs+ Y27632 showed the maximum secretion of these hormones and expressed IGF2, supporting our hypothesis. Also Y27632 reduced extraembryonic endoderm and trophoblast lineage differentiation from early noncystic-EBs, whereas, it specifically enhanced the induction of trophoblast and multinucleated syncitiotrophoblast differentiation from late cystic-EBs. In vivo trophoblast differentiation can be replicated in fibronectin based biomaterials, using cytic-EBs and by maneuvering the Rho-ROCK pathways. Response of EBs to a compound may vary temporally, and determination of their right stage is crucial for applications in directed-differentiation or drug-screening.

  12. Polymer surface functionalities that control human embryoid body cell adhesion revealed by high throughput surface characterization of combinatorial material microarrays.

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    Yang, Jing; Mei, Ying; Hook, Andrew L; Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Bogatyrev, Said R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2010-12-01

    High throughput materials discovery using combinatorial polymer microarrays to screen for new biomaterials with new and improved function is established as a powerful strategy. Here we combine this screening approach with high throughput surface characterization (HT-SC) to identify surface structure-function relationships. We explore how this combination can help to identify surface chemical moieties that control protein adsorption and subsequent cellular response. The adhesion of human embryoid body (hEB) cells to a large number (496) of different acrylate polymers synthesized in a microarray format is screened using a high throughput procedure. To determine the role of the polymer surface properties on hEB cell adhesion, detailed HT-SC of these acrylate polymers is carried out using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pico litre drop sessile water contact angle (WCA) measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A structure-function relationship is identified between the ToF SIMS analysis of the surface chemistry after a fibronectin (Fn) pre-conditioning step and the cell adhesion to each spot using the multivariate analysis technique partial least squares (PLS) regression. Secondary ions indicative of the adsorbed Fn correlate with increased cell adhesion whereas glycol and other functionalities from the polymers are identified that reduce cell adhesion. Furthermore, a strong relationship between the ToF SIMS spectra of bare polymers and the cell adhesion to each spot is identified using PLS regression. This identifies a role for both the surface chemistry of the bare polymer and the pre-adsorbed Fn, as-represented in the ToF SIMS spectra, in controlling cellular adhesion. In contrast, no relationship is found between cell adhesion and wettability, surface roughness, elemental or functional surface composition. The correlation between ToF SIMS data of the surfaces and the cell adhesion demonstrates

  13. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

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    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 14, 21941 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 {mu}m to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  14. Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence

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    Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2012-05-01

    Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 μm to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

  15. Pipette-based Method to Study Embryoid Body Formation Derived from Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Partially Recapitulating Early Embryonic Development Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

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    Shinde, Vaibhav; Brungs, Sonja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2016-06-01

    The in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells partially recapitulates early in vivo embryonic development. More recently, embryonic development under the influence of microgravity has become a primary focus of space life sciences. In order to integrate the technique of pluripotent stem cell differentiation with simulated microgravity approaches, the 2-D clinostat compatible pipette-based method was experimentally investigated and adapted for investigating stem cell differentiation processes under simulated microgravity conditions. In order to keep residual accelerations as low as possible during clinorotation, while also guaranteeing enough material for further analysis, stem cells were exposed in 1-mL pipettes with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells inside the pipettes resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies at normal gravity (1 g) after 24 h and 3 days. Differentiation of the mouse pluripotent stem cells on a 2-D pipette-clinostat for 3 days also resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies. Interestingly, the expression of myosin heavy chain was downregulated when cultivation was continued for an additional 7 days at normal gravity. This paper describes the techniques for culturing and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and exposure to simulated microgravity during culturing or differentiation on a 2-D pipette clinostat. The implementation of these methodologies along with -omics technologies will contribute to understand the mechanisms regulating how microgravity influences early embryonic development.

  16. TGF-β1 induces the formation of vascular-like structures in embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells.

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    Wang, Yan; Qian, DE-Jian; Zhong, Wen-Yu; Lu, Jun-Hong; Guo, Xiang-Kai; Cao, Yi-Lin; Liu, Ju

    2014-07-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells in response to stimuli from extracellular cytokines. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling is involved in stem cell renewal and vascular development. Previously, human ESCs were isolated from inner cell mass and a stable ESC line was developed. In the present study, the effects of extracellular TGF-β1 were investigated on human ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB) in suspension. The structures of the EBs were analyzed with light and electron microscopy, while the cellular composition of the EBs was examined via the expression levels of specific markers. Vascular-like tubular structures and cardiomyocyte-like beating cells were observed in the EBs at day 3 and 8, respectively. The frequencies of vascular-like structures and beating cells in the TGF-β1 treated group were significantly higher compared with the control group (84.31 vs. 12.77%; Pcell types for the clinical therapy of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Remyelination Is Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Induction Following Human Embryoid Body-Derived Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation in a Viral Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Warren C Plaisted

    Full Text Available We have recently described sustained clinical recovery associated with dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination following transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in a viral model of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The hNPCs used in that study were derived by a novel direct differentiation method (direct differentiation, DD-NPCs that resulted in a unique gene expression pattern when compared to hNPCs derived by conventional methods. Since the therapeutic potential of human NPCs may differ greatly depending on the method of derivation and culture, we wanted to determine whether NPCs differentiated using conventional methods would be similarly effective in improving clinical outcome under neuroinflammatory demyelinating conditions. For the current study, we utilized hNPCs differentiated from a human induced pluripotent cell line via an embryoid body intermediate stage (EB-NPCs. Intraspinal transplantation of EB-NPCs into mice infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV resulted in decreased accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the central nervous system that was concomitant with reduced demyelination at the site of injection. Dampened neuroinflammation and remyelination was correlated with a transient increase in CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs concentrated within the peripheral lymphatics. However, compared to our earlier study, pathological improvements were modest and did not result in significant clinical recovery. We conclude that the genetic signature of NPCs is critical to their effectiveness in this model of viral-induced neurologic disease. These comparisons will be useful for understanding what factors are critical for the sustained clinical improvement.

  18. BMP4 promotes formation of primitive vascular networks in human embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies.

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    Boyd, N L; Dhara, S K; Rekaya, R; Godbey, E A; Hasneen, K; Rao, R R; West, F D; Gerwe, B A; Stice, S L

    2007-06-01

    The vasculature develops primarily through two processes, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Although much work has been published on angiogenesis, less is known of the mechanisms regulating the de novo formation of the vasculature commonly called vasculogenesis. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have the capability to produce all of the cells of the body and have been used as in vitro models to study the molecular signals controlling differentiation and vessel assembly. One such regulatory molecule is bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), which is required for mesoderm formation and vascular/hematopoietic specification in several species. However, hESC grown in feeder-free conditions and treated with BMP4 differentiate into a cellular phenotype highly expressing a trophoblast gene profile. Therefore, it is unclear what role, if any, BMP4 plays in regulating vascular development in hESC. Here we show in two National Institutes of Health-registered hESC lines (BG02 and WA09) cultured on a 3D substrate of Matrigel in endothelial cell growth medium-2 that the addition of BMP4 (100 ng/ml) for 3 days significantly increases the formation and outgrowth of a network of cells reminiscent of capillary-like structures formed by mature endothelial cells (P<0.05). Analysis of the expression of 45 genes by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction on a low-density array of the entire culture indicates a rapid and significant downregulation of pluripotent and most ectodermal markers with a general upregulation of endoderm, mesoderm, and endothelial markers. Of the genes assayed, BMPR2 and RUNX1 were differentially affected by exposure to BMP4 in both cell lines. Immunocytochemistry indicates the morphological structures formed were negative for the mature endothelial markers CD31 and CD146 as well as the neural marker SOX2, yet positive for the early vascular markers of endothelium (KDR, NESTIN) and smooth muscle cells (alpha-smooth muscle actin [alpha SMA]). Together, these

  19. Generation of embryoid bodies from mouse embryonic stem cells cultured on STO feeder cells.

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    Zhou, Qing-Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Xiang, Li-Xin; Hu, Ruo-Zhen; Lu, Yong-Liang; Yao, Hang; Dai, Li-Cheng

    2005-09-01

    Embryoid bodies, which are similar to post-implantation egg-cylinder stage embryos, provide a model for the study of embryo development and stem cell differentiation. We describe here a novel method for generating embryoid bodies from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured on the STO feeder layer. The ES cells grew into compact aggregates in the first 3 days of coculture, then became simple embryoid bodies (EBs) possessing primitive endoderm on the outer layer. They finally turned into cystic embryoid bodies after being transferred to Petri dishes for 1-3 days. Evaluation of the EBs in terms of morphology and differentiating potential indicates that they were typical in structure and could generate cells derived from the three germ layers. The results show that embryoid bodies can form not only in suspension culture but also directly from ES cells cultured on the STO feeder layer.

  20. Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies

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    Ahadian, Samad; Zhou, Yuanshu; Yamada, Shukuyo; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-03-01

    Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac

  1. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and their hybrids during embryoid body formation

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    Josane Mittmann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the karyotypes of three hybrid clones of mouse embryonic stem cells and murine splenocytes (two having near diploid and one having near tetraploid chromosome numbers and the characteristics of their differentiation during the formation of embryoid bodies. The X chromosome originating from embryonic stem cells may be lost in hybrids with a near diploid chromosome number and reprogramming of the "somatic" X may occur. The morphological data we obtained using light and electron microscopy revealed a correlation between the karyotype constitution of hybrid cells and their differentiation during the formation of embryoid bodies. At the beginning of development, the embryoid bodies derived from hybrid cells already showed an advanced degree of differentiation. The production of significant quantities of cartilage was typical for hybrid cells with near tetraploid chromosome numbers. The hybrid cells showed restricted pluripotent capacity and were already committed when they started to differentiate into embryoid bodies.

  2. Graphene induces spontaneous cardiac differentiation in embryoid bodies.

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    Ahadian, Samad; Zhou, Yuanshu; Yamada, Shukuyo; Estili, Mehdi; Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2016-04-07

    Graphene was embedded into the structure of mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) using the hanging drop technique. The inclusion of 0.2 mg per mL graphene in the EBs did not affect the viability of the stem cells. However, the graphene decreased the stem cell proliferation, probably by accelerating cell differentiation. The graphene also enhanced the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-graphene was significantly greater than that of the EBs at day 5 of culture, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis. Electrical stimulation (voltage, 4 V; frequency, 1 Hz; and duration, 10 ms for 2 continuous days) further enhanced the cardiac differentiation of the EBs, as demonstrated by analyses of the cardiac protein and gene expression and the beating activity of the EBs. Taken together, the results demonstrated that graphene played a major role in directing the cardiac differentiation of EBs, which has potential cell therapy and tissue regeneration applications.

  3. Parietal endoderm secreted S100A4 promotes early cardiomyogenesis in embryoid bodies

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    Stary, Martina; Schneider, Mikael; Sheikh, Søren P

    2006-01-01

    Cardiomyogenesis is influenced by factors secreted by anterior-lateral and extra-embryonic endoderm. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies allows to study the influence of growth factors on cardiomyogenesis. By these means SPARC was identified as a new factor enhancing...

  4. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

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    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K

    2001-01-01

    the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate...

  5. Phenotype characterization of embryoid body structures generated by a crystal comet effect tail in an intercellular cancer collision scenario

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    Diaz JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F MurilloDepartment of Pathology, Hospital Departmental Villavicencio, Hospital Departmental Granada, Medicine School, University Cooperative of Colombia, Villavicencio, Meta, ColombiaAbstract: Cancer is, by definition, the uncontrolled growth of autonomous cells that eventually destroy adjacent tissues and generate architectural disorder. However, this concept cannot be totally true. In three well documented studies, we have demonstrated that cancer tissues produce order zones that evolve over time and generate embryoid body structures in a space-time interval. The authors decided to revise the macroscopic and microscopic material in well-developed malignant tumors in which embryoid bodies were identified to determine the phenotype characterization that serves as a guideline for easy recognition. The factors responsible for this morphogenesis are physical, bioelectric, and magnetic susceptibilities produced by crystals that act as molecular designers for the topographic gradients that guide the surrounding silhouette and establish tissue head-tail positional identities. The structures are located in amniotic-like cavities and show characteristic somite-like embryologic segmentation. Immunophenotypic study has demonstrated exclusion factor positional identity in relation to enolase-immunopositive expression of embryoid body and human chorionic gonadotropin immunopositivity exclusion factor expression in the surrounding tissues. The significance of these observations is that they can also be predicted by experimental image data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in which two-beam subatomic collision particles in the resulting debris show hyperorder domains similar to those identified by us in intercellular cancer collisions. Our findings suggest that we are dealing with true reverse biologic system information in an activated collective cancer stem cell

  6. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs.

  7. [Cytotoxic effects of etoposide at different stages of differentiation of embryoid bodies formed by mouse embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, O F

    2013-01-01

    The initial stages of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells are considered as unique three-dimensional models of early development of mammals for basic, pharmacological, and toxicological studies. It has been previously shown (Gordeeva, 2012) that the assessment of embryotoxicity in the model of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells can be insufficiently accurate in predicting toxic effects on mammalian embryos. In view of this, we performed a comparative study of the damaging effects of the cytostatic etoposide in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodiesof different stages of differentiation that have similar three-dimensional structures with early embryos. The analysis of growth, cell death, and dynamics of differentiation of embryonic stem cells and embryoid bodies exposed to etoposide showed that the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of etoposide are stage-specific. The damaging effects of etoposide were maximum in the undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and decreased with growth and differentiation of embryoid bodies. We assume that the increase in the cell volume of embryoid bodies and the development of the hypertrophic we suggest that the increase of embryoid body volume and overgrowth of extraembryonic endoderm layer lead to a decrease in the diffusion, transport, and metabolism of chemical and bioactive substances and prevent the damaging effects.

  8. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into endoderm without embryoid body formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T W Kim

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem cells hold a great promise as an unlimited source of tissue for treatment of chronic diseases such as Type 1 diabetes. Herein, we describe a protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, basic fibroblast growth factor and dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP in the absence of embryoid body formation, for differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic precursors. The produced cells were analyzed by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and static insulin release assay for markers of trilaminar embryo, and pancreas. Differentiated cells displayed increased Sox17 and Foxa2 expression consistent with definitive endoderm production. There was minimal production of Sox7, an extraembryonic endoderm marker, and Oct4, a marker of pluripotency. There was minimal mesoderm or neuroectoderm formation based on expression levels of the markers brachyury and Sox1, respectively. Various assays revealed that the cell clusters generated by this protocol express markers of the pancreatic lineage including insulin I, insulin II, C-peptide, PDX-1, carboxypeptidase E, pan-cytokeratin, amylase, glucagon, PAX6, Ngn3 and Nkx6.1. This protocol using all-trans-retinoic acid, DBcAMP, in the absence of embryoid bodies, generated cells that have features of definitive endoderm that may serve as pancreatic endocrine precursors.

  9. Differentiation of embryoid-body cells derived from embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes in alginate microbeads in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng FANG; Yu-dong QIU; Liang MAO; Xiao-lei SHI; De-cai YU; Yi-tao DING

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are being widely investigated as a promising source of hepatocytes with their proliferative, renewable, and pluripotent capacities. However, controlled and scalable ES cell differentiation culture into functional hepatocytes is challenging. In this study, we examined the differentiat- ing potential of embryoid-body cells derived from ES cells into hepatocytes in alginate microbeads containing exogenous growth factors in vitro. Methods: Embryoid bodies were formed from ES cells by suspension methods. Embryoid bodies cultured for 5 d were treated with trypsin-EDTA. The disaggregated cells were encapsulated in alginate microbeads and stimulated with exogenous growth factors to induce hepatic differentiation. In the course of cell differentiation, cell morphology and viability were observed, and the expression patterns of some genes of the hepatocyte were confirmed by RT-PCR. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed the expression of albumin (ALB) and cytokeratin-18 (CK18). Hepatocyte functional assays were confirmed by the secretion of ALB and urea. Results: We showed that embryoid-body cells could maintain cell viability in alginate microbeads in vitro. We also found that directed differentiated cells expressed several hepatocyte genes including α-fetoprotein (AFP), ALB, Cyp7al, CK18, transthyretin (TTR) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and produced ALB and urea in alginate microbeads. The directed differentiated cells expressed ALB and CK18 proteins on d 14. However, embryoid-body cells could not form hepatocytes without exogenous growth factors in alginate microbeads. Conclusion: The differentiation of embryoid-body cells into hepatocytes con- taining exogenous growth factors in alginate microbeads gives rise to functional hepatocytes and may develop scalable stem cell differentiation strategies for bioartificial livers and hepatocyte transplantation.

  10. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Chih-Chen; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2016-07-06

    The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB) formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  11. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Wen Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  12. Embryoid Body-Explant Outgrowth Cultivation from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in an Automated Closed Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Saeko; Akiyama, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Akira; Ichimura, Masaki; Nakatani, Masaru; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Automation of cell culture would facilitate stable cell expansion with consistent quality. In the present study, feasibility of an automated closed-cell culture system “P 4C S” for an embryoid body- (EB-) explant outgrowth culture was investigated as a model case for explant culture. After placing the induced pluripotent stem cell- (iPSC-) derived EBs into the system, the EBs successfully adhered to the culture surface and the cell outgrowth was clearly observed surrounding the adherent EBs. After confirming the outgrowth, we carried out subculture manipulation, in which the detached cells were simply dispersed by shaking the culture flask, leading to uniform cell distribution. This enabled continuous stable cell expansion, resulting in a cell yield of 3.1 × 107. There was no evidence of bacterial contamination throughout the cell culture experiments. We herewith developed the automated cultivation platform for EB-explant outgrowth cells. PMID:27648449

  13. 3-Dimensional cell culture for on-chip differentiation of stem cells in embryoid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong; Lee, Kang Sun; Bang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Eyn; Kim, Min-Cheol; Oh, Kwang Wook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2011-03-07

    This paper proposes a microfluidic device for the on-chip differentiation of an embryoid body (EB) formed in a microwell via 3-dimensional cultures of mouse embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells. The device adjusted the size of the EB by fluid volume, differentiated the EB by chemical treatment, and evaluated its effects in EC cells by on-chip immunostaining. A microfluidic resistance network was designed to control the size of the embryoid body. The duration time and flow rate into each microwell regulated the initial number of trapped cells in order to adjust the size of the EB. The docked cells were aggregated and formed a spherical EB on the non-adherent surface of the culture chip for 3 days. The EC cells in the EB were then differentiated into diverse cell lineages without attachment for an additional 4 days; meanwhile, retinoic acid (RA) was applied without serum to direct the cells into early neuronal lineage. On-chip immunostaining of the EB in the microwell with a neuronal marker was conducted to assess the differentiation-inducing ability of RA. The effect of RA on neuronal differentiation was analyzed with confocal microscopic images of the TuJ1 marker. The RA-treated cells expressed more neuronal markers and appeared as mature neuronal cells with long neurites. The fluorescence intensity of the TuJ1 in the RA-treated EB was twice that observed in the non-treated EB on day 5. It was demonstrated that the pre-screening of inducing chemicals on the early neuronal differentiation of EC cells in a single microfluidic chip was indeed feasible. This chip is expected to constitute a useful tool for assessing the early differentiation of ES cells without attachment, and is also expected to prove useful as an anti-cancer drug test platform for the cytotoxicity assay with cellular spheroids.

  14. Tunable shrink-induced honeycomb microwell arrays for uniform embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diep; Sa, Silin; Pegan, Jonathan D; Rich, Brent; Xiang, Guangxin; McCloskey, Kara E; Manilay, Jennifer O; Khine, Michelle

    2009-12-07

    Embryoid body (EB) formation closely recapitulates early embryonic development with respect to lineage commitment. Because it is greatly affected by cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, the ability to control the initial number of cells in the aggregates and to provide an appropriate substrate are crucial parameters for uniform EB formation. Here we report of an ultra-rapid fabrication and culture method utilizing a laser-jet printer to generate closely arrayed honeycomb microwells of tunable sizes for the induction of uniform EBs from single cell suspension. By printing various microwell patterns onto pre-stressed polystyrene sheets, and through heat induced shrinking, high aspect micromolds are generated. Notably, we achieve rounded bottom polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wells not easily achievable with standard microfabrication methods, but critical to achieve spherical EBs. Furthermore, by simply controlling the size of the microwells and the concentration of the cell suspension we can control the initial size of the cell aggregate, thus influencing lineage commitment. In addition, these microwells are easily adaptable and scalable to most standard well plates and easily integrated into commercial liquid handling systems to provide an inexpensive and easy high throughput compound screening platform.

  15. Cell adhesion and sorting in embryoid bodies derived from N- or E-cadherin deficient murine embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moore

    2014-01-01

    The primitive endoderm epithelial structure in mouse blastocysts forms following cell differentiation and subsequent sorting, and this two-step process can be reproduced in vitro using an embryoid body model. We found that in the chimeric embryoid bodies consisting of paired wildtype and E-cadherin null ES cells, the wildtype sorted to the center and were enveloped by the less adhesive E-cadherin null cells, in accord with Steinberg's hypothesis. However, wildtype and N-cadherin null ES cells intermixed and did not segregate, a situation that may be explained by Albert Harris' modified principle, which incorporates the unique properties of living cells. Furthermore, in chimeric embryoid bodies composed of N-cadherin and E-cadherin null ES cells, the two weakly interacting cell types segregated but did not envelop one another. Lastly, the most consistent and striking observation was that differentiated cells sorted to the surface and formed an enveloping layer, regardless of the relative cell adhesive affinity of any cell combination, supporting the hypothesis that the ability of the differentiated cells to establish apical polarity is the determining factor in surface sorting and positioning.

  16. Three-dimensional bioprinting of embryonic stem cells directs highly uniform embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liliang; Yao, Rui; Mao, Shuangshuang; Chen, Xi; Na, Jie; Sun, Wei

    2015-11-04

    With the ability to manipulate cells temporarily and spatially into three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like construct, 3D bioprinting technology was used in many studies to facilitate the recreation of complex cell niche and/or to better understand the regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation by cellular microenvironment factors. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any specialized cell type of the animal body, generally via the formation of embryoid body (EB), which mimics the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting technology was utilized for biofabricating ESCs into 3D cell-laden construct. The influence of 3D printing parameters on ESC viability, proliferation, maintenance of pluripotency and the rule of EB formation was systematically studied in this work. Results demonstrated that ESCs were successfully printed with hydrogel into 3D macroporous construct. Upon process optimization, about 90% ESCs remained alive after the process of bioprinting and cell-laden construct formation. ESCs continued proliferating into spheroid EBs in the hydrogel construct, while retaining the protein expression and gene expression of pluripotent markers, like octamer binding transcription factor 4, stage specific embryonic antigen 1 and Nanog. In this novel technology, EBs were formed through cell proliferation instead of aggregation, and the quantity of EBs was tuned by the initial cell density in the 3D bioprinting process. This study introduces the 3D bioprinting of ESCs into a 3D cell-laden hydrogel construct for the first time and showed the production of uniform, pluripotent, high-throughput and size-controllable EBs, which indicated strong potential in ESC large scale expansion, stem cell regulation and fabrication of tissue-like structure and drug screening studies.

  17. Morphological observation of embryoid bodies completes the in vitro evaluation of nanomaterial embryotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test (EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Sara; Dakou, Eleni; Yadav, Ajay; Thomassen, Leen C J; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Leyns, Luc

    2015-10-01

    The wide and frequent use of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) raises serious concerns about their safety for human health. Our aim is to evaluate the embryotoxic potential of silver, uncoated and coated zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and silica NMs through the embryonic stem cell test (EST). EST is a validated in vitro assay that permits classification of chemicals into three classes (non, weakly or strongly embryotoxic). Because of the peculiar physico-chemical characteristics of NMs, we first adapted and simplified the differentiation protocol. To verify the efficiency of this adapted protocol we screened 3 well-characterized chemicals (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea and saccharin). Next, we assessed the embryotoxic potential of NMs. Our data showed that silver NM is classified as a strong embryotoxic compound, while coated and uncoated zinc oxide, titanium and silica NMs as weak embryotoxic compounds. In addition, we observed daily the formation and growth of embryoid bodies (EBs). We showed that multiple EBs formed in each well starting from 50 μg/ml of SiO2 while EB formation was inhibited starting from 20 μg/ml of ZnO NMs. This has never been reported with chemicals and could pose a risk of wrongly evaluating the NMs embryotoxic potential. For NMs, morphological observation of EBs can provide valuable information on early differentiation effects. Finally, we suggest that the prediction model should be revised for the assessment of NMs embryotoxicity.

  18. Paramagnetic beads and magnetically mediated strain enhance cardiomyogenesis in mouse embryoid bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Geuss

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces play an important role in proper embryologic development, and similarly such forces can directly impact pluripotency and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC in vitro. In addition, manipulation of the embryoid body (EB microenvironment, such as by incorporation of microspheres or microparticles, can similarly influence fate determination. In this study, we developed a mechanical stimulation regimen using permanent neodymium magnets to magnetically attract cells within an EB. Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD-conjugated paramagnetic beads were incorporated into the interior of the EBs during aggregation, allowing us to exert force on individual cells using short-term magnetization. EBs were stimulated for one hour at different magnetic field strengths, subsequently exerting a range of force intensity on the cells at different stages of early EB development. Our results demonstrated that following exposure to a 0.2 Tesla magnetic field, ESCs respond to magnetically mediated strain by activating Protein Kinase A (PKA and increasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2 expression. The timing of stimulation can also be tailored to guide ESC differentiation: the combination of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 supplementation with one hour of magnetic attraction on Day 3 enhances cardiomyogenesis by increasing contractile activity and the percentage of sarcomeric α-actin-expressing cells compared to control samples with BMP4 alone. Interestingly, we also observed that the beads alone had some impact on differentiation by increasingly slightly, albeit not significantly, the percentage of cardiomyocytes. Together these results suggest that magnetically mediated strain can be used to enhance the percentage of mouse ESC-derived cardiomyocytes over current differentiation protocols.

  19. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  20. 维甲酸增加人胚胎干细胞形成拟胚体中生殖细胞特异基因标记%Retinoic acid increases expression of germ cell-specific markers of embryoid body differentiated from human embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪梅; 岳静; 徐蓓; 郝翠芳; 朱桂金

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨维甲酸在增加人胚胎干细胞(hESCs)形成拟胚体中生殖细胞特异基因标记中的作用. 方法 hESCs在含有维甲酸或无维甲酸的分化液中悬浮培养形成拟胚体,采用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测未分化因子OCT-4及生殖细胞特异性标记VASA、SCP3、GDF9和TEKT1的表达情况. 结果 在拟胚体形成过程中,未分化因子OCT-4表达下降,但生殖母细胞标记VASA、减数分裂标记SCP3及减数分裂后标记GDF9和TEKT1表达均增加.在含有维甲酸的分化系统中,生殖细胞特异性标记表达均增加.培养5d后,生殖细胞特异性标记VASA、SCP3、GDF9和TEKT1分别增加9.3、6.9、7.2和11.8倍. 结论 hESCs具有分化为原始生殖细胞(PGCs)和早期配子的能力.维甲酸能增加hESCs形成拟胚体中生殖细胞特异性标记的表达.%Objective: To study the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the expression of germ cell-specific markers of embryoid body differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Methods: hESCs were differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension with all-trans RA (atRA) or without atRA. Then the expressions of OCT4, VASA, SCP3, GDF9 and TEKT1 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results: The expressions of germ cell-specific markers including the gonocyte marker VASA, the meiotic marker SCP3, the postmeiotic markers GDF9 and TEKT1 were all increased in the presence and absence of RA during EB differentiation was progressed. In addition, the expressions of these markers were increased averages of 9. 3, 6. 9, 7. 2 and 11. 8 fold respectively in the presence of RA compared with the absence of RA during 5 days differentiation. Conclusions: The results indicated that hESCs might have the potential to differentiate to PGCs and early gametes. And RA could increase the expression of germ cell-specific markers of embryoid body differentiated from hESCs.

  1. Intercellular cancer collisions generate an ejected crystal comet tail effect with fractal interface embryoid body reassembly transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jairo A Díaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Alvaro BarreroDepartment of Pathology, Hospital Departmental Villavicencio, Hospital Departmental Granada, Medicine School, University Cooperative of Colombia, Villavicencio, Meta, ColombiaAbstract: We have documented self-assembled geometric triangular chiral crystal complexes (GTCHC and a framework of collagen vascular invariant geometric attractors in cancer tissues. This article shows how this system evolves in time. These structures are incorporated together and evolve in different ways. When the geometric core is stable, and the tissue architecture collapses, fragmented components emerge, which reveal a hidden interior identifying how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, ie, a fractal self-similarity that guided the system from the beginning. GTCHC complexes generate ejected crystal comet tail effects and produce strange helicity states that arise in the form of spin domain interactions. As the crystal growth vibration stage progresses, biofractal echo images converge in a master-built construction of embryoid bodies with enolase-selective immunopositivity in relation to clusters of triangular chiral cell organization. In our electro-optic collision model, we were able to predict and replicate all the characteristics of this complex geometry that connects a physical phenomenon with the signal patterns that generate biologic chaos. Intrinsically, fractal geometry makes spatial correction errors embrace the chaotic system in a way that permits new structures to emerge, and as a result, an ordered self-assembly of embryoid bodies with neural differentiation at the final stage of cancer development is a predictable process. We hope that further investigation of these structures will lead not only to a new way of thinking about physics and biology, but also to a rewarding area in cancer research.Keywords: embryoid bodies, cancer, electro-optic collision model

  2. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic C Y Phua

    Full Text Available The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  3. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dominic C Y; Xu, Jianliang; Ali, Safiah Mohamed; Boey, Adrian; Gounko, Natalia V; Hunziker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  4. A local redox cycling-based electrochemical chip device with nanocavities for multi-electrochemical evaluation of embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yusuke; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-12-01

    An electrochemical device, which consists of electrode arrays, nanocavities, and microwells, was developed for multi-electrochemical detection with high sensitivity. A local redox cycling-based electrochemical (LRC-EC) system was used for multi-electrochemical detection and signal amplification. The LRC-EC system consists of n(2) sensors with only 2n bonding pads for external connection. The nanocavities fabricated in the sensor microwells enable significant improvement of the signal amplification compared with the previous devices we have developed. The present device was successfully applied for evaluation of embryoid bodies (EBs) from embryonic stem (ES) cells via electrochemical measurements of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the EBs. In addition, the EBs were successfully trapped in the sensor microwells of the device using dielectrophoresis (DEP) manipulation, which led to high-throughput cell analysis. This device is considered to be useful for multi-electrochemical detection and imaging for bioassays including cell analysis.

  5. Deriving retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by different sizes of embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alberto; Ramesh, Kaini R; Greene, Whitney A; Choi, Jae-Hyek; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2015-02-04

    Pluripotent stem cells possess the ability to proliferate indefinitely and to differentiate into almost any cell type. Additionally, the development of techniques to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has generated interest and excitement towards the possibility of customized personal regenerative medicine. However, the efficiency of stem cell differentiation towards a desired lineage remains low. The purpose of this study is to describe a protocol to derive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from iPS cells (iPS-RPE) by applying a tissue engineering approach to generate homogenous populations of embryoid bodies (EBs), a common intermediate during in vitro differentiation. The protocol applies the formation of specific size of EBs using microwell plate technology. The methods for identifying protein and gene markers of RPE by immunocytochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are also explained. Finally, the efficiency of differentiation in different sizes of EBs monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of RPE markers is described. These techniques will facilitate the differentiation of iPS cells into RPE for future applications.

  6. Differentiation of mouse iPS cells is dependent on embryoid body size in microwell chip culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    A microwell chip possessing microwells of several hundred micrometers is a promising platform for generating embryoid bodies (EBs) of stem cells. Here, we investigated the effects of initial EB size on the growth and differentiation of mouse iPS cells in microwell chip culture. We fabricated a chip that contained 195 microwells in a triangular arrangement at a diameter of 600 μm. To evaluate the effect of EB size, four similar conditions were designed with different seeding cell densities of 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 cells/EB. The cells in each microwell gradually aggregated and then spontaneously formed a single EB within 1 d of culture, and EB size increased with further cell proliferation. EB growth was regulated by the initial EB size, and the growth ability of smaller EBs was higher than that of larger EBs. Furthermore, stem cell differentiation also depended on the initial EB size, and the EBs at more than 500 cells/EB promoted hepatic and cardiac differentiations, but the EBs at 100 cells/EB preferred vascular differentiation. These results indicated that the initial EB size was one of the important factors controlling the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells in the microwell chip culture.

  7. Mouse embryonic stem cells give rise to gut-like morphogenesis, including intestinal stem cells, in the embryoid body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Noriyoshi; Wakabayashi, Kumiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Masuko, Takayuki; Iribe, Yuji; Mitsumata, Masako; Okano, Hideyuki; Kusafuka, Takeshi; Mugishima, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been proposed as candidates for cell replacement therapy in patients with intestinal failure because these cells can be expanded indefinitely without losing their pluripotent phenotype. We investigated the differentiation capacity of mouse ES cells into gut-like structures, including intestinal stem cells, and defined culture conditions for efficient induction of formation of these structures. ES cell-derived gut-like structures (ES-guts) were reproducibly induced in developing embryoid bodies (EBs) by day 21 of differentiation culture. ES-guts contained an endodermal epithelium, a smooth muscle layer, interstitial cells of Cajal, and enteric neurons and showed spontaneous contraction. Transplantation of ES-guts under the kidney capsules of immunodeficient mice induced formation of highly differentiated epithelium composed of absorptive cells and goblet cells in the grafts. Immunoreactivity for Musashi-1 (Msi-1), a marker of intestinal stem cells, was detected in 1.9% of the columnar epithelial cells in the graft. Culture with 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide increased the numbers of ES-guts in EBs, and serum-replacement (SR) culture, in comparison to standard ES culture containing 15% serum, increased the area ratio of ES-guts to EBs. SR culture also promoted maturation of epithelium to form a single layer of columnar epithelial cells, including absorptive cells and goblet cells. Expression of Msi-1 mRNA and protein was significantly enhanced when EBs were cultured under SR conditions. In conclusion, SR conditions efficiently induce formation of ES-guts and promote differentiation of epithelium, including intestinal stem cells. These results suggest the feasibility of cell-based therapy for intestinal failure based on ES cell culture systems.

  8. In vitro direct osteogenesis of murine embryonic stem cells without embryoid body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Shik; Polak, Julia M; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2008-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) posses the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a multitude of lineages, including the osteogenic lineage in vitro. Currently, most approaches have focused on embryonic body (EB)-mediated osteogenic differentiation, which relies on formation of all three germ layers resulting in limited yields and labour-intensive culture processes. Our study aimed at developing an efficient culture strategy resulting in the upregulated in vitro osteogenic differentiation of murine ESCs (mESCs), which completely avoided EB formation. Specifically, mESCs were cultured in HepG2 conditioned medium for 3 days and then directed into osteogenic differentiation for 21 days without prior EB formation. The mineralised bone nodules generated were characterized by Alizarin red S-staining, phenotypic alkaline phosphatase expression, time-course analysis of ALPase activity, the presence of type I collagen and osteopontin, and osteocalcin, cbfa-1/runx-2, and osterix gene expression. Our method of direct osteogenic differentiation of mESCs represents a novel and efficient approach that results in enhanced yields and could have significant applications in bone tissue engineering.

  9. Human somatic cells acquire the plasticity to generate embryoid-like metamorphosis via the actin cytoskeleton in injured tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jairo A; Murillo, Mauricio F; Mendoza, Jhonan A; Barreto, Ana M; Poveda, Lina S; Sanchez, Lina K; Poveda, Laura C; Mora, Katherine T

    2016-01-01

    Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype. We captured this hidden collective filamentous assemblage in progress: Hypoxic deformed cells enter into intercellular collisions, generate migratory ejected filaments, and produce self-assembly of triangular chiral hexagon complexes; this dynamic geometry guides the microenvironment scaffold in which this biological process is incubated, recapitulating embryonic morphogenesis. In all injured tissues, especially in damaged skeletal (striated) muscle cells, visibly hypertrophic intercalated actin-myosin filaments are organized in zebra stripe pattern along the anterior-posterior axis in the interior of the cell, generating cephalic-caudal polarity segmentation, with a high selective level of immunopositivity for Actin, Alpha Skeletal Muscle antibody and for Neuron-Specific Enolase expression of ectodermal differentiation. The function of actin filaments in emergent responses to tissue injury is to reconstitute, reactivate and orchestrate cellular metamorphosis, involving the re-expression of fetal genes, providing evidence of the reverse flow of genetic information within a biological system. The resultant embryoid phenotype emerges as a microscopic fractal template copy of the organization of the whole body, likely allowing the modification and reprogramming of the phenotype of the tumor in which these structures develop, as well as establishing a reverse primordial microscopic mold to collectively re-form cellular building blocks to

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of embryoid body-like structure%三维重构展示类胚体样结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓涛; 郑馨; 钟嘉泳; 张志鹏; 李震; 蔡冬青

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stem cells have been widely studied and are considered as important cells for cell therapy since stem cells are capable of proliferation and differentiation. It is believed that three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of stem cells and tissues is important to better understand the mechanisms of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. OBJECTIVE: To reveal and analyze embryoid body-like tissue structure using 3D-reconstruction technique. METHODS: Differentiated embryoid body-like tissue structure was used as a model. Immunofluorescent staining combined with Z-axis consecutive image capture and 3D-reconstruction were used to reveal and analyze differentiated embryoid body-like cardiac myocyte tissue.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Methods used in this study were able to reveal 3D-reconstruction of embryoid body-like tissue structure. Reconstructed 3D model could be rotated at any angle. After iso-surface processing under certain color channel, spatial relationship of cardiac troponin I positive tissue structure and nucleus could be displayed on related color channel or at any angle dimension. It was found that the nuclei were included in the differentiated embryoid body-like cardiac myocyte tissue. The results of present study documented that differentiated embryoid body-like cardiac myocyte tissue was able to reveal and analyze using the 3D-reconstruction technique.%背景:干细胞因其具有增殖能力及分化潜能,被认为是实施细胞治疗的重要细胞而被广泛研究.实现干细胞与组织三维结构的展示与分析,对阐明干细胞增殖与分化的机制有重要意义.目的:探讨实现对经分化的类胚体样组织结构进行三维重构展示的方法.方法:以来源于骨骼肌干细胞经诱导具有三维立体结构的类胚体作为实验对象,利用多色免疫荧光染色结合Z轴连续图像采集和三维重构技术,对经分化的类胚体样组织结构进行三维重构展示.结果与结论:

  11. Development of a multi-layer microfluidic array chip to culture and replate uniform-sized embryoid bodies without manual cell retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edward; Choi, Yoon Young; Jun, Yesl; Chung, Bong Geun; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-10-21

    We have developed a multi-layer, microfluidic array platform containing concave microwells and flat cell culture chambers to culture embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulate uniform-sized embryoid body (EB) formation. The main advantage of this platform was that EBs cultured within the concave microwells of a bottom layer were automatically replated into flat cell culture chambers of a top layer, following inversion of the multi-layer microfluidic array platform. This allowed EB formation and EB replating to be controlled simultaneously inside a single microfluidic device without pipette-based manual cell retrieval, a drawback of previous EB culture methods.

  12. Properties of embryoid bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brickman, Joshua M; Serup, Palle

    2017-01-01

    early mouse blastocysts. In many cases, formation of EBs constitutes an important initial step in directed differentiation protocols aimed at generated specific cell types from undifferentiated stem cells. Indeed state-of-the-art protocols for directed differentiation of cardiomyocytes still rely...... is owed to EB models, which later were extensively validated in studies of early mouse embryos. EBs show a degree of self-organization that mimics some aspects of early embryonic development, but with important exceptions. Recent studies that employ modern signaling reporters and tracers of lineage...

  13. Influence factors of the formation of embryoid bodies%胚胎干细胞形成拟胚体的几个影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠萍; 王绮如

    2003-01-01

    @@ 胚胎干细胞(embryonic stem cells, ES cells)来源于囊胚的内细胞团,在体外长期培养,能保持高度未分化状态[1].胚胎干细胞体外悬浮培养,可形成含内胚层、中胚层、外胚层的拟胚体(embryoid bodies, EBs)[1,2].应用EBs模拟体内环境研究胚胎发育和定向诱导,首先要解决的问题是形成足量的EBs.本文以小鼠的胚胎干细胞系ES-D3为例,探讨有效形成EBs的几个影响因素.

  14. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of root and shoot, these embryoids can grow out into complete plantlets.In Chapter 2 we describe an optimized method to produce completely desiccation tolerant carrot ( Daucus carota ) embryoids. Usi...

  15. Lhx2 expression promotes self-renewal of a distinct multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dahl

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms regulating the expansion of the hematopoietic system including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in the fetal liver during embryonic development are largely unknown. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is a candidate regulator of fetal hematopoiesis since it is expressed in the fetal liver and Lhx2(-/- mice die in utero due to severe anemia. Moreover, expression of Lhx2 in embryonic stem (ES cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs can lead to the generation of HSC-like cell lines. To further define the role of this transcription factor in hematopoietic regulation, we generated ES cell lines that enabled tet-inducible expression of Lhx2. Using this approach we observed that Lhx2 expression synergises with specific signalling pathways, resulting in increased frequency of colony forming cells in developing EB cells. The increase in growth factor-responsive progenitor cells directly correlates to the efficiency in generating HSC-like cell lines, suggesting that Lhx2 expression induce self-renewal of a distinct multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell in EBs. Signalling via the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor and the gp130 signal transducer by IL-6 is necessary and sufficient for the Lhx2 induced self-renewal. While inducing self-renewal of multipotential progenitor cells, expression of Lhx2 inhibited proliferation of primitive erythroid precursor cells and interfered with early ES cell commitment, indicating striking lineage specificity of this effect.

  16. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of

  17. 胚胎小体来源早期血管新生模型的研究进展%Angiogenesis Model in Mouse Embryoic Cell-derived Embryoid Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏; 韩雅玲

    2009-01-01

    在体胚胎的早期血管发育生物学研究由于受到胚胎体积小、细胞数量少和获取困难等技术难点而制约了其发展.胚胎干细胞的体外培养及其分化为胚胎小体等技术的建立,为早期胚胎血管发生的分子机制研究提供了可视性的研究平台.应用这些技术手段不仅可以观察血管发生早期的生理及病理变化,还使得外源性干预成为可能.本文小结了胚胎小体来源的早期成血管模型的研究,对胚胎小体血管新生分子生物学机制进行了综述.%The mechanism research of early vascular development was restricted greatly by a lot of technical comforts,such as embryo acquiring in vivo.The culture of mouse embryoie cell-derived embryoid body in vitro provides a visible platform for studying on the mechanisms of embryonic vascular development,which is not only applied to observe the physiological and pathological change during the early period of angiogenesis,but also makes exogenous intervention come true.In this review,we tried to sum up some studies on angiogenesis model in the embryoid body differentiation and summarized a large set of genes that involved in regulation of vasculogenesis or angiogenesis,including growth factors,inhibitor of growth factors,and members of several signal transduction pathways.

  18. Body Building on Diamonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P. Sommer; Dan Zhu; Tim Scharnweber; Hans-Joerg Fecht

    2009-01-01

    Whereas conservative therapies aim to stall the advance of disease, regenerative medicine strives to reverse it. The capacity of most tissues to regenerate derives from stem cells, but there are a number of barriers which have to be circumvented before it will be possible to use stem-cell-based therapies. Such therapies, however, are expected to improve human health enormously,and knowledge gained from studying stem cells in culture and in model organisms is now laying the groundwork for a new era of regenerative medicine. One of the most prominent methods to study stem cell differentiation is to let them to form embryoid bodies. Under favourable conditions any stem cell line will form embryoid bodies. However, the mechanism of the formation of embryoid bodies is not very well understood, and to produce them in the laboratory is in no way trivial - an important technical barrier in stem cell research. Recently, the embryoid body cultivation step has been successfully circumvented for the derivation of osteogenic cultures of embryonic stem cells. Here we report on a simple and reusable system to cultivate embryoid bodies in extremely short times. The method is inspired by the principles that lead to the establishment of the biomimetic triangle.

  19. Persistently Exist of ES-like Cell Population in Long-term Cultured Embryoid Bodies%长期培养小鼠胚胎干细胞拟胚体(EB)的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 董娟; 徐兰; 周桢宁; 王沁; 丁小燕

    2008-01-01

    胚胎干细胞在体外培养条件下能够维持自我更新,并具有向多种细胞类型分化的能力,因此被广泛用于研究细胞分化的分子机理以及药物筛选.形成拟胚体(Embryoid body,EB)是胚胎干细胞分化常用的技术手段.为了便于今后利用EB做进一步的药物筛选及分化研究,严格规范了形成EB的条件,得到了分化状态均一性很高的EB.利用这一条件,观察到在分化条件下长期培养(长达60 d)的EB中仍有表达各项多能性指标的细胞集落.有关这一现象的进一步分析工作正在进行中.

  20. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  1. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies dif

  2. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  3. Residual undifferentiated cells during embryoid bodies differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells%诱导的多潜能干细胞类胚体分化过程中残留未分化细胞的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书军; 刁永力; 谷波; 于海洲; 葛乃航; 严晓鸥; 张文杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the residual undifferentiated cells during embryoid bodies differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Methods Mouse iPS were firstly cultured in suspension to form embryoid bodies (Ebs).Twenty days later,Ebs were digested into single cells and then re-plated in standard iPS cells culture condition.The morphology of residual undifferentiated cells in Ebs was observed,while surface makers and in vitro redifferentiation potency of residual cells were examined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining.The residual cells were expanded and subcutaneously injected into nude mice, and the specimens were harvested from the injection site for histological analysis 6 weeks after injection. Results A certain amount of residual undifferentiated cells in Ebs differentiated for 20 days, which displayed clonal morphology and expressed undifferentiated cell markers including SSEA-1,CD-9 and OCT-4.Amplified cells could form secondary Ebs in votro again,from which secondary undifferentiated cells could be re-expanded. Teratomas formed after amplified undifferentiated cells being injected into nude mice, which contain mature endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm tissues. Conclusion A certain amount of undifferentiated cells exists in differentiated Ebs of iPS cells. The residual cells can differentiate again in vitro and vivo,and can residue again in the in vitro differentiation.%目的:探讨诱导的多潜能干细胞(induced pluripotent stem cells,iPS cells)通过类胚体长期分化后残留未分化细胞的特性.方法:小鼠iPS细胞株,体外类胚体分化20天后消化打散,重新给予iPS细胞常规培养液培养.观察扩增的残留细胞形态;流式细胞仪和免疫荧光染色检测和观察残留细胞表面标志物及体外再次分化能力.将残留细胞扩增后注射入裸鼠背部皮下,6周后注射部位取材进行大体和组织学检查.结果:分化20天的类胚体中存在残留未分化

  4. 应用旋转生物反应器批量制备拟胚体的研究%Scalable production of embryoid bodies with the rotay cell culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 王常勇; 虞星炬; 赵云山; 李晶; 段翠密; 郭希民

    2005-01-01

    以小鼠胚胎干细胞(ES-D3)为模型,应用新型细胞培养系统--STLV型旋转生物反应器(rotary cell culture system,RCCS)建立一种批量制备拟胚体(embryoid bodies,EBs)的新方法,研究不同细胞接种密度及培养时间对RCCS内EBs产生效率的影响.为了进一步研究该制备方法是否对EBs的分化潜能产生影响,对照传统方法制备的EBs,利用形态学及RT-PCR方法测定经旋转生物反应器制备的EBs在自发性或诱导条件下(1%DMSO)向心肌细胞的分化能力.结果表明:ES-D3在RCCS内能够高效形成EBs,与传统的直接悬浮法比较,其EBs的形成效率可达到后者的2倍.1×104个/ml为最佳细胞接种密度,培养时间也是在RCCS制备EBs过程中的重要因素之一,培养第4~5天为最佳收获EBs的时间.与悬滴法制备的EBs比较,该方法制备的EBs分化为心肌细胞的潜能未改变.由此,应用旋转生物反应器可以高效制备EBs,该方法制备的EBs可以用于发育生物学等基础及应用领域的相关研究.

  5. 模拟微重力条件下小鼠拟胚体形成及分化的初步观察%The formation and differentiation of mouse embryoid bodies under simulating microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫生; 王英杰; 刘涛; 张世昌

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究模拟微重力条件下小鼠胚胎干细胞(embryonic stem cell,ESc)拟胚体(embryoid bodies,EBs)的形成及分化.方法 胰酶消化普通培养的小鼠胚胎干细胞,调整细胞数为1×106·ml-1,移入可模拟微重力的旋转型生物反应器内进行培养,显微镜动态观察鼠EBs的形成,苏木精-伊红染色观察ESc的组织细胞分化情况,检测培养过程中乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)的漏出量.取不同时相的EBs,接种6孔培养板培养3~5 d,倒置相差显微镜观察EBs来源细胞的分化.结果 生物反应器旋转培养24 h即可肉眼观察到大量多细胞聚集体形成,相差显微镜和立体显微镜下发现,72 h后细胞聚集体进一步形成均一的EBs.随培养时间延长EBs体积不断增大,并不断有新的EBs出现.HE染色显示,EBs中的ESc呈现多组织多细胞分化特征,培养后期(12 d以后)较大EBs中心有不同程度的坏死,伴LDH漏出量的明显升高.接种EBs于6孔培养板后,镜下观察到不同类型的细胞,如内皮样细胞、成纤维样细胞、肝细胞样细胞、血管样结构以及可自发性搏动的心肌样细胞.结论 ESc在模拟微重力条件下可大量快速形成EBs,伴有不同类型的组织细胞分化.旋转型生物反应器可作为ESc研究的有用工具.

  6. 小鼠胚胎干细胞分化形成拟胚体过程中的细胞程序性死亡%Programmed Cell Death of Embryoid Body During the Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦洵; 侯宁; 吕娅歆; 杨晓

    2004-01-01

    为了检测小鼠胚胎干细胞(embryonic stem cell,ES细胞)体外分化的拟胚体(embryoid bodies,EBs)形成过程中细胞程序性死亡(programmed cell death,PCD)的发生,通过悬滴、悬浮培养技术定向诱导未分化的ES细胞分化为拟胚体,并用RT-PCR检测原始内胚层、原始外胚层、中胚层、内脏内胚层4种分子标记物在EBs中的表达.通过TUNEL染色、电镜、激光共聚焦显微镜及Western印迹以确定凋亡发生.结果表明:ES细胞体外分化为拟胚体并且表达各胚层相应的分子标记物;在拟胚体的发育过程中出现明显的空腔化过程,TUNEL染色及电镜观察到凋亡生成,同时线粒体膜电位(△ψm)在拟胚体发育过程中降低,通过Western印迹检测到caspase3、caspase8的激活.表明小鼠ES细胞所分化的拟胚体可以作为研究早期胚胎发育的实验模型,线粒体在拟胚体的细胞程序性死亡过程中发挥重要的作用.为进一步利用拟胚体研究细胞程序性死亡及相关信号分子在小鼠胚胎发育早期的作用奠定了基础.

  7. Human body communication performance simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, H. (Haseeb)

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication (HBC) is a novel communication method between devices which use human body as a transmission medium. This idea is mostly based on the concept of wireless biomedical monitoring system. The on-body sensor nodes can monitor vital signs of a human body and use the body as a transmission medium. This technology is convenient for long durations of clinical monitoring with the option of more mobility and freedom for the user. In this thesis, IEEE 802.15.6-2012 phy...

  8. [Wheat androgenic embryoids and calli: data of scanning electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, N N; Gorbunova, V Iu; Abramov, S N; Sel'dimirova, O A

    2001-01-01

    The surface of wheat androgenic embryoids and calli at different developmental stages was studied using SEM. The embryoids were already characterized by regular cell divisions at the early developmental stages, while the calli were represented by irregular cell conglomerates. This trend was preserved during further development of androgenic structures. SEM studies of the surface of so-called secondary embryoids confirmed these observations.

  9. Embryoids derived from isolated protoplasts of carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, T; Uchimiya, H

    1972-12-01

    Protoplasts isolated enzymatically from carrot root tissues developed into cell clusters in a liquid medium containing coconut milk and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Cells of the resulting calluses differentiated into embryoids on an agar medium containing coconut milk or kinetin.

  10. What is a Human Body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2016-01-01

    The essay offers an overview of different understandings of what a body is. As such, it can be read as an overview of what we mean, when we speak of a “human body”. However, the article also goes a step further; in the last section, a responsive understanding of the human body is outlined....... This is understood as responsiveness in three ways: viz an embodied self that responds to natural life, other human beings and, ultimately, to God....

  11. Physics of the Human Body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2007-01-01

    Physics of the Human Body comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the materials properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to understand physical issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the necessary physical principles. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This text is geared t...

  12. Physics of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treat...

  13. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  14. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference.

  15. Embryoids, organoids and gastruloids: new approaches to understanding embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Mijo; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2017-03-15

    Cells have an intrinsic ability to self-assemble and self-organize into complex and functional tissues and organs. By taking advantage of this ability, embryoids, organoids and gastruloids have recently been generated in vitro, providing a unique opportunity to explore complex embryological events in a detailed and highly quantitative manner. Here, we examine how such approaches are being used to answer fundamental questions in embryology, such as how cells self-organize and assemble, how the embryo breaks symmetry, and what controls timing and size in development. We also highlight how further improvements to these exciting technologies, based on the development of quantitative platforms to precisely follow and measure subcellular and molecular events, are paving the way for a more complete understanding of the complex events that help build the human embryo.

  16. The effects of different stages of embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells in hematopoietic differentiation%不同发育阶段拟胚体对小鼠胚胎干细胞造血分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄盛昌; 刘胜; 孙筱放; 高绍荣

    2008-01-01

    Objective Embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells may have different characteristics in different developmental stages. We studied the different embryoid bodies to wonder whether they had different characteristics in hematopoietic differentiation. Methods Three types of embryoid bodies were formed during hematopoietic development, including EB-day 3-5, EB day 6-8, EB-day 9-13. EBs were tested by the identification of morphology, and the methods of flow cytometry analysis, Realtime PCR and colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. Results EBs were formed with the numbers of 96, 100 and 88 per 6000 ES cells at day 5, day 7 and day 10 respectively. The cells of CD 34+/Sca-1+ were 8. 91%, 9.23% and 12.73% done by flow cytometry analysis. The results of Realtime PCR also showed the development of mesoderm was most active at the stage of EB-day 6-8 than at other stages, and hematopoiesis was most active at the stage of EB-day 9-13 than at other stages. The numbers of colony were 21, 26 and 32 per 1 × 105 EB cells at EB-day 5, EB-day 7 and EB-day 10 respectively in CFC assay. Conclusion EB-day 3-5 are relative low in many testing parameters. They adapt to make the secondary EBs or blast colonies. EB-day 6-8 are most active than the others in mesoderm development. EB-day 9-13 are most mature relatively in hematopoiesis. Hence, different stages of embryoid bodies can be used to be different models in vitro according to the purpose of study.%目的 通过对拟胚体(Embryoid body, EB)在造血发育过程中三个不同发育阶段的初步探讨,以了解它们对胚胎干细胞(Embryonic stem cells, ESCs)造血分化的影响.方法 根据不同阶段拟胚体的发育特点,将拟胚体分为三个阶段:EB 3-5天、EB 6-8天以及EB 9-13天.通过形态学、流式细胞仪分析、Realtime PCR以及造血集落形成试验来分析不同阶段拟胚体在造血分化过程的特点.结果 EB培养至第5天、第7天、第10天时,每6000个ES

  17. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  18. Neural correlates of human body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Rosanne; Paus, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential sex differences in the neural response to human bodies using fMRI carried out in healthy young adults. We presented human bodies in a block-design experiment to identify body-responsive regions of the brain, namely, extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). In a separate event-related "adaptation" experiment, carried out in the same group of subjects, we presented sets of four human bodies of varying body size and shape. Varying levels of body morphing were introduced to assess the degree of morphing required for adaptation release. Analysis of BOLD signal in the block-design experiment revealed significant Sex x Hemisphere interactions in the EBA and the FBA responses to human bodies. Only women showed greater BOLD response to bodies in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere for both EBA and FBA. The BOLD response in right EBA was higher in women compared with men. In the adaptation experiment, greater right versus left hemisphere response for EBA and FBA was also identified among women but not men. These findings are particularly novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images. Although previous studies have found some degree of right hemisphere dominance in body perception, our results suggest that such a functional lateralization may differ between men and women.

  19. Electric Shock and the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses electricity's documented effects on the human body, including both the dangers to human health and the medical application of electrical stimulation to heart problems. Discusses the teaching of such physics topics to potential medical students. (TW)

  20. Correlation between the amount of residual undifferentiated embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies and its tumorigenicity%类胚体中残留胚胎干细胞数量与其致瘤性相关性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书军; 陈濛; 谷波; 于海洲; 刁永力

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨类胚体(EBs)中残留未分化胚胎干细胞(ESCs)的数量与其致瘤性的相关性.方法 小鼠R1胚胎干细胞株,体外类胚体诱导分化10d,流式细胞仪检测残留未分化ESCs表面标志SSEA-1阳性率.将第10天EBs消化打散后重新给予ESCs常规培养体系培养,观察EBs中残留未分化ESCs形态,流式细胞仪检测残留细胞表面标志物;第10天EBs消化打散后以104~2×106细胞量分别注射至裸鼠四肢肌肉内,观察不同细胞数量与畸胎瘤形成的相关性.结果 ESCs分化为EBs 10 d后有(13.5±0.75)%的细胞表达SSEA-1,提示存在残留未分化ESCs.残留未分化细胞生长形态呈克隆样,高表达SSEA-1等未分化ESCs标志.EBs消化打散后仅在注射2×l06个细胞的部位形成畸胎瘤,瘤体组织中存在成熟的内胚层、中胚层和外胚层组织,其余各组均未见畸胎瘤的形成.结论 胚胎干细胞分化为类胚体后仍存在残留未分化胚胎干细胞,并需要一定细胞数量才具有致瘤性.%Objective To explore the correlation between the amount of residual undifferentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in embryoid bodies and its tumorigenicity.Methods Mouse R1 ESCs were cultured in suspension to form embryoid bodies (EBs).Ten days later,EBs were digested into single cells and then re-plated in standard ESCs culture condition.The residual undifferentiated embryonic stem cells surface maker SSEA-1 was examined by flow cytometry in EBs.The morphology of residual undifferentiated cells in EBs were observed,meanwhile the surface marker SSEA-1 was examined by immunofluorescent staining.EBs were digested into single cells and grouped into 104,105,106,2×106,and then injected into limb muscle of nude mice.The correlation of the amount of cells and its tumorigenicity was observed.Results Residual undifferentiated ESCs were observed after EBs differentiated for 10 days,which displayed clonal morphology and expressed undifferentiated ceil markers of

  1. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  2. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; Beijnum, van B.J.F.; Droog, A.; Hermens, H.J.; Veltink, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is e

  3. Ultrasonic range measurements on the human body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Droog, Adriaan; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory range estimation on the human body is important for the assessment of the performance of upper- and lower limb tasks outside a laboratory. In this paper an ultrasound sensor for estimating ranges on the human body is presented and validated during gait. The distance between the feet is

  4. Clonal propagation of chemically uniform fennel plants through somatic embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Somatic embryoids obtained from cell suspension cultures of fennel in Linsmaier-Skoog medium containing 2,4-D and kinetin readily developed into plantlets when plated on a hormone-free agar medium. These plants were transplanted to the field to be tested for the uniformity of the chemically as well as the morphologically important characteristics of fruits. The results of field trials conducted for two years have confirmed that the clonal plants derived from somatic embryoids are remarkably uniform in all the characteristics examined in comparison with the control plants propagated through seeds. It is suggested, therefore, that the quality control of fennel fruits used for spice or medicine could be achieved by means of clonal propagation through somatic embryoids.

  5. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  6. Induction of embryoid development from apple pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kubicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globular 32 and 64 celled embryoids were obtained from uninucleate apple microspores (cultivar Jonathan after 5 weeks of culture on a modified Murashige and Skoog (1962 medium. A similar induction of microspore development was not observed in younger or older stages of anther development. In such anthers only callus was formed from diploid tissues.

  7. New Window into the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  8. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined by transmi......Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....

  9. Human embryonic stem cells have enhanced repair of multiple forms of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Swistowska, Anna Maria; Lee, Jae Wan

    2008-01-01

    fibroblasts (WI-38, hs27) and, with the exception of UV-C damage, HeLa cells. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels of several DNA repair genes are elevated in human embryonic stem cells compared with their differentiated forms (embryoid bodies). These data suggest that genomic...

  10. Dark Matter collisions with the Human Body

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the interactions of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with nuclei in the human body. We are motivated by the fact that WIMPs are excellent candidates for the dark matter in the Universe. Our estimates use a 70 kg human and a variety of WIMP masses and cross-sections. The contributions from individual elements in the body are presented and it is found that the dominant contribution is from scattering off of oxygen (hydrogen) nuclei for the spin-independent (spin-dependent) interactions. For the case of 60 GeV WIMPs, we find that, of the billions of WIMPs passing through a human body per second, roughly ~10 WIMPs hit one of the nuclei in the human body in an average year, if the scattering is at the maximum consistent with current bounds on WIMP interactions. We also study the 10-20 GeV WIMPs with much larger cross-sections that best fit the DAMA, COGENT, and CRESST data sets and find much higher rates: in this case as many as $10^5$ WIMPs hit a nucleus in the human body in an average ...

  11. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...

  12. [The solidarity of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).

  13. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  14. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models

  15. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  16. Mathematical human body modelling for impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimisation of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently such simulations are largely performed using occupant models b

  17. Human body modeling in injury biomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Horst, M.J. van der; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is widely used for crash-safety research and design. However, most occupant models used in crash simulations are based on crash dummies and thereby inherit their apparent limitations. This paper describes a mathematical model of the real human body for impact loading. A combin

  18. Embryoid Formation by High Temperature Treatment from Multiple Shoots of Panax ginseng1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, I; Li, I; Yoshikawa, T; Hirotani, M; Furuya, T

    1993-08-01

    We developed a new technology to induce embryoids by a moderate high temperature treatment from multiple shoots of PANAX GINSENG (Araliaceae). The number of formed embryoids was 10 times higher than that of untreated tissue. Normal plantlets were regenerated from the embryoids by transplanting them on a hormone-free medium. They contained ginsenosides Rb (1), Rg (1) and the other saponins as well as those of natural ginseng.

  19. [Effects of lingfasu on embryoid and plantlet formation of Panax notoginseng in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyuan; Meng, Aidong; Li, Chunxia; Deng, Xiqing; Zhou, Qiwei; Yang, Meichun

    2004-10-01

    On the medium MS added the right amount of 2,4-D and LFS (Angustmycin) and cultured under dark condition, the callus from stem segments of Panax notoginseng could induce a lot of embryoids. In 2-3 months, the ratio of embryoid formation reached about 90%. Then transplanted on MS + 2,4-D 1.5 mg/L + LFS 2 mg/L and cultured under light 20001x, near 30% embryoids could grow and develop as robust plantlets.

  20. [Microbiota and representations of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Betty

    2016-11-01

    Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation. These discoveries have profoundly altered our view of microbes, of health and disease, of self and non-self, as well as our representations of the body and its relationship with its ecosystem. Gut microbiota is now generally considered as an organ in its own right. A model of the "microbiotic person" thus arises, in which the human organism is defined as an ecosystem, a chimeric superorganism with a double genome, both human and microbial. Thought should be given to the way in which these new paradigms modify lay perceptions of the human body.

  1. 含人AGM区、胎肝及骨髓基质细胞培养体系程序化诱导小鼠胚胎干细胞向造血干细胞的分化%Effects of sequential inductive systems with feeder cells from human aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, fetal liver and bone marrow on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into hematopoietic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡耘; 张绪超; 陈惠芹; 黄绍良

    2011-01-01

    conditions for HSCs output.METHODS: E14 mouse ESCs were induced into embryoid body firstly. Then the cells from embryoid body were further co-cultured with human AGM region, fetal liver and bone marrow stromal cells in Transwell non-contact system in sequential orders. The induced embryoid body cells were divided into four groups according to different culture stages: embryoid body control group; embryoid body/AGM group; embryoid body/AGM+ fetal liver group; embryoid body /AGM+ fetal liver + bone marrow group. On day 6 of co-cultured, cells derived from embryoid body in all groups were collected for Sca-1+c-Kit+ cells analysis by flow cytometry, colony forming unit assay and observed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ①Primitive hematopoietic cells were detected in embryoid body/AGM+fetal liver group and embryoid body/AGM+fetal liver+bone marrow group. ②Sca-1+c-Kit+ cell proportion of embryoid body/AGM group was much higher than pre-treated embryoid body cells (P < 0.05). ③Embryoid body/AGM group, embryoid body/AGM+fetal liver group and embryoid body/AGM+fetal liver+bone marrow group had more colony forming unit amount than embryoid body control group (P <0.05). And the cells collected from embryoid body /AGM+ fetal liver group and embryoid body/AGM+ fetal liver + bone marrow group had better ability of forming multiple lineage hematopoietic colonies than that from embryoid body/AGM group. It suggested that microenvironment of AGM+ fetal liver or AGM+ fetal liver + bone marrow stromal cells can significantly expand much more primitive hematopoietic stem cells than AGM stromal cells only.

  2. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  3. Small-bodied humans from Palau, Micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R Berger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Newly discovered fossil assemblages of small bodied Homo sapiens from Palau, Micronesia possess characters thought to be taxonomically primitive for the genus Homo. BACKGROUND: Recent surface collection and test excavation in limestone caves in the rock islands of Palau, Micronesia, has produced a sizeable sample of human skeletal remains dating roughly between 940-2890 cal ybp. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Preliminary analysis indicates that this material is important for two reasons. First, individuals from the older time horizons are small in body size even relative to "pygmoid" populations from Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and thus may represent a marked case of human insular dwarfism. Second, while possessing a number of derived features that align them with Homo sapiens, the human remains from Palau also exhibit several skeletal traits that are considered to be primitive for the genus Homo. SIGNIFICANCE: These features may be previously unrecognized developmental correlates of small body size and, if so, they may have important implications for interpreting the taxonomic affinities of fossil specimens of Homo.

  4. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis...... in closely related languages can differ substantially in their semantics. In related languages, where shared lexical form does not always mean shared semantics, ethnolinguistic studies in semantic change and shifts in polysemy patterns can help to reveal and explain the roots of semantic diversity.......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference...

  5. [The human body in Michelangelo's Moses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    What grips us so powerfully to a work of art is the artist's intention, if he succeeds to express it in his work and we are able to understand it. Michelangelo's Moses established the essential structures of an animate organism and the embodiment of consciousness in the world. Since the body is an expressive unit, it is possible to reconstruct a highly feasible sequence of movements that might have preceded the moment caught in the statue. It is an expression of the highest ideal of mental and spiritual achievement through the controlled tension between action and restraint. The phenomenon of embodiment and feeling the body as own is the basis of concrete human existence.

  6. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  7. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  8. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van

    2007-01-01

    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body mod

  9. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van

    2007-01-01

    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body

  10. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, P; Sarro, K J; Marchente, M; Barros, R M L

    2011-09-01

    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable. This paper presents an original method based on the Isomap (isometric feature mapping) transform of the volume data-set. The 3D articulated posture is mapped by Isomap in the pose of Da Vinci's Vitruvian man. The limbs are unrolled from each other and separated from the trunk and pelvis, and the topology of the human body shape is recovered. In such a configuration, Hoshen-Kopelman clustering applied to concentric spherical shells is used to automatically group points into the labelled principal curves. Shepard interpolation is utilised to back-map points of the principal curves into the original volume space. The experimental results performed on many different postures have proved the validity of the proposed method. Reliability of less than 2 cm and 3° in the location of the joint centres and direction axes of rotations has been obtained, respectively, which qualifies this procedure as a potential tool for markerless motion analysis.

  11. A new method for the purification of the different stages of carrot embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, G; Rosellini, D; Terzi, M

    1983-08-01

    An easy method is presented for the purification of the different stages of carrot embryoids. This is based on a synchronization of the regenerating culture and on a filtration through filters of various pore sizes. A differential sedimentation was used for removing undifferentiated cells. At the end of the process, the different stages: globular, heart- and torpedo-shaped were obtained with a degree of purity that always exceeded 90%. This method can be used for the separation of relatively large numbers of embryoids (from thousands to a million) of haploid and diploid carrot lines and is very gentle on embryoids in that it does not affect their viability or further development.

  12. The haploid embryoids development in anther culture of transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Dubová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction of pollen embryogenesis was used for the test of cytokinin influence on the development of pollen grain. Gene for maize cytokinin-specific β-glucosidase were introduced into tobacco genome together with the methotrexate resistance marker (Brzobohatý et al. 1994. Anther culture of T1 generation of transformed Nicotiana tabacum L. plants revealed that high activity of β-glucosidase caused a reduced regeneration of pollen embryoids. The stages of pollen embryoid development were comparable with those of zygotic embryos. Optimal nutritive medium contained charcoal and chelated iron. The absence of iron in the initiation medium caused a distinct decrease of pollen embryoid regeneration.

  13. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  14. Human Body Image Edge Detection Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 付小莉

    2003-01-01

    Human dresses are different in thousands way.Human body image signals have big noise, a poor light and shade contrast and a narrow range of gray gradation distribution. The application of a traditional grads method or gray method to detect human body image edges can't obtain satisfactory results because of false detections and missed detections. According to tte peculiarity of human body image, dyadic wavelet transform of cubic spline is successfully applied to detect the face and profile edges of human body image and Mallat algorithm is used in the wavelet decomposition in this paper.

  15. Mass Production of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Embryoids on Media Containing High Concentrations of Sugar1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, I; Ii, I; Hirotani, M; Asada, Y; Yoshokawa, T; Furuya, T

    1994-04-01

    A lot of ginseng embryoids were produced by culturing on high concentrations of sugar media from the embryogenic tissues obtained by moderately high temperature treatment. When the sucrose concentration was 100 g/l, the number of embryoids produced were over 100 pieces per g of inoculum weight. It was about ten times of that produced by culturing on 30 g/l of sucrose. Glucose showed an effect similar to sucrose on the basis of weight percentage. However, mannitol did not show this effect. The embryoids obtained by these processes redifferentiated to normal plantlets on culturing on the medium containing 30 g/l of sucrose. The saponin components of the tissue containing embryoids showed a similar pattern to those of natural GINSENG by HPLC.

  16. Human body composition models and methodology: theory and experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human

  17. Aescin Content in Embryogenic Callus and in Embryoids from Leaf Explants of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P; Dameri, R M

    1991-02-01

    HPLC determinations of the aescin contents in calli and embryoids from leaf explants of AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. were carried out in order to determine whether it was possible to obtain aescin-forming proliferations IN VITRO. The results indicate that embryogenic calli and embryoids derived from them produce an amount of active principle higher than that of horse-chestnut seeds. The data are discussed in terms of the relation between tissue differentiation and secondary metabolites biosynthesis.

  18. The haploid embryoids development in anther culture of transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Dubová

    2014-01-01

    Induction of pollen embryogenesis was used for the test of cytokinin influence on the development of pollen grain. Gene for maize cytokinin-specific β-glucosidase were introduced into tobacco genome together with the methotrexate resistance marker (Brzobohatý et al. 1994). Anther culture of T1 generation of transformed Nicotiana tabacum L. plants revealed that high activity of β-glucosidase caused a reduced regeneration of pollen embryoids. The stages of pollen embryoid development were compa...

  19. Auto-measuring System of 3- Dimensional Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 尚保平; 付小莉; 尚会超

    2001-01-01

    To realize the automation of fashion industry measuring,designing and manufacturing, the auto-measurement of 3D size of human body is of great importance. The auto measurement system of 3D human body based on Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and infrared sensors is presented in this paper. The system can measure the bare size of human body that excludes the effect of clothing quickly and accurately.

  20. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  1. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  2. Human body capacitance: static or dynamic concept? [ESD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1998-01-01

    A standing human body insulated from ground by footwear and/or floor covering is in principle an insulated conductor and has, as such, a capacitance, i.e. the ability to store a charge and possibly discharge the stored energy in a spark discharge. In the human body, the human body capacitance (HBC...... when a substantial part of the flux extends itself through badly defined stray fields. Since the concept of human body capacitance is normally used in a static (electric) context, it is suggested that the HBC be determined by a static method. No theoretical explanation of the observed differences...

  3. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  4. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market.

  5. Identification of Embryoid-Abundant Genes That Are Temporally Expressed during Pollen Embryogenesis in Wheat Anther Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T L; Kitto, S L

    1992-12-01

    Uninucleate microspores in anther cultures of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Pavon) are capable of producing haploid pollen embryoids and plants. To gain an understanding of this alternate pathway of pollen development, we constructed a cDNA library to young pollen embryoids, isolated embryoid-specific genes, and analyzed their expression patterns during morphogenesis. Two embryoid-abundant clones, pEMB4 and 94, were expressed very early during culture, suggesting that these genes are associated with development and are not simply expressed as a consequence of differentiation. The accumulation patterns of five cloned mRNAs may indicate the activation of specific genes associated with the major morphological and physiological activities connected with the differentiation of embryoids in vitro. These results suggest that embryoid-abundant gene expression is causally related to this pathway because gene expression is spatially and temporally specific and is not observed when microspores are cultured under noninductive conditions.

  6. Human body and head characteristics as a communication medium for Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yonatan; Hun-Seok Kim; Yoo, Jerald

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the Body Channel Communication (BCC) under the environment set according to the IEEE 802.15.6 Body Area Network (BAN) standard is conducted to observe and characterize the human body as a communication medium. A thorough measurement of the human head as part of the human channel is also carried out. Human forehead, head to limb, and ear to ear channel is characterized. The channel gain of the human head follows the same bandpass profile of the human torso and limbs with the maximum channel gain occurring at 35MHz. The human body channel gain distribution histogram at given frequencies, while all the other parameters are held constant, exhibits a maximum variation of 2.2dB in the channel gain at the center frequency of the bandpass channel gain profile.

  7. Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxbaum, L J; Coslett, H B

    2001-06-01

    Previous accounts of autotopagnosia (e.g., Ogden, 1985; Pick, 1908; Semenza, 1988) propose that the disorder is attributable to deficits in "mental images," visual body schema, or semantic representations. A recent account (Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991b) posits deficits in visual structural descriptions of the human body and its parts, in the context of spared semantic and proprioceptivespatio-motor body representations, but provides no evidence bearing on the nature or format of the putatively damaged representation. We report data from a man with autotopagnosia consequent to lefthemisphere brain damage which bear directly on the nature of the representation impaired in the disorder. The subject, GL, is unable to localise body parts on himself or others, whether cued by verbal or visual input. In contrast, he uses body parts precisely in reaching and grasping tasks, correctly matches items of clothing to body parts, and localises the parts of animals and man-made objects without error. We also demonstrate that GL is unable to match pictured or real human body parts across shifts in orientation or changes in visual appearance, but can perform analogous matching tasks with animal body parts and man-made object parts. The data extend the account of Sirigu et al. (1991b) in suggesting that human body part localisation depends upon structural descriptions of human (but not animal) bodies that enable viewpoint-independent body part recognition and participate in the calculation of equivalence between the body parts of self and others across transformations in orientation.

  8. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  9. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  10. Human Body Orientation Estimation using a Committee based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ichim, M; Tan, R.T.; van der Aa, N.P.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Human body orientation estimation is useful for analyzing the activities of a single person or a group of people. Estimating body orientation can be subdivided in two tasks: human tracking and orientation estimation. In this paper, the second task of orientation estimation is accomplished by using H

  11. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  12. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  13. [BODY AND CORPORALITY IN THE HUMAN BEING: SOME INTERDISCIPLINARY REFLECTIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Amaya, JosÉ Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this contribution is to illustrate some differential aspects between the human and the animal bodies, in order to understand the main distinctive characteristic of the human being: his or her rationality. Thus, we firstly deal with some considerations about the general anthropological framework in which the human body is going to be analysed. Next, we briefly explain the importance of the body for an adequate understanding of the intimacy and the biographical perspectives of the person. Here we show some examples of the altered human corporality to stress the importance of the relation to oneself and others as a key and fundamental aspect to look at our rational corporality.

  14. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  15. Human body segmentation via data-driven graph cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shifeng; Lu, Huchuan; Shao, Xingqing

    2014-11-01

    Human body segmentation is a challenging and important problem in computer vision. Existing methods usually entail a time-consuming training phase for prior knowledge learning with complex shape matching for body segmentation. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method that integrates top-down body pose information and bottom-up low-level visual cues for segmenting humans in static images within the graph cut framework. The key idea of our approach is first to exploit human kinematics to search for body part candidates via dynamic programming for high-level evidence. Then, by using the body parts classifiers, obtaining bottom-up cues of human body distribution for low-level evidence. All the evidence collected from top-down and bottom-up procedures are integrated in a graph cut framework for human body segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative experiment results demonstrate the merits of the proposed method in segmenting human bodies with arbitrary poses from cluttered backgrounds.

  16. Automatic Modeling of Virtual Humans and Body Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Hyewon Seo; Frederic Cordier

    2004-01-01

    Highly realistic virtual human models are rapidly becoming commonplace in computer graphics.These models, often represented by complex shape and requiring labor-intensive process, challenge the problem of automatic modeling. The problem and solutions to automatic modeling of animatable virtual humans are studied. Methods for capturing the shape of real people, parameterization techniques for modeling static shape (the variety of human body shapes) and dynamic shape (how the body shape changes as it moves) of virtual humans are classified, summarized and compared. Finally, methods for clothed virtual humans are reviewed.

  17. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  18. Research on Dynamic Model of the Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-lin; WANG Guang-quan; LU Dun-yong

    2005-01-01

    After summarizing the current situation of the research on human body modeling, a new dynamic model containing 5 equivalent masses has been proposed and the corresponding dynamic equations has been deduced too. By using this new model, more detailed information about the situation of the human body under impact and vibration can be obtained. The new model solves the problem that transmission functions of forces inside the human body can't be deduced by using 3-equivalent-mass model. It will find its usage in many applications.

  19. Globalization and the trade in human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T

    1999-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, the number and variety of organ transplantations has increased enormously worldwide. Accompanying this increase has been the emergence of a market for human body parts. This paper argues that, while the trade in human body parts is conditioned by technological advances, it must be understood in the broader context of globalization, specifically the extension and intensification of a capitalist mode of exchange. In this regard, it is argued that the trade in human body parts mirrors the "normal" system of unequal exchanges that mark other forms of trade between the developed and undeveloped regions of the world.

  20. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wu

    2014-01-01

    human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  1. The development of haploid embryoids from anther cultures of Atropa belladonna L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A; Street, H E

    1973-09-01

    Development of haploid embryoids from the microspores of Atropa belladonna occurs with relatively high frequency when anthers are excised from buds in which the petals are shorter than the sepals (at this stage microspores are predominantly uninucleate) and cultured on a medium containing iron as the ferric salt of ethylenediamine-di-O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (FeEDDHA). Additions of combinations of kinetin, auxin and casamino-acids to the culture medium induce callusing in both haploid and diploid tissues, lead to the origin of embryoids from somatic tissues of the anther and should be avoided. Simple techniques for the maintenance of haploid clones are described.Stages in early embryogenesis in the pollen grains have been observed and these indicate that embryogenesis is most frequently initiated by an equal division in the uninucleate spore. The frequency of grains showing embryoid formation is very low and it is estimated that plantlets are formed from up to 50% of these grains.

  2. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  3. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Psenakova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.

  5. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  6. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  7. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  8. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Wu; Guodong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, ho...

  9. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukusumi, Hayato; Shofuda, Tomoko; Bamba, Yohei; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Handa, Yukako; Okita, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masaya; Yamanaka, Shinya; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes. PMID:27212953

  10. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukusumi, Hayato; Shofuda, Tomoko; Bamba, Yohei; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Handa, Yukako; Okita, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masaya; Yamanaka, Shinya; Okano, Hideyuki; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  11. Individualized Human CAD Models: Anthropmetric Morphing and Body Tissue Layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    torso sub-assembly may have more fat in the abdomen than in the chest. A study 18 that could help refine this feature is being developed by the US...responses to various ensembles being developed, taking 3 into account human characteristics (height, weight, body fat , etc.), physical activity levels...model of the human body in a CAD (Computer- Aided Design) format which includes both surface features as well as internal composition, e.g., the fat

  12. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  13. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  14. Teaching exploration and practice of the human body structure course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng LI; Ming-feng CHEN; Wen-long DING

    2015-01-01

    In the 21 st century,the medical model has transformed from the biological model to the biopsycho-social medical model. The transformation of medical model raises higher requirements for the training of medical staff. Comprehensive promotion of the reform of medical education has become the consensus and trend,which breeds the integrated medical teaching that is based on modules and organ systems. As one of eight integrated modules,the human body structure course of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine introduces morphological structures of normal human organs according to function systems( such as locomotor system,digestive system,angiological system,and nervous system) of human organs and parts of human body. This course endeavors to integrate theories with practices,contents of disciplines of basic medicine,and basic medicine with clinical medicine. The human body structure course combines basic medicine with clinical medicine and is an important part of medical science.

  15. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  16. Estimation of Human Body Shape and Posture Under Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Stefanie; Pishchulin, Leonid; Brunton, Alan; Shu, Chang; Lang, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the body shape and posture of a dressed human subject in motion represented as a sequence of (possibly incomplete) 3D meshes is important for virtual change rooms and security. To solve this problem, statistical shape spaces encoding human body shape and posture variations are commonly used to constrain the search space for the shape estimate. In this work, we propose a novel method that uses a posture-invariant shape space to model body shape variation combined with a skeleton-bas...

  17. Response to Jakobsson on Human Body Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A grabs B and uses him as a body shield. That is, A hides behind B (A renders B helpless to resist his grasp, and from that vantage point, shoots at C. According to libertarian theory, may B shoot at C, or, is it proper that C pull the trigger at B? In the view of Rothbard (1984, the former is correct: B is entitled to gun down C. In my (Block, forthcoming view, this is incorrect. Rather, it would be lawful to C to properly kill B. (Both Rothbard and I assume that neither B nor C can end A’s reign of terror. Jakobsson (2010 supports the Rothbardian position. The present paper is at an attempt of mine to refute Jakobsson, and, thus, also, Rothbard (1984, once again.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF 2D HUMAN BODY MODELING USING THINNING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the behavior and activities of people in Video surveillance has gained more applications in Computer vision. This paper proposes a new approach to model the human body in 2D view for the activity analysis using Thinning algorithm. The first step of this work is Background subtraction which is achieved by the frame differencing algorithm. Thinning algorithm has been used to find the skeleton of the human body. After thinning, the thirteen feature points like terminating points, intersecting points, shoulder, elbow, and knee points have been extracted. Here, this research work attempts to represent the body model in three different ways such as Stick figure model, Patch model and Rectangle body model. The activities of humans have been analyzed with the help of 2D model for the pre-defined poses from the monocular video data. Finally, the time consumption and efficiency of our proposed algorithm have been evaluated.

  19. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research.

  20. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  1. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  2. [How does music affect the human body?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskja, A; Lindbaek, M

    2000-04-10

    Music therapy has developed its practice and research approaches within a qualitative framework more related to humanistic traditions than to medical science. Music medicine has therefore developed as a separate discipline, endeavouring to incorporate the legitimate therapeutic use of music within a medical framework. This paper argues that more extensive communication and collaboration between the methods developed within the music therapy community, and research based on medical science, could lead to a better understanding of the place of music as a therapeutic tool, both as regards its efficacy and its limits. Research has shown that music may influence central physiological variables like blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, EEG measurements, body temperature and galvanic skin response. Music influences immune and endocrine function. The existing research literature shows growing knowledge of how music can ameliorate pain, anxiety, nausea, fatigue and depression. There is less research done on how music, and what type of music, is utilized and administered specifically for optimum effect in specific clinical situations.

  3. Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16 from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

  4. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  5. Reduced Inhomogeneity of Angelica acutiloba Plants Propagated Clonally Through Somatic Embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1988-02-01

    Clonal plants propagated from a single plant of a commercial variety of ANGELICA ACUTILOBA (Umbelliferae) through somatic embryoids induced in cell suspension cultures proved to be significantly more uniform with respect to the contents of medicinally important chemical constituents (ligustilide and choline) of the root when compared with seed-propagated plants.

  6. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing --Comparative Judging of Body Sections' Cold Sensitivity Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; WU Hai-yan

    2005-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design. By a new psychological & physical researching method, the subjective psychological perception of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulus are studied, and with Thurstone comparative judgement the main human body sections' cold sensitivity sequences are obtained. Furthermore the physiological causes for skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing are suggested.

  8. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body.

  9. The commerce of human body parts: an Eastern Orthodox response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, P H

    2000-08-01

    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body is also to receive the same veneration; and notwithstanding the physical corruptions that the body endures by reason of death, there remains a strict continuity between the body in which the Christian dies and the body in which the Christian will rise again. That is to say, it is the very same reality that is sown in corruption and will be raised in incorruption. Given such consideration, the notion of "selling" and integral part of a human being is simply outside the realm of rational comprehension. Indeed, it is profoundly repugnant to those Orthodox Christian sentiments that are formed and nourished by the Church's sacramental teaching and liturgical worship. One does not sell or purchase that which has been consecrated in those solemn ways that the Church consecrates the human body.

  10. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  11. The Human-Body-in-Coordination as Perceptual Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Steven J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the human body in locomotor coordination performs dual roles, acting to propel the body over the surface of support, and embodying haptic information arising from and specific to the movement of the body as a whole with respect to the substrate. Here we show that blindfolded human subjects, trained to crawl using gait patterns that differed in the spatio-temporal symmetries defined with respect to the arms and legs in coordination, perceived distance travelled quadrupedally. These results suggest that 1 the body in coordination gives rise to a haptic measure of how one is moving through the world relative to the substrate and 2 that the measure that results is specific to the softly assembled global organization of the locomotor action system.

  12. Segmentation of human upper body movement using multiple IMU sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takashi; Lin, Jonathan Feng-Shun; Kulic, Dana; Venture, Gentiane

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the segmentation of human body movements measured by inertial measurement unit sensors. Using the angular velocity and linear acceleration measurements directly, without converting to joint angles, we perform segmentation by formulating the problem as a classification problem, and training a classifier to differentiate between motion end-point and within-motion points. The proposed approach is validated with experiments measuring the upper body movement during reaching tasks, demonstrating classification accuracy of over 85.8%.

  13. Air temperature investigation in microenvironment around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature boundary layer around a human body in a quiescent indoor environment. The air temperature, mean in time and standard deviation of the temperature fluctuations around a breathing thermal manikin are examined in relation to the room temperature......, body posture and human respiratory flow. To determine to what extent the experiments represent the realistic scenario, the additional experiments were performed with a real human subject. The results show that at a lower room air temperature (20°C), the fluctuations of air temperature increased close...... to the surface of the body. The large standard deviation of air temperature fluctuations, up to 1.2°C, was recorded in the region of the chest, and up to 2.9°C when the exhalation was applied. The manikin leaned backwards increased the air temperature in the breathing zone, which was opposite from the forward...

  14. Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.

  15. Correlation of cotyledonary node shoot proliferation and somatic embryoid development in suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, H R; Barwale, U B; Meyer, M M; Widholm, J M

    1986-04-01

    Suspension cultures of soybean were initiated from hypocotyl or cotyledon callus tissue of several soybean genotypes. When these were grown on L2 medium with 0.4 mg/liter 2,4-D several genotypes produced numerous embryoids while others produced only a few such structures. Due to internal anatomy, no embryoid developed into a complete plant. A genotype's propensity to form normal appearing embryoids was correlated with the ability to proliferate shoots at the cotyledonary node on a medium with benzylaminopurine as determined in previous testing.

  16. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  17. Identification of rheological properties of human body surface tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevicius, Vincas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-04-11

    According to World Health Organization obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. It has tripled since the 1980s and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate, especially among children. There are number of devices that act as a prevention measure to boost person's motivation for physical activity and its levels. The placement of these devices is not restricted thus the measurement errors that appear because of the body rheology, clothes, etc. cannot be eliminated. The main objective of this work is to introduce a tool that can be applied directly to process measured accelerations so human body surface tissue induced errors can be reduced. Both the modeling and experimental techniques are proposed to identify body tissue rheological properties and prelate them to body mass index. Multi-level computational model composed from measurement device model and human body surface tissue rheological model is developed. Human body surface tissue induced inaccuracies can increase the magnitude of measured accelerations up to 34% when accelerations of the magnitude of up to 27 m/s(2) are measured. Although the timeframe of those disruptions are short - up to 0.2 s - they still result in increased overall measurement error.

  18. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  19. Emergency Handling for MAC Protocol in Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Youngmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body communication (HBC is a technology that enables short range data communication using the human body as a medium, like an electrical wire. Thus it removes the need for a traditional antenna. HBC may be used as a type of data communication in body area network (BAN, while the devices are being in contact with body. One of important issues in BAN is an emergency alarm because it may be closely related to human life. For emergency data communication, the most critical factor is the time constraint. IEEE 802.15.6 specifies that the emergency alarm for the BAN must be notified in less than 1 sec and must provide prioritization mechanisms for emergency traffic and notification. As one type of BAN, the HBC must follow this recommendation, too. Existing emergency handling methods in BAN are based on the carrier sensing capability on radio frequencies to detect the status of channels. However, PHY protocol in HBC does not provide the carrier sensing. So the previous methods are not well suitable for HBC directly. Additionally, in the environment that the emergency rate is very low, the allocation of dedicated slot(s for emergency in each superframe is very wasteful. In this work, we proposed specific emergency handling operation for human body communication's medium access control (HBC-MAC protocol to meet the emergency requirements for BAN. We also showed the optimal number of emergency slots for the various combinations of beacon intervals and emergency rates.

  20. Biostereometric Data Processing In ERGODATA: Choice Of Human Body Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, J. C.; Mollard, R.; Sauvignon, M.; Amphoux, M.

    1983-07-01

    The definition of human body models was elaborated with anthropometric data from ERGODATA. The first model reduces the human body into a series of points and lines. The second model is well adapted to represent volumes of each segmentary element. The third is an original model built from the conventional anatomical points. Each segment is defined in space by a tri-angular plane located with its 3-D coordinates. This new model can answer all the processing possibilities in the field of computer-aided design (C.A.D.) in ergonomy but also biomechanics and orthopaedics.

  1. The Reconfigured Body. Human-animal relations in xenotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Hansson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores issues concerning the reconfiguration of human and animal bodies in modern biotechnology. The examples are based on xenotransplantation: Transplantation of cells, tissue and organs from animals to humans. Three thematic issues that emerged from xenotransplantation research in Sweden in the 1990s and early 2000s are examined in the article. The first issue concerns how the pig was introduced as a donor animal in xenotransplantation and, at the same time, dehumanized in relation to what is human. Baboons and chimpanzees that had previously been used in xenotransplantation now became an ethically problematic choice, and were in stead humanized. The second issue concerns the introduction of transgenic and cloned pigs as commoditized objects. The biotechnological development reconfigured the pig’s cells, tissue and organs to become more human-like. The third issue concerns the risk that pigs contain retrovirus that could infect the transplanted patients. The human body became part of a network of both animal and retrovirus. Boundlessness between human and animal bodies appears in these three thematic phases and is analysed from a cultural perspective.

  2. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  4. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  5. Human and animal sounds influence recognition of body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-11-25

    In naturalistic settings emotional events have multiple correlates and are simultaneously perceived by several sensory systems. Recent studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is biased towards the emotion expressed by a simultaneously presented emotional expression in the voice even if attention is directed to the face only. So far, no study examined whether this phenomenon also applies to whole body expressions, although there is no obvious reason why this crossmodal influence would be specific for faces. Here we investigated whether perception of emotions expressed in whole body movements is influenced by affective information provided by human and by animal vocalizations. Participants were instructed to attend to the action displayed by the body and to categorize the expressed emotion. The results indicate that recognition of body language is biased towards the emotion expressed by the simultaneously presented auditory information, whether it consist of human or of animal sounds. Our results show that a crossmodal influence from auditory to visual emotional information obtains for whole body video images with the facial expression blanked and includes human as well as animal sounds.

  6. Fusion of Multiple Pyroelectric Characteristics for Human Body Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchun Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to instability and poor identification ability of single pyroelectric infrared (PIR detector for human target identification, this paper proposes a new approach to fuse the information collected from multiple PIR sensors for human identification. Firstly, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, Wavelet Transform (WT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT are adopted to extract features of the human body, which can be achieved by single PIR sensor. Then, we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Support Vector Machine (SVM to reduce the characteristic dimensions and to classify the human targets, respectively. Finally, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE is utilized to fuse recognition results from multiple PIR sensors to finalize human identification. The pyroelectric characteristics under scenarios with different people and/or different paths are analyzed by various experiments, and the recognition results with/without fusion procedure are also shown and compared. The experimental results demonstrate our scheme has improved efficiency for human identification.

  7. A REVIEW ON LOWER APPENDICULAR MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF HUMAN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruzzaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation engineering plays an important role in designing various autonomous robots to provide better therapeutic exercise to disabled patients. Hence it is necessary to study human musculoskeletal system and also needs to be presented in scientific manner in order to describe and analyze the biomechanics of human body motion. This review focuses on lower appendicular musculoskeletal structure of human body to represent joints and links architectures; to identify muscle attachments and functions; and to illustrate muscle groups which are responsible for a particular joint movement. Firstly, human lower skeletal structure, linking systems, joint mechanisms, and their functions are described with a conceptual representation of joint architecture of human skeleton. This section also represents joints and limbs by comparing with mechanical systems. Characteristics of ligaments and their functions to construct skeletal joints are also discussed briefly in this part. Secondly, the study focuses on muscular system of human lower limbs where muscle structure, functions, roles in moving endoskeleton structure, and supporting mechanisms are presented ellaborately. Thirdly, muscle groups are tabulated based on functions that provide mobility to different joints of lower limbs. Finally, for a particular movement action of lower extremity, muscles are also grouped and tabulated to have a better understanding on functions of individual muscle. Basically the study presents an overview of the structure of human lower limbs by characterizing and classifying skeletal and muscular systems.KEYWORDS:   Musculoskeletal system; Human lower limbs; Muscle groups; Joint motion; Biomechatronics; Rehabilitation.

  8. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  9. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  10. A low power wearable transceiver for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Lian-Kang; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a low power transceiver designed for wearable medical healthcare system. Based on a novel energy-efficient wideband wireless communication scheme that uses human body as a transmission medium, the transceiver can achieve a maximum 15 Mbps data rate with total receiver sensitivity of -30 dBm. The chip measures only 0.56 mm(2) and was fabricated in the SMIC 0.18um 1P6M RF CMOS process. The RX consumes 5mW and TX dissipates 1mW with delivering power up to 10uW, which is suitable for the body area network short range application. Real-time medical information collecting through the human body is fully simulated. Architecture of the chip together with the detail characterizes from its wireless analog front-end are presented.

  11. Mechanism of toppling instability of the human body in floodwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, C. W.; Han, S. S.; Kong, W. N.; Dong, B. L.

    2016-08-01

    Extreme urban flood events occur frequently in China, often leading to heavy casualties. Thus, it is of great importance to study the mechanism of the instability of the human body in floodwaters. The results of such research can provide scientific reference for city flood control standards. In this paper, a formula for the incipient velocity of the human body, during toppling instability in floodwaters, was derived based on mechanical characteristics, instability mechanism, and critical conditions during instability. A series of flume experiments were conducted to investigate the incipient velocity of two 3D printed human body models of different sizes; the resultant experimental data was used to determine parameters in the derived formula. Additionally, grip strength was taken as a standard of a person's ability to withstand floodwaters. Finally, crowd factors were introduced, and based on this study, a criterion for the toppling instability of different subjects in floodwaters was proposed. Compared to the results of previous studies, the proposed formula can better predict the instability of the human body in floodwaters.

  12. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  13. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  14. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  15. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  16. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  17. Mechanical impedance of the human body in vertical direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, P; Lundström, R; Lindberg, L

    2000-08-01

    The mechanical impedance of the human body in sitting posture and vertical direction was measured during different experimental conditions, such as vibration level (0.5-1.4 m/s2), frequency (2-100 Hz), body weight (57-92 kg), relaxed and erect upper body posture. The outcome shows that impedance increases with frequency up to a peak at about 5 Hz after which it decreases in a complex manner which includes two additional peaks. The frequency at which the first and second impedance peak occurs decreases with higher vibration level. Erect, compared with relaxed body posture resulted in higher impedance magnitudes and with peaks located at somewhat higher frequencies. Heavy persons show higher impedance magnitudes and peaks at lower frequencies.

  18. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  19. Combined volatolomics for monitoring of human body chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broza, Yoav Y; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-09

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  20. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  1. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  2. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băcioiu, I

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the relative sensitivity from different human tissues of the human body, at a ground level, from muon cosmic radiation has been studied. The aim of this paper was to provide information on the equivalent dose rates received from atmospheric muons to human body, at the ground level. The calculated value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0.001 mSv/y, which is insignificant in comparison with the values of the doses from the top of the atmosphere.

  3. Human males and females body thermoregulation: perfusion effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Saraswati; Gurung, D B; Saxena, V P

    2014-10-01

    Skin temperature is a common physiological parameter that reflects thermal responses. Blood perfusion is an important part of the physiological processes that the human body undergoes in order to maintain homeostasis. This study focuses on the effect of perfusion on the temperature distribution in human males and females body in different thermal environment. The study has been carried out for one dimensional steady cases using finite element method. The input parameter of the model is the blood perfusion or volumetric flow rate within the tissue. The appropriate physical and physiological parameters together with suitable boundary conditions that affect the heat regulations have been incorporated in the model. The study is to have a better understanding that how does thermoregulation change in human males and females skin layered due to perfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Embryoid-Abundant Genes That Are Temporally Expressed during Pollen Embryogenesis in Wheat Anther Cultures 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas L.; Kitto, Sherry L.

    1992-01-01

    Uninucleate microspores in anther cultures of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Pavon) are capable of producing haploid pollen embryoids and plants. To gain an understanding of this alternate pathway of pollen development, we constructed a cDNA library to young pollen embryoids, isolated embryoid-specific genes, and analyzed their expression patterns during morphogenesis. Two embryoid-abundant clones, pEMB4 and 94, were expressed very early during culture, suggesting that these genes are associated with development and are not simply expressed as a consequence of differentiation. The accumulation patterns of five cloned mRNAs may indicate the activation of specific genes associated with the major morphological and physiological activities connected with the differentiation of embryoids in vitro. These results suggest that embryoid-abundant gene expression is causally related to this pathway because gene expression is spatially and temporally specific and is not observed when microspores are cultured under noninductive conditions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653192

  5. Aescin formation in calli and embryoids from cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P

    1994-11-01

    Aescin in calli and embryoids obtained from both cotyledon and stem explants of Aesculus hippocastanum were investigated by HPLC. Determinations were carried out on tissues cultured in agarized medium supplemented with growth substances (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; kinetin; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid). The results indicate that aescin was produced in all the analysed samples. The amount of active principle present in some samples was higher than that found in horse-chestnut seeds.

  6. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  7. Convective heat transfer area of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer area involved in convective heat exchange for the human body, the total body surface area of six healthy subjects was measured, and the non-convective heat transfer area and floor and chair contact areas for the following nine common body positions were measured: standing, sitting on a chair, sitting in the seiza position, sitting cross-legged, sitting sideways, sitting with both knees erect, sitting with a leg out, and the lateral and supine positions. The main non-convective heat transfer areas were: the armpits (contact between the upper arm and trunk regions), contact between the two legs, contacts between the fingers and toes, and contact between the hands and the body surface. Also, when sitting on the floor with some degree of leg contact (sitting in the seiza position, cross-legged, or sideways), there was a large non-convective heat transfer area on the thighs and legs. Even when standing or sitting in a chair, about 6-8% of the body surface did not transfer heat by convection. The results showed that the effective thermal convective area factor for the naked whole body in the standing position was 0.942. While sitting in a chair this factor was 0.860, while sitting in a chair but excluding the chair contact area it was 0.918, when sitting in the seiza position 0.818, when sitting cross-legged 0.843, in the sideways sitting position 0.855, when sitting with both knees erect 0.887, in the leg-out sitting position 0.906, while in the lateral position it was 0.877 and the supine position 0.844. For all body positions, the effective thermal convective area factor was greater than the effective thermal radiation area factor, but smaller than the total body surface area.

  8. Vanadium in foods and in human body fluids and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, A R; Kosta, L

    1978-07-01

    Using neutron activation analysis, vanadium was analysed in a range of foods, human body fluids and tissues. On the basis of these results and those of other workers, it was concluded that daily dietary intake amounts to some tens of micrograms. Analysis of body fluids (including milk, blood and excreta) and organs and tissues provided an estimate for the total body pool of vanadium in man of about 100 microgram. Vanadium was not detectable in blood and urine at the level of 0.3 ng/g, while low levels were found in muscle, fat, bone, teeth and other tissues. The relationship between dietary intake to pulmonary absorption is discussed in relation to the occurrence of vanadium in man-made air particulates. The very low levels found in milks and eggs suggest minimal vanadium requirements in growth. The findings are discussed in the light of previous results and also in relation to the possible essentiality of vanadium.

  9. On the dynamics of a human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equations of motion for a model of the human body are developed. Basically, the model consists of an elliptical cylinder representing the torso, together with a system of frustrums of elliptical cones representing the limbs. They are connected to the main body and each other by hinges and ball and socket joints. Vector, tensor, and matrix methods provide a systematic organization of the geometry. The equations of motion are developed from the principles of classical mechanics. The solution of these equations then provide the displacement and rotation of the main body when the external forces and relative limb motions are specified. Three simple example motions are studied to illustrate the method. The first is an analysis and comparison of simple lifting on the earth and the moon. The second is an elementary approach to underwater swimming, including both viscous and inertia effects. The third is an analysis of kicking motion and its effect upon a vertically suspended man such as a parachutist.

  10. EFFECTS OF LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDON THE HUMAN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRICA POPOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International standardization institutions, which play an important role in assessing the effects o f the field and determining the need to take protective measures for the human factor, developed safety standards on human exposure to electromagnetic field, differentiated for electric and magnetic fields of low frequency ( near fields, as well as to ele ctromagnetic radiation fields (far fields. Until recently, many studies has shown that the main harmful effect on the human body was produced by high frequency electromagnetic field, but in recent years, more and more information also reveals that the serious damage can be caused by low frequency electric and magnetic fields. These low -frequency electromagnetic fields interact with human tissue causing harmful effects, the degree of destruction depending on factors such as: intensity, frequency, energy f ield level and duration of exposure.

  11. Eucharist and Human Body in George Herbert’s Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕

    2013-01-01

    George Herbert is one of the great metaphysical and religious poets in the seventeenth-century history of British litera-ture. Herbert becomes well-known for his devotional religious poems, his famous collection of devotional lyrics, The Temple in which Herbert expresses his piety towards God and manifests that the love of God is an everlasting subject for verse, has won en-during popularity among readers since its publication in 1633. The present paper will focus on Eucharist and human body show-ing in Herbert’s poetry, and attempts to explore the deeper implications existing behind Eucharist and human body with refer-ence to some specific poems which are chosen from The Temple in detail.

  12. A Managerial Approach To A Controversial Exhibition: The Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Aura Păuş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyse the reception of the Human Body exhibition of 2013 in Romania, from a managerial point of view. The research is based on the exhibition visitors’ book, to which a content analysis was applied. The main aim of the paper is to investigate how the ‘Grigore Antipa’ Museum (Romania constructed the cultural context in which the scientific arguments prevailed over the religious ones, turning the exhibition of plastinated human bodies into an accepted public event, with a strong emphasis on education and science (medicine. At the same time, ethical concerns and religious criticism were downplayed by maintaining the focus on the ‘education for health’ frame.

  13. [Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladigow, B

    1995-01-01

    Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period.

  14. A topological multilayer model of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Antonio; Painho, Marco; Cabral, Pedro; O'Neill, João

    2015-11-04

    Geographical information systems deal with spatial databases in which topological models are described with alphanumeric information. Its graphical interfaces implement the multilayer concept and provide powerful interaction tools. In this study, we apply these concepts to the human body creating a representation that would allow an interactive, precise, and detailed anatomical study. A vector surface component of the human body is built using a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction methodology. This multilayer concept is implemented by associating raster components with the corresponding vector surfaces, which include neighbourhood topology enabling spatial analysis. A root mean square error of 0.18 mm validated the three-dimensional reconstruction technique of internal anatomical structures. The expansion of the identification and the development of a neighbourhood analysis function are the new tools provided in this model.

  15. Property and the human body: a proposal for posthumous conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Eli Byron Stuart

    2008-02-01

    There is no greater error in law and bioethics than the continuing opposition to applying the concept of property to posthumous conception cases and the human body generally. The aim of this article is to challenge this error and the assumptions underpinning it. The language of property, conceived of as a "web of interests", can be used to capture and identify the social, moral and ethical concerns that arise in cases concerning the human body, a position that finds support from a correct reading of the early High Court of Australia's decision in Doodeward v Spence (1908) 6 CLR 406. However, a key issue on which the language of property is silent is how to quantify the various competing interests in the posthumous conception case: the concept is useful only insofar as it provides the device for capturing the entirety of the posthumous conception problem.

  16. Telomerase RNA accumulates in Cajal bodies in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yusheng; Tomlinson, Rebecca L; Lukowiak, Andrew A; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA component of the enzyme (hTR) provides the template for telomere synthesis, which is catalyzed by telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Little is known regarding the subcellular localization of hTR and hTERT and the pathway by which telomerase is assembled. Here we report the first glimpse of the detailed subcellular localization of endogenous hTR in human cells, which we obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our studies have revealed a distinctive hTR localization pattern in cancer cells. We have found that hTR accumulates within intranuclear foci called Cajal bodies in all typical tumor-derived cell lines examined (in which telomerase is active), but not in primary or ALT cells (where little or no hTERT is present). Accumulation of hTR in the Cajal bodies of primary cells is induced when hTERT is ectopically expressed. Moreover, we report that hTERT is also found in Cajal bodies. Our data suggest that Cajal bodies are involved in the assembly and/or function of human telomerase.

  17. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  18. Perspective of the human body in sasang constitutional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Koh, Byunghee

    2009-09-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM.

  19. The Role of Human Body Movements in Mate Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hugill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is common scientific knowledge, that most of what we say within a conversation is not only expressed by the words' meaning alone, but also through our gestures, postures, and body movements. This non-verbal mode is possibly rooted firmly in our human evolutionary heritage, and as such, some scientists argue that it serves as a fundamental assessment and expression tool for our inner qualities. Studies of nonverbal communication have established that a universal, culture-free, non-verbal sign system exists, that is available to all individuals for negotiating social encounters. Thus, it is not only the kind of gestures and expressions humans use in social communication, but also the way these movements are performed, as this seems to convey key information about an individual's quality. Dance, for example, is a special form of movement, which can be observed in human courtship displays. Recent research suggests that people are sensitive to the variation in dance movements, and that dance performance provides information about an individual's mate quality in terms of health and strength. This article reviews the role of body movement in human non-verbal communication, and highlights its significance in human mate preferences in order to promote future work in this research area within the evolutionary psychology framework.

  20. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-04

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  1. Electromagnetic Fields at the Surface of Human-Body Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization. The results show that the material assumption when modeling the human body as a homogeneous material is very important. Furthermore, it is shown that one assumption might lead to higher fields for a specific polarization, angle of incidence...... and frequency, but that does not translate to similar relative performance at another polarization, angle of incidence, and frequency....

  2. In-to-out body path loss for wireless radio frequency capsule endoscopy in a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, G; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Joseph, W; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Vermeeren, G; Joseph, W

    2016-08-01

    Physical-layer characterization is important for design of in-to-out body communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs). This paper numerically investigates the path loss of an in-to-out body radio frequency (RF) wireless link between an endoscopy capsule and a receiver outside the body using a 3D electromagnetic solver. A spiral antenna in the endoscopy capsule is tuned to operate in the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402 MHz, accounting for the properties of the human body. The influence of misalignment, rotation of the capsule, and human body model are investigated. Semi-empirical path loss models for various homogeneous tissues and 3D realistic human body models are provided for manufacturers to evaluate the performance of in-to-out-body WBAN systems.

  3. Electromagnetic wave propagation of wireless capsule endoscopy in human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; Eng-Gee; 王炤; 陈瑾慧; TILLO; Tammam; MAN; Ka-lok

    2013-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy(WCE) is a promising technique which has overcome some limitations of traditional diagnosing tools, such as the comfortlessness of the cables and the inability of examining small intestine section. However, this technique is still far from mature and asks for the feasible improvements. For example, the relatively low transmission data rate and the absence of the real-time localization information of the capsule are all important issues. The studies of them rely on the understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in human body. Investigation of performance of WCE communication system was carried out by studying electromagnetic(EM) wave propagation of the wireless capsule endoscopy transmission channel. Starting with a pair of antennas working in a human body mimic environment, the signal transmissions and attenuations were examined. The relationship between the signal attenuation and the capsule(transmitter) position, and direction was also evaluated. These results provide important information for real-time localization of the capsule. Moreover, the pair of antennas and the human body were treated as a transmission channel, on which the binary amplitude shift keying(BASK) modulation scheme was used. The relationship between the modulation scheme, data rate and bit error rate was also determined in the case of BASK. With the obtained studies, it make possible to provide valuable information for further studies on the selection of the modulation scheme and the real-time localization of the capsules.

  4. Impact injury prediction by FE human body model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical simulations as powerful instruments are used in many areas such as traffic, medicine, sport, army etc. The simulations are often performed with models, which are based on the Finite Element Method. The great ability of FE deformable models of human bodies is to predict the injuries during accidents. Due to its modular implementation of thorax and abdomen FE models, human articulated rigid body model ROBBY, which was previously developed at the University of West Bohemia in cooperation with ESI Group (Engineering Simulation for Industry, can be used for this purpose. ROBBY model representing average adult man is still being improved to obtain more precise model of human body with the possibility to predict injuries during accidents. Recently, new generated thoracic model was embedded into ROBBY model and this was subsequently satisfactorily validated. In this study the updated ROBBY model was used and injury of head and thorax were investigated during frontal crashes simulated by virtue of two types of sled tests with various types of restraint system (shoulder belt, lap belt and airbag. The results of the simulation were compared with the experimental ones.

  5. A New Approach and Analysis of Modeling the Human Body in RFID-Enabled Body-Centric Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Koski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body-centric wireless systems demand wearable sensor and tag antennas that have robust impedance matching and provide enough gain for a reliable wireless communication link. In this paper, we discuss a novel and practical technique for the modeling of the human body in UHF RFID body-centric wireless systems. What makes this technique different is that we base the human model on measured far-field response from a reference tag attached to the human body. Hereby, the human body model accounts for the encountered human body effects on the tag performance. The on-body measurements are fast, which allows establishing a catalog of human body models for different tag locations and human subjects. Such catalog would provide a ready simulation model for a wide range of wireless body-centric applications in order to initiate a functional design. Our results demonstrate that the suggested modeling technique can be used in the design and optimization of wearable antennas for different real-case body-centric scenarios.

  6. On the Interaction between a Nanoparticulate System and the Human Body in Body Area Nanonetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrí

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. Specifically, we assume the presence of the human immune system that can affect the optimal behavior of nanoparticles, aiming to locally deliver drug inside the human body. When a flow of nanoparticles is injected into the blood, the interference due to the immune system can provide a strong decrease of the nanoparticle concentration, by means of “humoral immunity”, the phagocytosis process, etc. As a consequence, the correct drug delivery will occur with a lower probability. Since the mechanism behind the biological immune system is very complicated, in this paper, we start from a simplistic nanoparticulate model, where the nanoparticles and the cells of the immune system are subject to the diffusion laws. Finally, we derive the end-to-end physical model of our nanoparticulate nanomedicine system with the presence of the human immune system cells. The error analysis is then investigated in terms of how these errors can affect the performance of the system, i.e., nanoparticle survival probability.

  7. Principle of relative positioning of structures in the human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buliang Meng; Ailan Pang; Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    The arrangement of various biological structures should generally ensure the safety of crucial structures and increase their working efficiency; however, other principles governing the relative positions of structures in humans have not been reported. The present study therefore investigated other principles using nerves and their companion vessels in the human body as an example. Nerves and blood vessels usually travel together and in the most direct way towards their targets. Human embryology, histology, and gross anatomy suggest that there are many possible positions for these structures during development. However, for mechanical reasons, tougher or stronger structures should take priority. Nerves are tougher than most other structures, followed by arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Nerves should therefore follow the most direct route, and be followed by the arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. This general principle should be applicable to all living things.

  8. Principle of relative positioning of structures in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Buliang; Pang, Ailan; Li, Ming

    2013-03-25

    The arrangement of various biological structures should generally ensure the safety of crucial structures and increase their working efficiency; however, other principles governing the relative positions of structures in humans have not been reported. The present study therefore investigated other principles using nerves and their companion vessels in the human body as an example. Nerves and blood vessels usually travel together and in the most direct way towards their targets. Human embryology, histology, and gross anatomy suggest that there are many possible positions for these structures during development. However, for mechanical reasons, tougher or stronger structures should take priority. Nerves are tougher than most other structures, followed by arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Nerves should therefore follow the most direct route, and be followed by the arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. This general principle should be applicable to all living things.

  9. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  10. Body Topography Parcellates Human Sensory and Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Esther; Dinse, Juliane; Jakobsen, Estrid; Long, Xiangyu; Schäfer, Andreas; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Villringer, Arno; Sereno, Martin I; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    The cytoarchitectonic map as proposed by Brodmann currently dominates models of human sensorimotor cortical structure, function, and plasticity. According to this model, primary motor cortex, area 4, and primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, are homogenous areas, with the major division lying between the two. Accumulating empirical and theoretical evidence, however, has begun to question the validity of the Brodmann map for various cortical areas. Here, we combined in vivo cortical myelin mapping with functional connectivity analyses and topographic mapping techniques to reassess the validity of the Brodmann map in human primary sensorimotor cortex. We provide empirical evidence that area 4 and area 3b are not homogenous, but are subdivided into distinct cortical fields, each representing a major body part (the hand and the face). Myelin reductions at the hand-face borders are cortical layer-specific, and coincide with intrinsic functional connectivity borders as defined using large-scale resting state analyses. Our data extend the Brodmann model in human sensorimotor cortex and suggest that body parts are an important organizing principle, similar to the distinction between sensory and motor processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Generation and characterization of two iPSC lines from human epicardium-derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Paulitschek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human epicardium-derived cells (EPDC were reprogrammed to generate two iPSC lines, MCDU1i-EPDC and MCDU2i-EPDC, by nucleofection of episomal-based plasmids expressing the reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC, NANOG and LIN28. Pluripotency was confirmed in vitro by immunofluorescence analysis and embryoid body formation. The iPSC lines and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 show a Pearson correlation co-efficient of 0.951 (MCDU1i-EPDC and 0.937 (MCDU2i-EPDC as assessed by comparative transcriptome profiling.

  12. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  13. Secondary lead poisoning a projectile housed in the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bernardo Gerstner Garcés

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE With the increase of violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, and severe as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and projectiles in the human body, and must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology.

  14. Human body micro-environment: The benefits of controlling airflow interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-environment around a human body, and especially on its interaction with the surrounding environment. Research on the free convection flow generated by a human body (including the convective boundary layer around the body and the thermal plume above the body), its...

  15. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, E. J.; Espinoza, S.; Heilig, M.; Kolew, A.; Schneider, M.; Van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Truckenmüller, R. K.; Rivron, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow

  16. 3D high throughput screening and profiling of embryoid bodies in thermoformed microwell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, E J; Espinoza, S; Heilig, M; Kolew, A; Schneider, M; van Blitterswijk, C A; Truckenmüller, R K; Rivron, N C

    2016-02-21

    3D organoids using stem cells to study development and disease are now widespread. These models are powerful to mimic in vivo situations but are currently associated with high variability and low throughput. For biomedical research, platforms are thus necessary to increase reproducibility and allow high-throughput screens (HTS). Here, we introduce a microwell platform, integrated in standard culture plates, for functional HTS. Using micro-thermoforming, we form round-bottom microwell arrays from optically clear cyclic olefin polymer films, and assemble them with bottom-less 96-well plates. We show that embryonic stem cells aggregate faster and more reproducibly (centricity, circularity) as compared to a state-of-the-art microwell array. We then run a screen of a chemical library to direct differentiation into primitive endoderm (PrE) and, using on-chip high content imaging (HCI), we identify molecules, including regulators of the cAMP pathway, regulating tissue size, morphology and PrE gene activity. We propose that this platform will benefit to the systematic study of organogenesis in vitro.

  17. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors by Embryoid Bodies in Hydrodynamic and Static Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridley, Krista M.; Nair, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    During development, cell fate specification and tissue development are orchestrated by the sequential presentation of soluble growth factors (GF) and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Similarly, differentiation of stem cells in vitro relies upon the temporal presence of extracellular cues within the microenvironment. Hydrodynamic culture systems are not limited by volume restrictions and therefore offer several practical advantages for scalability over static cultures; however, hydrodynamic cultures expose cells to physical parameters not present in static culture, such as fluid shear stress and mass transfer through convective forces. In this study, the differences between static and hydrodynamic culture conditions on the expression of ECM and GF molecules during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells were examined at both the gene and protein level. The expression of ECM and GF genes exhibited an early decrease in static cultures based on heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis and a relative delayed increase in hydrodynamic cultures. Although the temporal patterns of specific ECM and GF protein expression were comparable between static and hydrodynamic cultures, several notable differences in the magnitudes of expression were observed at similar time points. These results describe the establishment of an analytical framework that can be used to examine the expression patterns of ECM and GF molecules expressed by pluripotent stem cells undergoing differentiation as 3D multicellular aggregates under different culture conditions, and suggest that physical parameters of stem cell microenvironments can alter endogenous ECM and GF expression profiles that may, in turn, influence cell fate decisions. PMID:25423310

  18. High frequency embryoid and plantlet formation from tissue cultures of the Finger millet-Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadas, P; Kothari, S L; Chandra, N

    1990-07-01

    Compact nodulated embryogenic callus differentiated from cultured seeds of Eleusine coracana (Finger Millet) on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.0, 3.0 mg (l)). This embryogenic callus was maintained on a medium with a lower level of 2,4 - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. At every subculture the embryogenic callus had some preexisting embryoids in it. With this method of subculture the callus has retained its morphogenic potential for four years. Following transfer to media with different levels of auxins and cytokinins, the callus showed varied patterns of growth and morphogenesis. Embryoids could be germinated in profusion to form plantlets which could be transferred to the field. Shoot buds also differentiated from the whole surface of the embryoid or from the flattened meristemoids.

  19. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC. In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000 were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  20. Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-12-18

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = -10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of -4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  1. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  2. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly.

  3. 拟胚体法诱导人胚胎干细胞神经分化的研究%Study on neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells byembryoid bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丁; 林戈; 卢光琇

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究胚胎干细胞(human embryonic stem cells,HESC)向神经祖细胞分化时,拟胚体(embryoid body,EB)大小和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)对诱导效率的作用.方法 采用人胚胎干细胞形成的EB,按照其直径大小分为3组,拟胚体阶段添加或不添加bFGF分组.检测各组的贴壁效率和神经诱导效率.结果 直径350~251 μm的EB组和EB阶段未添加bFGF组的贴壁率与神经诱导效率高于其他组EB.结论 优化EB大小和培养基成分可促进EB的神经诱导分化.

  4. Human body motion capture from multi-image video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    In this paper is presented a method to capture the motion of the human body from multi image video sequences without using markers. The process is composed of five steps: acquisition of video sequences, calibration of the system, surface measurement of the human body for each frame, 3-D surface tracking and tracking of key points. The image acquisition system is currently composed of three synchronized progressive scan CCD cameras and a frame grabber which acquires a sequence of triplet images. Self calibration methods are applied to gain exterior orientation of the cameras, the parameters of internal orientation and the parameters modeling the lens distortion. From the video sequences, two kinds of 3-D information are extracted: a three-dimensional surface measurement of the visible parts of the body for each triplet and 3-D trajectories of points on the body. The approach for surface measurement is based on multi-image matching, using the adaptive least squares method. A full automatic matching process determines a dense set of corresponding points in the triplets. The 3-D coordinates of the matched points are then computed by forward ray intersection using the orientation and calibration data of the cameras. The tracking process is also based on least squares matching techniques. Its basic idea is to track triplets of corresponding points in the three images through the sequence and compute their 3-D trajectories. The spatial correspondences between the three images at the same time and the temporal correspondences between subsequent frames are determined with a least squares matching algorithm. The results of the tracking process are the coordinates of a point in the three images through the sequence, thus the 3-D trajectory is determined by computing the 3-D coordinates of the point at each time step by forward ray intersection. Velocities and accelerations are also computed. The advantage of this tracking process is twofold: it can track natural points

  5. Dissection of human vitreous body elements for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Jessica M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2011-01-23

    The vitreous is an optically clear, collagenous extracellular matrix that fills the inside of the eye and overlies the retina. (1,2) Abnormal interactions between vitreous substructures and the retina underlie several vitreoretinal diseases, including retinal tear and detachment, macular pucker, macular hole, age-related macular degeneration, vitreomacular traction, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and inherited vitreoretinopathies. (1,2) The molecular composition of the vitreous substructures is not known. Since the vitreous body is transparent with limited surgical access, it has been difficult to study its substructures at the molecular level. We developed a method to separate and preserve these tissues for proteomic and biochemical analysis. The dissection technique in this experimental video shows how to isolate vitreous base, anterior hyaloid, vitreous core, and vitreous cortex from postmortem human eyes. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE analyses of each vitreous component showed that our dissection technique resulted in four unique protein profiles corresponding to each substructure of the human vitreous body. Identification of differentially compartmentalized proteins will reveal candidate molecules underlying various vitreoretinal diseases.

  6. Classifying Human Body Acceleration Patterns Using a Hierarchical Temporal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Federico; Ascari, Luca; Cagnoni, Stefano

    This paper introduces a novel approach to the detection of human body movements during daily life. With the sole use of one wearable wireless triaxial accelerometer attached to one's chest, this approach aims at classifying raw acceleration data robustly, to detect many common human behaviors without requiring any specific a-priori knowledge about movements. The proposed approach consists of feeding sensory data into a specifically trained Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) to extract invariant spatial-temporal patterns that characterize different body movements. The HTM output is then classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) into different categories. The performance of this new HTM+SVM combination is compared with a single SVM using real-word data corresponding to movements like "standing", "walking", "jumping" and "falling", acquired from a group of different people. Experimental results show that the HTM+SVM approach can detect behaviors with very high accuracy and is more robust, with respect to noise, than a classifier based solely on SVMs.

  7. Fate of pathogenic bacteria in microcosms mimicking human body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Francesco; Ghidini, Valentina; Tafi, Maria Carla; Boaretti, Marzia; Lleo, Maria M

    2013-07-01

    During the infectious process, pathogens may reach anatomical sites where they are exposed to substances interfering with their growth. These substances can include molecules produced by the host, and his resident microbial population, as well as exogenous antibacterial drugs. Suboptimal concentrations of inhibitory molecules and stress conditions found in vivo (high or low temperatures, lack of oxygen, extreme pH) might induce in bacteria the activation of survival mechanisms blocking their division capability but allowing them to stay alive. These "dormant" bacteria can be reactivated in particular circumstances and would be able to express their virulence traits. In this study, it was evaluated the effect of some environmental conditions, such as optimal and suboptimal temperatures, direct light and antibiotic sub-inhibitory concentrations doses of antibiotic, on the human pathogens Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis when incubated in fluids accumulated in the body of patients with different pathologies. It is shown that inoculation in a number of accumulated body fluids and the presence of gentamicin, reliable conditions encountered during pathological states, induce stress-responding strategies enabling bacteria to persist in microcosms mimicking the human body. Significant differences were detected in Gram-negative and Gram-positive species with E. faecalis surviving, as starved or viable but non-culturable forms, in any microcosm and condition tested and E. coli activating a viable but non-culturable state only in some clinical samples. The persistence of bacteria under these conditions, being non-culturable, might explain some recurrent infections without isolation of the causative agent after application of the standard microbiological methods.

  8. Topography of Lymphatic Markers in Human Iris and Ciliary Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schrödl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Motloch, Karolina; Bruckner, Daniela; Laimer, Martin; Schlereth, Simona L; Heindl, Ludwig M; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-07-01

    Reports of lymphatics in the anterior human uvea are contradictory. This might be caused due to a certain topography, which has not been considered yet. Therefore, here we systematically analyze iris and adjacent ciliary body with immunohistochemistry by combining various lymphatic markers. Human iris and ciliary body were obtained from cornea donors and prepared for cryosectioning. Cross sections of tissue blocks at 12/3/6/9 o'clock position and at corresponding intersections (1:30/4:30/7:30/10:30) were processed for immunohistochemistry of LYVE-1, PDPN, PROX1, FOXC2, VEGFR3, and CCL21, and when necessary, these lymphatic markers were combined with CD31, α-smooth muscle-actin, CD68, and 4',6-diamidino-2 phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI). Double, triple, and quadruple marker combinations were documented using confocal microscopy. Numerous podoplanin+ cells were mainly located at the anterior border of the iris while LYVE-1+ cells were distributed throughout the nonpigmented part. Both cell populations were PROX1/FOXC2/CCL21/VEGFR3-. Blood vessels, iris smooth muscles, and individual cells were VEGFR3+. While PDPN+ cells were rarely detected posteriorly of the iris root, many LYVE-1+ cells were present within the ciliary body muscle and villi. Within the muscle, occasionally PDPN+ vessel-like structures were detectable, but these were never colocalized with LYVE-1. Similar vessel-like structures were VEGFR3+/PROX1-/CCL21-, but CD31+. Further, ciliary muscle fibers and ciliary epithelium were immunoreactive for VEGFR3/CCL21, but were LYVE-1/PDPN-. A certain topography of structures at the various uvea-positions investigated was not obvious. The majority of LYVE-1+ cells displayed immunoreactivity for CD68. Lymphatic vessels colocalizing for at least two lymphatic markers were not detectable. Therefore, if present, putative lymphatic channels of the anterior uvea might display a different marker panel than generally presumed.

  9. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Tracking human position and lower body parts using Kalman and particle filters constrained by human biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez del Rincon, Jesús; Makris, Dimitrios; Orrite Urunuela, Carlos; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for visual tracking of human body parts is introduced. The approach presented demonstrates the feasibility of recovering human poses with data from a single uncalibrated camera by using a limb-tracking system based on a 2-D articulated model and a double-tracking strategy. Its key contribution is that the 2-D model is only constrained by biomechanical knowledge about human bipedal motion, instead of relying on constraints that are linked to a specific activity or camera view. These characteristics make our approach suitable for real visual surveillance applications. Experiments on a set of indoor and outdoor sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on tracking human lower body parts. Moreover, a detail comparison with current tracking methods is presented.

  11. Transport of gaseous pollutants around a human body in quiescent indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mioduszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    (CBL) to transport the pollution in quiescent indoor environment. A human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of the pollutant location around the human body on the pollution...... concentration levels in the breathing zone. The results show that the location of the pollution source has a considerable influence of the breathing zone concentrations. This is contributed to the human CBL, as it pulls the pollution emitted close to the human body and transports it to the breathing zone...... the human body should be recognized in ventilation design practice....

  12. Triglycerides in the human kidney cortex: relationship with body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Alexandru Bobulescu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04. Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis.

  13. Lipid body formation during maturation of human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Lappalainen, Jani; Käkelä, Reijo; Hattula, Katarina; Butcher, Sarah J; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Kovanen, Petri T

    2011-12-01

    Lipid droplets, also called lipid bodies (LB) in inflammatory cells, are important cytoplasmic organelles. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics and functions of LBs in human mast cells (MC). Here, we have analyzed the genesis and components of LBs during differentiation of human peripheral blood-derived CD34(+) progenitors into connective tissue-type MCs. In our serum-free culture system, the maturing MCs, derived from 18 different donors, invariably developed triacylglycerol (TG)-rich LBs. Not known heretofore, the MCs transcribe the genes for perilipins (PLIN)1-4, but not PLIN5, and PLIN2 and PLIN3 display different degrees of LB association. Upon MC activation and ensuing degranulation, the LBs were not cosecreted with the cytoplasmic secretory granules. Exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) enhanced LB genesis in Triacsin C-sensitive fashion, and it was found to be preferentially incorporated into the TGs of LBs. The large TG-associated pool of AA in LBs likely is a major precursor for eicosanoid production by MCs. In summary, we demonstrate that cultured human MCs derived from CD34(+) progenitors in peripheral blood provide a new tool to study regulatory mechanisms involving LB functions, with particular emphasis on AA metabolism, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and subsequent release of proinflammatory lipid mediators from these cells.

  14. Triglycerides in the Human Kidney Cortex: Relationship with Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Lotan, Yair; Zhang, Jianning; Rosenthal, Tara R.; Rogers, John T.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI) is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis) has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04). Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis) in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis. PMID:25170827

  15. Quantitative Validation of a Human Body Finite Element Model Using Rigid Body Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Davis, Matthew L; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2015-09-01

    Validation is a critical step in finite element model (FEM) development. This study focuses on the validation of the Global Human Body Models Consortium full body average male occupant FEM in five localized loading regimes-a chest impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal impact, and a pelvic impact. Force and deflection outputs from the model were compared to experimental traces and corridors scaled to the 50th percentile male. Predicted fractures and injury severity measures were compared to evaluate the model's injury prediction capabilities. The methods of ISO/TS 18571 were used to quantitatively assess the fit of model outputs to experimental force and deflection traces. The model produced peak chest, shoulder, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and pelvis forces of 4.8, 3.3, 4.5, 5.1, and 13.0 kN compared to 4.3, 3.2, 4.0, 4.0, and 10.3 kN in the experiments, respectively. The model predicted rib and pelvic fractures related to Abbreviated Injury Scale scores within the ranges found experimentally all cases except the abdominal impact. ISO/TS 18571 scores for the impacts studied had a mean score of 0.73 with a range of 0.57-0.83. Well-validated FEMs are important tools used by engineers in advancing occupant safety.

  16. The human kidney as a regulator of body cytokine homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonanni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that the human kidney is a major site for the removal of several cytokines and growth factors, which can accumulate in body pools in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD. In addition, progressive renal failure and the increase in circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with mortality, suggesting that altered cytokines handling by the kidney is associated with worse outcome. Also, the kidney itself may be damaged by signals arising by endothelia and peripheral tissues during the course of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this paper we provide a review of kidney handling of several adipokines and myokines, with special emphasis to interleukin-6 (IL-6, leptin, resistin and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta.

  17. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  18. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  19. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  20. Comparison of Biodynamic Responses in Standing and Seated Human Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2000-12-01

    The dynamic responses of the human body in a standing position and in a sitting position have been compared. The apparent mass and transmissibilities to the head, six locations along the spine, and the pelvis were measured with eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration. In both postures, the principal resonance in the apparent mass occurred in the range 5-6 Hz, with slightly higher frequencies and lower apparent mass in the standing posture. There was greater transmission of vertical vibration to the pelvis and the lower spine and greater relative motion within the lower spine in the standing posture than in the sitting posture at the principal resonance and at higher frequencies. Transmissibilities from the supporting surface (floor or seat) to the thoracic region had similar magnitudes for both standing and sitting subjects. The lumbar spine has less lordosis and may be more compressed and less flexible in the sitting posture than in the standing posture. This may have reduced the relative motions between lumbar vertebrae and both the supporting vibrating surface and the other vertebrae in the sitting posture. The characteristics of the vibration transmitted to the pelvis may have differed in the two postures due to different transmission paths. Increased forward rotation of the pelvis in the standing posture may have caused the differences in responses of the pelvis and the lower spine that were observed between the two postures.

  1. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  2. Human flourishing through body, creative imagination and reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Titchen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:A new methodological framework for human flourishing as the ends and means of transformational action research and practice development has recently been published. Located in the critical creativity paradigmatic synthesis, the framework is one of the outcomes of our shared journey as practice development facilitators and researchers. Aims and objectives: The aim of this paper is to show how methodological development can be an outcome of practice development. The first objective is to show, through an exemplar story, how our human flourishing was achieved through learning experientially about the new framework at a retreat in the Australian Grampian Mountains. The second objective is to indicate how we exposed the developing framework to national and international artistic and cognitive critique. Design:Part of a co-operative inquiry under the auspices of the International Practice Development Collaborative, including retreats, workshops and conference presentations. Methods: Imbued by the philosophical and theoretical frameworks for human flourishing, the methodological framework was used at the retreat to create conditions for human flourishing through nature, the body, creative imagination, reflection and reflexivity. Data on the impact of using the framework were collected and synthesised through a variety of methods, including dialogue, contemplative walks, dance, landscape art and reflection. Further synthesis was undertaken through experiential workshops and scholarly/creative writing. Results: Findings show how the methodology was further evaluated and refined whilst simultaneously enabling others to flourish as they gained confidence in using the methods of critical creativity as critical companions. Thereby the interrelatedness of methodology and methods of critical creativity is illustrated. Conclusions: This outcome of our practice development journey offers a potential addition to critical social science methodologies in

  3. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  4. Human telomerase and Cajal body ribonucleoproteins share a unique specificity of Sm protein association

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Collins, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Cajal bodies are nuclear structures that host RNA modification and assembly reactions. Some RNAs transit Cajal bodies, while others must concentrate in Cajal bodies to function. Here we report that at least a subfraction of human telomerase RNA and individual resident Cajal body RNAs is associated with Sm proteins. Surprisingly, of seven Sm proteins assembled into a heteroheptameric ring, only a subset copurifies telomerase and Cajal body ribonucleoproteins. We show that a Cajal body RNA loca...

  5. Human physiome based on the high-resolution dataset of human body structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Physiome Project, as a new concept, is proceeding rapidly with the great advancement of genomics, physiological experiment, biologic modeling and computer simulation technique. The project seeks to provide a quantitative framework for modeling of the human physio- logical system using computational approaches, which is able to integrate the knowledge of molecular biology, biochemical, biophysical and anatomical information on different levels, including cell, tissue, organ, system and organism. This paper reviews the development of the Physiome Project in the past decade. The role of high-resolution datasets of human body structure in Physiome Project is discussed. The future plan and applications of the high-resolution datasets of human body structure to Physiome Project are discussed as well.

  6. Building "Bob": A Project Exploring the Human Body at Western Illinois University Preschool Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouette, Scott

    2008-01-01

    When the children at Western Illinois University Preschool Center embarked on a study of human bodies, they decided to build a life-size model of a body, organ by organ from the inside out, to represent some of the things they were learning. This article describes the building of "Bob," the human body model, highlighting the children's…

  7. Acute normobaric hypoxia reduces body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, Dana M; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Buono, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Anapyrexia is the regulated decrease in body temperature during acute exposure to hypoxia. This study examined resting rectal temperature (Trec) in adult humans during acute normobaric hypoxia (NH). Ten subjects breathed air consisting of 21% (NN), 14% (NH14), and 12% oxygen (NH12) for 30 min each in thermoneutral conditions while Trec and blood oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured. Linear regression indicated that Spo2 was progressively lower in NH14 (p=0.0001) and NH12 (p=0.0001) compared to NN, and that Spo2 in NH14 was different than NH12 (p=0.00001). Trec was progressively lower during NH14 (p=0.014) and in NH12 (p=0.0001) compared to NN. The difference in Trec between NH14 and NH12 was also significant (p=0.0287). Spo2 was a significant predictor of Trec such that for every 1% decrease in Spo2, Trec decreased by 0.15°C (p=0.0001). The present study confirmed that, similar to many other species, human adults respond to acute hypoxia exposure by lowering rectal temperature.

  8. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  9. The biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, R W

    2008-01-25

    This paper reviews information on the biological behavior of inorganic cobalt in humans and laboratory animals and proposes a model of the systemic biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in adult humans. The model was developed as part of an effort to update the models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for addressing intakes of radionuclides by workers but is also applicable to environmental or medical exposures to inorganic forms of radiocobalt. The model can be used in conjunction with any respiratory, gastrointestinal, or wound model that provides predictions of the time-dependent feed of cobalt to blood. In contrast to the ICRP's current systemic model for cobalt, which is a simple open catenary system, the proposed model is constructed within a physiologically realistic framework that depicts recycling of cobalt between blood and tissues and transfer from blood to excretion pathways. Compared with the ICRP's current model, the proposed model yields similar predictions of whole-body retention but substantially different predictions of the systemic distribution of cobalt as a function of time after uptake to blood.

  10. The two-way feedback and passing-way of human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liang; Zhang Kui; Zhang Renxiang

    2008-01-01

    Two-way feedback of human body was published in 1992. The sensation of two-way feedback of body is a spe-cial system of human reaction, which maintains and regulates symmetry and balance of human body. The human two-way feedback reacts to human health. For human overall health and delay decrepitude, it is necessary to pay attention to the stimulations (passive acceptance and initiative interventions) and relevant influences in human body and the stimu-lative effect. In this paper, the experimental research of stimulation and an example of two-way feedback in human body are given. And lay a foundation of prevention, medical treatment and hygiene of human overall health.

  11. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  12. Teratomas produced from human pluripotent stem cells xenografted into immunodeficient mice - a histopathology atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Ivan; Andrews, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    This atlas illustrates the microscopic features of tumors produced from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) xenografted into immunosuppressed mice, according to the generally accepted protocols for performing this teratoma assay of stem cell pluripotency. Microphotographs depict various hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). The appearance of persistent hPSC in teratomas is also described with special emphasis on the morphogenesis of embryoid bodies and yolk sac components surrounding them. The use of immunohistochemistry for analyzing hPSC-derived teratomas is also illustrated.

  13. Teratomas produced from human pluripotent stem cells xenografted into immunodeficient mice - a histopathology atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Ivan; Andrews, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    This atlas illustrates the microscopic features of tumors produced from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) xenografted into immunosuppressed mice, according to the generally accepted protocols for performing this teratoma assay of stem cell pluripotency. Microphotographs depict various hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). The appearance of persistent hPSC in teratomas is also described with special emphasis on the morphogenesis of embryoid bodies and yolk sac components surrounding them. The use of immunohistochemistry for analyzing hPSC-derived teratomas is also illustrated. PMID:28000905

  14. A finite-element simulation of galvanic coupling intra-body communication based on the whole human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou

    2012-10-09

    Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz-5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.

  15. Changes in the Essential Oil Components during the Development of Fennel Plants from Somatic Embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y; Ogawa, K; Fukui, H; Tabata, M

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes of essential oils during the development of clonal plants of fennel propagated through somatic embryogenesis were investigated. Although no essential oil could be detected either in cultured cells or in somatic embryoids, monoter-penes such as alpha-phellandrene and alpha-pinene were found in radical leaves of regenerated plantlets cultured on a hormone-free agar medium. The regenerated plants cultivated in the field for about one month accumulated phenylpropanoids such as estragole, anethole, and fenchone in addition to the two monoterpenes described above in radical leaves. Rich accumulations of phenylpropanoids and monoterpenes were observed in the fruits; especially the contents of estragole and anethole were much higher than in radical leaves.

  16. Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

    2010-11-04

    Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demonstrated to be robust and did not merely reflect shape differences between the categories. Finally, execution of (unseen) movements with different body parts resulted in a limited topographic representation of the limbs and trunk, which partially overlapped with the visual body part map. This motor-driven activation in the OTC could not be explained solely by visual or motor imagery of the body parts. This suggests that visual and motor-related information converge within the OTC in a body part specific manner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life.

  18. Radiation between segments of the seated human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    2002-01-01

    Detailed radiation properties for a thermal manikin were predicted numerically. The view factors between individual body-segments and between the body-segments and the outer surfaces were tabulated. On an integral basis, the findings compared well to other studies and the results showed...... that situations exist for which radiation between individual body segments is important....

  19. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  20. Kinematic simulation of human gait with a multi-rigid-body foot model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; HU Xiaochun; LI Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    The paper builds a multi-rigid-body model of human with a 4-rigid-body foot in the 3D CAD software Solidworks, based on human anatomy. By controlling the rotation of the ankle and major joints of human body while walking, the Kinematic simulation was performed in the dynamics simulation software ADAMS. The paper analyzes the simulate results and points out deficiencies in the current work and the direction of research efforts in future.

  1. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  2. The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard eJung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available People maintain larger distances to other peoples’ front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars and moved a virtual plane towards their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect.

  3. Artificial Human Phantoms: Human proxy in testing microwave apparatus that have electromagnetic interaction with the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Mobashsher, A T

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, an effort is made in this review to address different state-of-the-art artificial tissue emulating (ATE) materials and phantom types for various operating frequencies, and fabrication procedures in order to have a better understanding of the pros and cons of various ATE phantoms which leads us to develop superior version of artificial human body substitute for various applications.

  4. Human Body Modeling and Posture Simulating Based on 3D Surface Scan Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永有; 张辉; 任少云; 蒋寿伟

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for modeling the human body by considering the motion state and the shape of whole body. The body model consists of a skeleton kinematic model and a surface model. The former is used to determine the posture of the body,and the latter is used to generate the body shape according to the given posture. The body surface is reconstructed with multi-segment B-spline surfaces based on the 3D scan data from a real human body.Using only a few joints parameters and the original surface scan data, the various body postures and the shape can be generated easily. The model has a strong potential of being used for ergonomic design,garment design, virtual reality environment, as well as creating human animation, etc.

  5. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  6. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    to optimal human performance, as has so often been assumed. According to the second law of thermodynamics, it makes sense that optimal human performance coincides with minimum human body exergy consumption and that this should occur under thermal conditions in which human thermal sensation is close...

  7. Remarks on human body posture estimation from silhouette image based on heuristic rules and Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Naemura, Masahide

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposes a human body posture estimation method based on analysis of human silhouette and Kalman filter. The proposed method is based on both the heuristically extraction method of estimating the significant points of human body and the contour analysis of the human silhouette. The 2D coordinates of the human body's significant points, such as top of the head, and tips of feet, are located by applying the heuristically extraction method to the human silhouette, those of tips of hands are obtained by using the result of the contour analysis, and the joints of elbows and knees are estimated by introducing some heuristic rules to the contour image of the human silhouette. The estimated results are optimized and tracked by using Kalman filter. The proposed estimation method is implemented on a personal computer and runs in real-time. Experimental results show both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method for estimating human body postures.

  8. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapses Sue A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in

  9. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shapses Sue A; Pierson Richard N; Heymsfield Steven B; Levitt David G; Kral John G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI) is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction...

  10. Remarks on 3D human body posture reconstruction from multiple camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yusuke; Ohta, Takako; Mutsuji, Yukiko; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masafumi

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a human body posture estimation method based on back projection of human silhouette images extracted from multi-camera images. To achieve real-time 3D human body posture estimation, a server-client system is introduced into the multi-camera system, improvements of the background subtraction and back projection are investigated. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method, 3D estimation experiments of human body posture are carried out. The experimental system with six CCD cameras is composed and the experimental results confirm both the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system in the 3D human body posture estimation in real-time. By using the 3D reconstruction of human body posture, the simple walk-through application of virtual reality system is demonstrated.

  11. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  12. A review of the volatiles from the healthy human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B; Amann, A; Al-Kateb, H; Flynn, C; Filipiak, W; Khalid, T; Osborne, D; Ratcliffe, N M

    2014-03-01

    A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.

  13. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C.; Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2013-01-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature u

  14. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to…

  15. The story of the body and the story of the person: towards an ethics of representing human bodies and body-parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2005-01-01

    Western culture has a few traditions of representing the human body - among them mortuary art (gisants), the freak show, the culture of the relics, renaissance art and pre-modern and modern anatomy. A historical analysis in the spirit of Norbert Elias is offered with regard to body - person relationship in anatomy. Modern anatomy is characterized by separating the story of the person from the story of the body, a strategy that is incompatible with the bio-psycho-social paradigm of clinical medicine. The paper discusses different aspects of the above traditions and how they might bear on this conflict and on contemporary bioethics and bedside practice.

  16. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  17. Transport of gaseous pollutants by convective boundary layer around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of the human convective boundary layer to transport pollution in a quiescent indoor environment. The impact of the source location in the vicinity of a human body is examined in relation to pollution distribution in the breathing zone and the thickness...... of the pollution boundary layer. The study, in addition, evaluates the effects of the room air temperature, table positioning, and seated body inclination. The human body is represented by a thermal manikin that has a body shape, size, and surface temperature that resemble those of a real person. The results show...... at the upper back or behind the chair. The results also indicate that a decrease in personal exposure to pollutants released from or around the human body increases the extent to which the pollution spreads to the surroundings. Reducing the room air temperature or backward body inclination intensifies...

  18. [A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of human body under space flight conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nikolaev, D V; Tuĭkin, S A; Kozharinov, V I; Grachev, V A

    2007-01-01

    A portable two-frequency tetrapolar impedance meter was developed to study the state of liquid compartments of human body under zero-gravity conditions. The portable impedance meter makes it possible to monitor the hydration state of human body under conditions of long-term space flight on board international space station.

  19. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    -environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related...

  20. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  1. Highly Efficient Neural Conversion of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Adherent and Animal-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Dunja; Diez Lloret, Andrea; Stojkovic, Petra; Rodríguez-Martínez, Daniel; Perez Arago, Maria Amparo; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Francisco Javier; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; López-Barneo, José; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla; Kostic, Jelena; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Erceg, Slaven

    2017-04-01

    Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions. A simple medium formula including insulin induces the direct conversion of >98% of hESCs and hiPSCs into expandable, transplantable, and functional neural progenitors with neural rosette characteristics. Further differentiation of neural progenitors into dopaminergic and spinal motoneurons as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes indicates that these neural progenitors retain responsiveness to instructive cues revealing the robust applicability of the protocol in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. The fact that this protocol includes animal-free medium and human extracellular matrix components avoiding embryoid bodies makes this protocol suitable for the use in clinic. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1217-1226.

  2. Imaging of Ultraweak Spontaneous Photon Emission from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Kobayashi; Daisuke Kikuchi; Hitoshi Okamura

    2009-01-01

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. T...

  3. Optic properties of bile liquid crystals in human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Ming Yang; Jie Wu; Jian Li Zhou; Li Jun He; Xian Fang Xu; Jin Yi Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To further study the properties of bile liquid crystals, and probe into the relationship between bile liquid crystals and gallbladder stone formation, and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of cholecystolithissis. METNODS The optic properties of bile liquid crystals in human body were determined by the method of crystal optics under polarizing microscope with plane polarized light and perpendicular polarized light. RESULTS Under a polarizing microscope with plane polarized light, bile liquid crystals scattered in bile appeared round, oval or irregularly round. The color of bile liquid crystals was a little lighter than that of the bile around. When the stage was turned round, the color of bile liquid crystals or the darkness and lightness of the color did not change obviously. On the border between bile liquid crystals and the bile around, brighter Becke-Line could be observed. When the microscope tube is lifted, Becke. Line moved inward, and when lowered,Becke-Line moved outward. Under a perpendicular polarized light, bile liquid crystals showd some special interference patterns, called Malta cross. When the stage was tuming round at an angle of 360°, the Malta cross showed four times of extinction. In the vibrating direction of 45° angle of relative to upper and lower polarizing plate, gypsum test-board with optical path difference of 530 nm was inserted, the first and the third quadrants of Malta cross appeared to be blue, and the second and the fourth quadrants appeared orange. When mica test-board with optical path difference of 147 nm was inserted, the first and the third quadrants of Malta cross appeared yellow, and the second and the fourth quadrants appeared dark grey. CONCLUSION The bile liquid crystals were distributed in bile in the form of global grains. Their polychroism and absorption were slight,but the edge and Becke-Line were very clear. Its refractive index was larger than that of the bile.These liquid crystals were uniaxial

  4. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  5. The effect of anther orientation on the production of microspore-derived embryoids and plants of Hordeum vulgare cv. Sabarlis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C P

    1985-10-01

    The orientation of barley anthers on culture medium had a marked effect on their response. Embryoids developed only in the upper lobes of anthers cultured on edge, i.e. with a single lobe in contact with the culture medium. Anthers cultured flat, i.e. with both lobes in contact with the medium, did not respond. Careful orientation of anthers at the start of incubation resulted in a mean yield of 20 green plants per 100 anthers cultured.

  6. Human telomerase and Cajal body ribonucleoproteins share a unique specificity of Sm protein association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dragony; Collins, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Cajal bodies are nuclear structures that host RNA modification and assembly reactions. Some RNAs transit Cajal bodies, while others must concentrate in Cajal bodies to function. Here we report that at least a subfraction of human telomerase RNA and individual resident Cajal body RNAs is associated with Sm proteins. Surprisingly, of seven Sm proteins assembled into a heteroheptameric ring, only a subset copurifies telomerase and Cajal body ribonucleoproteins. We show that a Cajal body RNA localization motif determines this specificity. These discoveries expand the cellular repertoire of Sm protein assemblies and their involvement in ribonucleoprotein localization and function.

  7. [Some traditional representations of the human body in Basque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work is a selection of ethnographic data chiefly collected in the North of the Basque Country. It suggests restoring the traditional image of body and proposes interpretation of "historical meanings".

  8. 脐带间充质干细胞条件培养液促进人胚胎干细胞分化为造血细胞%Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promotes the hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雅红; 李大哲; 于莉; 马石楠; 李东升

    2015-01-01

    Objective To optimize the scheme of human embryonic stem cell differentiation to hematopoietic cell by taking advantage of the characteristics of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in supporting hematopoiesis . Method The umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and expanded with tissue block culture method and then the condition medium were collected routinely .Human embryonic stem cell were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts ,and were induced to be embryoid bodies with embryoid bodies culture medium .The embryoid bodies were cultured with condition medium and embryoid bodies culture medium respectively .Finally ,the percentage of hematopoietic cell maker CD45 and CD34 were detected with flow cytometry .Result It is obtained a large number of homogeneous fibroblasts‐like umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells which proliferated rapidly .After the embryoid bodies were cultured with condition medium 8 days ,the result shown that the percentage of CD45 were more than 60% and CD34 were more than 30% ,far higher than that of embryoidbodies cultured with embryoid bodies culture medium .Conclusion Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium can promote thehematopoiet‐ic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells .And his method will avoid the mouse‐related disease and cut down the cost of experiment .%目的:利用人脐带间充质干细胞造血支持的特性,优化人胚胎干细胞造血分化方案。方法利用组织块培养法分离扩增人脐带间充质干细胞,收集条件培养液。以小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞为饲养层培养人胚胎干细胞,再用拟胚体培养液诱导拟胚体形成。分别用条件培养液和拟胚体培养液培养拟胚体,再用流式细胞术检测EB中造血标志CD45和CD34的表达。结果利用组织块培养法获得大量形态均一、增殖迅速的脐带间充质干细胞;间充质干细胞条件培养液诱导8 d后,拟胚体中的CD45表达60

  9. Using and respecting the dead human body: an anatomist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth

    2014-09-01

    In his stimulating article enquiring into what the living owe the dead, Wilkinson (2013, Clin. Anat. DOI: 10.1002/ca.22263) sought to unpack a range of ethical questions of considerable interest to anatomists. In this, he looked closely at the extent to which we are or are not to respect all the prior wishes of the deceased, and the implications of this for the role of the family in providing consent, the use of unclaimed bodies, and the public display of bodies. Some of his conclusions challenge widely encountered views by anatomists. In this response I have re-visited these topics in an attempt to ground his arguments in the experience of anatomists, by emphasizing the many intimate connections that exist between each of these areas. The following emerge as issues for further debate. I accept that the wishes of the deceased are preeminent, so that authorities should make every effort to abide by these. This reiterates the importance of body bequests over against unclaimed bodies, and provides a context for assessing the role of family consent. This has repercussions for all activities employing dead bodies, from the dissecting room to public plastination exhibitions. In determining the extent to which the wishes of the deceased are followed the input of other interested parties is a relevant consideration. An ethical assessment of the public display of bodies needs to take into account the nature of the plastination process.

  10. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  11. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  12. 3D and 4D atlas system of living human body structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N; Takatsu, A; Hattori, A; Ezumi, T; Oda, S; Yanai, T; Tominaga, H

    1998-01-01

    A reference system for accessing anatomical information from a complete 3D structure of the whole body "living human", including 4D cardiac dynamics, was reconstructed with 3D and 4D data sets obtained from normal volunteers. With this system, we were able to produce a human atlas in which sectional images can be accessed from any part of the human body interactively by real-time image generation.

  13. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products.

  14. The personification of animals: coding of human and nonhuman body parts based on posture and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals.

  15. Early gene expression along the animal-vegetal axis in sea urchin embryoids and grafted embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, C; Emily-Fenouil, F; Chang, P; Gache, C

    1996-10-01

    The HE gene is the earliest strictly zygotic gene activated during sea urchin embryogenesis. It is transiently expressed in a radially symmetrical domain covering the animal-most two-thirds of the blastula. The border of this domain, which is orthogonal to the primordial animal-vegetal axis, is shifted towards the animal pole in Li+-treated embryos. Exogenous micromeres implanted at the animal pole of whole embryos, animal or vegetal halves do not modify the extent and localization of the HE expression domain. In grafted embryos or animal halves, the Li+ effect is not affected by the presence of ectopic micromeres at the animal pole. A Li+-induced shift of the border, similar to that seen in whole embryos, occurs in embryoids developing from animal halves isolated from 8-cell stage embryos or dissected from unfertilised eggs. Therefore, the spatial restriction of the HE gene is not controlled by the inductive cascade emanating from the micromeres and the patterning along the AV-axis revealed by Li+ does not require interactions between cells from the animal and vegetal halves. This suggests that maternal primary patterning in the sea urchin embryo is not limited to a small vegetal center but extends along the entire AV axis.

  16. Literature Survey on Decorporation of Radionuclides from the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    brackets. Radium Dial Painters, US (226�Ra) Hanford, WA,US (241Amn) Los Alamos, NM, US (2 39 pu) Goiania , Brazil (1 3 7 Co) Chernobyl, Ukraine...Blue) are obtained from the radiological accident in Goiania , Brazil1. On 13 September 1987, a shielded 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) 137Cs teletherapy source...in the stool, and whole body counts showed increased removal from the body. The effectiveness of Prussian Blue for one Goiania patient is depicted in

  17. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  18. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  19. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  20. Human cells lacking coilin and Cajal bodies are proficient in telomerase assembly, trafficking and telomere maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanlian; Deng, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Hu, Qian; Liu, Haiying; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating t...

  1. An Impact of Thermodynamic Processes in Human Bodies on Performance Reliability of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalko Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problem of the influence of thermodynamic factors on human fallibility in different zones of thermal discomfort. Describes the processes of energy in the human body. Been given a formal description of the energy balance of the human body thermoregulation. Pointed to human reactions to temperature changes of internal and external environment, including reactions associated with exercise. The methodology to estimate and determine the reliability of indicators of human basal acting in different zones of thermal discomfort. The significant effect of thermodynamic factors on the reliability and security ofperson.

  2. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori;

    2013-01-01

    the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses...... of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation....... The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect...

  3. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  4. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  5. Ambulatory assessment of human body kinematics and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Traditional human movement analysis systems consist of an optical position measurement system with one or more 6D force plates mounted in a laboratory. Although clinically accepted as `the golden standard' for the assessment of human movement, the restriction to a laboratory environment with its

  6. Taking a "Giant Tour" to Explore the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Helping children to visualise what is inside them and how their bodies work can be a challenge, since teachers are often reliant on secondary sources or investigations that can only measure outward signs (such as pulse rate). Another way is to involve the children in an imaginative role-play exercise where they explore the insides of a…

  7. Human Deception Detection from Whole Body Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    inspection, a process that is now conducted exclusively by trained personnel. If it can be demonstrated that whole- body movement cues provide a reliable...consent document, the testing began. Participants completed a basic demographic questionnaire, and personality inventories (Neuroticism- Extraversion ...checkpoint guard held a decommissioned, rubberized M4 training gun. While the checkpoint was being assembled, the participants were prepared for the

  8. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant.

  9. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  10. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.

  11. Human++: Wireless autonomous sensor technology for body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Francisco, R. de; Pflug, H.; Santana, J.; Visser, H.; Vullers, R.; Groot, H. de; Gyselinckx, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-low-power circuits and energy harvesters are making self-powered body wireless autonomous transducer solutions (WATS) a reality. Power optimization at the system and application level is crucial in achieving ultra-low-power consumption for the entire system. This paper deals

  12. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the ‘best’ for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus. The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298459

  13. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, William L; Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-07-05

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the 'best' for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Revisiting the importance of common body motion in human action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Human actions are complex dynamic stimuli comprised of two principle motion components: 1) common body motion, which represents the translation of the body when a person moves through space, and 2) relative limb movements, resulting from articulation of limbs after factoring out common body motion. Historically, most research in biological motion has focused primarily on relative limb movements while discounting the role of common body motion in human action perception. The current study examined the relative contribution of posture change resulting from relative limb movements and translation of body position resulting from common body motion in discriminating human walking versus running actions. We found that faster translation speeds of common body motion evoked significantly more responses consistent with running when discriminating ambiguous actions morphed between walking and running. Furthermore, this influence was systematically modulated by the uncertainty associated with intrinsic cues as determined by the degree of limited-lifetime spatial sampling. The contribution of common body motion increased monotonically as the reliability of inferring posture changes on the basis of intrinsic cues decreased. These results highlight the importance of translational body movements and their interaction with posture change as a result of relative limb movements in discriminating human actions when visual input information is sparse and noisy.

  15. The Knee Joint Loose Body as a Source of Viable Autologous Human Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, J.

    2016-01-01

    Loose bodies are fragments of cartilage or bone present in the synovial fluid. In the present study we assessed if loose bodies could be used as a source of autologous human chondrocytes for experimental purposes. Histochemical examination of loose bodies and differential enzymatic digestions were undertaken, the isolated cells were cultured in alginate bead microspheres and immunolocalisations were undertaken for chondrogenic markers such as aggrecan, and type II collagen. Isolated loose body cells had high viability (≥90% viable), expressed chondrogenic markers (aggrecan, type II collagen) but no type I collagen. Loose bodies may be a useful source of autologous chondrocytes of high viability. PMID:27349321

  16. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Steinmetz, N; Lorenz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2002-09-01

    Forced-air warming with upper body blankets has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with upper body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of eight complete upper body warming systems and to gain more insight into the principles of forced-air warming. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows: Qdot;=h. DeltaT. A, where Qdot;= heat flux [W], h=heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT=temperature gradient between the blanket and surface [ degrees C], and A=covered area [m2]. We tested eight different forced-air warming systems: (1) Bair Hugger and upper body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc. Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and upper body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) Thermacare (Gaymar Industries) with reusable Optisan upper body blanket (Willy Rüsch AG, Kernen, Germany); (4) WarmAir and upper body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (5) Warm-Gard and single use upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (6) Warm-Gard and reusable upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); (7) WarmTouch and CareDrape upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO); and (8) WarmTouch and reusable MultiCover trade mark upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc.) on a previously validated copper manikin of the human body. Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 11 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 11 thermocouples. The temperature gradient between the blanket and surface (DeltaT) was varied between -8 and +8 degrees C, and h was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, as similar mean skin surface temperatures have been found in volunteers. The covered area was estimated to be 0

  17. Human-motion energy harvester for autonomous body area sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a method to optimize an electromagnetic energy harvester converting the low-frequency body motion and aimed at powering wireless body area sensors. This method is based on recorded accelerations, and mechanical and transduction models that enable an efficient joint optimization of the structural parameters. An optimized prototype of 14.8 mmØ × 52 mm, weighting 20 g, has generated up to 4.95 mW in a resistive load when worn at the arm during a run, and 6.57 mW when hand-shaken. Among the inertial electromagnetic energy harvesters reported so far, this one exhibits one of the highest power densities (up to 730 μW cm-3). The energy harvester was finally used to power a bluetooth low energy wireless sensor node with accelerations measurements at 25 Hz.

  18. An attempt to model the human body as a communication channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmueller, Marc Simon; Kuhn, Andreas; Froehlich, Juerg; Oberle, Michael; Felber, Norbert; Kuster, Niels; Fichtner, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Using the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals offers novel data communication in biomedical monitoring systems. In this paper, galvanic coupling is presented as a promising approach for wireless intra-body communication between on-body sensors. The human body is characterized as a transmission medium for electrical current by means of numerical simulations and measurements. Properties of dedicated tissue layers and geometrical body variations are investigated, and different electrodes are compared. The new intra-body communication technology has shown its feasibility in clinical trials. Excellent transmission was achieved between locations on the thorax with a typical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 20 dB while the attenuation increased along the extremities.

  19. Cajal body number and nucleolar size correlate with the cell body mass in human sensory ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, Maria T; Novell, Mariona; Villagra, Nuria T; Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocio; Val-Bernal, J Fernado; Lafarga, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    This paper studies the cell size-dependent organization of the nucleolus and Cajal bodies (CBs) in dissociated human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons from autopsy tissue samples of patients without neurological disease. The quantitative analysis of nucleoli with an anti-fibrillarin antibody showed that all neurons have only one nucleolus. However, the nucleolar volume and the number of fibrillar centers per nucleolus significantly increase as a function of cell body size. Immunostaining for coilin demonstrated the presence of numerous CBs in DRG neurons (up to 20 in large size neurons). The number of CBs per neuron correlated positively with the cell body volume. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemical analysis revealed the concentration of coilin, snRNPs, SMN and fibrillarin in CBs of DRG neurons. CBs were frequently associated with the nucleolus, active chromatin domains and PML bodies, but not with telomeres. Our results support the view that the nucleolar volume and number of both fibrillar centers and CBs depend on the cell body mass, a parameter closely related to transcriptional and synaptic activity in mammalian neurons. Moreover, the unusual large number of CBs could facilitate the transfer of RNA processing components from CBs to nucleolar and nucleoplasmic sites of RNA processing.

  20. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Fu FANG; Fan JIN; Hui GAI; Ying CHEN; Li WU; Ai Lian LIU; Bin CHEN; Hui Zhen SHENG

    2005-01-01

    Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF,Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed teratomas with tissue types representative of all three embryonic germ layers. These human embryonic stem cells are capable of producing clones of undifferentiated morphology, and one of them was propagated to become a subline. Human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population should facilitate stem cell research and may be valuable in studies of population genetics and ecology.

  1. Contact-free determination of human body segment parameters by means of videometric image processing of an anthropomorphic body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    The development of noninvasive techniques for the determination of biomechanical body segment parameters (volumes, masses, the three principal moments of inertia, the three local coordinates of the segmental mass centers, etc.) receives increasing attention from the medical sciences (e,.g., orthopaedic gait analysis), bioengineering, sport biomechanics, and the various space programs. In the present paper, a novel method is presented for determining body segment parameters rapidly and accurately. It is based on the video-image processing of four different body configurations and a finite mass-element human body model. The four video images of the subject in question are recorded against a black background, thus permitting the application of shape recognition procedures incorporating edge detection and calibration algorithms. In this way, a total of 181 object space dimensions of the subject's body segments can be reconstructed and used as anthropometric input data for the mathematical finite mass- element body model. The latter comprises 17 segments (abdomino-thoracic, head-neck, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, abdomino-pelvic, thighs, lower legs, feet) and enables the user to compute all the required segment parameters for each of the 17 segments by means of the associated computer program. The hardware requirements are an IBM- compatible PC (1 MB memory) operating under MS-DOS or PC-DOS (Version 3.1 onwards) and incorporating a VGA-board with a feature connector for connecting it to a super video windows framegrabber board for which there must be available a 16-bit large slot. In addition, a VGA-monitor (50 - 70 Hz, horizontal scan rate at least 31.5 kHz), a common video camera and recorder, and a simple rectangular calibration frame are required. The advantage of the new method lies in its ease of application, its comparatively high accuracy, and in the rapid availability of the body segment parameters, which is particularly useful in clinical practice

  2. Scaling of human body mass with height: the Body Mass Index revisited

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, N J

    2009-01-01

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass $m$ of growing children should scale as the $p$th power of height $h$ with $7/3

  3. Ambulatory Sensing of the Dynamic interaction between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Schepers, H. Martin; Cooper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate power transfer between the human body and the environment during short interactions and relatively arbitrary movements with net displacement and varying loads (mass and spring), and appeared to be accurate within 4%.

  4. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to implicit knowledge of biomechanics. Experiment 1 showed greater RM for sign language stimuli in the correct direction of the sign than in the reverse d...

  5. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections.

  6. Fluids in human bodies and biomineralization – parallels to global water resources and reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, H. Catherine W.; King, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The amount of surface freshwaters on Earth is remarkably small considering the human population needing drinking water to survive and to ensure water in their bodies is at that very important locale where cells operate, the transcellular fluid. Like the fluid in and on the planet, body fluid is

  7. Automatic identification of inertial sensor placement on human body segments during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Baten, Christian T.M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel method for the automatic identification of inertial sensors on human body segments during walking. This method allows the user to place (wireless) inertial sensors on arbitrary body segments. Next, the user walks for just a few seconds and the segment to which each sensor is

  8. Coming to Know about the Body in Human Movement Studies Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Valeria; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of undergraduate Human Movement Studies (HMS) students learnt to know about the body during their four-year academic programme at an Australian university. When students begin an undergraduate programme in HMS they bring with them particular constructions, ideas and beliefs about their own bodies and about the body…

  9. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  10. Fluids in human bodies and biomineralization – parallels to global water resources and reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, H. Catherine W.; King, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The amount of surface freshwaters on Earth is remarkably small considering the human population needing drinking water to survive and to ensure water in their bodies is at that very important locale where cells operate, the transcellular fluid. Like the fluid in and on the planet, body fluid is high

  11. The Thermal Plume above a Standing Human Body Exposed to Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo;

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the impact of air distribution on the thermal plume above a human body in indoor environment. Three sets of measurements are conducted in a full-scale test room with different ventilation conditions. One breathing thermal manikin standing in the room is used to simulate...... the human body. Long-time average air velocity profiles at locations closely above the manikin are taken to identify the wandering thermal plume....

  12. The Thermal Plume above a Standing Human Body Exposed to Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the impact of air distribution on the thermal plume above a human body in indoor environment. Three sets of measurements are conducted in a full-scale test room with different ventilation conditions. One breathing thermal manikin standing in the room is used to simulate the hu...... the human body. Long-time average air velocity profiles at locations closely above the manikin are taken to identify the wandering thermal plume....

  13. [Detection of carotenoids in the vitreous body of the human eye during prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M A; Panova, I G; Fel'dman, T B; Zak, P P; Tatikolov, A S; Sukhikh, G T; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids were found for the first time in the vitreous body of human eye during the fetal period from week 15 until week 28. Their maximum content was timed to week 16-22. No carotenoids were found the vitreous body of 31-week fetuses, as well as adult humans, which corresponds to the published data. It was shown using HPLC that chromatographic characteristics of these carotenoids correspond to those of lutein and zeaxanthin, characteristic pigments of the retinal yellow macula.

  14. INFLUENCE OF VIBRATIONS AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY GENERATED BY CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Andrei BARBU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations influence the human body in many different ways. The response to a vibration exposure is primarily dependent on the frequency, amplitude, and duration of exposure. This paper studies the influence of vibrations generated by automobiles on the human body, taking into account both amplitude and especially the frequency of these vibrations. Measurement of these vibrations was made through the acquisition of latest equipment by acquiring tridimensional signals.

  15. Human cells lacking coilin and Cajal bodies are proficient in telomerase assembly, trafficking and telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlian; Deng, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Hu, Qian; Liu, Haiying; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating that telomerase assembly occurs in the absence of Cajal bodies. Moreover, dispersed hTR aggregates and forms foci specifically during S and G2 phase in coilin-KO cells. Colocalization of these hTR foci with telomeres implies proper telomerase trafficking, independent of Cajal bodies. Therefore, telomerase adds similar numbers of TTAGGG repeats to telomeres in coilin-KO and controls cells. Overexpression of TPP1-OB-fold blocks cell cycle-dependent formation of hTR foci and inhibits telomere extension. These findings suggest that telomerase assembly, trafficking and extension occur with normal efficiency in Cajal bodies deficient human cells. Thus, Cajal bodies, as such, are not essential in these processes, although it remains possible that non-coilin components of Cajal bodies and/or telomere binding proteins (e.g. TPP1) do play roles in telomerase biogenesis and telomere homeostasis.

  16. Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM12/meltrin alpha is a type I transmembrane multidomain protein involved in tumor progression and other severe diseases, including osteoarthritis, and as such could be considered as a potential drug target. In addition to protease activity, ADAM12 possesses cell binding and cell signaling......) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting...

  17. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  18. Construction of a mathematical model of the human body, taking the nonlinear rigidity of the spine into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukharev, K. K.; Morozova, N. I.; Potemkin, B. A.; Solovyev, V. S.; Frolov, K. V.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model of the human body was constructed, under the action of harmonic vibrations, in the 2.5-7 Hz frequency range. In this frequency range, the model of the human body as a vibrating system, with concentrated parameters is considered. Vertical movements of the seat and vertical components of vibrations of the human body are investigated.

  19. Automatic Identification of Inertial Sensors on the Human Body Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; Beijnum, van B.J.F.; Veltink, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in combination with magnetic sensors was proven to be a suitable ambulatory alternative to traditional human motion tracking systems based on optical position measurements. While accurate full 6 degrees of freedom information is

  20. Automatic Identification of Inertial Sensors on the Human Body Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenk, D.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    In the last few years, inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in combination with magnetic sensors was proven to be a suitable ambulatory alternative to traditional human motion tracking systems based on optical position measurements. While accurate full 6 degrees of freedom information is

  1. Wearable human body joint and posture measuring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunias, P.; Gransier, R.; Jin, A.; Statham, A.; Willems, P.

    2011-01-01

    In many medical applications, especially the orthopaedic setting, ambulatory, monitoring of human joint angles could be of substantial value to improving rehabilitation strategies and unravelling the pathomechanics of many degenerative joint diseases (e.g. knee osteoarthritis). With the ageing of th

  2. Research of Contact Stresses between Seat Cushion and Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervan Stjepan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of seat cushions is associated with the need to investigate their softness using, for this purpose, various kinds of loading pads. The aim of the investigation was: to determine seat cushion stiffness of a chair selected from a set of dining-room furniture, to determine values and distributions of contact strains on the seat surface caused by loading pad of different hardness, numerical calculation of contact strains between the seat cushion and the loading pad and to verify the results of these calculations with the results of laboratory experiments. The performed tests showed that the assessment of the seat cushion stiffness and the evaluation of contact stresses on their surface should be carried out using an equally stiff loading pad. In numerical calculations, polyurethane foams should be modeled as hyperfoam bodies of σ=f(ε characteristics determined in an axial compression test. Contact stresses between the seat cushion and the user’s body should be reduced as a result of application of a frictionless connection of thin layers of polyurethane foams with foam forming the proper elastic layer of the seat.

  3. In vivo analysis of Cajal body movement, separation, and joining in live human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platani, M; Goldberg, I; Swedlow, J R; Lamond, A I

    2000-12-25

    Cajal bodies (also known as coiled bodies) are subnuclear organelles that contain specific nuclear antigens, including splicing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and a subset of nucleolar proteins. Cajal bodies are localized in the nucleoplasm and are often found at the nucleolar periphery. We have constructed a stable HeLa cell line, HeLa(GFP-coilin), that expresses the Cajal body marker protein, p80 coilin, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP-coilin). The localization pattern and biochemical properties of the GFP-coilin fusion protein are identical to the endogenous p80 coilin. Time-lapse recordings on 63 nuclei of HeLa(GFP-coilin) cells showed that all Cajal bodies move within the nucleoplasm. Movements included translocations through the nucleoplasm, joining of bodies to form larger structures, and separation of smaller bodies from larger Cajal bodies. Also, we observed Cajal bodies moving to and from nucleoli. The data suggest that there may be at least two classes of Cajal bodies that differ in their size, antigen composition, and dynamic behavior. The smaller size class shows more frequent and faster rates of movement, up to 0.9 microm/min. The GFP-coilin protein is dynamically associated with Cajal bodies as shown by changes in their fluorescence intensity over time. This study reveals an unexpectedly high level of movement and interactions of nuclear bodies in human cells and suggests that these movements may be driven, at least in part, by regulated mechanisms.

  4. Interface of data transmission for a transcutaneous communication system using the human body as transmission medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Kato, Yoshikuni; Seino, Kazuyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2012-03-01

    We have been developing a new transcutaneous communication system (TCS) that uses the human body as an electrical conductive medium. We studied an interface circuit of the TCS in order to optimize the leading data current into the human body effectively. Two types of LC circuits were examined for the interface circuit, one was an LC series-parallel circuit, and the other was a parallel-connected LC circuit. The LC series-parallel circuit connected to the body could be tuned to a resonant frequency, and the frequency was determined by the values of an external inductor and an external capacitor. Permittivity of the body did not influence the electrical resonance. Connection of the LC series-parallel circuit to the body degraded the quality factor Q because of the conductivity of the body. However, the LC parallel-connected circuit when connected to the body did not indicate electrical resonance. The LC series-parallel circuit restricts a direct current and a low-frequency current to flow into the body; thus, it can prevent a patient from getting a shock. According to the above results, an LC series-parallel circuit is an optimum interface circuit between the TCS and the body for leading data current into the body effectively and safely.

  5. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with lower body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Lorenz, N; Steinmetz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2003-01-01

    Forced-air warming has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with lower body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of six complete lower body warming systems. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows:[1]Qdot;=h.DeltaT.A where Qdot; = heat transfer [W], h = heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT = temperature gradient between blanket and surface [ degrees C], A = covered area [m2]. We tested the following forced-air warmers in a previously validated copper manikin of the human body: (1) Bair Hugger and lower body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc., Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and lower body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) WarmAir and lower body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (4) Warm-Gard(R) and lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (5) Warm-Gard and reusable lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); and (6) WarmTouch and lower body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO). Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 16 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 16 thermocouples. DeltaT was varied between -10 and +10 degrees C and h was determined by a linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, because similar mean skin temperatures have been found in volunteers. The area covered by the blankets was estimated to be 0.54 m2. Heat transfer from the blanket to the manikin was different for surface temperatures between 36 degrees C and 38 degrees C. At a surface temperature of 36 degrees C the heat transfer was higher (between 13.4 W to 18.3 W) than at surface temperatures of 38 degrees C (8-11.5 W). The highest heat transfer was delivered by the Thermacare system (8.3-18.3 W), the

  6. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  7. Review of capacitive coupling human body communications based on digital transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taewook Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human body communications (HBC have been studied as an enabling technology to meet the recently increased demands for low-power and high-simplicity in wireless body area networks for wearable-device applications. Previous works on HBC focused mainly on channel modeling with a measurement method, signal transmission scheme, and transceiver implementation. In particular, the digital transmission, invented as a customized approach for the human body channel, has contributed to develope low-complexity HBC systems. This paper addresses on-going research on capacitive coupling HBC based on digital transmission by exploring recent literature.

  8. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2009-07-16

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  9. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  10. Statistical multi-path exposure method for assessing the whole-body SAR in a heterogeneous human body model in a realistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the whole-body absorption in a human in a realistic environment requires a statistical approach covering all possible exposure situations. This article describes the development of a statistical multi-path exposure method for heterogeneous realistic human body models. The method is applied for the 6-year-old Virtual Family boy (VFB) exposed to the GSM downlink at 950 MHz. It is shown that the whole-body SAR does not differ significantly over the different environments at an operating frequency of 950 MHz. Furthermore, the whole-body SAR in the VFB for multi-path exposure exceeds the whole-body SAR for worst-case single-incident plane wave exposure by 3.6%. Moreover, the ICNIRP reference levels are not conservative with the basic restrictions in 0.3% of the exposure samples for the VFB at the GSM downlink of 950 MHz. The homogeneous spheroid with the dielectric properties of the head suggested by the IEC underestimates the absorption compared to realistic human body models. Moreover, the variation in the whole-body SAR for realistic human body models is larger than for homogeneous spheroid models. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of the tissues and the irregular shape of the realistic human body model compared to homogeneous spheroid human body models. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouakaze Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations. This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia. Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

  12. Mission Opportunities for Human Exploration of Nearby Planetary Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We characterize mission profiles for human expeditions to near-Earth asteroids, Venus, and Mars. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are the closest destinations beyond cis-lunar space and present a compelling target with capabilities already under development by NASA and its partners. We present manned NEO mission options that would require between 90 days and one year. We next consider planetary flyby missions for Venus along the lines of plans that were first drafted during the Apollo program for human exploration of Venus. We also characterize a Mars flyby, and a double-flyby variant that would include close passes to both Venus and Mars. Finally, we consider orbital missions to Venus and Mars with capability for rendezvous with Phobos or Deimos. This would be a truly new class of mission for astronauts and could serve as a precursor to a human landing on Mars. We present launch opportunities, transit time, requisite {\\Delta}V, and approximate radiation environment parameters for each mission class. We find that {\\...

  13. [THE STRUCTURE OF LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES OF THE CILIARY BODY OF THE HUMAN EYE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Bgatova, N P; Chernykh, V V; Trunov, A N; Pozhidayeva, A A; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structural organization of interstitial spaces and vessels of the ciliary body of the human eye (n = 5) were studied. The ciliary body was found to contain wide interstitial spaces--tissue clefts bound by collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Organ-specific lymphatic capillaries were also demonstrated in the ciliary body. According to the present findings and the lymphatic region concept, the first 2 elements of the lymphatic region of the eye were described: tissue clefts--prelymphatics and lymphatic capillaries of the ciliary body. The third element of the lymphatic region are the lymph nodes of the head and neck.

  14. The misuse of Kant in the debate about a market for human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrand, N

    1999-01-01

    Passages from the writings of Immanuel Kant concerning how a person should treat her body are often cited in the present-day debate about a market for human body parts. In this paper, I demonstrate that this has been a misuse of Kant because unlike those who cite him, Kant was not primarily concerned with prohibiting the sale of body parts. In the first section, I argue that once these particular passages are understood against the background of Kant's moral philosophy, they indicate he had much broader concerns relating to the correct moral relationship a rational person should have with her body. In the second section, I examine Stephen Munzer's unusually detailed analysis of these passages, but conclude that like those who have provided less detailed analyses, he also fails fully to understand the rationale for Kant's various prescriptions and prohibitions concerning the treatment of human body parts, and in doing so misrepresents Kant's position.

  15. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.

  16. Channel Modeling of Human Somatosensory Nanonetwork: Body Discriminative Touch and Proprioception Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Ray

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanonetwork design and analysis has become a very interesting topic in recent years. Though this area of research is in its formative stage, it definitely posses a strong integrity in finding out numerous applications in medical and allied sciences. Nanonetworking is indeed a nature built foundation which comprises human intra body communications. Somatosensory system is the one of the critical and must have systems of human body. This literature concentrates on the body discriminative touch and proprioception mechanism of somatosensory system. This particular system is well architecture by medial lemniscal pathway, in human body for transduction of touch and proprioceptive information. This paper seeks out the novel communication channel model of somatosensory system. The working principle of the channel model is established by an equivalent Moore machine. A novel algorithm MLP is proposed after its name, medial lemniscal pathway. A novel naomachine and appropriate processing unit are also devised, based on the automaton.

  17. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  18. Investigation of the effects of human body stability on joint angles’ prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasha Zanoosi, A. A., E-mail: aliakbar.pasha@yahoo.com, E-mail: aliakbar.pasha@qiau.ac.ir [Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Industrial & Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, D.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.; Feri, M. [Bu Ali-Sina University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtiha, A. Sh. [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institute of Mechanics and Computational Mechanics (Germany); Fallahnejad, K. [Flinders University, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Loosing stability control in elderly or paralyzed has motivated researchers to study how a stability control system works and how to determine its state at every time instant. Studying the stability of a human body is not only an important problem from a scientific viewpoint, but also finally leads to new designs of prostheses and orthoses and rehabilitation methods. Computer modeling enables researchers to study and describe the reactions and propose a suitable and optimized motion pattern to strengthen the neuromuscular system and helps a human body maintain its stability. A perturbation as a tilting is exposed to an underfoot plate of a musculoskeletal model of the body to study the stability. The studied model of a human body included four links and three degrees of freedom with eight muscles in the sagittal plane. Lagrangian dynamics was used for deriving equations of motion and muscles were modeled using Hill’s model. Using experimental data of joint trajectories for a human body under tilting perturbation, forward dynamics has been applied to predict joint trajectories and muscle activation. This study investigated the effects of stability on predicting body joints’ motion. A new stability function for a human body, based on the zero moment point, has been employed in a forward dynamics procedure using a direct collocation method. A multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm has been proposed to employ stability as a robotic objective function along with muscle stresses as a biological objective function. The obtained results for joints’ motion were compared to experimental data. The results show that, for this type of perturbations, muscle stresses are in conflict with body stability. This means that more body stability requires more stresses in muscles and reverse. Results also show the effects of the stability objective function in better prediction of joint trajectories.

  19. [Human, transhuman, posthuman. Representations of the body between incompleteness and enhancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrutti, Marina

    2011-01-01

    "Posthuman" is often used to indicate some position, practice, perspective and vision concerning the future of human beings closely related to the use of contemporary technologies. This contribution would like to analyze some conceptions of the notion of posthuman and to present it as a possible form of "non-anthropocentric" thought which considers technological changes as non-human realities strictly involved in the construction and the definition of what constitutes a human being (and his body) and its predicates. Contrary to anthropocentrism which has characterized Western thought from humanism up to the extreme outcomes of transhumanism, non-anthropocentric posthumanism shows how the human being, who has always been the product of hybridization with the non-human (environment, animals and techniques), is built not only by his own strength but always through his partnership and his environment. The idea of enhancement of the body by technology to reach another stage of human evolution is one of the constant elements characterizing transhumanism. Posthumanism suggests no longer considering the interface with technology as an ergonomic relationship with an external tool that just extends the human body, but as a hybrid, or interpenetration that questions the separation of the body and its centrality. In this perspective, the question is not of simply establishing which is a good use of a technology but, every time, of redefining ourselves in our perspectives and our predicates with regard to what a technology allows and opens up to us.

  20. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  1. NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for

  2. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  3. Natural User Interface Sensors For Human Body Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, J.

    2012-01-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and obser...

  4. Unraveling the complexity of lipid body organelles in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-rich organelles are common in many cell types. In cells, such as adipocytes, these organelles are termed LDs, whereas in other cells, such as leukocytes, they are called LBs. The study of leukocyte LBs has attracted attention as a result of their association with human diseases. In leukocytes, such as eosinophils, LB accumulation has been documented extensively during inflammatory conditions. In these cells, LBs are linked to the regulation of immune responses by compartmentalization of several proteins and lipids involved in the control and biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). However, it has been unclear how diverse proteins, including membrane-associated enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs, especially if the internal content of LBs is assumed to consist solely of stores of neutral lipids, as present within adipocyte LDs. Studies of the formation, function, and ultrastructure of LBs in eosinophils have been providing insights pertinent to LBs in other leukocytes. Here, we review current knowledge of the composition and function of leukocyte LBs as provided by studies of human eosinophil LBs, including recognitions of the internal architecture of eosinophil LBs based on 3D electron tomographic analyses.

  5. A procedure to estimate the electric field induced in human body exposed to unknown magnetic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wencui; Bottauscio, Oriano; Chiampi, Mario; Giordano, Domenico; Zilberti, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The paper proposes and discusses a boundary element procedure able to predict the distribution of the electric field induced in a human body exposed to a low-frequency magnetic field produced by unknown sources. As a first step, the magnetic field on the body surface is reconstructed starting from the magnetic field values detected on a closed surface enclosing the sources. Then, the solution of a boundary value problem provides the electric field distribution inside the human model. The procedure is tested and validated by considering different non-uniform magnetic field distributions generated by a Helmholtz coil system as well as different locations of the human model.

  6. Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sender, Ron; Fuchs, Shai; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg.

  7. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  8. Hemispheric asymmetries in the processing of body sides: A study with ambiguous human silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Pagliara, Alessandra; Prete, Giulia; Malatesta, Gianluca; Lucafò, Chiara; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo; Tommasi, Luca

    2017-08-24

    When required to indicate the perceived orientation of pictures of human silhouettes with ambiguous front/back orientation and handedness, both right- and left-handed participants perceive the figures more frequently as right-handed than as left-handed, which seems to indicate an attentional bias towards the right arm of human bodies. Given that past research exploiting the divided visual field paradigm indicated a processing advantage for contralateral body parts in both hemispheres, we tested whether human silhouettes with ambiguous handedness presented in the right visual field would be interpreted more frequently as right-handed compared with those presented in the left visual field. We confirmed the expected lateralised embodiment of ambiguous human bodies, in line with previous studies showing that right and left limbs are processed faster and/or more accurately when presented in the right and left hemifield, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  10. Investigation of galvanic-coupled intrabody communication using the human body circuit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Behailu; Seyedi, MirHojjat; Lai, Daniel T H; Faulkner, Micheal

    2014-07-01

    Intrabody Communication (IBC) is a technique that uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals to connect wearable electronic sensors and devices. Understanding the human body as the transmission medium in IBC paves way for practical implementation of IBC in body sensor networks. In this study, we propose a model for galvanic coupling-type IBC based on a simplified equivalent circuit representation of the human upper arm. We propose a new way to calculate the electrode-skin contact impedance. Based on the model and human experimental results, we discuss important characteristics of galvanic coupling-type IBC, namely, the effect of tissues, anthropometry of subjects, and electrode configuration on signal propagation. We found that the dielectric properties of the muscle primarily characterize the received signal when receiver electrodes are located close to transmitter electrodes. When receiver and transmitter electrodes are far apart, the skin dielectric property affects the received signal.

  11. Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 signaling modifies the capillary-like organization of human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Bai, Hao; Shao, Ying; Arzigian, Melanie; Janzen, Viktor; Attar, Eyal; Xie, Yi; Scadden, David T; Wang, Zack Z

    2007-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate human blood vessel formation during early development are largely unknown. Here we used human ESCs (hESCs) as an in vitro model to explore early human vasculogenesis. We demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 were expressed concurrently with hESC-derived embryonic endothelial differentiation. Human ESC-derived embryonic endothelial cells underwent dose-dependent chemotaxis to SDF-1, which enhanced vascular network formation in Matrigel. Blocking of CXCR4 signaling abolished capillary-like structures induced by SDF-1. Inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway by AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, disrupted the endothelial sprouting outgrowth from human embryoid bodies, suggesting that the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis plays a critical role in regulating initial vessel formation, and may function as a morphogen during human embryonic vascular development.

  12. Vision Influence on Whole-Body Human Vibration Comfort Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Machado Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The well being of people needs to be a priority in the modern world. In that respect, vibration cannot be one more cause of stress. Besides that, vibration comfort is very important, since high levels may cause health or even tasks' accomplishment problems. Several parameters may influence the levels of vibration a human being supports. Among them, one can mention the influence of gender, age, corporeal mass index (CMI, temperature, humor, anxiety, hearing, posture, vision, etc. The first three parameters mentioned were already investigated in previous studies undertaken by GRAVI (Group of Acoustics and Vibration researchers. In this paper, the influence of vision is evaluated. The main objective with this series of tests performed is to try to quantify in a future the influence of each parameter in a global vibration comfort level. Conclusions are presented for the parameter investigated.

  13. Selenium in food and the human body: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2008-08-01

    Selenium levels in soil generally reflect its presence in food and the Se levels in human populations. Se food content is influenced by geographical location, seasonal changes, protein content and food processing. Periodic monitoring of Se levels in soil and food is necessary. Diet is the major Se source and approximately 80% of dietary Se is absorbed depending on the type of food consumed. Se bioavailability varies according to the Se source and nutritional status of the subject, being significantly higher for organic forms of Se. Se supplements can be beneficial for subjects living in regions with very low environmental levels of Se. Several strategies have been followed: (1) employment of Se-enriched fertilizers; (2) supplementation of farm animals with Se; (3) consumption of multimicronutrient supplements with Se. Nevertheless, detailed investigations of possible interactions between Se supplements and other food components and their influence on Se bioavailability are needed. Suppliers also need to provide more information on the specific type of Se used in supplements. In addition, research is lacking on the mechanisms through which Se is involved in hepatocyte damage during hepatopathies. Although Se potential as an antioxidant for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is promising, additional long-term intervention trials are necessary. As a result, indiscriminate Se supplements cannot be reliably recommended for the prevention of CVD in human beings. Some interesting findings reported an association of Se intake with a reduced prevalence and risk for prostate and colon cancer. However, random trials for other cancer types are inconclusive. As a final conclusion, the general population should be warned against the employment of Se supplements for prevention of hepatopathies, cardiovascular or cancer diseases, because benefits of Se supplementation are still uncertain, and their indiscriminate use could generate an increased risk of Se toxicity.

  14. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lorella Giannì

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2 Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3 Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  15. The influence of body posture on the kinematics of prehension in humans and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghem, E; Chèze, L; Coppens, Y; Pouydebat, E

    2014-03-01

    Much of our current understanding of human prehension in a comparative context is based on macaque models in a sitting, constrained body posture. In a previous study, we clearly showed differences in the amplitude of the forelimb joints between five primate species (lemur, capuchin, chimpanzee, gorilla and human) during unconstrained grasping where the animals were free to choose their body posture. One of our interrogations was to know if these differences could be due to the body posture. To address this question, this study compares humans with new data for gorillas during an unconstrained food prehension task in two body postures, a sitting and a quadrupedal one. The objective is to determine the behavioral and kinematic strategies (amplitudes and patterns of evolution of the articular angles) as well as differences and invariants of trunk and forelimb motions between species. The subjects were recorded by five cameras, and landmarks were digitized frame by frame to reconstruct 3D movement. Our results show that (1) despite significant influences of body postures on ranges of motion in gorillas and humans, species preserve their specific forelimb joint and trunk contribution; (2) body posture has a limited effect on the basic pattern of wrist velocity. Our study indicates that different primate species have specific kinematic features of limb coordination during prehension, which dose not alter with changes in posture. Therefore, across varying species, it is possible to compare limb kinematics irrespective of postural constraints and unconstrained condition need to be explored in other primates to understand the evolution of primate prehension.

  16. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Expression of a copper-containing amine oxidase by human ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D N; Valnickova, Z; Oury, T D; Miller, S E; Sanfilippo, F P; Enghild, J J

    1998-09-08

    To examine the molecular structure and ultrastructural distribution of a novel amine oxidase in human ciliary body. Human ciliary bodies were solubilized with a nonionic detergent. The solubilized material was subjected to affinity chromatography with 2B4.14.1, a monoclonal antibody which recognizes a family of ciliary body glycoproteins. Proteins eluted from the affinity column were further separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptides produced from a 2B4.14. 1-reactive protein with an approximate molecular weight of 100 kDa were analyzed by Edman degradation. The protein thus identified was further examined by Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-peptide antisera. Peptide sequences from the 100 kDa ciliary body protein were identical to the predicted protein sequence of an amine oxidase identified recently in a human placental cDNA library. The identity of the ciliary body protein was confirmed by Western blotting with rabbit antiserum generated against the predicted carboxy-terminal peptide of human placenta amine oxidase. Western blotting under nonreducing conditions and following glycosidase digestion indicated that the native enzyme is a disulfide-linked homodimer with multiple N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. By immunoelectron microscopy, the ciliary body amine oxidase was localized to the plasma membranes of inner epithelial cells. Human placenta amine oxidase is present on the plasma membranes of ciliary body inner epithelial cells. This finding provides a potential explanation for amine oxidase enzyme activity detected in previous studies of anterior segment tissues. Though the functional role of human placenta amine oxidase in the eye is unclear, it may contribute to the production of H2O2 in aqueous humor.

  18. The Artificial World of Plastination: A Challenge to Religious Perspectives on the Dead Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Gareth

    2016-11-01

    The public exhibitions of plastinated (preserved) and dissected human cadavers have proved exceedingly popular and also very contentious. However, there has been little in the way of sustained analysis of these exhibitions from a Christian angle. The technique of plastination enables whole bodies to be displayed as though standing and playing a variety of sports, and with 'life-like' facial expressions. In analyzing this phenomenon, the plastination procedure is outlined, and the degree of naturalness of the whole body plastinates assessed. In searching for theological directives the debate over burial and cremation is used as a means of exploring the respect we give the dead body, and the significance of the resurrection of the body for our views of the dead body. In particular, attention is paid to devaluation of the dead body in situations ranging from dissection of the body through to commercial public exhibitions. The centrality of notions of altruism and 'gift' is discussed. It is concluded that there are many disquieting features to these exhibitions, necessitating caution in approaching them. Nevertheless, in reminding visitors of their mortality and the wonders of the human body, they are not to be dismissed entirely.

  19. Exploring the human body space: A geographical information system based anatomical atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbeito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical atlases allow mapping the anatomical structures of the human body. Early versions of these systems consisted of analogical representations with informative text and labeled images of the human body. With computer systems, digital versions emerged and the third and fourth dimensions were introduced. Consequently, these systems increased their efficiency, allowing more realistic visualizations with improved interactivity and functionality. The 4D atlases allow modeling changes over time on the structures represented. The anatomical atlases based on geographic information system (GIS environments allow the creation of platforms with a high degree of interactivity and new tools to explore and analyze the human body. In this study we expand the functions of a human body representation system by creating new vector data, topology, functions, and an improved user interface. The new prototype emulates a 3D GIS with a topological model of the human body, replicates the information provided by anatomical atlases, and provides a higher level of functionality and interactivity. At this stage, the developed system is intended to be used as an educational tool and integrates into the same interface the typical representations of surface and sectional atlases.

  20. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications.

  1. Neural representations of faces and body parts in macaque and human cortex: a comparative FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsk, Mark A; Arcaro, Michael; Weiner, Kevin S; Kalkus, Jan F; Inati, Souheil J; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Single-cell studies in the macaque have reported selective neural responses evoked by visual presentations of faces and bodies. Consistent with these findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans and monkeys indicate that regions in temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces and bodies. However, it is not clear how these areas correspond across the two species. Here, we directly compared category-selective areas in macaques and humans using virtually identical techniques. In the macaque, several face- and body part-selective areas were found located along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). In the human, similar to previous studies, face-selective areas were found in ventral occipital and temporal cortex and an additional face-selective area was found in the anterior temporal cortex. Face-selective areas were also found in lateral temporal cortex, including the previously reported posterior STS area. Body part-selective areas were identified in the human fusiform gyrus and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In a first experiment, both monkey and human subjects were presented with pictures of faces, body parts, foods, scenes, and man-made objects, to examine the response profiles of each category-selective area to the five stimulus types. In a second experiment, face processing was examined by presenting upright and inverted faces. By comparing the responses and spatial relationships of the areas, we propose potential correspondences across species. Adjacent and overlapping areas in the macaque anterior STS/MTG responded strongly to both faces and body parts, similar to areas in the human fusiform gyrus and posterior STS. Furthermore, face-selective areas on the ventral bank of the STS/MTG discriminated both upright and inverted faces from objects, similar to areas in the human ventral temporal cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate commonalities and differences in the wide-scale brain organization between

  2. Generation of germ-line chimera zebrafish using primordial germ cells isolated from cultured blastomeres and cryopreserved embryoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Higaki, Shogo; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2010-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the only cells in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. In our previous study, a single PGC transplanted into a host differentiated into fertile gametes and produced germ-line chimeras of cyprinid fish, including zebrafish. In this study, we aimed to induce germ-line chimeras by transplanting donor PGCs from various sources (normal embryos at different stages, dissociated blastomeres, embryoids, or embryoids cryopreserved by vitrification) into host blastulae, and compare the migration rates of the PGCs towards the gonadal ridge. Isolated, cultured blastomeres not subject to mesodermal induction were able to differentiate into PGCs that retained their motility. Moreover, these PGCs successfully migrated towards the gonadal ridge of the host and formed viable gametes. Motility depended on developmental stage and culture duration: PGCs obtained at earlier developmental stages and with shorter cultivation periods showed an increased rate of migration to the gonadal ridge. Offspring were obtained from natural spawning between normal females and chimeric males. These results provide the basis for new methods of gene preservation in zebrafish.

  3. The early ontogeny of embryoids and callus from pollen and subsequent organogenesis in anther cultures of Datura metel and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R D; Raina, S K

    1972-06-01

    Haploidy induction through anther culture has been examined in Datura metel and rice with a view to tracing the precise sequence of development of the pollen, either directly or through an intervening callus, into an embryo and seedling. In D. metel, the vegetative cell of the young pollen grain assumes the major role in formation of embryos whereas the generative cell and its few derivatives degenerate. Embryos and seedlings arising directly from pollen without an intervening callus phase always proved to be haploids, whereas those differentiating from pollen-derived callus gave haploid, diploid and even triploid plants. Cytological analysis of callus tissue showed cells of various ploidy levels ranging from haploid to triploid, and in rare instances even with higher chromosome numbers.In rice anther cultures the embryoids arose from an initial callus phase. Of 15 different rice cultivars tried, only four produced a callus, and in only one, was there differentiation of plants, both haploid and diploid ones. Among other species tried, egg plant has also yielded plantlets through a callus phase whereas only callus production has been achieved in jute, tea and petunia. No response has been obtained in wheat, maize, cotton and coconut.Coconut milk (CM) appears to be the most important component of the medium for the initial induction of embryoids and callus in anther cultures of most of the species tried. However, further growth and differentiation of plants may require a simpler medium; in D. metel, continued culture on CM led to dedifferntiation.

  4. The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Perfumers' Descriptions of Human Body Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Wedekind

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The MHC (major histocompatibility complex is a group of genes that play a crucial role in immune recognition and in tolerance of tissue grafting. The MHC has also been found to influence body odors, body odor preferences, and mate choice in mice and humans. Here we test whether verbal descriptions of human body odors can be linked to the MHC. We asked 45 male students to live as odor neutral as possible for two consecutive days and to wear a T-shirt during the nights. The odors of these T-shirts were then described by five evaluators: two professional perfumers and three laymen. One of the perfumers was able to describe the T-shirt odors in such a way that some of the allelic specificity of the MHC was significantly revealed (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. This shows that, although difficult, some people are able to describe MHC-correlated body odor components.

  5. A human telomerase holoenzyme protein required for Cajal body localization and telomere synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venteicher, Andrew S; Abreu, Eladio B; Meng, Zhaojing; McCann, Kelly E; Terns, Rebecca M; Veenstra, Timothy D; Terns, Michael P; Artandi, Steven E

    2009-01-30

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that synthesizes telomere repeats in tissue progenitor cells and cancer cells. Active human telomerase consists of at least three principal subunits, including the telomerase reverse transcriptase, the telomerase RNA (TERC), and dyskerin. Here, we identify a holoenzyme subunit, TCAB1 (telomerase Cajal body protein 1), that is notably enriched in Cajal bodies, nuclear sites of RNP processing that are important for telomerase function. TCAB1 associates with active telomerase enzyme, established telomerase components, and small Cajal body RNAs that are involved in modifying splicing RNAs. Depletion of TCAB1 by using RNA interference prevents TERC from associating with Cajal bodies, disrupts telomerase-telomere association, and abrogates telomere synthesis by telomerase. Thus, TCAB1 controls telomerase trafficking and is required for telomere synthesis in human cancer cells.

  6. Preventive Biomechanics Optimizing Support Systems for the Human Body in the Lying and Sitting Position

    CERN Document Server

    Silber, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    How can we optimize a bedridden patient’s mattress? How can we make a passenger seat on a long distance flight or ride more comfortable? What qualities should a runner’s shoes have? To objectively address such questions using engineering and scientific methods, adequate virtual human body models for use in computer simulation of loading scenarios are required. The authors have developed a novel method incorporating subject studies, magnetic resonance imaging, 3D-CAD-reconstruction, continuum mechanics, material theory and the finite element method. The focus is laid upon the mechanical in vivo-characterization of human soft tissue, which is indispensable for simulating its mechanical interaction with, for example, medical bedding or automotive and airplane seating systems. Using the examples of arbitrary body support systems, the presented approach provides visual insight into simulated internal mechanical body tissue stress and strain, with the goal of biomechanical optimization of body support systems. ...

  7. Global sagittal axis: a step toward full-body assessment of sagittal plane deformity in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebo, Bassel G; Oren, Jonathan H; Challier, Vincent; Lafage, Renaud; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Liu, Shian; Vira, Shaleen; Spiegel, Matthew Adam; Harris, Bradley Yates; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Henry, Jensen K; Errico, Thomas J; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Sagittal malalignment requires higher energy expenditure to maintain an erect posture. Because the clinical impact of sagittal alignment is affected by both the severity of the deformity and recruitment of compensatory mechanisms, it is important to investigate new parameters that reflect both disability level and compensatory mechanisms for all patients. This study investigated the clinical relevance of the global sagittal axis (GSA), a novel measure to evaluate the standing axis of the human body. METHODS This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent full-body radiographs and completed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society-22, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the visual analog scale for back and leg pain. The GSA was defined as the angle formed by a line from the midpoint of the femoral condyles to the center of C-7, and a line from the midpoint between the femoral condyles to the posterior superior corner of the S-1 sacral endplate. After evaluating the correlation of GSA/HRQOL with sagittal parameters, linear regression models were generated to investigate how ODI and GSA related to radiographic parameters (T-1 pelvic angle, pelvic retroversion, knee flexion, and pelvic posterior translation). RESULTS One hundred forty-three patients (mean age 44 years) were included. The GSA correlated significantly with all HRQOL (up to r = 0.6 with EQ-5D) and radiographic parameters (up to r = 0.962 with sagittal vertical axis). Regression between ODI and sagittal radiographic parameters identified the GSA as an independent predictor (r = 0.517, r(2) = 0.267; p human body in the sagittal plane. The GSA correlated highly with spinopelvic and lower-extremities sagittal parameters and exhibited remarkable correlations with HRQOL, which exceeded other commonly used parameters.

  8. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-12-02

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body-because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies-resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.

  9. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  10. A Bayesian framework for human body pose tracking from depth image sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Youding; Fujimura, Kikuo

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of accurate and robust tracking of 3D human body pose from depth image sequences. Recovering the large number of degrees of freedom in human body movements from a depth image sequence is challenging due to the need to resolve the depth ambiguity caused by self-occlusions and the difficulty to recover from tracking failure. Human body poses could be estimated through model fitting using dense correspondences between depth data and an articulated human model (local optimization method). Although it usually achieves a high accuracy due to dense correspondences, it may fail to recover from tracking failure. Alternately, human pose may be reconstructed by detecting and tracking human body anatomical landmarks (key-points) based on low-level depth image analysis. While this method (key-point based method) is robust and recovers from tracking failure, its pose estimation accuracy depends solely on image-based localization accuracy of key-points. To address these limitations, we present a flexible Bayesian framework for integrating pose estimation results obtained by methods based on key-points and local optimization. Experimental results are shown and performance comparison is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Effect of the environmental stimuli upon the human body in winter outdoor thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kondo, Emi; Ishii, Jin; Sakoi, Tomonori; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature) in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  12. Effect of the Environmental Stimuli upon the Human Body in Winter Outdoor Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Kurazumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage the outdoor thermal environment with regard to human health and the environmental impact of waste heat, quantitative evaluations are indispensable. It is necessary to use a thermal environment evaluation index. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and winter outdoor thermal environment variables. Subjective experiments were conducted in the winter outdoor environment. Environmental factors and human psychological responses were measured. The relationship between the psychological thermal responses of the human body and the outdoor thermal environment index ETFe (enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature in winter was shown. The variables which influence the thermal sensation vote of the human body are air temperature, long-wave thermal radiation and short-wave solar radiation. The variables that influence the thermal comfort vote of the human body are air temperature, humidity, short-wave solar radiation, long-wave thermal radiation, and heat conduction. Short-wave solar radiation, and heat conduction are among the winter outdoor thermal environment variables that affect psychological responses to heat. The use of thermal environment evaluation indices that comprise short-wave solar radiation and heat conduction in winter outdoor spaces is a valid approach.

  13. A specific acid [alpha]-glucosidase in lamellar bodies of the human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, A.C.J. de; Schram, A.W.; Tager, J.M.; Batenburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have demonstrated that three lysosomal-type hydrolases, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-mannosidase and a phosphatase, are present in lamellar bodies isolated from adult human lung. The hydrolase activities that were studied, all showed an acidic pH optimum, which is characteristic for lysosomal enzymes. The properties of acid alpha-glucosidase in the lamellar body fraction and that in the lysosome-enriched fraction were compared. Using specific antibodies against ly...

  14. Hypothermia – mechanism of action and pathophysiological changes in the human body

    OpenAIRE

    Przemysław Sosnowski; Kinga Mikrut; Hanna Krauss

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the physiological responses and pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. The human body can be divided arbitrarily into two thermal compartments: a core compartment (trunk and head), with precisely regulated temperature around 37°C, and a peripheral compartment (skin and extremities) with less strictly controlled temperature, and lower than the core temperature. Thermoregulatory proce...

  15. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their tem...

  16. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  17. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  18. Analysis of measured data of human body based on error correcting frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Aiyan; Peipei, Gao; Shang, Xiaomei

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry is to measure all parts of human body surface, and the measured data is the basis of analysis and study of the human body, establishment and modification of garment size and formulation and implementation of online clothing store. In this paper, several groups of the measured data are gained, and analysis of data error is gotten by analyzing the error frequency and using analysis of variance method in mathematical statistics method. Determination of the measured data accuracy and the difficulty of measured parts of human body, further studies of the causes of data errors, and summarization of the key points to minimize errors possibly are also mentioned in the paper. This paper analyses the measured data based on error frequency, and in a way , it provides certain reference elements to promote the garment industry development.

  19. [The human body and the computer as pedagogic tools for anatomy: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captier, G; Canovas, F; Bonnel, F

    2005-09-01

    Since the first dissections, the human body has been the main tool for the teaching of anatomy in medical courses. For the last 30 years, university anatomy laboratory dissection has been brought into question and the total hours of anatomy teaching have decreased. In parallel, new technologies have progressed and become more competitive and more attractive than dissection. The aim of this review of the literature was to evaluate the use of the human body as a pedagogic tool compared to today's computer tools. Twenty comparative studies were reviewed. Their analysis showed that the human body remains the main tool in anatomy teaching even if anatomic demonstration (prosection) can replace dissection, and that the computer tools were complementary but not a substitute to dissection.

  20. Performance of human body communication-based wearable ECG with capacitive coupling electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Jun; Anzai, Daisuke; Wang, Jianqing

    2016-09-01

    Wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) is attracting much attention in daily healthcare applications, and human body communication (HBC) technology provides an evident advantage in making the sensing electrodes of ECG also working for transmission through the human body. In view of actual usage in daily life, however, non-contact electrodes to the human body are desirable. In this Letter, the authors discussed the ECG circuit structure in the HBC-based wearable ECG for removing the common mode noise when employing non-contact capacitive coupling electrodes. Through the comparison of experimental results, they have shown that the authors' proposed circuit structure with the third electrode directly connected to signal ground can provide an effect on common mode noise reduction similar to the usual drive-right-leg circuit, and a sufficiently good acquisition performance of ECG signals.

  1. A Balanced-Fed Dual Inverted-F Antenna with Reduced Human Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced-fed dual inverted-F antenna with reduced human body effects for WLAN applications at 2.45 GHz is presented. In order to reduce the influence by a close proximity or a touch of a human body, the proposed antenna employs an impedance matching using a lumped LC-balun which has the simple and compact structure applying for mobile handsets. The resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is fixed at 2.45 GHz regardless of the close proximity of a human body. By applying for the L-shape ground plane, the proposed antenna has the wide impedance bandwidth of about 150 MHz and the peak realized gain of about 4 dBi.

  2. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    . Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...... consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 ◦C or decreases below 22 ◦C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established....... occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...

  3. Acellular embryoid bodiesin mice:preparation and effect of promoting differentiationofLewis lung carcinoma cells%制备小鼠去细胞拟胚体对Lewis肺癌细胞的促分化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕卫东; 蔡琳; 张家东; 雷光焰; 刘志刚; 张新伟; 陆建荣

    2016-01-01

    背景:胚胎干细胞或胚胎组织与癌细胞共培养,能够诱导癌细胞分化为正常上皮细胞或恶性程度降低,而去细胞拟胚体保留了胚胎组织的结构和重要细胞因子。  目的:成功制备一种来源于小鼠胚胎干细胞的去细胞拟胚体,探讨去细胞拟胚体在小鼠 Lewis 肺癌细胞体外三维培养中的作用。  方法:先将小鼠胚胎干细胞(D3)动态培养7 d后形成拟胚体,然后用十二烷基硫酸钠进行去细胞处理。小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞与去细胞拟胚体三维共培养7 d,对照组肺癌细胞在Matrigel上三维培养7 d。Ki67免疫组化染色检测细胞增殖情况,Western blot检测Paxilin,E-cadherin蛋白表达水平,RT-PCR检测Slug和E-cadherin mRNA表达水平。  结果与结论:①实验成功制备一种大小均匀的小鼠拟胚体,经十二烷基硫酸钠去细胞处理后,拟胚体的细胞成分完全去除;②小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞在Matrigel上三维培养7 d后形成球形的肿瘤多细胞球体, Ki67免疫组化染色阳性细胞比例高;小鼠Lewis肺癌细胞在去细胞拟胚体支架上三维培养7 d,可见肺癌细胞长入拟胚体,但Ki67阳性细胞比例明显降低;③相对于Matrigel组,去细胞拟胚体组的Paxil in吸光度小于Matrigel组(P OBJECTIVE:To prepare acelular embryoid bodies from mouse embryonic stem cels and to investigate their effects on differentiation of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cels at three-dimensional culturein vitro. METHODS:Mouse embryonic stem cels(D3)were dynamicaly cultured for 7 days to produce embryoid bodiesfolowedbydecelularization with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. Mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cels were co-cultured with acelular embryoid bodiesas test group or culturedinthree-dimensionalmatrigel mediumfor 7 days as control group, respectively. Cel proliferation and expression of E-cadherin were detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blot assay

  4. [Investigations of human body liquids in long-duration space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Morukov, B V; Malenchenko, Iu I

    2005-01-01

    The hydration status of a Russian member on a six-month ISS mission was evaluated by bio-impedancemetry during monthly sessions of experiment Sprut (Octopus). Body liquids tended to diminish gradually and measured minimum values on the landing day. By the end of mission the total volume of liquids reduced by 18.9 %; the intracellular and extracellular portions lost 19.0 and 20.4 %, respectively. Time history of specific body liquids was identical in flight. Reductions in the body mass and lean mass (according to impedancemetry) reached 6.9 % and 8.0 %, respectively. These results point to a decrease in the human body hydration status during long-duration space flight concurrent to losses in the muscle mass. In two weeks after landing there was an implicit trend toward regaining the pre-flight hydration status and body mass; yet, both parameters were still below pre-flight values.

  5. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  6. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  7. On the dynamics of chain systems. [applications in manipulator and human body models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-oriented method for obtaining dynamical equations of motion for chain systems is presented. A chain system is defined as an arbitrarily assembled set of rigid bodies such that adjoining bodies have at least one common point and such that closed loops are not formed. The equations of motion are developed through the use of Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. The method and procedure is illustrated with an elementary study of a tripod space manipulator. The method is designed for application with systems such as human body models, chains and cables, and dynamic finite-segment models.

  8. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  9. Transient interaction model of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses and human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iváncsy, T.; Kiss, I.; Szücs, L.; Tamus, Z. Á.

    2015-10-01

    The lightning current generates time-varying magnetic field near the down- conductor and the down-conductors are mounted on the wall of the buildings where residential places might be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields can generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body.The higher duration and gradient of the magnetic field can cause potentially life threatening cardiac stimulation. The coupling mechanism between the electromagnetic field and the human body is based on a well-known physical phenomena (e.g. Faradays law of induction). However, the calculation of the induced current is very complicated because the shape of the organs is complex and the determination of the material properties of living tissues is difficult, as well. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac stimulation is independent of the rising time of the lightning current and only the peak of the current counts. In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near down-conductor and human body. Our previous models are based on the quasi stationer field calculations, the new improved model is a transient model. This is because the magnetic field around the down-conductor and in the human body can be determined more precisely, therefore the dangerous currents in the body can be estimated.

  10. The detection and discrimination of human body fluids using ATR FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphanou, Charlotte-Maria; Walton-Williams, Laura; Mountain, Harry; Cassella, John

    2015-07-01

    Blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions are the main human body fluids encountered at crime scenes. Currently presumptive tests are routinely utilised to indicate the presence of body fluids, although these are often subject to false positives and limited to particular body fluids. Over the last decade more sensitive and specific body fluid identification methods have been explored, such as mRNA analysis and proteomics, although these are not yet appropriate for routine application. This research investigated the application of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection and discrimination of human blood, saliva, semen and vaginal secretions. The results demonstrated that ATR FT-IR spectroscopy can detect and distinguish between these body fluids based on the unique spectral pattern, combination of peaks and peak frequencies corresponding to the macromolecule groups common within biological material. Comparisons with known abundant proteins relevant to each body fluid were also analysed to enable specific peaks to be attributed to the relevant protein components, which further reinforced the discrimination and identification of each body fluid. Overall, this preliminary research has demonstrated the potential for ATR FT-IR spectroscopy to be utilised in the routine confirmatory screening of biological evidence due to its quick and robust application within forensic science.

  11. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear.

  12. Retrieval and Clustering from a 3D Human Database based on Body and Head Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a framework for similarity based retrieval and clustering from a 3D human database. Our technique is based on both body and head shape representation and the retrieval is based on similarity of both of them. The 3D human database used in our study is the CAESAR anthropometric database which contains approximately 5000 bodies. We have developed a web-based interface for specifying the queries to interact with the retrieval system. Our approach performs the similarity based retrieval in a reasonable amount of time and is a practical approach.

  13. Increase in human brain size a key to increase in body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lucy, considered to be the ancestor to all humanity was a very short creature about three and a half feet tall, weighing some 60 to 65 pounds and lived around 3.2 million years ago in Ethiopia. Perhaps the growth period among the australopithecines was much shorter than that of the modern day humans and hence simply by this yardstick, there has to be a lot of difference in body size between them. The longer the growth period the larger the body size and this is what seemed to happen to the humans during evolutionary history. Recently Mark Grabowski, a researcher at American Museum of Natural History, New York,observed in his research paper that "Bigger brains led to bigger bodies... as over the last four million years, brain size and body size increased substantially in our human ancestors" (Current Anthropology, Vol. 57, 174-196, April 2016. These observations were not new and were clearly understood by the scientific community earlier also. However, numerous hypotheses put forth had emphasized the role of natural selection on different traits independently. But none of them had gone in the direction of a correlated response to natural selection in favour of enlarging the brain size and the body size together. These viewpoints had concluded that increase in brain size and body size were the products of separate natural selection forces. However, Mark Grabowski states that "some genes cause variation in both brain and body size, with the result that selection on either trait can lead to a correlated response in the unselected trait." This is a new explanation to the problem. It highlights the role of correlated outcomes of the natural selection phenomena occurring to one trait but affecting the other trait even if that is not selected for. It is similar to saying that as the brain size increased from Lucy to Homo erectus so did the body size as if the animal pulled itself up and increased in size proportionately as well to keep pace with the

  14. Ultrastructure of inclusion bodies in annulus cells in the degenerating human intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N

    2009-06-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the cell has an architectural editing function that checks whether protein structure and three-dimensional assembly have occurred properly prior to export of newly synthesized material out of the cell. If these have been faulty, the material is retained within the rER as an inclusion body. Inclusion bodies have been identified previously in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in chondrodysplasias and osteogenesis imperfecta. Inclusion bodies in intervertebral disc cells, however, have only recently been recognized. Our objectives were to use transmission electron microscopy to analyze more fully inclusion bodies in the annulus pulposus and to study the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells containing inclusion bodies. ECM frequently encapsulated cells with inclusion bodies, and commonly contained prominent banded aggregates of Type VI collagen. Inclusion body material had several morphologies, including relatively smooth, homogeneous material, or a rougher, less homogeneous feature. Such findings expand our knowledge of the fine structure of the human disc cell and ECM during disc degeneration, and indicate the potential utility of ultrastructural identification of discs with intracellular inclusion bodies as a screening method for molecular studies directed toward identification of defective gene products in degenerating discs.

  15. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  16. Interactive Structure (EUCLID) For Static And Dynamic Representation Of Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Ch.; Steck, R.

    1983-07-01

    A specific software (EUCLID) for static and dynamic representation of human models is described. The data processing system is connected with ERGODATA and used in interactive mode by intrinsic or specific functions. More or less complex representations in 3-D view of models of the human body are developed. Biostereometric and conventional anthropometric raw data from the data bank are processed for different applications in ergonomy.

  17. Human Factors Lessons Learned from Flight Testing Wingless Lifting Body Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.

  18. Leukotriene synthesis is required for hedgehog-dependent neurite projection in neuralized embryoid bodies but not for motor neuron differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold; Roelink, Henk

    2008-01-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is required for many developmental processes,. as well as for adult homeostasis. Although all known effects of Hh signaling affecting patterning and differentiation are mediated by members of the Gli family of zinc ringer transcription factors, we demonstrate that the Hh-de

  19. Intercellular cancer collisions generate an ejected crystal comet tail effect with fractal interface embryoid body reassembly transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz JA; Murillo MF; Barrero A

    2011-01-01

    Jairo A Díaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Alvaro BarreroDepartment of Pathology, Hospital Departmental Villavicencio, Hospital Departmental Granada, Medicine School, University Cooperative of Colombia, Villavicencio, Meta, ColombiaAbstract: We have documented self-assembled geometric triangular chiral crystal complexes (GTCHC) and a framework of collagen vascular invariant geometric attractors in cancer tissues. This article shows how this system evolves in time. These structures are incor...

  20. a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1997-02-01

    A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

  1. Dynamic forces over the interface between a seated human body and a rigid seat during vertical whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J

    2017-08-16

    Biodynamic responses of the seated human body are usually measured and modelled assuming a single point of vibration excitation. With vertical vibration excitation, this study investigated how forces are distributed over the body-seat interface. Vertical and fore-and-aft forces were measured beneath the ischial tuberosities, middle thighs, and front thighs of 14 subjects sitting on a rigid flat seat in three postures with different thigh contact while exposed to random vertical vibration at three magnitudes. Measures of apparent mass were calculated from transfer functions between the vertical acceleration of the seat and the vertical or fore-and-aft forces measured at the three locations, and the sum of these forces. When sitting normally or sitting with a high footrest, vertical forces at the ischial tuberosities dominated the vertical apparent mass. With feet unsupported to give increased thigh contact, vertical forces at the front thighs were dominant around 8Hz. Around 3-7Hz, fore-and-aft forces at the middle thighs dominated the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass. Around 8-10Hz, fore-and-aft forces were dominant at the ischial tuberosities with feet supported but at the front thighs with feet unsupported. All apparent masses were nonlinear: as the vibration magnitude increased the resonance frequencies decreased. With feet unsupported, the nonlinearity in the apparent mass was greater at the front thighs than at the ischial tuberosities. It is concluded that when the thighs are supported on a seat it is not appropriate to assume the body has a single point of vibration excitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: discomfort caused by sinusoidal vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Frequency weightings for predicting vibration discomfort assume the same frequency-dependence at all magnitudes of vibration, whereas biodynamic studies show that the frequency-dependence of the human body depends on the magnitude of vibration. This study investigated how the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort depends on the acceleration and the force at the subject-seat interface. Using magnitude estimation, 20 males and 20 females judged their discomfort caused by sinusoidal vertical acceleration at 13 frequencies (1-16 Hz) at magnitudes from 0.1 to 4.0 ms(-2) r.m.s. The frequency-dependence of their equivalent comfort contours depended on the magnitude of vibration, but was less dependent on the magnitude of dynamic force than the magnitude of acceleration, consistent with the biodynamic non-linearity of the body causing some of the magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours. There were significant associations between the biodynamic responses and subjective responses at all frequencies in the range 1-16 Hz. Practitioner Summary: Vertical seat vibration causes discomfort in many forms of transport. This study provides the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort over a range of vibration magnitudes and shows how the frequency weightings in the current standards can be improved.

  3. The Contribution of Pre-impact Spine Posture on Human Body Model Response in Whole-body Side Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Lessley, David J; Kim, Taewung; Park, Gwansik; Kent, Richard W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact spine posture on impact response by subjecting a finite element human body model (HBM) to whole-body, lateral impacts. Seven postured models were created from the original HBM: one matching the standard driving posture and six matching pre-impact posture measured for each of six subjects tested in previously published experiments. The same measurements as those obtained during the experiments were calculated from the simulations, and biofidelity metrics based on signals correlation were established to compare the response of HBM to that of the cadavers. HBM responses showed good correlation with the subject response for the reaction forces, the rib strain (correlation score=0.8) and the overall kinematics. The pre-impact posture was found to greatly alter the reaction forces, deflections and the strain time histories mainly in terms of time delay. By modifying only the posture of HBM, the variability in the impact response was found to be equivalent to that observed in the experiments performed with cadavers with different anthropometries. The patterns observed in the responses of the postured HBM indicate that the inclination of the spine in the frontal plane plays a major role. The postured HBM sustained from 2 to 5 bone fractures, including the scapula in some cases, confirming that the pre-impact posture influences the injury outcome predicted by the simulation.

  4. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of mechanical stimulation on human dermal fibroblasts derived from different body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruixia; Wang, Zhiguo; Xu, Quanchen; Liu, Su; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is highly associated with pathogenesis of human hypertrophic scar. Although much work has focused on the influence of mechanical stress on fibroblast populations from various tissues and organs in the human body, their effects on cultured dermal fibroblasts by the area of the body have not been as well studied. In this study, cultures of skin fibroblasts from two different body sites were subjected to cyclic mechanical stimulation with a 10% stretching amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively, and thereafter harvested for experimental assays. Fibroblasts from scapular upper back skin, subjected to mechanical loads for 36 and 48 hours, respectively, were observed to proliferate at a higher rate and reach confluent more rapidly during in vitro culturing, had higher expression levels of mRNA and protein production of integrin β1, p130Cas and TGF β1 versus those from medial side of upper arm. These data indicate that skin fibroblasts, with regard to originated body sites studied in the experiments, display a diversity of mechanotransduction properties and biochemical reactions in response to applied mechanical stress, which contributes to the increased susceptibility to hypertrophic scars formation at certain areas of human body characterized by higher skin and muscle tension.

  6. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-06-05

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions. We also considered two disease states that highlight the spectrum of possible pathologies implicated in thermal regulation of the human body. These states are (i) cardiomyopathy, which affects the operating capacity of the heart, and (ii) malnutrition, which directly impairs the body's ability to regulate heat exchange with the environment. We have found that cardiomyopathy has little influence on the thermal balance of the human body, whereas malnutrition has a profound negative effect on the thermal balance and leads to dramatic reduction in core temperature.

  7. REVIEW: A review of in vivo experimental methods to determine the composition of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    This review of experimental methods employed in the measurement of the composition of the human body covers the developments that have occurred over the past 30 years. Early methods such as hydrodensitometry and skinfold anthropometry have been superseded by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The measurement of the whole-body abundance of certain elements by isotopic dilution, neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence can give important information of clinical significance, but neutron activation facilities remain available in only a few centres worldwide. The relatively simple, rapid and risk-free electrical methods such as multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, which can be employed at the bedside, have been found to be more complicated in their interpretation. Electromagnetic methods may only measure the composition of the human body at its surface. X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have not yet been employed much in body composition measurements. Some models for the composition of the human body are reviewed.

  8. Chemical determination of human body density in vivo: relevance to hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Kehayias, J; Heshka, S; Lichtman, S; Pierson, R N

    1989-12-01

    A chemical approach to establishing human body density in vivo was developed by combining recently developed noninvasive methods. Four compartments were measured: protein (P; prompt-gamma neutron activation), water (A; 3H2O dilution), mineral (M; dual-photon absorptiometry and delayed-gamma neutron activation), and fat (F; dual-photon absorptiometry). By this model body weight is equal to P + A + M + F. This approach was applied to 13 healthy adults (8 females and 5 males). The four compartments accounted for greater than 97% actual body weight. Calculated density based upon composition agreed within 0.6 +/- 0.4% (mean +/- SD) with density (D) measured by hydrodensitometry [calculated D (g/cc) = 0.86 measured D +0.15; r = 0.94, p less than 0.001]. The average calculated lean (P + A + M) density of 1.096 +/- 0.007 g/cc agreed closely with three classic human cadaver studies (1.100 g/cc). This multicompartment approach provides a new opportunity to estimate human body density in vivo and to refine body composition methods based upon an assumed but inadequately validated constant lean density.

  9. The effect of stress on core and peripheral body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Penning, Renske; Hellhammer, Juliane; Verster, Joris C; Klaessens, John H G M; Olivier, Berend; Kalkman, Cor J

    2013-09-01

    Even though there are indications that stress influences body temperature in humans, no study has systematically investigated the effects of stress on core and peripheral body temperature. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on body temperature using different readout measurements. In two independent studies, male and female participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a non-stressful control task. Core temperature (intestinal and temporal artery) and peripheral temperature (facial and body skin temperature) were measured. Compared to the control condition, stress exposure decreased intestinal temperature but did not affect temporal artery temperature. Stress exposure resulted in changes in skin temperature that followed a gradient-like pattern, with decreases at distal skin locations such as the fingertip and finger base and unchanged skin temperature at proximal regions such as the infra-clavicular area. Stress-induced effects on facial temperature displayed a sex-specific pattern, with decreased nasal skin temperature in females and increased cheek temperature in males. In conclusion, the amplitude and direction of stress-induced temperature changes depend on the site of temperature measurement in humans. This precludes a direct translation of the preclinical stress-induced hyperthermia paradigm, in which core temperature uniformly rises in response to stress to the human situation. Nevertheless, the effects of stress result in consistent temperature changes. Therefore, the present study supports the inclusion of body temperature as a physiological readout parameter of stress in future studies.

  10. Expression of nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase in the human ciliary body and trabecular meshwork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning

    2012-01-01

    Background The role played by the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the aqueous humor dynamics is still unclear.This study was designed to investigate the expression and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and guanylate cyclase (GC) in human ciliary body,trabecular meshwork and the Schlemm's canal.Methods Twelve eyes after corneal transplantation were used.Expression of three NOS isoforms (i.e.neuronal NOS (nNOS),inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS)) and GC were assessed in 10 eyes by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal or polyclonal antibody of NOS and GC.Ciliary bodies were dissected free and the total proteins were extracted.Western blotting was performed to confirm the protein expression of 3 NOS isoforms and GC.Results Expression of 3 NOS isoforms and GC were observed in the ciliary epithelium,ciliary muscle,trabecular meshwork and the endothelium of the Schlemm's canal.Immunoreactivity of nNOS was detected mainly along the apical cytoplasmic junction of the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) and pigmented epithelial (PE) cells.Protein expressions of 3 NOS isoforms and GC were confirmed in isolated human ciliary body by Western blotting.Conclusions The expression of NOS isoforms and GC in human ciliary body suggest the possible involvement of NO and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP,cGMP) signaling pathway in the ciliary body,and may play a role in both processes of aqueous humor formation and drainage.

  11. The Contribution of the Human Body in Young Children's Explanations About Shadow Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakleioti, Evagelia; Pantidos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    This paper begins with the view that the generation of meaning is a multimodal process. Props, drawings, graphs, gestures, as well as speech and written text are all mediators through which students construct new knowledge. Each semiotic context makes a unique contribution to the conceptualization of scientific entities. The human body, in particular, can function as a factor in both representation and explanation, serving as a link between verbal discourse and setting. Considering this perspective, a body-based activity was designed for kindergarten children, involving the concept of a shadow. The 3-D arrangement of the light from the light source, the human body (the obstacle), and the resulting shadow plays a central role. Using their own bodies as obstacles to the light, the children were able to explore the direction of the light and to change the relative positions of the light source and the obstacle. They formed hypotheses and were able to test them by moving on the stage. This body-centered activity explicitly incorporates the rectilinear movement of light into the process of shadow formation, while also providing learning through direct experience. Positive effects on learning were achieved for the group of children who participated in the activity, while the video analysis showed that many of the children were able to use their bodies to transfer to a different setting the embodied knowledge they acquired. This, according to researchers in the field of science education, is a powerful indication of conceptual change.

  12. [Neural representation of human body schema and corporeal self-consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo

    2014-04-01

    The human brain processes every sensation evoked by altered posture and builds up a constantly changing postural model of the body. This is called a body schema, and somatic signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints, i.e. proprioceptive signals, largely contribute its formation. Recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed neuronal substrates for human body schema. A dynamic limb position model seems to be computed in the central motor network (represented by the primary motor cortex). Here, proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals from muscle spindles are transformed into motor commands, which may underlie somatic perception of limb movement and facilitate its efficient motor control. Somatic signals originating from different body parts are integrated in the course of hierarchical somatosensory processing, and activity in higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices is capable of representing a postural model of the entire body. The left fronto-parietal network associates internal motor representation with external object representation, allowing the embodiment of external objects. In contrast, the right fronto-parietal regions connected by the most inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus fibers seem to have the functions of monitoring bodily states and updating body schema. We hypothesize that activity in these right-sided fronto-parietal regions is deeply involved in corporeal self-consciousness.

  13. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-04-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7 ± 9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769 ± 348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302 ± 668 kcal/d) and EX (2798 ± 760 kcal/d) groups (P < 0.0001). Mean 24-hour, day-time and night-time core body temperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P ≤ 0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging.

  14. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  15. Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth K; Lauber, Christian L; Hamady, Micah; Fierer, Noah; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Knight, Rob

    2009-12-18

    Elucidating the biogeography of bacterial communities on the human body is critical for establishing healthy baselines from which to detect differences associated with diseases. To obtain an integrated view of the spatial and temporal distribution of the human microbiota, we surveyed bacteria from up to 27 sites in seven to nine healthy adults on four occasions. We found that community composition was determined primarily by body habitat. Within habitats, interpersonal variability was high, whereas individuals exhibited minimal temporal variability. Several skin locations harbored more diverse communities than the gut and mouth, and skin locations differed in their community assembly patterns. These results indicate that our microbiota, although personalized, varies systematically across body habitats and time; such trends may ultimately reveal how microbiome changes cause or prevent disease.

  16. Salivary biomarkers associated with perceived satiety and body mass in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Schipper, R.G.; Loof, A.; Heerde, van W.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis is controlled by a delicate balancing of numerous central and peripheral factors, including circulating peptide hormones. This study investigated the proteome of saliva using SELDI-TOF-MS in relation to satiety and body mass index (BMI) in humans. Wit

  17. Advanced human body modelling to support designing products for physical interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We are using many designed artefacts in our daily life. These artefacts are typically in physical interaction with the human body, and cause stresses and deformations inside the tissues. When these stresses exceed a given level, the proper physiological functioning of the tissues is limited, and erg

  18. A specific acid [alpha]-glucosidase in lamellar bodies of the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.C.J. de; Schram, A.W.; Tager, J.M.; Batenburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have demonstrated that three lysosomal-type hydrolases, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-mannosidase and a phosphatase, are present in lamellar bodies isolated from adult human lung. The hydrolase activities that were studied, all showed an acidic pH optimum, which is charac

  19. Is there a medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Norris, B E; Fullerton, B C

    1983-01-01

    The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) appears to be a prominent auditory structure in many mammals. However, the presence of an MNTB in the human brain has not been clearly established. One of the most characteristic features of the cat MNTB is the presence of large somatic endings with...

  20. Electrical admittance for filling of the heart during lower body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yujia; Holm, S; Jenstrup, M;

    2000-01-01

    lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in humans. Changes in Thorax(ICW) were compared with positron emission tomography-determined C(15)O-labeled erythrocytes over the heart. During -40 mmHg LBNP, the blood volume of the heart decreased by 21 +/- 3% as the erythrocyte volume was reduced by 20 +/- 2...

  1. Human Body Explorations: Hands-On Investigations of What Makes Us Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalumuck, Karen E.

    This book presents science activities on the human body with materials that can be purchased in a grocery store or pharmacy. Each activity includes an explorer and facilitator guide. Activities include: (1) "Naked Egg"; (2) "Cellular Soap Opera"; (3) "Acid in Your Stomach"; (4) "How Much Do You C?"; (5)…

  2. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  3. Advanced human body modelling to support designing products for physical interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, C.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We are using many designed artefacts in our daily life. These artefacts are typically in physical interaction with the human body, and cause stresses and deformations inside the tissues. When these stresses exceed a given level, the proper physiological functioning of the tissues is limited, and

  4. Evaluation of Human Body Tracking System for Gesture-based Programming of Industrial Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Krüger, Volker; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Is low-cost tracking precise enough for recognition of pointing actions? We investigate the quality of the human body tracking available with a Kinect camera by comparing it to a state-of-the-art motion capture system. The application is action recognition with parametric hidden Markov Models...

  5. Compensation of Magnetic Disturbances Improves Inertial and Magnetic Sensing of Human Body Segment Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetenberg, Daniel; Luinge, Henk; Baten, Chris T.M.; Veltink, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complementary Kalman filter design to estimate orientation of human body segments by fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer signals from miniature sensors. Ferromagnetic materials or other magnetic fields near the sensor module disturb the local earth magnetic field

  6. Action recognition system based on human body tracking with depth images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez-Zarzuela

    Full Text Available When tracking a human body, action recognition tasks can be performed to determine what kind of movement the person is performing. Although a lot of implementations have emerged, state-of-the-art technology such as depth cameras and intelligent systems ca ...

  7. A mathematical human body model for frontal and rearward seated automotive impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Hoofman, R.; Kroonenberg, A.J. van den; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is widely used for crash-safety research and design. However, most occupant models used in crash simulations are based on crash dummies and thereby inherit their apparent limitations. Several models simulating parts of the real human body have been published, but only few desc

  8. Using artificial neural networks for the transformation of human body postures based on landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.

    2005-01-01

    Designers, engineers and ergonomists are seeking to exploit the opportunities offered by the 3D anthropometric technologies. These technologies make 3D measurements possible and provide us with a more detailed description of human body in comparison with the traditional 1D or 2D data processing. In

  9. Body-part templates for recovery of 2D human poses under occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Poel, Mannes; Perales, F.J.; Fisher, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Detection of humans and estimation of their 2D poses from a single image are challenging tasks. This is especially true when part of the observation is occluded. However, given a limited class of movements, poses can be recovered given the visible body-parts. To this end, we propose a novel template

  10. Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

  11. A specific acid [alpha]-glucosidase in lamellar bodies of the human lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.C.J. de; Schram, A.W.; Tager, J.M.; Batenburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have demonstrated that three lysosomal-type hydrolases, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-mannosidase and a phosphatase, are present in lamellar bodies isolated from adult human lung. The hydrolase activities that were studied, all showed an acidic pH optimum, which is

  12. Body_Machine? Encounters of the Human and the Mechanical in Education, Industry and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Frederik; Priem, Karin; Thyssen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    This paper unveils the body_machine as a key element of dynamic mental maps that have come to shape both educational praxis and research. It traces and analyses instances in which the human and the mechanical encountered each other in metaphorical, material and visual forms, thereby blurring to some extent the boundaries between them while…

  13. Body-part templates for recovery of 2D human poses under occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes; Perales, F.J.; Fisher, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Detection of humans and estimation of their 2D poses from a single image are challenging tasks. This is especially true when part of the observation is occluded. However, given a limited class of movements, poses can be recovered given the visible body-parts. To this end, we propose a novel template

  14. A mathematical human body model for frontal and rearward seated automotive impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Hoofman, R.; Kroonenberg, A.J. van den; Morsink, P.L.J.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is widely used for crash-safety research and design. However, most occupant models used in crash simulations are based on crash dummies and thereby inherit their apparent limitations. Several models simulating parts of the real human body have been published, but only few

  15. The Contribution of the Human Body in Young Children's Explanations about Shadow Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakleioti, Evagelia; Pantidos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    This paper begins with the view that the generation of meaning is a multimodal process. Props, drawings, graphs, gestures, as well as speech and written text are all mediators through which students construct new knowledge. Each semiotic context makes a unique contribution to the conceptualization of scientific entities. The human body, in…

  16. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance.

  17. Software tools for data modelling and processing of human body temperature circadian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena S; Afanasova, Anastasia I

    2015-01-01

    This paper is presenting a software development for simulating and processing thermometry data. The motivation of this research is the miniaturization of actuators attached to human body which allow frequent temperature measurements and improve the medical diagnosis procedures related to circadian dynamics.

  18. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Janssen (Sarah); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); K. Bossers (Koen); J.B. ten Brink (Jacoline); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); M.H. Nagtegaal (Marleen); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecu

  19. Persons and their bodies: how we should think about human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Hugh V

    2002-01-01

    The status of human embryos is discussed particularly in the light of the claim by Fox, in Health Care Analysis 8 that it would be useful to think of them in terms of cyborg metaphors. It is argued that we should consider human embryos for what they are--partially formed human bodies--rather than for what they are like in some respects (and unlike in others)--cyborgs. However to settle the issue of the status of the embryo is not to answer the moral questions which arise concerning how embryos should be treated. Since persons rather than bodies have rights, embryos do not have rights. However, whether or not embryos have rights, people can have duties concerning them. Furthermore, the persons whose fully developed bodies embryos will, might (or might have) become can have rights. Contrary to what is often assumed, it is not merely persons who have (or have had) living, developed human bodies who have moral rights: so it is argued in this paper.

  20. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatur

  1. The diet-body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, T C; Kneale, C J; Tasevska, N; Kuhnle, G G C

    2012-11-01

    The "trophic level enrichment" between diet and body results in an overall increase in nitrogen isotopic values as the food chain is ascended. Quantifying the diet-body Δ(15) N spacing has proved difficult, particularly for humans. The value is usually assumed to be +3-5‰ in the archaeological literature. We report here the first (to our knowledge) data from humans on isotopically known diets, comparing dietary intake and a body tissue sample, that of red blood cells. Samples were taken from 11 subjects on controlled diets for a 30-day period, where the controlled diets were designed to match each individual's habitual diet, thus reducing problems with short-term changes in diet causing isotopic changes in the body pool. The Δ(15) N(diet-RBC) was measured as +3.5‰. Using measured offsets from other studies, we estimate the human Δ(15) N(diet-keratin) as +5.0-5.3‰, which is in good agreement with values derived from the two other studies using individual diet records. We also estimate a value for Δ(15) N(diet-collagen) of ≈6‰, again in combination with measured offsets from other studies. This value is larger than usually assumed in palaeodietary studies, which suggests that the proportion of animal protein in prehistoric human diet may have often been overestimated in isotopic studies of palaeodiet.

  2. Salivary biomarkers associated with perceived satiety and body mass in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Schipper, R.G.; Loof, A.; Heerde, van W.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis is controlled by a delicate balancing of numerous central and peripheral factors, including circulating peptide hormones. This study investigated the proteome of saliva using SELDI-TOF-MS in relation to satiety and body mass index (BMI) in humans.

  3. Effects of Exercise and Dietary Protein Levels on Body Composition in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    on urea elimination in starva- tion. Ztschr Biol 2:307, 1866. 3. ATWATER, W.O. The demands of the body for nourishment and dietary standards, Fifteenth...H.C., and J.C. WINTER. Efficiency of maize protein in adult human nutrition. J Biol Chem 35:301, 1918. 8. CHITTENDEN, R.H. Physiological economy in

  4. Active numerical model of human body for reconstruction of falls from height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowicz, Marcin; Kędzior, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Falls from height constitute the largest group of incidents out of approximately 90,000 occupational accidents occurring each year in Poland. Reconstruction of the exact course of a fall from height is generally difficult due to lack of sufficient information from the accident scene. This usually results in several contradictory versions of an incident and impedes, for example, determination of the liability in a judicial process. In similar situations, in many areas of human activity, researchers apply numerical simulation. They use it to model physical phenomena to reconstruct their real course over time; e.g. numerical human body models are frequently used for investigation and reconstruction of road accidents. However, they are validated in terms of specific road traffic accidents and are considerably limited when applied to the reconstruction of other types of accidents. The objective of the study was to develop an active numerical human body model to be used for reconstruction of accidents associated with falling from height. Development of the model involved extension and adaptation of the existing Pedestrian human body model (available in the MADYMO package database) for the purposes of reconstruction of falls from height by taking into account the human reaction to the loss of balance. The model was developed by using the results of experimental tests of the initial phase of the fall from height. The active numerical human body model covering 28 sets of initial conditions related to various human reactions to the loss of balance was developed. The application of the model was illustrated by using it to reconstruct a real fall from height. From among the 28 sets of initial conditions, those whose application made it possible to reconstruct the most probable version of the incident was selected. The selection was based on comparison of the results of the reconstruction with information contained in the accident report. Results in the form of estimated

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term.

  6. A critical analysis of the human body and nursing praxis in Intensive Therapy Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Parissopoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body does not constitute an independent and comprehensive unit but instead it is a framework through which the individual perceives and receives information from the outside world.Aim: The purpose of this article was the review of literature relating to the concept of body of both the patient and nurse.Material and method: the methodology applied included search of review and research papers via the electronic databases of “SCOPUS” and “JSTOR” that referred to the theoretical approaches of the human body and clinical decision making. The data collection took place in the period of 2010-2011.Results: According to the literature, the hospital converts into a space for observation and knowledge transfer for the discipline of medicine and new methods for controlling individuals and society appear, while the patient is subjected to technologies and practices that gradually bring about the alienation from his own body. At the same time, the science of medicine, through innovative ways of examining the human body, led to a new understanding of life, death and disease. Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU as a workplace present increasing ethical and communication complexities for nurses, on one hand because the patient’s body destabilises through the applications of technology and the medical file, on the other hand because nurses are invited to adopt communication strategies in order to participate to clinical decision making. The traditional roles of healthcare professionals are challenged while they try to provide high-level care in ITU, where the transition from life to death has become quite vague and difficult to discern.Conclusions: The study of the social dimensions in ITU will allow further investigation of the body techniques of nurses, and will highlight ways of strengthening nursing identity and contribution to clinical decision making.

  7. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence.

  8. Plantar flexor stretch reflex responses to whole body loading/unloading during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; van Doornik, Johannes; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    was to investigate the contribution of load receptor feedback to the compensatory stretch reflex response. We examined the contribution of load receptor feedback to the magnitude of the short and medium latency components of the ankle plantar flexor stretch reflex responses following an unexpected dorsiflexion...... perturbation during human walking. Three body load conditions were investigated: normal body load, a 30% increase in body load, and a 30% decrease in body load. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.6 km/h with the left ankle attached to a portable stretching device. Dorsiflexion...... perturbations (8 degrees; 350-425 degrees/s) were generated during the late stance phase of gate (approximately 400 ms following heel contact). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the soleus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles using bipolar surface...

  9. Assessment of nutritional status, body composition, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated morphologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Tamsin A; Zafonte-Sanders, Melissa; Fields-Gardner, Cade; Moen, Karol; Johansen, Diana; Paton, Nicholas

    2003-04-01

    Nutritional status should be assessed at regular intervals as part of management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The simplest approach to assessment is serial weight measurement. A comprehensive nutritional assessment includes (1) anthropometric measurements of body composition; (2) biochemical measurements of serum protein, micronutrients, and metabolic parameters; (3) clinical assessment of altered nutritional requirements and social or psychological issues that may preclude adequate intake; and (4) measurement of dietary intake. Techniques for measuring body composition of fat and lean body mass include anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis. Other techniques, including dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hydrodensitometry, total body potassium measurement, and cross-sectional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are available in research centers. Anthropometry, including waist-hip ratios, regional DXA, and cross-sectional imaging, is best for detecting morphologic changes associated with fat redistribution syndrome. Nutritional assessment and intervention in children with HIV can help to prevent stunted growth and development.

  10. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic pathway in the eye is novel and highly relevant to studies of glaucoma and other eye diseases.

  11. Realtime Reconstruction of an Animating Human Body from a Single Depth Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin; Cheng, Zhi-Quan; Lai, Chao; Martin, Ralph R; Dang, Gang

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for realtime reconstruction of an animating human body,which produces a sequence of deforming meshes representing a given performance captured by a single commodity depth camera. We achieve realtime single-view mesh completion by enhancing the parameterized SCAPE model.Our method, which we call Realtime SCAPE, performs full-body reconstruction without the use of markers.In Realtime SCAPE, estimations of body shape parameters and pose parameters, needed for reconstruction, are decoupled. Intrinsic body shape is first precomputed for a given subject, by determining shape parameters with the aid of a body shape database. Subsequently, per-frame pose parameter estimation is performed by means of linear blending skinning (LBS); the problem is decomposed into separately finding skinning weights and transformations. The skinning weights are also determined offline from the body shape database,reducing online reconstruction to simply finding the transformations in LBS. Doing so is formulated as a linear variational problem;carefully designed constraints are used to impose temporal coherence and alleviate artifacts. Experiments demonstrate that our method can produce full-body mesh sequences with high fidelity.

  12. Body movement distribution with respect to swimmer's glide position in human underwater undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-01

    Human swimmers use undulatory motions similar to fish locomotion to attain high speeds. The human body is a non-smooth multi-body linkage system with restricted flexibility and is not primarily adapted to motion in the water. Due to anatomical limitations, the human swimmer is forced to deviate from the symmetric fish-like motion and to adjust his motion to his limited abilities. The goal of this paper is to investigates the movement of ten swimmers during human underwater undulatory in a still water pool and to find out to what extent the human swimmer approaches an ideal undulatory wave which is symmetric with respect to the extended gliding position. Therefore, it is necessary to (i) to ascertain the magnitude of the normalized dorsal, ventral and total amplitudes of the undulatory movements, (ii) to examine the distribution and symmetry/asymmetry of the dorsal, ventral and total amplitudes along the length of the swimming body, and (iii) to compare the differences in amplitude distribution and other indicators between different skill levels. The amplitude distribution of the dorsal and ventral deflection along the body (related to the swimmer's stretched position) is highly asymmetric. Skilled swimmers swim with a more linear body wave and use a smaller range of envelop than less skilled swimmers. The durations of the up and down kicks show only minor differences. The down kick is slightly faster than the up kick. Although the down kick is more powerful than the up kick, the hip marker shows almost the same average swimming speed in both half-cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: Observed effects and theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

  14. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  15. The relationships between dioxin accumulation in human body and eating habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajihara, H.; Miura, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ando, N.; Ozawa, T.; Takahashi, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakadaira, H.; Yamamoto, M. [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakamura, S.; Shimada, K. [Niigata Prefectural Kamo Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of human to dioxins was dominated by food. In Japan, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxins is set at 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day. However, important parameters, such as adsorption rate and half-life, which are used in the calculation process to determining the TDI of dioxins, were not intensively clarified. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between dioxin accumulation in the human body and eating habits, in order to obtain information on the accumulation behavior of dioxins ingested by humans.

  16. Realistic Modeling and Animation of Human Body Based on Scanned Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-You Ma; Hui Zhang; Shou-Wei Jiang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for building animation model of real human body from surface scanned data.The human model is represented by a triangular mesh and described as a layered geometric model.The model consists of two layers: the control skeleton generating body animation from motion capture data,and the simplified surface model providing an efficient representation of the skin surface shape.The skeleton is generated automatically from surface scanned data using the feature extraction,and thena point-to-line mapping is used to map the surface model onto the underlying skeleton.The resulting model enables real-time and smooth animation by manipulation of the skeleton while maintaining the surface detail.Compared with earlier approach,the principal advantages of our approach are the automated generation of body control skeletons from the scanned data for real-time animation,and the automatic mapping and animation of the captured human surface shape.The human model constructed in this work can be used for applications of ergonomic design,garment CAD,real-time simulating humans in virtual reality environment and so on.

  17. Why does it matter how we regulate the use of human body parts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    Human tissue and body parts have been used in one way or another for millennia. They have been preserved and displayed, both in museums and public shows. Real human hair is used for wigs, while some artists even use human tissue in their works. Blood, bone marrow, whole organs and a host of other structures and human substances are all transplanted into living persons to treat illness. New life can be created from gametes through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while the creation of cell lines keeps tissue alive indefinitely. These uses create significant challenges for the legal system in the UK. The major challenge for the law is to balance the competing demands of those groups who have vested interests in human tissue-researchers, medical practitioners, patients, families, the community and the police, among many others. It must provide sufficient control to users of tissue, but also take account of the fact that our bodies hold psychological importance for us while we live and, after we die, for those we leave behind. To some degree the law has been successful, but we still lack a comprehensive, coherent approach to the regulation of human tissue. Partially as a reaction to this lack of a comprehensive approach, some commentators have turned to applying the concept of property to human tissue means to achieve regulatory outcomes they support.

  18. Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, H; Wulf-Goldenberg, A; Eckert, K; Jensen, J; Edsbagge, J; Björquist, P; Rivero, M; Strehl, R; Jozefczuk, J; Prigione, A; Adjaye, J; Urbaniak, T; Bussmann, P; Zeilinger, K; Gerlach, J C

    2013-09-01

    Teratoma formation in mice is today the most stringent test for pluripotency that is available for human pluripotent cells, as chimera formation and tetraploid complementation cannot be performed with human cells. The teratoma assay could also be applied for assessing the safety of human pluripotent cell-derived cell populations intended for therapeutic applications. In our study we examined the spontaneous differentiation behaviour of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a perfused 3D multi-compartment bioreactor system and compared it with differentiation of hESCs and human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) cultured in vitro as embryoid bodies and in vivo in an experimental mouse model of teratoma formation. Results from biochemical, histological/immunohistological and ultrastuctural analyses revealed that hESCs cultured in bioreactors formed tissue-like structures containing derivatives of all three germ layers. Comparison with embryoid bodies and the teratomas revealed a high degree of similarity of the tissues formed in the bioreactor to these in the teratomas at the histological as well as transcriptional level, as detected by comparative whole-genome RNA expression profiling. The 3D culture system represents a novel in vitro model that permits stable long-term cultivation, spontaneous multi-lineage differentiation and tissue formation of pluripotent cells that is comparable to in vivo differentiation. Such a model is of interest, e.g. for the development of novel cell differentiation strategies. In addition, the 3D in vitro model could be used for teratoma studies and pluripotency assays in a fully defined, controlled environment, alternatively to in vivo mouse models.

  19. Anatomists' views on human body dissection and donation: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Bueno-López, José Luis; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-12-01

    A survey was conducted to test three hypotheses: anatomists believe that dissection by students conveys not just anatomical knowledge but also essential skills and attitudes, including professionalism; anatomists approve of the donation of their own bodies or body parts/organs for medical/health-care training and research; attitudes towards body dissection and donation are not dependent upon gender or upon the extent of teaching experience, but are related to transcendental convictions relating to beliefs in the afterlife. Eighty-one anatomists, from 29 countries responded to the survey; 80% indicated that they required medical/health-care students to dissect human cadavers (60% females-86% males, p=0.02). Most teachers recorded that dissection was an instrument for training undergraduate students, an instrument for the development of professional skills, and an instrument to help to control emotions in the future doctor rather than being only a means of teaching/learning anatomy facts. Males were more receptive to the concept that dissection helps to control emotions in the future doctor (p=0.02). Most teachers (75%) said they were willing to donate their bodies, 41% saying they would donate body organs only, 9% would donate their entire bodies only, 25% would separately donate organs and also the entire body. The willingness to donate increased significantly with the years of teaching experience (p=0.04). Teachers who were not believers in the afterlife were more likely to donate their organs/bodies than were believers (p=0.03). Our findings showed that anatomists' attitudes towards body dissection and donation are dependent upon gender, upon the extent of teaching experience, and upon transcendental convictions.

  20. i-bodies, Human Single Domain Antibodies That Antagonize Chemokine Receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Katherine; Dolezal, Olan; Cao, Benjamin; Nilsson, Susan K; See, Heng B; Pfleger, Kevin D G; Roche, Michael; Gorry, Paul R; Pow, Andrew; Viduka, Katerina; Lim, Kevin; Lu, Bernadine G C; Chang, Denison H C; Murray-Rust, Thomas; Kvansakul, Marc; Perugini, Matthew A; Dogovski, Con; Doerflinger, Marcel; Zhang, Yuan; Parisi, Kathy; Casey, Joanne L; Nuttall, Stewart D; Foley, Michael

    2016-06-10

    CXCR4 is a G protein-coupled receptor with excellent potential as a therapeutic target for a range of clinical conditions, including stem cell mobilization, cancer prognosis and treatment, fibrosis therapy, and HIV infection. We report here the development of a fully human single-domain antibody-like scaffold termed an "i-body," the engineering of which produces an i-body library possessing a long complementarity determining region binding loop, and the isolation and characterization of a panel of i-bodies with activity against human CXCR4. The CXCR4-specific i-bodies show antagonistic activity in a range of in vitro and in vivo assays, including inhibition of HIV infection, cell migration, and leukocyte recruitment but, importantly, not the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells. Epitope mapping of the three CXCR4 i-bodies AM3-114, AM4-272, and AM3-523 revealed binding deep in the binding pocket of the receptor.