WorldWideScience

Sample records for human effort needed

  1. Human Capital: Additional Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    financial management, human resources, and real property. 12 GAO-14-704G. 13 The RAND Corporation, Mental Health Stigma in the Military (2014...focusing on suicide prevention, intervention, and surveillance to support stigma reduction and reduce the potential for suicide contagion . Defense...areas of information technology, financial management, human resources, and real property. Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-11

  2. Report: hospitals need more sophisticated planning efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H J

    1990-09-20

    Sophisticated planning efforts are increasing among hospitals. However, hospital planners and marketers still have far to go before they can match their counterparts in industry. This is according to a report on hospital planning recently released by the Society for Healthcare Planning and Marketing of the American Hospital Association, Chicago.

  3. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W

    1988-12-01

    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  4. DoDs Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    through automation; and • enhance business agility and effectively manage change. DoD’s data center consolidation plan identified the following...Assistance The DoD OIG Quantitative Methods Division assisted with the nonstatistical sampling method that we used to select the data centers to visit...H 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-068 DoD’s Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement Mission Our mission is to provide independent

  5. Social entrepreneurship in religious congregations' efforts to address health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Multiple case studies. Los Angeles County, California. Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races/ethnicities (African-American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed by using a qualitative, code-based approach. Congregations' health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations' health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from-and for-faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as "incubators" for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Although the small scale of congregations' health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations' position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways.

  6. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  7. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  8. Meeting human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    The degree of autonomy of future long duration manned missions will emphasize interactions between human operators and automated systems aimed at the most effective allocations of tasks between humans and machines. Knowledge of crewmembers' physical status, encompassing both capabilities and limitations, will also be critical during EVA and planetary roving missions; psychological evaluation and support, with a view to both individual health and group cohesion and productivity, may become a critical consideration. Attention is here given to crewmembers' medical and psychological vulnerabilities.

  9. Conceptualising Human Needs and Wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractNEEDS AND WELLBEING: ISSUES AND THEMES What are the relationships between human needs and human wellbeing? I will address the question by considering the conceptual linkages between these two umbrella categories. This requires investigation of the nature of each of them as a

  10. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  11. Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    DEFENSE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts Report to...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts 5a... 3D ) printing —has the potential to improve aspects of DOD’s mission and operations. DOD and other organizations, such as America Makes, are

  12. DOD Financial Management: Improvements Needed in the Navys Audit Readiness Efforts for Fund Balance with Treasury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Improvements Needed in the Navy’s Audit Readiness Efforts for Fund Balance with Treasury...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-47, a report to congressional committees August 2016 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Improvements Needed...Guidance to provide a standard methodology for DOD components to follow to improve financial management and achieve audit readiness, and designated

  13. Identifying the Future Needs for Long-Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Green, M. A. Qureshi, J. A. Long, P.J. Burfening, D.L. Hamernik

    2007-01-01

    diseases. When considered in concert with societal concerns in the areas of natural resource conservation and protection, animal welfare, and food safety, it is clear that publicly supported agricultural research must be focused on enhancing the functionality and well-being of livestock and poultry in environmentally neutral production systems in the future. Realizing the great potential for animal genomics to address these and other issues, a workshop was convened by the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA in Washington, DC in September of 2004. The workshop was entitled “Charting the Road Map for Long Term USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics”. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the workshop and the resulting recommendations. The need for a cohesive, comprehensive long-term plan for all of USDA's research efforts in animal genomics was evident at the workshop, requiring further integration of the efforts of the USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES and the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS to achieve the greatest return on investment.

  14. Electronic Health Records: VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their Interoperability Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-27

    ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their Interoperability Efforts Statement of...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Health Records : VA and DOD Need to Establish Goals and Metrics for Their...Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, House of Representatives October 27, 2015 ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS

  15. Recent efforts to model human diseases in vivo in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Cathie M; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2008-01-01

    Upon completion of sequencing the Drosophila genome, it was estimated that 61% of human disease-associated genes had sequence homologs in flies, and in some diseases such as cancer, the number was as high as 68%. We now know that as many as 75% of the genes associated with genetic disease have counterparts in Drosophila. Using better tools for mutation detection, association studies and whole genome analysis the number of human genes associated with genetic disease is steadily increasing. These detection efforts are outpacing the ability to assign function and understand the underlying cause of the disease at the molecular level. Drosophila models can therefore advance human disease research in a number of ways by: establishing the normal role of these gene products during development, elucidating the mechanism underlying disease pathology, and even identifying candidate therapeutic agents for the treatment of human disease. At the 49(th) Annual Drosophila Research Conference in San Diego this year, a number of labs presented their exciting findings on Drosophila models of human disease in both platform presentations and poster sessions. Here we can only briefly review some of these developments, and we apologize that we do not have the time or space to review all of the findings presented which use Drosophila to understand human disease etiology.

  16. Electromagnetic respiratory effort harvester: human testing and metabolic cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhaidar, E; Padasdao, B; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Lubecke, O Boric

    2015-03-01

    Remote health monitoring is increasingly recognized as a valuable tool in chronic disease management. Continuous respiratory monitoring could be a powerful tool in managing chronic diseases, however it is infrequently performed because of obtrusiveness and inconvenience of the existing methods. The movements of the chest wall and abdominal area during normal breathing can be monitored and harvested to enable self-powered wearable biosensors for continuous remote monitoring. This paper presents human testing results of a light-weight (30 g), wearable respiratory effort energy harvesting sensor. The harvester output voltage, power, and its metabolic burden, are measured on twenty subjects in two resting and exercise conditions each lasting 5 min. The system includes two off-the-shelf miniature electromagnetic generators harvesting and sensing thoracic and abdominal movements. Modules can be placed in series to increase the output voltage for rectification purposes. Electromagnetic respiratory effort harvester/sensor system can produce up to 1.4 V, 6.44 mW, and harvests 30.4 mJ during a 5-min exercise stage. A statistical paired t-test analysis of the calculated EE confirmed there is no significant change ( P > 0.05 ) in the metabolic rate of subjects wearing the electromagnetic harvester and biosensor.

  17. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  18. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Ongoing Efforts in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.; Woodman, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in spaceflight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers, and from industry. It is our intent to develop a common core avionic system that has standard capabilities and interfaces, and contains the basic elements and functionality needed for any spacecraft. This common core will be scalable and tailored to specific missions. It will incorporate hardware and software from multiple vendors, and be upgradeable in order to infuse incremental capabilities and new technologies. It will maximize the use of reconfigurable open source software (e.g., Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Core Flight Software (CFS)). Our long-term focus is on improving functionality, reliability, and autonomy, while reducing size, weight, and power. Where possible, we will leverage terrestrial commercial capabilities to drive down development and sustaining costs. We will select promising technologies for evaluation, compare them in an objective manner, and mature them to be available for future programs. The remainder of this paper describes our approach, technical areas of emphasis, integrated test experience and results as of mid-2014, and future plans. As a part of the AES

  19. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  20. Helping Those in Need: Human Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Colleen Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Many people experience hardship and need help. This help is provided by a network of agencies and organizations, both public and private. Staffed by human service workers, this network, and the kinds of help it offers, is as varied as the clients it serves. Human service workers help clients become more self-sufficient. The first section of this…

  1. Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Delord, Karine; García, David; Boué, Amélie; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species.

  2. Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Louzao

    Full Text Available The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species.

  3. Biosurveillance: Efforts to Develop a National Biosurveillance Capability Need a National Strategy and a Designated Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    currently covered are cattle, sheep, goats, equine , swine, commercial poultry, and commercial food fish. The system is a joint effort of the U.S...tuberculosis. However, it can often be prevented with vaccines and can usually be treated with antibiotics or antiviral drugs. Page 77 GAO-10-645 Federal...goats, equine , swine, commercial poultry, and commercial food fish. The National Animal Health Reporting System is a joint effort of the U.S. Animal

  4. Promotion of research in human reproduction: global needs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M F

    1988-01-01

    The WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972, to respond to a global expansion in research needs in human reproduction, especially in the area of fertility regulation. The Programme's limited resources come from voluntary contributions by governments and international agencies. The emphasis is always on the needs of developing countries. The Programme has to keep the field under continuous review, and to direct its limited resources to the major unmet needs. This paper presents, from a global perspective, the needs and priorities in the promotion of research in human reproduction. It is emphasized that research has to be backed up by political commitment and resources if it is to have an impact on reproductive health. The role of determinants of health, other than and beyond the medical services, has also to be recognized. Promotion of research in human reproduction, to serve developing country needs, has to move into two directions. One is the mobilization of a global effort to develop and test technologies, where the available technologies are not satisfactory to meet the needs and where the research is slackening. The second is the strengthening of in-country resources for research to deal with country-specific problems and to enable countries to utilize, to the best, available technologies.

  5. Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Savage, Caroline E; Newsham, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As climate change proceeds at an unprecedented rate, concern for the natural environment has increased. The world's population aging also continues to rise at an unprecedented rate, giving greater attention to the implications of an older population. The two trends are linked through the fact that changes to the environment affect older adults, and older adults affect the environment. Sustainability is, therefore, an intergenerational phenomenon, and protecting resources today leaves a positive legacy and enhances quality of life for future generations. Older adults have much to share with younger generations about behaviors that promote sustainable living, yet few sustainability efforts are intergenerational in nature. As large numbers of people currently subsist without secure access to basic needs, ensuring equitable resource consumption for all generations is urgent and aligns with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Through exploring linkages between aging and sustainability, we identify intergenerational strategies to protect the environment and promote human rights and quality of life for older adults.

  6. Protecting Persistent Dynamic Oceanographic Features: Transboundary Conservation Efforts Are Needed for the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Louzao; Karine Delord; David García; Amélie Boué; Henri Weimerskirch

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are speciall...

  7. A Coordinated Effort: Well-Conducted Partnerships Meet Students' Academic, Health, and Social Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Marty; Jacobson, Reuben; Pearson, Sarah S.

    2009-01-01

    Without question, schools must be accountable for students' performance. But schools can not meet students' needs alone. Young people need more connections, more support, more opportunities, and more learning time to be successful. When supports and services are not available, often it is the teachers who step in to fill the void. They do this…

  8. Bridging the gap: need for a data repository to support vaccine prioritization efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Guruprasad; Phelps, Charles; Sangha, Kinpritma; Levin, Scott; Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-08

    As the mechanisms for discovery, development, and delivery of new vaccines become increasingly complex, strategic planning and priority setting have become ever more crucial. Traditional single value metrics such as disease burden or cost-effectiveness no longer suffice to rank vaccine candidates for development. The Institute of Medicine-in collaboration with the National Academy of Engineering-has developed a novel software system to support vaccine prioritization efforts. The Strategic Multi-Attribute Ranking Tool for Vaccines-SMART Vaccines-allows decision makers to specify their own value structure, selecting from among 28 pre-defined and up to 7 user-defined attributes relevant to the ranking of vaccine candidates. Widespread use of SMART Vaccines will require compilation of a comprehensive data repository for numerous relevant populations-including their demographics, disease burdens and associated treatment costs, as well as characterizing performance features of potential or existing vaccines that might be created, improved, or deployed. While the software contains preloaded data for a modest number of populations, a large gap exists between the existing data and a comprehensive data repository necessary to make full use of SMART Vaccines. While some of these data exist in disparate sources and forms, constructing a data repository will require much new coordination and focus. Finding strategies to bridge the gap to a comprehensive data repository remains the most important task in bringing SMART Vaccines to full fruition, and to support strategic vaccine prioritization efforts in general.

  9. Excess Facilities: DOD Needs More Complete Information and a Strategy to Guide Its Future Disposal Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    as the presence of lead-based paint, asbestos, and hantavirus .28 Figure 8 shows examples of these vacant excess buildings. Figure 8: Condemned Excess...28 Hantavirus is spread to humans by rodents and can lead to a life-threatening disease— Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome—that has symptoms

  10. Making Amnesty Work: Joint Efforts To Meet the Needs of Newly Legalized Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck; Brady, Katherine A.

    This handbook provides information and ideas to be considered in the formation of the kinds of partnerships among service providers (i.e., advocacy groups, coalitions, educational agencies, churches, community-based organizations, etc.) that will be needed to enable both documented and undocumented immigrants to meet the Phase 2 legalization…

  11. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Efforts over the last Two Decades to Reduce Human Losses due to Natural Hazards, and A Proposal for Future Efforts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Chakos, A.

    2009-12-01

    While there is evidence that efforts over the last 20 years to reduce human and fiscal losses due to natural hazards have been effective, there is also evidence that, despite these efforts, we can expect large and, perhaps, even increasing losses in the future. If this conclusion is correct—and unacceptable—then what should be done differently to reduce these losses? One piece of the answer can be found through analyzing why the efforts to date have not been more effective. Another piece can be found through examining the characteristics of successful social movements. For a social movement is what we are talking about when we advocate changing human behavior in order to reduce risk from natural hazards. We cannot attribute the disappointingly modest success of past risk reduction efforts to inadequate science or engineering: the reduction of natural disaster losses in both the U.S. and Japan over the last century indicates that humans possess the required scientific and engineering expertise to reduce the risk of natural hazards, and reduce it significantly. If the problem is that this expertise is not being applied outside of Japan and the U.S., where the risk is concentrated, then we need to understand why. There are numerous examples, after all, of widespread, rapid adoption of modern technologies (such as the internet), once these technologies were perceived to be beneficial. Yet not only have earthquake engineering advances failed to be adopted where they are needed, even existing building codes are often not followed. To understand this behavioral paradox better, we turn to human psychology. In the last several years, Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times has invoked the work of psychologists, in order to explore how our brains may not have yet evolved to respond properly to certain types of modern risks. Kristof refers, for example, to Professor Daniel Gilbert, who argues that threats that will catch our attention will either be personalized, imminent

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN HUMAN NEEDS SYSTEM - PERSONALITY - HUMAN MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela MINICA

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the main attributes of an economic approach of needs and preferences, with detailed focus on the correlation between meta-needs and personality, by correlating the principle of hierarchy established by Maslow with the balance theory. Adopting an integrated system of human capital motivation, which takes into account the complex aspects involved in the knowledge society, represents a managerial requirement for any organisation.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN HUMAN NEEDS SYSTEM - PERSONALITY - HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela MINICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main attributes of an economic approach of needs and preferences, with detailed focus on the correlation between meta-needs and personality, by correlating the principle of hierarchy established by Maslow with the balance theory. Adopting an integrated system of human capital motivation, which takes into account the complex aspects involved in the knowledge society, represents a managerial requirement for any organisation.

  14. Further efforts needed to achieve measles elimination in Germany: results of an outbreak investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Ole; Siedler, Anette; Sagebiel, Daniel; Hellenbrand, Wiebke; Santibanez, Sabine; Mankertz, Annette; Vogt, Georg; Treeck, Ulrich van; Krause, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    To determine morbidity and costs related to a large measles outbreak in Germany and to identify ways to improve the country's national measles elimination strategy. We investigated a large outbreak of measles in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) that occurred in 2006 after 2 years of low measles incidence (provider costs were calculated using information on complications, hospitalization and physician consultations. In NRW, 1749 cases were notified over a 48-week period. Compared with 2001, the distribution of cases shifted to older age groups (especially the 10-14 year group). Most cases (n = 614) occurred in Duisburg. Of these, 81% were interviewed; 15% were hospitalized and two died. Of the 464 for whom information was available, 80% were reported as unvaccinated. Common reasons for non-vaccination were parents either forgetting (36%) or rejecting (28%) vaccination. The average cost per measles case was estimated at 373 euros. An accumulation of non-immune individuals led to this outbreak. The shift in age distribution has implications for the effectiveness of measles control and the elimination strategy in place. Immediate nationwide school-based catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting older age groups are needed to close critical immunity gaps. Otherwise, the elimination of measles in Germany and thus in Europe by 2010 will not be feasible.

  15. HESS Opinions "More efforts and scientific rigour are needed to attribute trends in flood time series"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hundecha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether the magnitude and frequency of floods have changed due to climate change or other drivers of change is of high interest. The number of flood trend studies is rapidly rising. When changes are detected, many studies link the identified change to the underlying causes, i.e. they attribute the changes in flood behaviour to certain drivers of change. We propose a hypothesis testing framework for trend attribution which consists of essential ingredients for a sound attribution: proof of consistency, proof of inconsistency and provision of confidence statement. Further, we evaluate the current state-of-the-art of flood trend attribution. To this end, we assess how selected recent studies approach the attribution problem, and to which extent their attribution statements seem defendable. In our opinion, the current state of flood trend attribution is poor. Attribution statements are mostly based on qualitative reasoning or even speculation. Typically, the focus of flood trend studies is the detection of change, i.e. the statistical analysis of time series, and attribution is regarded as an appendix: (1 flood time series are analysed by means of trend tests, (2 if a significant change is detected, a hypothesis on the cause of change is given, and (3 explanations or published studies are sought which support the hypothesis. We believe that we need a change in perspective and more scientific rigour: detection should be seen as an integral part of the more challenging attribution problem, and detection and attribution should be placed in a sound hypothesis testing framework.

  16. HESS Opinions "More efforts and scientific rigour are needed to attribute trends in flood time series"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hundecha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The question whether the magnitude and frequency of floods have changed due to climate change or other drivers of change is of high interest. The number of flood trend studies is rapidly rising. When changes are detected, many studies link the identified change to the underlying causes, i.e. they attribute the changes in flood behaviour to certain drivers of change. We propose a hypothesis testing framework for trend attribution which consists of essential ingredients for a sound attribution: evidence of consistency, evidence of inconsistency, and provision of confidence statement. Further, we evaluate the current state-of-the-art of flood trend attribution. We assess how selected recent studies approach the attribution problem, and to which extent their attribution statements seem defendable. In our opinion, the current state of flood trend attribution is poor. Attribution statements are mostly based on qualitative reasoning or even speculation. Typically, the focus of flood trend studies is the detection of change, i.e. the statistical analysis of time series, and attribution is regarded as an appendix: (1 flood time series are analysed by means of trend tests, (2 if a significant change is detected, a hypothesis on the cause of change is given, and (3 explanations or published studies are sought which support the hypothesis. We believe that we need a change in perspective and more scientific rigour: detection should be seen as an integral part of the more challenging attribution problem, and detection and attribution should be placed in a sound hypothesis testing framework.

  17. Why the developing nations like India need strong capacity building efforts in greenhouse gases mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, V.; Sudhakaran, A.; Singh, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Today, India rubs shoulders with nations like USA and China for being the major shareholders in global greenhouse emissions and has more emissions than Russia! Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) has been proven as a reliable method to counter global warming and keep the 2ºC per year policy in check and is currently in the pilot stage in many developed nations. The three major requirements for CCUS are: manpower in diverse fields, implementation potential and capital. Keeping other social problems aside, India still has sufficient mankind in all spheres of research ranging from earth science, engineering, basic sciences, economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. to successfully work on such challenges. India has leading academic institutions, research labs and universities in science and engineering. They also have a working power force in aspects like economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. in various management institutes of repute. India, however, lacks in sufficient funding for advanced research and capacity building schemes to support projects of such scale. Deployment of facts and concepts on climate change need an approach of much greater scope than what is anticipated. The above workforces can put forth a clear picture about the various entities surrounding CCUS and provide sensible planning and implementation information through scientific research. CCUS is only possible when the direct anthropogenic emitters like fossil fuel plants modify their features to incorporate the methods associated with it. The rural population has to be educated in context to the safety of the storage sites. Above all, the Indian government must holistically divert funds for such programs and provide economic incentives to the industries for the industries. The bottom line is that India has been working in lots of aspects with not very clear cuts objectives. There are CO2 capture technologies like amine scrubbing and membrane

  18. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  19. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  20. [Is an effort needed in order to replace the punitive culture for the sake of patient safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Ubeda, S R

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to introduce a safety culture have flourished in a growing number of health care organisations. However, many of these organisational efforts have been incomplete with respect to the manner on how to address the resistance to change offered by the prevailing punitive culture of healthcare organisations. The present article is intended to increase the awareness on three reasons of why an effort is needed to change the punitive culture before introducing the patient safety culture. The first reason is that the culture needs to be investigated and understood. The second reason is that culture is a complex construct, deeply embedded in organisations and their contexts, and thus difficult to change. The third reason is that punitive culture is not compatible with some components of safety culture, thus without removing it there are great possibilities that it would continue to be active and dominant over safety culture. These reasons suggest that, unless planning and executing effective interventions towards replacing punitive culture with safety culture, there is the risk that punitive culture would still prevail. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. The Need for Inclusion of Human Resources Accounting in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    For many years, the concern of management was neither for technical values, human values ... managers. This system was later extended to office and factory personnel. ... A similar effort in disclosing human resource information in the financial ... Walker, in his Grolier Business Library "Human Resource Planning" in 1995 ...

  2. Lack of effort or lack of ability? Robot failures and human perception of agency and responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdt, S. van der; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Research on human interaction has shown that attributing agency to another agent has substantial consequences for the way we perceive and evaluate its actions. Specifically, considering an agent's actions related to either effort or ability can have important consequences for the attribution of resp

  3. Human Needs and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe concepts of need and needs are pervasive in everyday discourse, public policy, especially social policy (see e.g. Witkin & Altschuld 1995, Brazelton & Greenspan 2000), management and marketing (see e.g. Jackson et al. 2004), and international policy areas such as humanitarian aid and

  4. Human Needs Theory: Applications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author reviews needs theory as a field of research and scholarship, examines seven needs theories (including Nussbaum's capabilities approach), and synthesizes elements of all of these into a list he used tentatively and speculatively to analyze two common instructional practices in music education. The author's intent is to…

  5. Human Needs and Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe concepts of need and needs are pervasive in everyday discourse, public policy, especially social policy (see e.g. Witkin & Altschuld 1995, Brazelton & Greenspan 2000), management and marketing (see e.g. Jackson et al. 2004), and international policy areas such as humanitarian aid and

  6. Labor of love. A model for planning human resource needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, F J

    1989-01-01

    Typically, the annual budgeting process is the hospital's only attempt to forecast human resource requirements. In times of rapid change, this traditional ad hoc approach is incapable of satisfying either the Catholic hospital's ethical obligations as an employer or its responsibilities to provide healthcare to the poor and suffering. Assumptions about future activity, including volume projections on admissions, patient days, and other services, influence the budgeting process to a large degree. Because the amount of work to be done and the number of employees required to do it are related, changes in demand for service immediately and directly affect staffing requirements. A hospital cannot achieve ethical human resource management or provide high-quality healthcare if inadequate planning forces management into a cycle of crisis-coping--reacting to this year's nursing shortage with a major recruiting effort and next year's financial crunch with a traumatic reduction in force. The human resource planning approach outlined here helps the hospital meet legitimate business needs while satisfying its ethical obligations. The model has four phases and covers a charge to the planning committee; committee appointments; announcements; the establishment of ground rules, focus, and task forces; and the work of each task force.

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  8. The Needs of Humans: A Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a teaching method developed by Maria Montessori, starting with activities in the primary classroom, which are continued through the elementary years. The author discusses a few child-centered techniques in preparing children for their work within a larger community--the whole human family. In the Montessori environment, the…

  9. The Needs of Humans: A Beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Marie

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a teaching method developed by Maria Montessori, starting with activities in the primary classroom, which are continued through the elementary years. The author discusses a few child-centered techniques in preparing children for their work within a larger community--the whole human family. In the Montessori environment, the…

  10. Organizational needs: A co-creation and human systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    The concept of need is embedded in economic systems. Since the concept originates in individual psychology, it is not well understood at the organizational level and other higher systemic levels. We address this gap by drawing on research on human needs, on organizations, and on value co-creation in nested human systems. We present a framework that summarizes essentials of well-being, behavior and the change dynamics of needs at individual, organizational, and ecosystemic levels of human syst...

  11. Further effort is needed to improve management of chronic pain in primary care. Results from the Arkys project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Piccinocchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic pain is challenging. The Arkys project was initiated in Italy to assist general practitioners (GPs in the management of chronic pain. The main objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Arkys for selecting new therapeutic strategies. An online interactive questionnaire for assessing pain and guiding therapeutic decisions was made available to GPs participating to Arkys. The GPs were invited to complete the questionnaire for each patient who presented moderate-severe chronic pain, and to decide on a new analgesic treatment based on the information provided by the questionnaire. Two hundred and forty four GPs participated with a total of 3035 patients. Patients (mean age 68.9 years had mostly chronic non-cancer pain (87.7%. In 42.3%, pain had neuropathic components. Only 53.6% of patients were in treatment with analgesics (strong opioids, 38.9%; NSAIDs, 32.6%; weak opioids, 25.6%; anti-epileptics, 17.3%; paracetamol, 14.9%. Use of the questionnaire resulted in the prescription of analgesics to all patients and in increased prescription of strong opioids (69.7%. NSAID prescription decreased (12.8%, while anti-epileptics use remained stable. These findings show that current management of chronic pain in primary care is far from optimal and that efforts are needed to educate GPs and improve guideline implementation.

  12. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  13. Using Human Capital Planning to Predict Future Talent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Donald; Jansen, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Human capital planning is an important tool in predicting future talent needs and sustaining organizational excellence over the long term. This article examines the concept of human capital planning and outlines how institutions can use HCP to identify the type and number of talent needed both now and in the future, recognize and prioritize talent…

  14. Using Human Capital Planning to Predict Future Talent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Donald; Jansen, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Human capital planning is an important tool in predicting future talent needs and sustaining organizational excellence over the long term. This article examines the concept of human capital planning and outlines how institutions can use HCP to identify the type and number of talent needed both now and in the future, recognize and prioritize talent…

  15. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    toward achieving auditability of its financial statements . As part of that effort, the Navy in March 2013 asserted audit readiness of its...help identify areas for additional focus, and facilitate efforts to achieve DOD’s goal of financial statement auditability department-wide by... importance of addressing fundamental systems and control deficiencies, which will lead to lasting financial management improvements and, as a result

  16. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougan, A; Dreicer, M; Essner, J; Gaffney, A; Reed, J; Williams, R

    2009-11-16

    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  17. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Developing Our Human Capital FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Rebecca S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hawkins Erpenbeck, Heather [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report documents the accomplishments of the Safeguards HCD Fiscal Year 2015 (FY15) Project Work Plan, highlighting LANL’s work as well as the accomplishments of our NGSI-sponsored students, graduate and postdoctoral fellows, and mid-career professionals during this past year. While fiscal year 2015 has been a year of transition in the Human Capital Development area for LANL, we are working to revitalize our efforts to promote and develop Human Capital in Safeguards and Non-proliferation and are looking forward to implementing new initiatives in the coming fiscal year and continuing to transition the knowledge of staff who have been on assignment at IAEA and Headquarters to improve our support to HCD.

  18. New methods for dete rmining the relative load due to physical effort of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szubert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relative physical load (% VO2max is the quotient of oxygen uptake (Vo2 during physical effort and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max by the human body. For this purpose the stress test must be performed. The relative load shows a high correlation with minute ventilation, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, increased concentrations of catecholamines in the blood, inner temperature, weight, height and human body surface area. The relative load is a criterion for the maximum workloads admissible for healthy and sick workers. Besides, the classification of effort can be more precise when based on the relative load than on the energy output. Material and Methods: Based on our own and international empirical evidence and the laws of heat transfer and fluid mechanics, a model of temperature control system has been developed, involving the elements of human cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Using this model, we have been able to develop our own methods of determining the relative load, applying only the body core temperature (TW or heart rate within one minute (HR, body mass (m, height (H, and body surface area (AD instead of VO2max. Results: The values of the relative physical load (% VO2max obtained by using our own methods do not differ significantly from those obtained by other methods and by other researchers. Conclusions: The developed methods for determining the relative physical load (% VO2max do not require the exercise test to be performed, therefore, they may be considered (after verification in an experimental study a feasible alternative to current methods. Med Pr 2014;65(2:189–195

  19. Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

  20. Nursing and justice as a basic human need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that justice is a basic human need akin to those famously depicted in Maslow's hierarchy of human needs and, as such, warrants recognition as a core element in representative ideas about nursing. Early nurse theorists positioned the principles and practice of nursing as having their origins in 'universal human needs'. The principle of deriving nursing care from human needs was thought to provide a guide not only for promoting health, but for preventing disease and illness. The nursing profession has had a longstanding commitment to social justice as a core professional value and ideal, obligating nurses to address the social conditions that undermine people's health. The idea of justice as a universal human need per se and its possible relationship to people's health outcomes has, however, not been considered. One reason for this is that justice in nursing discourse has more commonly been associated with law and ethics, and the legal and ethical responsibilities of nurses in relation to individualized patient care and, more recently, changing systems of care to improve health and health outcomes. Although this association is not incorrect, it is incomplete. A key aim of this paper is to redress this oversight and to encourage a broader conceptualization of justice as necessary for human survival, health and development, not merely as a professional value, or legal or ethical principle for guiding human conduct. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Humanitarian and Development Assistance: Project Evaluations and Better Information Sharing Needed to Manage the Military’s Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    the country. Officials cited examples of cooperation between USAID and DOD to build cyclone shelters and provide medical relief to poor populations...We also found several examples of overlap in the types of efforts conducted by DOD and USAID within specific countries. For example, in Haiti , both... Haiti Indonesia Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Lebanon Mexico Moldova Peru Uganda USAID Bureau for Policy, Planning, and Learning Office of Military

  2. Behavioral modeling of human choices reveals dissociable effects of physical effort and temporal delay on reward devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam C; Kennerley, Steven W; Saraiva, Ana C; Penny, Will D; Bestmann, Sven

    2015-03-01

    There has been considerable interest from the fields of biology, economics, psychology, and ecology about how decision costs decrease the value of rewarding outcomes. For example, formal descriptions of how reward value changes with increasing temporal delays allow for quantifying individual decision preferences, as in animal species populating different habitats, or normal and clinical human populations. Strikingly, it remains largely unclear how humans evaluate rewards when these are tied to energetic costs, despite the surge of interest in the neural basis of effort-guided decision-making and the prevalence of disorders showing a diminished willingness to exert effort (e.g., depression). One common assumption is that effort discounts reward in a similar way to delay. Here we challenge this assumption by formally comparing competing hypotheses about effort and delay discounting. We used a design specifically optimized to compare discounting behavior for both effort and delay over a wide range of decision costs (Experiment 1). We then additionally characterized the profile of effort discounting free of model assumptions (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous reports, in both experiments effort costs devalued reward in a manner opposite to delay, with small devaluations for lower efforts, and progressively larger devaluations for higher effort-levels (concave shape). Bayesian model comparison confirmed that delay-choices were best predicted by a hyperbolic model, with the largest reward devaluations occurring at shorter delays. In contrast, an altogether different relationship was observed for effort-choices, which were best described by a model of inverse sigmoidal shape that is initially concave. Our results provide a novel characterization of human effort discounting behavior and its first dissociation from delay discounting. This enables accurate modelling of cost-benefit decisions, a prerequisite for the investigation of the neural underpinnings of effort

  3. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  4. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  5. The Geography of Need: Identifying Human Service Needs in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Miller, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Given the recent economic crisis and the accompanying funding cuts across social service programs, it is helpful to observe the geographic distribution of demographic characteristics and economic conditions that together create a human service needs profile. The authors provide a conceptual framework for a systematic analysis of county…

  6. The Geography of Need: Identifying Human Service Needs in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Miller, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Given the recent economic crisis and the accompanying funding cuts across social service programs, it is helpful to observe the geographic distribution of demographic characteristics and economic conditions that together create a human service needs profile. The authors provide a conceptual framework for a systematic analysis of county…

  7. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  8. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  9. Optimal marine mammal welfare under human care: Current efforts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Sabrina; Broom, Donald M; Acasuso-Rivero, Cristina; Clark, Fay

    2017-09-18

    Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to unique welfare challenges. In this paper we attempt to collate and review the research undertaken thus far on marine mammal welfare, and identify the most important gaps in knowledge. We use 'best practice case studies' to highlight examples of research promoting optimal welfare, include suggestions for future directions of research efforts, and make recommendations to strive for optimal welfare, where it is currently lacking, above and beyond minimum legislation and guidelines. Our review of the current literature shows that recently there have been positive forward strides in marine mammal welfare assessment, but fundamental research is still required to validate positive and negative indicators of welfare in marine mammals. Across all marine mammals, more research is required on the dimensions and complexity of pools and land areas necessary for optimal welfare, and the impact of staff absence for most of the 24-h day, as standard working hours are usually between 0900 and 1700. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tailoring a Human Reliability Analysis to Your Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Companies at risk of accidents caused by human error that result in catastrophic consequences include: airline industry mishaps, medical malpractice, medication mistakes, aerospace failures, major oil spills, transportation mishaps, power production failures and manufacturing facility incidents. Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) is used to analyze the inherent risk of human behavior or actions introducing errors into the operation of a system or process. These assessments can be used to identify where errors are most likely to arise and the potential risks involved if they do occur. Using the basic concepts of HRA, an evolving group of methodologies are used to meet various industry needs. Determining which methodology or combination of techniques will provide a quality human reliability assessment is a key element to developing effective strategies for understanding and dealing with risks caused by human errors. There are a number of concerns and difficulties in "tailoring" a Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) for different industries. Although a variety of HRA methodologies are available to analyze human error events, determining the most appropriate tools to provide the most useful results can depend on industry specific cultures and requirements. Methodology selection may be based on a variety of factors that include: 1) how people act and react in different industries, 2) expectations based on industry standards, 3) factors that influence how the human errors could occur such as tasks, tools, environment, workplace, support, training and procedure, 4) type and availability of data, 5) how the industry views risk & reliability, and 6) types of emergencies, contingencies and routine tasks. Other considerations for methodology selection should be based on what information is needed from the assessment. If the principal concern is determination of the primary risk factors contributing to the potential human error, a more detailed analysis method may be employed

  11. Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…

  12. Transforming Global Civics: The Need for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Goldberg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    In today's globally interconnected community, it is imperative that students learn how human rights abuses are not a "thing of the past," but an ongoing exploitation that requires modern day crusaders to defend. Who might these crusaders be? None other than each student. However, if one wants to encourage these noble change agents, one needs to…

  13. Human Resource Management: The need for theory and diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Wolfgang; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Human Resource Management as an academic discipline needs to be theoretically grounded, i.e. it requires support through theories, theory-driven empirical research and critiques. In doing so, different theoretical perspectives are addressed suggesting a problem-orientated theory selection which leads inevitably to theoretical diversity.

  14. Adult Education, Basic Human Needs, and Integrated Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Reginald Herbold

    1976-01-01

    This paper argues for an integrated approach to adult education which would require an examination of basic human needs and national development planning each in its own terms. The paper's argument is centered on liberation and participation as ends, not means: Education, development, and planning must be seen and acted on as an integrated whole.…

  15. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  16. Contaminated Sediment Management in Dam Removals and River Restoration Efforts: Critical Need for Research and Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.

  17. Theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L; Bowen, D M

    2016-11-09

    Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM). Using the Walker and Avant Theory Analysis, a seven-step process, the DH HNCM, was analysed and evaluated for its meaningfulness and contribution to dental hygiene. The steps include the following: (i) investigate the origins; (ii) examine relationships of the theory's concepts; (iii) assess the logic of the theory's structure; (iv) consider the usefulness to practice; (v) judge the generalizability; (vi) evaluate the parsimony; and (vii) appraise the testability of the theory. Human needs theory in nursing and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory prompted this theory's development. The DH HNCM depicts four concepts based on the paradigm concepts of the profession: client, health/oral health, environment and dental hygiene actions, and includes validated eleven human needs that evolved overtime to eight. It is logical, simplistic, allows scientific predictions and testing, and provides a unique lens for the dental hygiene practitioner. With this model, dental hygienists have entered practice, knowing they enable clients to meet their human needs. For the DH HNCM, theory analysis affirmed that the model is reasonable and insightful and adds to the dental hygiene professions' epistemology and ontology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  19. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human...... primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab...... design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery....

  20. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy;

    2012-01-01

    Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human...... primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab......-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger...

  1. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3% of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.

  2. The needs of refugee women: a human-rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyani, C

    1995-06-01

    While the issue of giving women their human rights has been firmly placed on the agendas of international conferences, the plight of refugee women has gone largely unrecognized. Refugee women face rape, sexual abuse, sexual extortion, and physical insecurity. Such violations precipitate their flight, characterize their attempts to gain refugee status, and continue during their tenure in refugee camps, where they are excluded from positions of authority. Because the definition of refugees in the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees omits sex as a grounds for determining refugee status or as a grounds on which it prohibits discrimination based on sex, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees decided in 1985 that such claims must fall under the classification of membership of a particular group. Unfortunately, agreement with this is discretionary for states. It has been argued that states which protect aliens from discrimination based on sex must afford the same privilege to refugees, but, again, such behavior is subject to debate. Concerns about the human rights of refugee women should be strengthened by being addressed in the existing framework of human rights conventions in international law, such as the Commission on the Status of Women and the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). One recent advance in this area was the establishment of the Yugoslav and Rwanda War Crimes Tribunals which will investigate the sexual abuse of women during the armed conflicts. The issue of violence against women in every situation must remain on CEDAW's agenda. In addition, the Fourth World Conference on Women provides a welcome opportunity to place these issues in the forefront of global efforts to protect women.

  3. [Superposition of the motor commands during creation of static efforts by human hand muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchaka, I V; Horkovenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The features of superposition of central motor commands (CMCs) have been studied during generation of the "two-joint" isometric efforts by hand. The electromyogram (EMG) amplitudes which were recorded from the humeral belt and shoulder muscles have been used for estimation of the CMCs intensity. The forces were generated in the horizontal plane of the work space; the position of arm was fixed. Two vectors of equal amplitudes and close direction and their geometrical sum were compared. The hypothesis of the CMCs' superposition in the task of the force vector summation has been examined. The directions of the constituent and resulting forces with satisfactory superposition of the CMCs were defined. Differences in the co-activation patterns for flexor and extensor muscles of both joints were shown. The high level of the flexor muscles activity has been observed during extension efforts, while the flexion directions demonstrated much weaker activation of the extensor muscles.

  4. Beyond the roots of human inaction: Fostering collective effort toward ecosystem conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Elise; Manning, Christie; Scott, Britain; Koger, Susan

    2017-04-21

    The term "environmental problem" exposes a fundamental misconception: Disruptions of Earth's ecosystems are at their root a human behavior problem. Psychology is a potent tool for understanding the external and internal drivers of human behavior that lead to unsustainable living. Psychologists already contribute to individual-level behavior-change campaigns in the service of sustainability, but attention is turning toward understanding and facilitating the role of individuals in collective and collaborative actions that will modify the environmentally damaging systems in which humans are embedded. Especially crucial in moving toward long-term human and environmental well-being are transformational individuals who step outside of the norm, embrace ecological principles, and inspire collective action. Particularly in developed countries, fostering legions of sustainability leaders rests upon a fundamental renewal of humans' connection to the natural world. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Phtalates in Lithuanian environment and needs for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Balčius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling chemical substances and correct evaluation of danger and risk caused by them, based on scientific research are necessary in order to keep environment and public health safe. Regulation signed by European Parliament and Council to control registration, evaluation, authorization and limitation of chemical substances (REACH is the main juridical act from the new European Union‘s policy regarding regulation of chemical substances. Objective of this research was to gather and analyze data regarding phthalates used in Lithuania‘s industry, to present data on its environmental levels in surface water, sediments, sewage treatment plant effluents, and to discuss the needs for the human biomonitoring in Lithuania. The amount of diethylhexyl phthalate yielded to Lithuania‘s industry and market, incresed 65 times from 3,7t in 2003 to 240,81t in 2007. DEHP concentrations in Lithuania in wastewater exceeded regulated annual average maximum allowable concentrations up to 27 times and maximum allowable concentrations up to 13 times. High environmental concentrations of phthalates pointed out to the needs of establishment of permanent human biomonitoring in Lithuania.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.863

  6. Ebola's Revelations — A Threefold Human Security Analysis of Liberia & Its Peacebuilding Efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammann, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examined in which ways Human Security can be employed as a peacebuilding analysis tool in different temporal settings of Liberia, namely, shortly before and after Ebola had entered Liberia. The articles employ Human Security to varying extents; Article 1 takes a broad, detailed approach...... to establish sustainable peace. Article 2 was published in October 2014 on the website of the journal Cultural Anthropology and was targeted at a broader audience with an interest in Ebola. The article, therefore, comprised a content analysis of newspaper articles to give an overview of the timeline...... at the time of Ebola’s entry to Liberia. In doing so, the article focused primarily on Ebola’s human security-related implications and found that Ebola has had devastating consequences on all levels of human security; most of which will quite likely be long-lasting, e.g., educational system cuts due...

  7. A human needs approach to reducing atmospheric carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Patrick [Department of Industrial Design, Monash University, P.O. Box 197, Caulfield East 3145, Vic. (Australia); Honnery, Damon [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, P.O. Box 31, 3800 Vic. (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Recent research has shown that once CO{sub 2} has been emitted to the atmosphere, it will take centuries for natural removal. Clearly, the longer we delay deep reductions in CO{sub 2}, the greater the risk that total greenhouse gas emissions will exceed prudent limits for avoiding dangerous anthropogenic change. We evaluate the three possible technical approaches for climate change mitigation: emission reduction methods, post-emission draw down of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, and geoengineering. We find that the first two approaches are unlikely to deliver the timely reductions in CO{sub 2} needed, while geoengineering methods either deliver too little or are too risky. Given the deep uncertainties in both future climate prediction and energy availability, it seems safest to actively plan for a much lower energy future. We propose a general 'shrink and share' approach to reductions in both fossil-fuel use and carbon emissions, with basic human needs satisfaction replacing economic growth as the focus for economic activity. Only with deep cuts in energy and carbon can we avoid burdening future generations with the high energy costs of air capture. (author)

  8. The effect of water temperature on the human body and the swimming effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERAFEIM ALEXIOU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although many research papers have dealt with the influence of environmental temperature on the various Human body functions during exercise in land, a few only informations exist for the equivalent alterations in water temperatures during immersion and swimming. The present preview research paper is referred on this subject. During swimming in the normal water temperature 26° ± 1° C (63, the functions of the human body respond regularly and the performance of swimmers tends to be improved. However, during swimming in cold water critical differences appear in human functions, such as bradycardia, angiospasm, hyperventilation and adaptations of thermoregulatory mechanism which influence the swimming performance and the life itself. Especially in very cold water temperature the disturbances of the cardiovascular system may lead in critical arrhythmia or sudden death. The cold water temperature, however, influences the kinetic and energy behavior related to the reduction of swimmers performance because of its possible influence on the neuromuscular function. In the increased water temperature up to 28° C appears tachycardia, vasodilation and other alternations which aim to better thermoregulation. The swimmers records are possibly equivalent with a tendency to be improved, to the records in normal temperature of championships 26° C and the increased temperature mainly in the speed events (3. Therefore, there is a differentiation on swimmers performances due to water temperature declination from normal. Also, body functions change during water immersion.

  9. The Existence of Human Rights Court as a National Effort to Eliminate the Severe Violation of Human Rights in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Junaedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The law on human rights court has brought the new hopes for certain people have suffered because of the human rights violation happened in the past government (before the law enacted in the years of 2000. The demand of justice has been made by victims, the families of victims and other sympathetic parties by bringing those who have violated human rights in the past. The demand for justice does not only focus on human rights violations, which occurred in the past but also similar human rights violations that will occur in the future. The existence of a permanent Human Rights Court seems to imply that human rights will be upheld and protected. The resolution of past human rights violations via a conflict approach is preferable for the national reconciliation. The resolution of past human rights violations through extra-judicial organizations is an advanced step towards resolving the case, whereas a conflict approach can be used to settle the case. The existence of the Human Rights Law provides a new frontier in implementing the principle of restorative justice in the approach of case settlement. It is hoped that such restorative justice can create a political balance between the past and the future.

  10. Evaluation of Human and AutomationRobotics Integration Needs for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen; Chang, Mai Lee; Howard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    NASA employs Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to define potential architectures for future human exploration missions to deep space, the Moon, and Mars. While DRMs to these destinations share some components, each mission has different needs. This paper focuses on the human and automation/robotic integration needs for these future missions, evaluating them with respect to NASA research gaps in the area of space human factors engineering. The outcomes of our assessment is a human and automation/robotic (HAR) task list for each of the four DRMs that we reviewed (i.e., Deep Space Sortie, Lunar Visit/Habitation, Deep Space Habitation, and Planetary), a list of common critical HAR factors that drive HAR design.

  11. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  12. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...

  13. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwain Terry F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

  14. The Need for an Operational Thrust to Human Resources Developet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some of the issues involved in professionalizing human resources planning and implementation at the national level. Issues include (1) incorporating human resources into national development, (2) demand considerations, (3) using the skill supply system, (4) obstacles to effectiveness, and (5) enhancing roles of social partners. (CH)

  15. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  16. Careful monitoring of human rights needed -- Dr. Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    In his talk, Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS team leader Dr. Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn made a plea for the careful monitoring of human rights with respect to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Since the start of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, a total of 47 million people have been infected with HIV, 14 million have died of AIDS, with 33 million afflicted with the virus by the end of 1998. In the wake of this global crisis comes the widespread abuse of human rights and fundamental freedoms worldwide. Many HIV/AIDS patients suffer from discrimination, intolerance, and prejudice. Hence, protection of human rights is crucial to safeguard human dignity in the context of HIV/AIDS, and to warrant an effective public health and social responses to this epidemic. All states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, have the obligation to promote and protect universal human rights standards and fundamental freedoms of all peoples.

  17. What neuropsychology tells us about human tool use? The four constraints theory (4CT): mechanics, space, time, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of human tool use comes mainly from neuropsychology, particularly from patients with apraxia or action disorganization syndrome. However, there is no integrative, theoretical framework explaining what these neuropsychological syndromes tell us about the cognitive/neural bases of human tool use. The goal of the present article is to fill this gap, by providing a theoretical framework for the study of human tool use: The Four Constraints Theory (4CT). This theory rests on two basic assumptions. First, everyday tool use activities can be formalized as multiple problem situations consisted of four distinct constraints (mechanics, space, time, and effort). Second, each of these constraints can be solved by the means of a specific process (technical reasoning, semantic reasoning, working memory, and simulation-based decision-making, respectively). Besides presenting neuropsychological evidence for 4CT, this article shall address epistemological, theoretical and methodological issues I will attempt to resolve. This article will discuss how 4CT diverges from current cognitive models about several widespread hypotheses (e.g., notion of routine, direct and automatic activation of tool knowledge, simulation-based tool knowledge).

  18. Humans Need Not Apply: Robotization of Kepler Planet Candidate Vetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.; Kepler Team

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the vast majority of Kepler planet candidate vetting has been performed by a dedicated team of humans. While human expertise has been invaluable in understanding the nuances of Kepler data, human vetting is very time-consuming and can be inconsistent. Over 20,000 threshold crossing events have been produced by the latest pipeline run on all 17 quarters of Kepler mission data, and many more artificial planet transits have been injected to estimate completeness. Given these large numbers, human vetting is no longer feasible on a reasonable time-scale, and would be difficult to characterize. We have created automated vetting programs known as "robovetters" that are specifically designed to mimic the decision-making process employed by the humans. They analyze both the light curve and pixel-level data in order to produce specific reasons for identifying false positives. We present benchmark tests on the Q1-Q16 Kepler planet catalog, which was vetted by humans, and present preliminary robovetter results based on a recent transit-search of the newly reprocessed Q1-Q17 data set.

  19. Mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke

    2013-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., & Kirschner, F. (2012). Mental effort. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, Volume 5 (pp. 2182-2184). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_226

  20. Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Stewart, Donna E

    2007-09-01

    Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance.

  1. Artificial intelligence in medicine: humans need not apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprose, William; Buist, Nicholas

    2016-05-06

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field with a wide range of applications. Driven by economic constraints and the potential to reduce human error, we believe that over the coming years AI will perform a significant amount of the diagnostic and treatment decision-making traditionally performed by the doctor. Humans would continue to be an important part of healthcare delivery, but in many situations, less expensive fit-for-purpose healthcare workers could be trained to 'fill the gaps' where AI are less capable. As a result, the role of the doctor as an expensive problem-solver would become redundant.

  2. The Human Resources for Health Effort Index: a tool to assess and inform Strategic Health Workforce Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Alfredo L; Deussom, Rachel; Burlew, Randi; Gilroy, Kate; Nelson, David

    2017-07-19

    Despite its importance, the field of human resources for health (HRH) has lagged in developing methods to measure its status and progress in low- and middle-income countries suffering a workforce crisis. Measures of professional health worker densities and distribution are purely numerical, unreliable, and do not represent the full spectrum of workers providing health services. To provide more information on the multi-dimensional characteristics of human resources for health, in 2013-2014, the global USAID-funded CapacityPlus project, led by IntraHealth International, developed and tested a 79-item HRH Effort Index modeled after the widely used Family Planning Effort Index. The index includes seven recognized HRH dimensions: Leadership and Advocacy; Policy and Governance; Finance; Education and Training; Recruitment, Distribution, and Retention; Human Resources Management; and Monitoring, Evaluation, and Information Systems. Each item is scored from 1 to 10 and scores are averaged with equal weights for each dimension and overall. The questionnaire is applied to knowledgeable informants from public, nongovernmental organization, and private sectors in each country. A pilot test among 49 respondents in Kenya and Nigeria provided useful information to improve, combine, and streamline questions. CapacityPlus applied the revised 50-item questionnaire in 2015 in Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, Ghana, and Mali, among 92 respondents. Additionally, the index was applied subnationally in the Dominican Republic (16 respondents) and in a consensus-building meeting in Mali (43 respondents) after the national application. The results revealed a range of scores between 3.7 and 6.2 across dimensions, for overall scores between 4.8 and 5.5. Dimensions with lower scores included Recruitment, Distribution, and Retention, while Leadership and Advocacy had higher scores. The tool proved to be well understood and provided key qualitative information on the health workforce to assist

  3. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation. Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  4. Applications of earth resources technology to human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing technology in the fields of health and education is examined. The technology and accomplishments of ATS 6 and the development of a nationwide telecommunications system to meet the varied needs of the health and education communities are among the topics discussed. The economic and social aspects of utilizing and benefiting from remote sensing technology are stressed.

  5. Applications of earth resources technology to human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing technology in the fields of health and education is examined. The technology and accomplishments of ATS 6 and the development of a nationwide telecommunications system to meet the varied needs of the health and education communities are among the topics discussed. The economic and social aspects of utilizing and benefiting from remote sensing technology are stressed.

  6. Using a Functional Architecture to Identify Human-Automation Trust Needs and Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) mission without a continuous communication link to human operators for trust needs. The factors that affect...performance link to human knowledge, perception and beliefs. From the analysis , automation design requirements that link to the identified trust...performing an Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) mission without a continuous communication link to human operators for trust needs

  7. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  8. Why religious human beings need evolutionary epistemology! A theological and evolutionary viewpoint of 'why humans need to embrace evolutionary epistemology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan A. van Rooyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I put forward an understanding of evolutionary epistemology that rescues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we as theologians should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams. The author feels that scholars, especially theologians, should firstly take evolution seriously and secondly regard evolutionary epistemology as important as evolution itself, the reason being theologians should know that it is of paramount importance for their systematic-theological intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications, which is embarking on a way of thinking that regards evolutionary epistemology as a friend in their accommodation of their respective theological fields of interest. This accommodation is substantial as it will enhance their respective theological disciplines as �an exhilarating vision of God�. Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Evolutionary epistemology takes a pragmatic view of humans. Evolutionary epistemologists question how humans really behave and what the true origin of their behaviour is. In contrast to this programme, many conceptions of humans are based on an idealisation of our species. I then put forward my own understanding of evolutionary epistemology and conclude that evolutionary epistemology recues something of the old and venerable idea of freedom, and it means that we should grasp our very nature realistically, beyond any illusionism and utopian dreams.Keywords: Evolutionary epistemology

  9. St. Edward Mercy Medical Center, Fort Smith, AR. Human resource planning identifies institutional need, available personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, J M

    1981-04-01

    Human resource planning, which allows health care facilities to identify future staffing needs and to project staffing availability, will increase as institutions seek to balance quality, costs, employees' needs.

  10. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  11. Efforts of the human immune system to maintain the peripheral CD8+ T cell compartment after childhood thymectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamy, Manuela; Almanzar, Giovanni; Parson, Walther; Schmidt, Christian; Leierer, Johannes; Weinberger, Birgit; Jeller, Verena; Unsinn, Karin; Eyrich, Matthias; Würzner, Reinhard; Prelog, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Homeostatic mechanisms to maintain the T cell compartment diversity indicate an ongoing process of thymic activity and peripheral T cell renewal during human life. These processes are expected to be accelerated after childhood thymectomy and by the influence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) inducing a prematurely aged immune system. The study aimed to investigate proportional changes and replicative history of CD8+ T cells, of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) and CD103+ T cells (mostly gut-experienced) and the role of Interleukin-(IL)-7 and IL-7 receptor (CD127)-expressing T cells in thymectomized patients compared to young and old healthy controls. Decreased proportions of naive and CD31 + CD8+ T cells were demonstrated after thymectomy, with higher proliferative activity of CD127-expressing T cells and significantly shorter relative telomere lengths (RTLs) and lower T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Increased circulating CD103+ T cells and a skewed T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire were found after thymectomy similar to elderly persons. Naive T cells were influenced by age at thymectomy and further decreased by CMV. After childhood thymectomy, the immune system demonstrated constant efforts of the peripheral CD8+ T cell compartment to maintain homeostasis. Supposedly it tries to fill the void of RTEs by peripheral T cell proliferation, by at least partly IL-7-mediated mechanisms and by proportional increase of circulating CD103+ T cells, reminiscent of immune aging in elderly. Although other findings were less significant compared to healthy elderly, early thymectomy demonstrated immunological alterations of CD8+ T cells which mimic features of premature immunosenescence in humans.

  12. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Sook-Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstructions (MRs are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Results Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Conclusion Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  13. [Work as a basic human need and health promoting factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzi, P A

    2010-01-01

    The Italian Constitution (1948) defines 'work' as the founding value of the Italian Republic. This choice was not motivated by mere economic reasons, but rather stemmed from the recognition that work is the most appropriate tool for the expression of the human personality in society, that it is an asset and a right that will increase the dignity of every person, and which corresponds to a fundamental human desire to fulfil oneself in relationship with other persons and the entire world This view of work, including its technical and manual aspects, was unknown to the ancient mentality and became familiar to us through the monastic orders of the early middle ages, which began to conceive and practise human work as a means of participating in the work of creation and transmitted this value over the centuries. As we experience today, if occupation is lacking, a basic condition for the development of the person and for his/her contribution to the growth of society is lost. Given the meaning of work in human experience, it is not surprising that unemployment represents not only a worrisome economic indicator, but also the cause of ill health. At the end of 2009 unemployment in the European Union reached 10%, similar to the rate in the US; in Italy it was estimated at 8.5% in December 2009 and is expected to reach 10% in 2010. In Lombardy, although employment had been constantly increasing between 1995 and 2008, and the current unemployment rate is as low as 4.9%, 100,000 jobs were lost in 2009. Several scientific papers have demonstrated the association between lack of occupation and lack of physical and mental health. In the present period of crisis, increases of 30% in cases of anxiety syndrome and of 15% in cases of depression have been reported. An increase in suicides among unemployed persons has been documented in several countries even if there are still problems of interpretation of the causal chain of events. Mortality among the unemployed increased, not only

  14. Economic analysis of needs the training of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Vesna V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of lifelong learning is linked to the voluntary and motivated to seek knowledge from personal or organizational reasons. The fact that an individual learns driven by personal career goals, desire for self improvement and motivation refers to the importance of lifelong learning for the entire social inclusion, sustainability, and competitiveness and employment. The common denominator of all the problems of investment in education is an issue of increasing allocations to the social issues, the pace that in this area manifest needs. Relative resource constraints requires that the investment in professional development taking place in accordance with the expected contribution to the creation of new value, increase productivity and social development of society as a whole. Respecting this request, in general, should provide maximum socio-economic effects with minimal investment. Precise measurement is achieved by tools of economic analysis: cost & benefit, economic sensitivity analysis, risk assessment.

  15. Human resources needs in the Canadian wind energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittholz, H. [Synova International Business Development, London, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed human resources issues related to wind energy expansion. As the fastest growing energy source in the world, wind energy has the potential to provide thousands of jobs. With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, the Canadian government and industry will take measures to increase the use of renewable energy. As such, forecasters predict that Canada's total installed capacity will increase from 444 MW in 2004 to 5,600 MW by 2012. Initially, employment opportunities will be in the service industry, followed by an increased demand for scientists, engineers, technicians and other personnel with specialized knowledge in the wind industry. This paper described the assumptions on which the forecasted demand for skilled labour is based. Approximately 2,230 technicians will be required by 2012 to develop and manufacture wind turbines and to establish an infrastructure that would maximize the benefits of the emerging industry for Canadians. Wind energy initiatives include the establishment of a competitive manufacturing and service base; the provision of specialized training and education to meet the human resources demands of the industry; and, support from research and development to reduce the knowledge gap between Canada and Europe. Canada also holds the potential to establish a niche market for hybrid wind-diesel-storage systems. Insurance companies and investors will require high standards to safeguard their investments. A breakdown of various jobs in the wind power industry was presented along with forecasts of revenues and employment in Canada's wind energy industry. This paper also outlined the wind energy research programs available at Canadian universities, colleges and institutes. It was recommended that education and training programs in this field of study should be developed based on proven programs with a governing body to ensure industry requirements are met. It was also suggested that partnerships should be formed with successful

  16. Human Needs and Intellectual Disabilities: Applications for Person Centered Planning, Dual Diagnosis, and Crisis Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Human Needs and Intellectual Disabilities identifies the 12 human needs most relevant to the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, autism and related developmental disabilities. It includes detailed, practical suggestions for caregivers or parents interested in the happiness, quality of life, and self-determination of their loved ones or…

  17. Human Needs and Intellectual Disabilities: Applications for Person Centered Planning, Dual Diagnosis, and Crisis Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Human Needs and Intellectual Disabilities identifies the 12 human needs most relevant to the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, autism and related developmental disabilities. It includes detailed, practical suggestions for caregivers or parents interested in the happiness, quality of life, and self-determination of their loved ones or…

  18. Muscle activation during maximal effort tasks: evidence of the selective forces that shaped the musculoskeletal system of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, David R; Schilling, Nadja; Anders, Christoph

    2015-11-04

    The selective forces that played a role in the evolution of the musculoskeletal system of the genus Homo have long been debated and remain poorly understood. In this investigation, we introduce a new approach for testing alternative hypotheses. Our analysis is based on the premise that natural selection can be expected to have resulted in muscles that are large enough to achieve necessary levels of maximum performance in essential behaviors, but not larger. We used surface electromyography in male subjects to identify maximum activation levels in 13 muscles of the back and leg during eight behaviors that have been suggested to have been important to foraging, hunting and fighting performance in early humans. We asked two questions: (1) what behaviors produce maximum activation in each of the investigated muscles and (2) are there specific behaviors that elicit maximum recruitment from all or most of the muscles? We found that in eight of the 13 muscles, the highest activity occurred during maximal effort vertical jumping (i.e. whole-body acceleration). Punching produced the highest median activity in the other five muscles. Together, jumping and punching accounted for 73% of the incidences of maximum activity among all of the muscles and from all of the subjects. Thus, the size of the muscles of the back and leg appear to be more related to the demands of explosive behaviors rather than those of high speed sprinting or sustained endurance running. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection on aggressive behavior played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo.

  19. Muscle activation during maximal effort tasks: evidence of the selective forces that shaped the musculoskeletal system of humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Carrier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selective forces that played a role in the evolution of the musculoskeletal system of the genus Homo have long been debated and remain poorly understood. In this investigation, we introduce a new approach for testing alternative hypotheses. Our analysis is based on the premise that natural selection can be expected to have resulted in muscles that are large enough to achieve necessary levels of maximum performance in essential behaviors, but not larger. We used surface electromyography in male subjects to identify maximum activation levels in 13 muscles of the back and leg during eight behaviors that have been suggested to have been important to foraging, hunting and fighting performance in early humans. We asked two questions: (1 what behaviors produce maximum activation in each of the investigated muscles and (2 are there specific behaviors that elicit maximum recruitment from all or most of the muscles? We found that in eight of the 13 muscles, the highest activity occurred during maximal effort vertical jumping (i.e. whole-body acceleration. Punching produced the highest median activity in the other five muscles. Together, jumping and punching accounted for 73% of the incidences of maximum activity among all of the muscles and from all of the subjects. Thus, the size of the muscles of the back and leg appear to be more related to the demands of explosive behaviors rather than those of high speed sprinting or sustained endurance running. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection on aggressive behavior played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo.

  20. Human needs as predictors for organizational commitment and job involvement: An exploratory empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yang-Kyu; Lee, Chul-in; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    While the literature on the determinants of organizational commitment (OC) and job involvement (JI) is vast, little has been studied about the impact of human needs. In search for the institutional stars, this study examines whether human needs can serve a predictor for both high OC and high JI. Exploratory empirical results based on quantile regressions suggest that the needs for achievement, belonging, and power are more important than others in predicting OC and JI. In addition, the basic ...

  1. Companion piece: Needs, rights, and the human family: a bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sister Ann Patrick Conrad

    2010-01-01

    This article sets forth a bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective on the needs and rights of children. Consideration is first given to the philosophical nature of need. The nature of rights is then examined in relation to need as a basis for social justice claims. Various need paradigms, such as human development needs, socially constructed needs, and needs hierarchies, are considered and compared to the rights paradigm presented in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Rationale for ratification is then presented.

  2. Modelling efforts needed to advance herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine development: Key findings from the World Health Organization Consultation on HSV Vaccine Impact Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Giersing, Birgitte; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chesson, Harrell; Looker, Katharine J; Schiffer, Joshua; Spicknall, Ian; Hutubessy, Raymond; Broutet, Nathalie

    2017-06-21

    Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important goal for global sexual and reproductive health. In order to more precisely define the health and economic burden of HSV infection and the theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of an HSV vaccine, in 2015 the World Health Organization convened an expert consultation meeting on HSV vaccine impact modelling. The experts reviewed existing model-based estimates and dynamic models of HSV infection to outline critical future modelling needs to inform development of a comprehensive business case and preferred product characteristics for an HSV vaccine. This article summarizes key findings and discussions from the meeting on modelling needs related to HSV burden, costs, and vaccine impact, essential data needs to carry out those models, and important model components and parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations

  4. Identifying Students for Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Efforts: How Do We Determine Which Students Have Tier 2 and Tier 3 Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner

    2014-01-01

    In comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models, it is essential to have a systematic method for identifying students who need supports at Tier 2 or Tier 3. This article provides explicit information on how to use multiple sources of data to determine which students might benefit from these supports. First, the authors provide an overview of how…

  5. 31 CFR 500.573 - Certain donations of funds and goods to meet basic human needs authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to meet basic human needs authorized. 500.573 Section 500.573 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Certain donations of funds and goods to meet basic human needs authorized. (a) The donation of funds for... meet basic human needs are authorized. For purposes of this section, goods to meet basic human needs...

  6. A Human-Needs-Based Dynamics to Simulate Technology Policy and Its Effects on Both Business Success and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeon Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how human needs are reflected in the market and how several technological and political policies affect the market share of government-supported industries, as well as the satisfaction of human desires and consequent happiness. In this paper, we seek to understand the dynamics of consumer decision-making processes in relation to technology products in the market. In this study, we present a new marketing model based on human needs, wants, and demands, and focus on both holistic and social perspectives. We have shown that human-based policy dynamics and sustainable human happiness can be realized by stimulating national policies for consumer happiness in the human-needs-based sector, e.g., the healthcare industry.

  7. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexem Kari R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  8. Identification of human capital needs, for the development of a production initiative for cocoa in Caqueta, 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parcival Peña Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At present to rely on productive sectors that stir the departmental economies into action it becomes necessary to advance efforts tending to strengthen those chains with international projection and that are better structured so that it allows them to answer to the requirements of the globalized market that join to the different agreements of free trade, they represent an opportunity to improve their market shares and to contribute in an increase of the regional GDP. It is a labor that must be accompanied of efforts of the different actors of the economy, but especially the productive chains must worry to improve their infrastructure, technologies, human talent, financial resources and internal processes, increasing their efficiency, with the intention to be productive and then, to be to the level of a market that have a highly competitive trend. But this competitive position is not achieved alone, needs a synergy that is structured from the management and administration of the resources that arranges the productive chain, is the human talent the responsible for generating this synergy, for which has selected the productive chain of international projection and that possess a greater degree of coordination and organization as it is the Cacao chain, identifying the needs of the qualified personnel for the development of the chains in 2019.

  9. A Conflict Transformation Perspective on Efforts to Protect Human Rights of Haitian Migrants and their Descendants in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Skeie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata el largo debate en los ámbitos académico y profesional, sobre la relación entre la protección de los derechos humanos y la transformación de conflictos. Son dos enfoques que frecuentemente se han presentado como dos opuestos, representando respectivamente los principios y el pragmatismo. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años, se ha notado una tendencia de considerar cómo ambos campos pueden beneficiarse de las herramientas y las ideas del otro. El artículo utiliza la situación de la República Dominicana como un estudio de caso, observando los esfuerzos de la sociedad civil para promover y proteger los derechos de inmigrantes haitianos y sus descendientes, enfocándose particularmente en el papel de las organizaciones no gubernamentales internacionales (‘INGOs’, por sus siglas en inglés. El artículo argumenta la utilidad de la aplicación del análisis de transformación de conflicto, y específicamente intenta mostrar la relevancia de usar un análisis sistémico de conflicto, analizando y entendiendo los abusos contra los derechos humanos dentro de en una perspectiva más amplia de las relaciones dominico-haitianas. El artículo muestra cómo las intervenciones de las INGO afecta las dinámicas del conflicto tanto positivamente como negativamente, y discute las implicaciones para futuras estrategias para los participantes de la sociedad civil. English: This paper addresses the long-standing debate within academic and practitioner circles about the relationship between human rights protection and conflict transformation. While the two approaches have often been pitted against each other, as representing principles vs. pragmatism respectively, there has over the last years been an increasing tendency to consider how the two camps can benefit from each other's tools and lines of thoughts. The article takes the situation in the Dominican Republic as a case, looking into civil society actors' efforts to promote

  10. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  11. The clinical profile of women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain. More effort is needed in secondary prevention. SIRENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, J M; Ripoll, T; Barrios, V; Anguita, M; Pedreira, M; Madariaga, I

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for women, especially ischaemic heart disease, which is still considered a man's disease. In Spain, there are various registries on ischaemic heart disease, although none are exclusively for women. The objectives of the SIRENA study were to describe the clinical profile of women with ischaemic heart disease treated in cardiology consultations, to estimate its prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and understand its clinical management. A multicentre observational study was conducted with a sample of 631 women with stable ischaemic heart disease, consecutively included during cardiology consultations. Forty-one researchers from all over Spain participated in the study. The mean age was 68.5 years. The clinical presentation was in the form of acute coronary syndrome in up to 67.2% of the patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high (77.7% of the patients had hypertension, 40.7% had diabetes and 68% had dyslipidaemia), with 30.7% having uncontrolled hypertension, 78.4% having LDL-cholesterol levels higher than 70mg/dL and 49.2% having HbA1c levels greater than 7%. The considerable majority of the patients underwent optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and hypolipidaemic agents. Coronary angiography was performed for 88.3% of the patients, and 63.4% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain initially present some form of acute coronary syndrome and a high prevalence of inadequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors, despite undergoing optimal medical therapy. A high percentage of these women undergo coronary revascularisation. Increased efforts are required for secondary prevention in women with stable ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  13. Does degree of alteration in effort sense caused by eccentric exercise significantly affect initial exercise hyperpnea in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Norio; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Ogata, Hisayoshi; Maher, Patrick; Okumura, Naoya; Ishida, Koji

    2016-08-24

    Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2). Relative exercise intensity at Pre was 5 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of Pre, whereas that at D2 was 9 % MVC of D2 because of decline in muscle strength. Ventilatory responses were significantly exaggerated at D2 with a significant increase in effort sense. Although effort sense was significantly reduced during exercise at D2 when wrist weight was subtracted to match relative exercise intensity at Pre (5 % MVC of D2), ventilatory responses were still significantly higher than those of Pre. After the disappearance of post-ECC muscle damage, subjects performed the same exercise with weight added (9 % MVC of Pre) so that effort was equalized to match that of D2; however, no significant increase in ventilatory response was detected. The fact that the extent of change in effort sense caused by ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction did not affect ventilatory response at the onset of exercise after ECC may suggest that the exaggeration of ventilatory response after ECC is caused by mechanisms other than alteration of the central command.

  14. Corporate philanthropic responses to emergent human needs: the role of organizational attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Whiteman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate philanthropy typically focuses on organization-external pressures and aggregated donation behavior. Hence, our understanding of the organization-internal structures that determine whether a given organization will respond philanthropically to a specific human need remains under

  15. Corporate philanthropic responses to emergent human needs: the role of organizational attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Whiteman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate philanthropy typically focuses on organization-external pressures and aggregated donation behavior. Hence, our understanding of the organization-internal structures that determine whether a given organization will respond philanthropically to a specific human need remains

  16. Graduate Medical Education in Humanism and Professionalism: A Needs Assessment Survey of Pediatric Gastroenterology Fellows

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B; WOOLF, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal edu...

  17. Climate change: The need for a human rights agenda within a framework of shared human security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis edited volume publishes as a special issue of the quarterly social science journal Social Research, a collection of articles on Human Rights and the Global Economy. The topics addressed are Human Rights and Economy Policy; Global Poverty and the Obligations of Rich Countries; Human

  18. Indiana Health Science Teachers: Their Human Genetics/Bioethics Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Jon R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results from a human genetics/bioethics needs assessment questionnaire (N = 124 out of 300) mailed to Indiana health teachers are reported. Genetic topics and human genetic diseases/defects included in health science instruction are listed in two tables. Responses to 16 science/society statements (and statements themselves) are also reported. (SK)

  19. Can we define an infant's need from the composition of human milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Boehm, Guenther

    Human milk is recommended as the optimal nutrient source for infants and is associated with several short- and long-term benefits for child health. When accepting that human milk is the optimal nutrition for healthy term infants, it should be possible to calculate the nutritional needs of these

  20. A Study of Hierarchy of Human Needs and English Classroom Manage-ment in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-shan

    2014-01-01

    With more attentions on the humanism, students’needs becomes an indispensable part of teachers’teaching work. In this paper, according to the facts, the author will propose some suggestions combining Maslow's hierarchy of needs to improve teachers’English classroom management aim to enhance teaching efficiency.

  1. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    McElwain Terry F; Cochran Matt H; Bent Stephen J; Bowers Edwin J; Hewitt David G; Ortega-Santos Alfonso; Teel Pete D; Duhaime Roberta A; Ugstad Paul O; Messenger Matthew T; Hillman Robert; Almazán Consuelo; Wagner Gale G; Miller Ryan S; Wikel Stephen K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever,...

  2. The pre-vaccination regional epidemiological landscape of measles in Italy: contact patterns, effort needed for eradication, and comparison with other regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmaso Stefania

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong regional heterogeneity and generally sub-optimal rates of measles vaccination in Italy have, to date, hampered attainment of WHO targets for measles elimination, and have generated the need for the new Italian National Measles Elimination Plan. Crucial to success of the plan is the identification of intervention priorities based upon a clear picture of the regional epidemiology of measles derived from the use of data to estimate basic parameters. Previous estimates of measles force of infection for Italy have appeared anomalously low. It has been argued elsewhere that this results from Italian selective under-reporting by age of cases and that the true measles force of infection in Italy is probably similar to that of other European countries. A deeper examination of the evidence for this conjecture is undertaken in the present paper. Methods Using monthly regional case notifications data from 1949 to the start of vaccination in 1976 and notifications by age from 1971–76, summary equilibrium parameters (force of infection (FOI, basic reproductive ratio (R0 and critical vaccination coverage (pc are calculated for each region and for each of 5 plausible contact patterns. An analysis of the spectra of incidence profiles is also carried out. Finally a transmission dynamics model is employed to explore the correspondence between projections using different estimates of force of infection and data on seroprevalence in Italy. Results FOI estimates are lower than comparable European FOIs and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in basic reproductive ratios; certain patterns of contact matrices are demonstrated to be unfeasible. Most regions show evidence of 3-year epidemic cycles or longer, and compared with England & Wales there appears to be little synchronisation between regions. Modelling results suggest that the lower FOI estimated from corrected aggregate national data matches serological data more closely than

  3. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  4. Human spaceflight technology needs-a foundation for JSC's technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, J. M.

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which added risks and became a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (Tech Needs) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology disciplines. Th

  5. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, Y A; Minas, H

    2009-06-19

    Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and career organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness.

  6. THE EFFORTS TO TERMINATE THE SITUATION WITH NO-CITIZENSHIP AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION OF ROHINGYA ETHNIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefriani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The refusal to recognize citizenship of Rohingnya ethnic by Myanmar government caused this ethnic without national and international protection. Statelessness situation is also became the entry point of other violation of human right such as ethnic cleansing and genocide which caused this ethnic became refugee. Some solutions offered to end this situation are: cooperate with UNHCR provide temporary shelter for those people; urge UNHCR granted refugee status for Rohingya; urge ASEAN conducted humanitarian diplomacy pursued Myanmar recognized citizenship of Rohingnya ; applied R to P to end the gross violation on human right toward Rohingnya if the threshold were fulfilled.

  7. Social use of alcohol among adolescent offenders: a fundamental approach toward human needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo D?Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined some basic health care approaches toward human needs, with a particular focus on nursing. We aimed to incorporate these approaches into the discussion of the mental health of adolescent offenders who consume alcohol. We discuss specific needs of the delinquent group, critique policies that prioritize coercion of adolescent offenders, and the role that nurses could play in the sphere of juvenile delinquency.

  8. [Social use of alcohol among adolescent offenders: a fundamental approach toward human needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Gustavo; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; da Costa, Moacyr Lobo

    2014-02-01

    This study examined some basic health care approaches toward human needs, with a particular focus on nursing. We aimed to incorporate these approaches into the discussion of the mental health of adolescent offenders who consume alcohol. We discuss specific needs of the delinquent group, critique policies that prioritize coercion of adolescent offenders, and the role that nurses could play in the sphere of juvenile delinquency.

  9. Public Participation Tools and Human Ecological Sustainability: Experiences of Grassroots Efforts in Small Communities of Cavite, Philippines and Concepcion, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Public Participation advocates for people’s involvement in decisions concerning public issues. It contrasts to the view that deciding over public issues should be left to authorities and experts. Increasingly, public participation is applied in decision-making regarding environmental and natural resource concerns. With the advent of the increasing pressure in human ecological sustainability, and the growing importance of people’s involvement in environmental decision-making and governance, wh...

  10. [Basic human needs of nursing professional: situations of (dis)satisfaction at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lorena Fagundes Ladeia Vitoria; Porto, Isaura Setenta

    2011-04-01

    Care is associated with the nursing actions considering, above all, a group of needs of the nursing team. The objectives of this study were: to characterize situations of (dis) satisfaction of the nursing team at work and analyze their possible implications. Maslow's theory of basic human needs was used to understand the motivational factors, and a qualitative methodology was used applying quantitative techniques. The method consisted of participant observation with registers on a filed diary associated to the application of a questionnaire on 18 participants from the nursing team of a Public Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. The study indicates that the basic needs of the nursing team are compromised, especially safety and physiological needs, which are the most primary. The compromising of the subjects' primary needs implies health hazards and reduced work performance in hospital settings.

  11. Training Social Workers and Human Service Professionals to Address the Complex Financial Needs of Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Hopkins, Karen; Osteen, Philip; Callahan, Christine; Hageman, Sally; Ko, Jungyai

    2017-01-01

    In social work and other community-based human services settings, clients often present with complex financial problems. As a need for more formal training is beginning to be addressed, evaluation of existing training is important, and this study evaluates outcomes from the Financial Stability Pathway (FSP) project. Designed to prepare…

  12. What Is Education For? A Discussion of Nussbaum's "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of the book, "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities" by Martha C. Nussbaum from the perspective of a visiting scholar to the United States from China. It begins by addressing two critical topics discussed by Nussbaum: consequences of focusing only on economic growth and the importance of…

  13. Veterans Health Administration: Management Attention Is Needed to Address Systemic, Long standing Human Capital Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    required by the Choice Act: the Independent Assessment of the Health Care Delivery Systems and Management Processes of the Department of Veterans...VETERANS HEALTH ADMINISTRATION Management Attention Is Needed to Address Systemic, Long-standing Human Capital...Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-17-30, a report to congressional requesters December 2016 VETERANS HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

  14. Personalization in non‐territorial offices: a study of a human need

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunia, S.; Hartjes-Gosselink, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Personalization and the non-territorial office seem to be contradicting concepts. It is generally accepted that it is not possible to personalize workplaces in environments where no fixed individual workplaces are allocated. However, people seem to have a human need of personalization. Per

  15. Data analysis and integration of environmental sensors to meet human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; De Rango, Floriano; Barletta, Domenico; Falbo, Domenico; Imbrogno, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays one of the main task of technology is to make people's life simpler and easier. Ambient intelligence is an emerging discipline that brings intelligence to environments making them sensitive to us. This discipline has developed following the spread of sensors devices, sensor networks, pervasive computing and artificial intelligence. In this work, we attempt to enhance the Internet Of Things (loT) with intelligence and environments exploring various interactions between humans' beings and the environment they live in. In particular, the core of the system is composed of an automation system, which is made up with a domotic control unit and several sensors installed in the environment. The task of the sensors is to collect information from the environment and to send them to the control unit. Once the information is collected, the core combines them in order to infer the most accurate human needs. The knowledge of human needs and the current environment status compose the inputs of the intelligence block whose main goal is to find the right automations to satisfy human needs in a real time way. The system also provides a Speech Recognition service which allow users to interact with the system by their voice so human speech can be considered as additional input for smart automatisms.

  16. Graduate medical education in humanism and professionalism: a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.

  17. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  18. A Review of Human Reliability Needs in the U.S. Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    In this survey, 34 subject matter experts from the U.S. nuclear industry were interviewed to determine specific needs for human reliability analysis (HRA). Conclusions from the interviews are detailed in this article. A summary of the findings includes: (1) The need for improved guidance on the use of HRA methods generally and for specific applications. (2) The need for additional training in HRA to provide more hands-on experience in the application of HRA methods. (3) Thedevelopment of HRA approaches suitable for advanced reactors, severe accident situations, and low-power and shutdown applications. (4) The refinement of HRA methods to account forfactors such as crew variability, latent errors, more sophisticated dependency modeling, and errors of commission. (5) The continued need for simplified HRA methods appropriate for field applications. (6) The need for tighter coupling of HRA and human factors. (7) The need for improvements in the quantitative basis of HRA methods. These findings suggest the field of HRA is mature but still benefits from refinements.

  19. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

  20. New Experimental Models of Diabetic Nephropathy in Mice Models of Type 2 Diabetes: Efforts to Replicate Human Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Soler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. The use of experimental models of DN has provided valuable information regarding many aspects of DN, including pathophysiology, progression, implicated genes, and new therapeutic strategies. A large number of mouse models of diabetes have been identified and their kidney disease was characterized to various degrees. Most experimental models of type 2 DN are helpful in studying early stages of DN, but these models have not been able to reproduce the characteristic features of more advanced DN in humans such as nodules in the glomerular tuft or glomerulosclerosis. The generation of new experimental models of DN created by crossing, knockdown, or knockin of genes continues to provide improved tools for studying DN. These models provide an opportunity to search for new mechanisms involving the development of DN, but their shortcomings should be recognized as well. Moreover, it is important to recognize that the genetic background has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to diabetes and kidney disease development in the various models of diabetes.

  1. [Collective memories of women who have experienced maternal near miss: health needs and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Cláudia de Azevedo; Tanaka, Ana Cristina dʼAndretta

    2016-09-19

    The collective memories of women that have experienced maternal near miss can help elucidate serious obstetric events, like maternal death. Their experience is authentic and representative, with the construction of a common identity. This identity lends quality to a group's memory, and such memory is thus a social phenomenon. The study analyzed the experience of twelve women who nearly died during the gestational and postpartum cycle. The thematic oral history method was used, from the perspective of health needs and human rights. Six collective memories comprised the discourses: unmet health needs; healthcare deficiencies; denial of contact with the newborn child; violation of rights; absence of demand for rights; and compensation for unmet rights and needs. To understand these women's health needs is to acknowledge the women as bearers of rights and to individualize care, respecting their autonomy, guaranteeing access to technologies, and establishing an effective bond with health professionals.

  2. An Overview of Soils and Human Health - Research Trends and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soils have significant impact on human health, whether those influences are positive or negative, direct or indirect. Soils are a significant source of nutrients in our food supply and medications such as antibiotics. However, nutrient imbalances and the presence of human pathogens in the soil biological community can cause negative impacts on health. There are also many locations where various elements or chemical compounds are found in soils at toxic levels, due to either natural conditions or anthropogenic activities. The soils of urban environments have received increased attention in the last few years, and they too pose a number of human health questions and challenges. Concepts such as soil security may provide a framework within which soils and human health issues can be investigated using interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches, as it will take the contributions of experts in a number of different scientific, medical, and social science fields to fully address soils and human health issues. While much progress was made in understanding links between soils and human health over the last century, there is still much we do not know and the interactions between soils and human health are extremely complex. Therefore, there is still significant need for research in this important area.

  3. Co-effect of Demand-control-support Model and Effort-reward Imbalance Model on Depression Risk Estimation in Humans:Findings from Henan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan Fa; NAKATA Akinori; GU Gui Zhen; SWANSON Naomi G; ZHOU Wen Hui; HE Li Hua; WANG Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the co-effect of Demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-reward Imbalance (ERI) model on the risk estimation of depression in humans in comparison with the effects when they are used respectively. Methods A total of 3 632 males and 1 706 females from 13 factories and companies in Henan province were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (Chinese version). Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results DC (demands/job control ratio) and ERI were shown to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. The outcome of low social support and overcommitment were similar. High DC and low social support (SS), high ERI and high overcommitment, and high DC and high ERI posed greater risks of depressive symptoms than each of them did alone. ERI model and SS model seem to be effective in estimating the risk of depressive symptoms if they are used respectively. Conclusion The DC had better performance when it was used in combination with low SS. The effect on physical demands was better than on psychological demands. The combination of DCS and ERI models could improve the risk estimate of depressive symptoms in humans.

  4. The crisis of representative democracy and the need for reconcliliation of economic growth with human development

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Ana Araújo Ximenes Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the crisis of democracy as a reflection of the need to reconcile economic growth with human development. Initially, it addresses the relationship between the changes that transformed democratic capitalism into supercapitalism, and the weakening of representative democracy models. Subsequently, from the point of view of the Theory of Democracy, it finds that representative democracy presupposes the preservation of a minimum economic and social level for all citizens. In t...

  5. Role of educational institutions in identifying and responding to emerging health human resources needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzountzouris, John-Paul; Gilbert, John H V

    2009-01-01

    The healthcare system continues to evolve, requiring innovation to promote patient-centred, fiscally responsible healthcare delivery. This evolution includes changes to the skills and competencies required of the health human resources (HHR), both regulated and unregulated, who are central supports to healthcare delivery. This has become a priority agenda item at the international, national, provincial, regional and local levels. This paper describes the system factors that drive the emergence of HHR skill and competency needs, and explores the roles of various institutions in the identification of and response to HHR needs. Educational institutions play an important role in responding to emerging HHR needs. Their actual response to HHR skill and competency needs will ultimately depend on the risk posed to the organizations of either addressing, or not addressing, these needs. These decisions are complex and are balanced against strategic, operational and educational risks, benefits and realities within each given educational institution. Educational institutions - through their linkages with the workplace, industry, professional organizations and government - have a unique view and understanding of many facets of the complexity of HHR planning. This paper proposes that educational institutions play a pivotal role as levers in a more coordinated response to emerging HHR needs and, as such, should be intimately involved in comprehensive HHR planning.

  6. [Instrument to collect data for critical patients based on the theory of basic human needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordinhão, Rosaura Costa; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2012-06-01

    This is an exploratory study based on qualitative approach that aimed to collectively construct an instrument to collect data for patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), based on the Theory of Basic Human Needs (NHB). Data collection was through a focus group with four nurses from the ICU and four residents from the Nursing-Health Integrated Residency (RIS) program in seven meetings in 2009. The discussions produced in each session were analyzed as recommended by Horta. The instrument was divided into seven groups and 17 subgroups of needs. After testing and suggestions from participants, we elaborated the final version of the instrument and a guidance manualfor completing it, according to the need expressed by the group. Validation of the instrument and the manual and inclusion of teaching of the nursing process in the RIS activity program are suggested.

  7. 76 FR 12963 - Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-007): Needs and Approaches for Assessing the Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-007): Needs and Approaches for Assessing the Human... INFORMATION: Background The NIEHS mission is to reduce the burden of human illness and disability by understanding how the environment influences the development and progression of human disease. To accomplish...

  8. "We need a mechanism to report abuses of women's human rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the only instrument protecting the human rights of women at the international level. However, even if the convention was the best possible women's human rights documentation, there was no mechanism for reporting the abuses. The women's movement has long been pressing for the approval of the mechanism like the Optional Protocol, because they believe that the Protocol would fulfill the need in allowing the individual and collective accusations of human rights abuses. It means that a woman or a group of women can go to the committee and denounce an action as discriminatory. The committee can only receive reports and make recommendations, whereas having a Protocol would allow the committee to direct complaints, be able to investigate them, and make more specific recommendations. Those countries ratifying the CEDAW don't automatically agree to the Protocol, thus it is the country's discretion to either comply with the Protocol or not. There are also those who are against the Protocol and claim ironically that an Optional Protocol for Political and Civil rights already exists. But such mechanisms do not work for women's rights. What is most needed now is to lobby all national delegations to push the 5th Commission of the United Nations' General Assembly to approve the budget for the protocol.

  9. Human resources needed to perform antimicrobial stewardship teams' activities in French hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, P; Carlet, J; Roblot, F; Pulcini, C

    2016-06-01

    In January 2015, the French ministry of Health set up a task force on antibiotic resistance. Members of the task force's "antimicrobial stewardship" group conducted a study to evaluate the human resources needed to implement all the required activities of the multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship teams (AST - antibiotic/infectious disease lead supervisors, microbiologists, and pharmacists) in French healthcare facilities. We conducted an online cross-sectional nationwide survey. The questionnaire was designed based on regulatory texts and experts' consensus. The survey took place between March and May 2015. We used the mailing list of the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) to send out questionnaires. A total of 65 healthcare facilities completed the questionnaire. The human resources needed to implement all AST's activities were estimated at 3.6 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions/1000 acute care beds for antibiotic/infectious disease lead supervisors, at 2.5 FTE/1000 beds for pharmacists, and at 0.6 FTE/1000 beds for microbiologists. This almost amounts to a total of 2000 FTE positions for all healthcare facilities (public and private) in France and to an annual cost of 200 million euros. Dedicated and sustainable funding for AST is urgently needed to implement comprehensive and functional AST programs in all healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  11. [Association between types of need, human development index, and infant mortality in Mexico, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe; López-Arellano, Oliva

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between different types of economic and social deprivation and infant mortality rates reported in 2008 in Mexico. We conducted an ecological study analyzing the correlation and relative risk between the human development index and levels of social and economic differences in State and national infant mortality rates. There was a strong correlation between higher human development and lower infant mortality. Low schooling and poor housing and crowding were associated with higher infant mortality. Although infant mortality has declined dramatically in Mexico over the last 28 years, the decrease has not been homogeneous, and there are persistent inequalities that determine mortality rates in relation to different poverty levels. Programs with a multidisciplinary approach are needed to decrease infant mortality rates through comprehensive individual and family development.

  12. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Moving beyond obsolescence: an important role for educational institutions in health human resources needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Sandra G

    2009-01-01

    The plan proposed by Tzountzouris and Gilbert is a useful framework for those of us in educational settings to gather and analyze the information to assist in forming our "educational response" to issues of health human resources. But I am concerned that the proposed plan and process encourages us to continue to survey the HHR carnage from our ivory towers, waiting for someone else to pick up the pieces. Instead, academics in education institutions should use their competencies to provide external leadership, building bridges between the policy directions and the local needs.

  14. Ergonomics/Human Factors Needs of an Ageing Workforce in the Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Stedmon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work-ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force.Methods: This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF pers-pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen’s framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored.Results: There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers.Conclusion: Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  15. Ergonomics/Human factors needs of an ageing workforce in the manufacturing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Stedmon, Alex; Howells, Hannah; R Wilson, John; Dianat, Iman

    2012-01-01

    As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work¬ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force. This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) pers¬pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen's framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored. There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers. Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  16. Applying the workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method in Namibia: challenges and implications for human resources for health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As part of ongoing efforts to restructure the health sector and improve health care quality, the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) in Namibia sought to update staffing norms for health facilities. To establish an evidence base for the new norms, the MoHSS supported the first-ever national application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method, a human resource management tool developed by the World Health Organization. Application The WISN method calculates the number of health workers per cadre, based on health facility workload. It provides two indicators to assess staffing: (1) the gap/excess between current and required number of staff, and (2) the WISN ratio, a measure of workload pressure. Namibian WISN calculations focused on four cadres (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants) and all four levels of public facilities (clinics, health centers, district hospitals, intermediate hospitals). WISN steps included establishing a task force; conducting a regional pilot; holding a national validation workshop; field verifying data; collecting, uploading, processing, and analyzing data; and providing feedback to policy-makers. Challenges The task force faced two challenges requiring time and effort to solve: WISN software-related challenges and unavailability of some data at the national level. Findings WISN findings highlighted health worker shortages and inequities in their distribution. Overall, staff shortages are most profound for doctors and pharmacists. Although the country has an appropriate number of nurses, the nurse workforce is skewed towards hospitals, which are adequately or slightly overstaffed relative to nurses’ workloads. Health centers and, in particular, clinics both have gaps between current and required number of nurses. Inequities in nursing staff also exist between and within regions. Finally, the requirement for nurses varies greatly between less and more busy clinics (range = 1 to 7

  17. Applying the workload indicators of staffing need (WISN) method in Namibia: challenges and implications for human resources for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuide, Pamela A; Kolehmainen-Aitken, Riitta-Liisa; Forster, Norbert

    2013-12-10

    As part of ongoing efforts to restructure the health sector and improve health care quality, the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) in Namibia sought to update staffing norms for health facilities. To establish an evidence base for the new norms, the MoHSS supported the first-ever national application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method, a human resource management tool developed by the World Health Organization. The WISN method calculates the number of health workers per cadre, based on health facility workload. It provides two indicators to assess staffing: (1) the gap/excess between current and required number of staff, and (2) the WISN ratio, a measure of workload pressure. Namibian WISN calculations focused on four cadres (doctors, nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants) and all four levels of public facilities (clinics, health centers, district hospitals, intermediate hospitals). WISN steps included establishing a task force; conducting a regional pilot; holding a national validation workshop; field verifying data; collecting, uploading, processing, and analyzing data; and providing feedback to policy-makers. The task force faced two challenges requiring time and effort to solve: WISN software-related challenges and unavailability of some data at the national level. WISN findings highlighted health worker shortages and inequities in their distribution. Overall, staff shortages are most profound for doctors and pharmacists. Although the country has an appropriate number of nurses, the nurse workforce is skewed towards hospitals, which are adequately or slightly overstaffed relative to nurses' workloads. Health centers and, in particular, clinics both have gaps between current and required number of nurses. Inequities in nursing staff also exist between and within regions. Finally, the requirement for nurses varies greatly between less and more busy clinics (range = 1 to 7) and health centers (range = 2 to 57). The utility of

  18. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  19. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine as an Anticancer Vaccine: Collaborative Efforts to Promote Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S; Steele, C Brooke; Hayes, Nikki; Bhatt, Achal; Moore, Angela R

    2017-03-06

    Widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the potential to reduce incidence from HPV-associated cancers. However, vaccine uptake among adolescents remains well below the Healthy People 2020 targets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are well positioned to work with immunization programs to increase vaccine uptake. The CDC chronic disease management information system was queried for objectives and activities associated with HPV vaccine that were reported by NCCCP awardees from 2013 to 2016 as part of program reporting requirements. A content analysis was conducted on the query results to categorize interventions according to strategies outlined in The Guide to Community Preventive Services and the 2014 President's Cancer Panel report. Sixty-two percent of NCCCP awardees had planned or implemented at least one activity since 2013 to address low HPV vaccination coverage in their jurisdictions. Most NCCCP awardees (86%) reported community education activities, while 65% reported activities associated with provider education. Systems-based strategies such as client reminders or provider assessment and feedback were each reported by less than 25% of NCCCP awardees. Many NCCCP awardees report planning or implementing activities to address low HPV vaccination coverage, often in conjunction with state immunization programs. NCCCP awardees can play a role in increasing HPV vaccination coverage through their cancer prevention and control expertise and access to partners in the healthcare community.

  20. Reshaped destinies: confronting our human future the need for and promise of an interdisciplinary colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Louis M; Noll, Rebekka C

    2008-12-01

    The genomic revolution is bringing with it simultaneous needs for both scientists and nonscientists to understand and assess, in an unvarnished and nonjudgmental way, the implications of genometry. This is the field of science and technology that is taking the genetic code and what we have learned from its secrets, and reshaping our individual and collective human destinies. Together with the editor-in-chief of Gender Medicine, the authors propose an interdisciplinary group-populated by those in science, law, ethics, social policy, and the interested public-to observe, understand, and disseminate information about what is occurring in the fields of biology and chemistry that is the driving force of the genomic revolution. This article discusses the background to the Redefined Destinies Colloquium (RDC) and summarizes 4 of the topics the RDC is studying.

  1. Indonesia's present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruslan, Jeni; Sagala, F.P. [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2000-12-01

    BATAN, started out as a governmental committee established in 1954, has a new organizational structure, based on Presidential Decree of 1998. BATAN has developed its researches in almost practically all-nuclear fields. The situation in Indonesia has been much influenced by the economic crisis, which still being faced by Indonesia. BATAN's strategic planning is described in four areas, those are: 1. Basic human needs, 2. Energy, natural resources and environment, 3. Industry, 4. Socio-cultural and institution. Priority has been given to fulfill, as well as to promote agriculture, health and the industry related to people's welfare, which may develop and improve the immediate needs of the people. In the meantime, we have made considerable investments in manpower development in anticipation of the introduction of nuclear power. BATAN, as of September 1999, has 3889 employees, 26 % of them have bachelor degree, 6 % hold master degrees, and only 2% hold doctoral degree, a total of 34 % employees with university education. Others 11 % have either non-vocational or vocational education beyond High School. The rest of 55 % have high school education or lower, they are administrative clerks (25 %) or technicians (30 %). In the human resources development, BATAN's Education and Training Center, in collaboration with some universities and other national/international institutions, is managing education and training programs for employees. To date, there are 43 BATAN employees studying in various universities in Japan, while another 42 employees are studying in six different countries. Research and Development that have more direct impact to the community will become a priority in the coming years. Without undermining the importance of basic research in advanced fields, we will expect to have more research on application to optimize utilization of research reactors and related facilities for the benefit of both the energy and non-energy sectors. (Tanaka, Y.)

  2. Defining, Measuring, and Incentivizing Sustainable Land Use to Meet Human Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Brady, M. V.; Olin, S.; Ekroos, J.; Hall, M.; Seaquist, J. W.; Lehsten, V.; Smith, H.

    2016-12-01

    Land is a natural capital that supports the flow of an enormous amount of ecosystem services critical to human welfare. Sustainable land use, which we define as land use that meets both current and future human needs for ecosystem services, is essential to meet global goals for climate mitigation and sustainable development, while maintaining natural capital. However, it is not clear what governance is needed to achieve sustainable land use under multiple goals (as defined by the values of relevant decision-makers and land managers), particularly under climate change. Here we develop a conceptual model for examining the interactions and tradeoffs among multiple goals, as well as their spatial interactions (teleconnections), in research developed using Design Thinking principles. We have selected five metrics for provisioning (food production, and fiber production for wood and energy), regulating and maintenance (climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation), and cultural (heritage) ecosystem services. Using the case of Sweden, we estimate indicators for these metrics using a combination of existing data synthesis and process-based simulation modeling. We also develop and analyze new indicators (e.g., combining data on land use, bird conservation status, and habitat specificity to make a predictive model of bird diversity changes on agricultural or forested land). Our results highlight both expected tradeoffs (e.g., between food production and biodiversity conservation) as well as unexpected opportunities for synergies under different land management scenarios and strategies. Our model also provides a practical way to make decision-maker values explicit by comparing both quantity and preferences for bundles of ecosystem services under various scenarios. We hope our model will help in considering competing interests and shaping economic incentives and governance structures to meet national targets in support of global goals for sustainable management of land

  3. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  4. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Blanton, Jesse D; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis-in perpetuity-, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of dog rabies virus by 2030. Drawing from multiple datasets, including national dog vaccination campaigns, rabies literature, and expert opinion, we developed a model considering country-specific current dog vaccination capacity to estimate the years and resources required to achieve dog rabies elimination by 2030. Resources were determined based on four factors: (a) country development status, (b) dog vaccination costs, (c) dog rabies vaccine availability, and (d) existing animal health workers. Our calculations were based on the WHO's estimate that vaccinating 70% of the dog population for seven consecutive years would eliminate rabies. If dog rabies vaccine production remains at 2015 levels, we estimate that there will be a cumulative shortage of about 7.5 billion doses to meet expected demand to achieve dog rabies elimination. We estimated a present cost of $6,300 million to eliminate dog rabies in all endemic countries, equivalent to a $3,900 million gap compared to current spending. To eliminate dog rabies, the vaccination workforce may suffice if all public health veterinarians in endemic countries were to dedicate 3 months each year to dog rabies vaccination. We discuss implications of potential technology improvements, including population management, vaccine price reduction, and increases in dog-vaccinating capacities. Our results highlight the resources needed to achieve elimination of dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. As exemplified by multiple successful disease

  5. Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines why fundamental freedoms are so unevenly distributed across the earth. Climato-economic theorizing proposes that humans adapt needs, stresses, and choices of goals, means, and outcomes to the livability of their habitat. The evolutionary process at work is one of collectively meeting climatic demands of cold winters or hot summers by using monetary resources. Freedom is expected to be lowest in poor populations threatened by demanding thermal climates, intermediate in populations comforted by undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head, and highest in rich populations challenged by demanding thermal climates. This core hypothesis is supported with new survey data across 85 countries and 15 Chinese provinces and with a reinterpretative review of results of prior studies comprising 174 countries and the 50 states in the United States. Empirical support covers freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of expression and participation, freedom from discrimination, and freedom to develop and realize one's human potential. Applying the theory to projections of temperature and income for 104 countries by 2112 forecasts that (a) poor populations in Asia, perhaps except Afghans and Pakistanis, will move up the international ladder of freedom, (b) poor populations in Africa will lose, rather than gain, relative levels of freedom unless climate protection and poverty reduction prevent this from happening, and (c) several rich populations will be challenged to defend current levels of freedom against worsening climato-economic livability.

  6. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ(2) = 7.447, P human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ(2) = 13.266, P human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ(2) = 9.459, P human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  7. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  8. Haptic Guidance Needs to Be Intuitive Not Just Informative to Improve Human Motor Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Winfred; Kuling, Irene A.; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans make both random and systematic errors when reproducing learned movements. Intuitive haptic guidance that assists one to make the movements reduces such errors. Our study examined whether any additional haptic information about the location of the target reduces errors in a position reproduction task, or whether the haptic guidance needs to be assistive to do so. Holding a haptic device, subjects made reaches to visible targets without time constraints. They did so in a no-guidance condition, and in guidance conditions in which the direction of the force with respect to the target differed, but the force scaled with the distance to the target in the same way. We examined whether guidance forces directed towards the target would reduce subjects’ errors in reproducing a prior position to the same extent as do forces rotated by 90 degrees or 180 degrees, as it might because the forces provide the same information in all three cases. Without vision of the arm, both the accuracy and precision were significantly better with guidance directed towards the target than in all other conditions. The errors with rotated guidance did not differ from those without guidance. Not surprisingly, the movements tended to be faster when guidance forces directed the reaches to the target. This study shows that haptic guidance significantly improved motor performance when using it was intuitive, while non-intuitively presented information did not lead to any improvements and seemed to be ignored even in our simple paradigm with static targets and no time constraints. PMID:26982481

  9. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, Corazon C.; Roceles, Pilar C. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    2000-12-01

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will

  10. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100 with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (c2 = 7.447, P < 0.059 and serving in the same utensils (c2 = 10.866, P < 0.012, were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (c2 = 13.266, P < 0.004, not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (c2 = 21.133, P < 0.00 and called with filthy nicknames (c2 = 8.334, P < 0.040, were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (c2 = 9.459, P < 0.024, were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (c2 = 9.823, P < 0.044. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  11. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  15. HEALTH NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human needs are of great interest to different scientific fields: sociology, anthropology, psychology, medicine, economy… Malinowski, Maslow, Adler and From have largely contributed to studying the needs. While trying to define the need concept, not only one definition is acceptable. In psychology, need is defined as a lack or disorder, i.e. the necessity to dislodge this lack. It was Maslow who gave the fullest classification and explanation of human needs. If we start from the fact that need represents the lack or deficit of something, in this context health needs would indicate the lack of health, and the measurement of health needs would be the same as the measurement of health. Therefore, almost all human needs can be enumerated as health needs, i.e. those which, after being satisfied, can lead to physical, psychical and social welfare. According to WHO, health needs can be defined as scientifically settled evasions from health which require preventive, curative and probably regulative and eradicative measurements. According to the medical method used by the health service while regarding the needs, the emphasis is on morbidity, mortality, incidence, prevalence, inability, etc. Usually, when we have very low level of health culture, and the responsibility for personal health is in most of the cases unacceptable, for the health service user the curative services will have priority over preventive ones. The measurement of health needs is a complex task. The needs can be regarded through medical documentation and by perception of the needs by people in the community.

  16. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had Its Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Language is nature in action and something humans do. This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation. It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using…

  17. The North/South Debate: Technology, Basic Human Needs and the New International Economic Order. Working Paper Number Twelve. 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    This document contains two articles by Johan Galtung presented as papers at an international conference on the relationship of technology to the environment and human needs. The monograph is part of a series intended to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action toward a just world order. The first paper, "Towards a New…

  18. The North/South Debate: Technology, Basic Human Needs and the New International Economic Order. Working Paper Number Twelve. 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Johan

    This document contains two articles by Johan Galtung presented as papers at an international conference on the relationship of technology to the environment and human needs. The monograph is part of a series intended to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action toward a just world order. The first paper, "Towards a New…

  19. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  20. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  1. An urgent need to restrict access to pesticides based on human lethality.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Miller; Kavi Bhalla

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Miller and Kavi Bhalla discuss new research findings from Andrew Dawson and colleagues on the human toxicity of pesticides in Sri Lanka, and call for urgent reclassification of agricultural pesticides to help reduce suicides by poisonings.

  2. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth; Hansen, Andrew; Turner, B L; Reid, Robin; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

  3. Ethical regulation or regulating ethics? The need for both internal and external governance of human experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomossy, George F

    2002-10-01

    Research regulation is a timely topic for discussions in bioethics and public health policy. This response to articles in the previous special issue of the Monash Bioethics Review emphasises the importance of having both internal and external controls on human experimentation. Unless both elements are incorporated into research ethics governance frameworks, they will ultimately fail to achieve what should be their primary goal: human subject protection.

  4. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  5. Progress, epistemology and human health and welfare: what nurses need to know and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Clinton E

    2005-07-01

    Human Progress is often understood to be a rather natural and obvious truth of human existence. That this is not necessarily so, is indicative of the pervasive social, psychological, and educational inculcation that sustains its ubiquitous acceptance. Moreover, the uncritical and ill-informed understanding of Progress as an unquestioned expression of human beneficence has serious consequences for those concerned with the health and welfare of people. It is argued in this paper that, much of what we might consider deleterious in the socio-political milieu that now confronts us is, to a significant extent, a matter of progressive ideological epistemology and its ensuing manner of human institutionalization. Part one contends that the current socio-political structure of the current postmodern affairs is in reality that of a pervasive postmodern economic ideology. Part two provides a brief overview of the historical and philosophical development of Progress as an idea, including some of the profound effects wrought by it on human affairs in the contemporary world. Finally, Part three presents a discussion of the influential effects of the philosophy of Progress on the epistemology of human health and welfare intervention, specifically that of nursing and its claim to a holistic ethic of Caring.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid and human brain development: evidence that a dietary supply is needed for optimal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Carlson, Susan E

    2014-12-01

    Humans evolved a uniquely large brain among terrestrial mammals. Brain and nervous tissue is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Docosahexaenoic acid is required for lower and high order functions in humans because of understood and emerging molecular mechanisms. Among brain components that depend on dietary components, DHA is limiting because its synthesis from terrestrial plant food precursors is low but its utilization when consumed in diet is very efficient. Negligible DHA is found in terrestrial plants, but in contrast, DHA is plentiful at the shoreline where it is made by single-celled organisms and plants, and in the seas supports development of very large marine mammal brains. Modern human brains accumulate DHA up to age 18, most aggressively from about half-way through gestation to about two years of age. Studies in modern humans and non-human primates show that modern infants consuming infant formulas that include only DHA precursors have lower DHA levels than for those with a source of preformed DHA. Functional measures show that infants consuming preformed DHA have improved visual and cognitive function. Dietary preformed DHA in the breast milk of modern mothers supports many-fold greater breast milk DHA than is found in the breast milk of vegans, a phenomenon linked to consumption of shore-based foods. Most current evidence suggests that the DHA-rich human brain required an ample and sustained source of dietary DHA to reach its full potential.

  7. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  8. Unmet needs among men with human immunodeficiency virus in community mental health care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Sirotich, Frank; Antoniou, Tony; Roesslein, Kay; Durbin, Janet; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-07-01

    While community-based mental health services play an important role in caring for persons with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and co-existing mental health disorders, the extent to which their support needs are addressed in this setting is unknown. Accordingly, we examined if HIV infection was associated with unmet support needs among men living with and without HIV receiving community mental health care. This cross-sectional study examined 215 men (135 living with HIV and 80 without HIV) receiving case management services in urban Ontario. Using the Camberwell Assessment of Need, we ascertained the prevalence of support needs in 13 domains grouped into three clusters: Basic needs (accommodation, food, benefits, and money management); self-care/functional needs (daytime activities, self-care, and looking after the home); and health/safety needs (physical, psychological distress, psychotic symptoms, safety to self, and safety to others). We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to examine the association between HIV and unmet need in each domain. Compared to HIV-negative men, men with HIV were more likely to have mood and concurrent disorders, and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Following multivariable analyses, men with HIV had greater unmet needs related to food (odds ratio + 95% confidence interval: 9.36 (4.03, 21.75), p need domains]; psychological distress (OR: 2.39 (1.68, 3.41), p need in basic and health domains than HIV-negative men receiving such support. Further research is required to develop and evaluate interventions to best support community-dwelling persons with HIV and mental health disorders.

  9. Maslow's hierarchy of needs: a framework for achieving human potential in hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalenski, Robert J; Raspa, Richard

    2006-10-01

    Although the widespread implementation of hospice in the United States has led to tremendous advances in the care of the dying, there has been no widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the patient and family. The humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow, especially his theory of motivation and the hierarchy of needs, has been widely applied in business and social science, but only sparsely discussed in the palliative care literature. In this article we review Maslow's original hierarchy, adapt it to hospice and palliative care, apply the adaptation to a case example, and then discuss its implications for patient care, education, and research. The five levels of the hierarchy of needs as adapted to palliative care are: (1) distressing symptoms, such as pain or dyspnea; (2) fears for physical safety, of dying or abandonment; (3) affection, love and acceptance in the face of devastating illness; (4) esteem, respect, and appreciation for the person; (5) selfactualization and transcendence. Maslow's modified hierarchy of palliative care needs could be utilized to provide a comprehensive approach for the assessment of patients' needs and the design of interventions to achieve goals that start with comfort and potentially extend to the experience of transcendence.

  10. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the needs among HIV-infected adults.

  11. Farmers' perceptions of the impacts of human- wildlife conflict on their livelihood and natural resource management efforts in Cheha Woreda of Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne Mojo; Jessica Rothschuh; Mehari Alebachew

    2014-01-01

    ... sustainable land management practices among resident agrarian families. In 2011, a household survey was conducted to assess farmers' perceptions of human-wildlife conflicts and the effects of these conflicts on land management in Cheha Woreda...

  12. A brief history of soils and human health work and needs for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 B.C. the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 B.C. the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered ...

  13. Interactive machine learning for health informatics: when do we need the human-in-the-loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and health informatics is among the greatest challenges. The goal of ML is to develop algorithms which can learn and improve over time and can be used for predictions. Most ML researchers concentrate on automatic machine learning (aML), where great advances have been made, for example, in speech recognition, recommender systems, or autonomous vehicles. Automatic approaches greatly benefit from big data with many training sets. However, in the health domain, sometimes we are confronted with a small number of data sets or rare events, where aML-approaches suffer of insufficient training samples. Here interactive machine learning (iML) may be of help, having its roots in reinforcement learning, preference learning, and active learning. The term iML is not yet well used, so we define it as "algorithms that can interact with agents and can optimize their learning behavior through these interactions, where the agents can also be human." This "human-in-the-loop" can be beneficial in solving computationally hard problems, e.g., subspace clustering, protein folding, or k-anonymization of health data, where human expertise can help to reduce an exponential search space through heuristic selection of samples. Therefore, what would otherwise be an NP-hard problem, reduces greatly in complexity through the input and the assistance of a human agent involved in the learning phase.

  14. The Educational Needs of and the Future Labor Market Demand for Human Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prock, Dan; Henson, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Reports and discusses results of a national survey of professionals from all fields of human resource management (HRM) and college recruiters on the content of HRM education, competency requirements of certain specialists, and the labor market for personnel administration and industrial relations (PAIR/HRM) professionals in the next three years.…

  15. Biomarker discovery in human cerebrospinal fluid: The need for integrative metabolome and proteome databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schwarz (Emanuel); F.E. Torrey; P.C. Guest (Paul); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe number of metabolites identified in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has steadily increased over the past 5 years, and in this issue of Genome Medicine David Wishart and colleagues provide a comprehensive update that brings the number of metabolites listed in the CSF metabolome databa

  16. Balancing the needs and preferences of humans against concerns for fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kadri, S.

    2009-01-01

    How can stakeholders within the fisheries community engage in constructive ethical discussions? Drawing on experiences from previous debates surrounding the human use of animals, this paper presents a proactive approach whereby stakeholders can create a framework for ethical discussion of capture...

  17. Skill Needs and Human Resources Development in the Emerging Field of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert Mayfield

    2010-01-01

    Strong societal requirements and consumer acceptance are the driving force of nanotechnology development. The necessity for qualified experts and strong demand on education in the multi-, trans- and interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology is a logical consequence of this driving force. There is the need for a comprehensive national…

  18. Scope of a nursing diagnostic list for fulfilling basic human needs in home-visit nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Fusako; Muranaka, Yoko; Tamaki, Miyoko; Akiba, Kimiko; Aoki, Ryouko

    2006-01-01

    Inscriptions on 291 nursing diagnosis items regarding 100 home convalescents were subjected to analysis. The 291-item nursing diagnosis was found to be consistent with a previously reported nursing diagnosis developed by the authors from Henderson's 14 items covering basic nursing practice. Additionally, the analysis indicated a need for nursing diagnosis items for family members, as caregivers for the patients recuperating at home.

  19. Skill Needs and Human Resources Development in the Emerging Field of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert Mayfield

    2010-01-01

    Strong societal requirements and consumer acceptance are the driving force of nanotechnology development. The necessity for qualified experts and strong demand on education in the multi-, trans- and interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology is a logical consequence of this driving force. There is the need for a comprehensive national…

  20. What every dentist needs to know about the human microbiome and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, Andrew J; Porter, Judith A; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a ratio of 10:1. Apart from their well-known pathogenic potential, bacteria are proving to be integral to the overall health of the body. Residential microbes have critical roles in diverse processes, such as nutrient harvesting, internal environment regulation, immune system development, neurological modulation, and drug metabolism, as well as providing protection against pathogens. There is a growing body of research on the microbiome and probiotic therapies to restore or augment these functions throughout the body. In particular, increasing numbers of bacterial species and bacterial interactions have been discovered in the oral cavity, and probiotic interventions for common dental problems such as caries, periodontal diseases, and oral malodor are being developed and reviewed.

  1. Isocyanates and human health: Multi-stakeholder information needs and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, JE; Redlich, CA; Streicher, R; Pfahles-Hutchens, A; Hakkinen, PJ; Ellison, GL; Harber, P; Utell, M; Holland, J; Comai, A; White, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective Outline the knowledge gaps and research priorities identified by a broad-base of stakeholders involved in the planning and participation of an international conference and research agenda workshop on isocyanates and human health held in Potomac, Maryland in April 2013. Methods A multi-modal iterative approach was employed for data collection including pre-conference surveys, review of a 2001 consensus conference on isocyanates, oral and poster presentations, focused break-out sessions, panel discussions and post-conference research agenda workshop. Results Participants included representatives of consumer and worker health, health professionals, regulatory agencies, academic and industry scientists, labor, and trade associations. Conclusions Recommendations were summarized regarding knowledge gaps and research priorities in the following areas: worker and consumer exposures; toxicology, animal models, and biomarkers; human cancer risk; environmental exposure and monitoring; and respiratory epidemiology and disease, and occupational health surveillance. PMID:25563538

  2. Music Therapy and Eating Disorders- A Single Case Study about the Sound of Human Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bauer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I reflect on a music therapy intervention realized many years ago, with a young woman who had the diagnosis of Bulimia Nervosa. The concepts to which I will refer are the concept of resource orientated psychotherapy and the Bernese concept of need adapted -and motivational attunement (Grawe, 1998; Grawe and Grawe-Gerber, 1999; Stucki and Grawe, 2007. I re-viewed one of my cases, Ms. H., following some of the ideas developed by the authors.  I discovered various moments of interest, which made me think in terms of a Need Adapted Music Therapy process. Therefore, in the presentation of the case, besides talking about the patient’s eating disorder I want to point out her basic needs and how she demanded for them to be met symbolically during shared improvisational moments with the music therapist. And even if the therapist did not have the mentioned concepts in her mind at the time, it seems as if patient and therapist met quite often in this kind of “silent space of needs”.

  3. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan M. Wallace; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Blanton, Jesse D.; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis—in perpetuity—, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination...

  4. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Eduardo A Undurraga; Jesse D. Blanton; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis—in perpetuity—, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination of...

  5. Social Baseline Theory: The Social Regulation of Risk and Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, James A.; Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe Social Baseline Theory (SBT), a perspective that integrates the study of social relationships with principles of attachment, behavioral ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and perception science. SBT suggests the human brain expects access to social relationships that mitigate risk and diminish the level of effort needed to meet a variety of goals. This is accomplished in part by incorporating relational partners into neural representations of the self. By contrast, decreased access to relational partners increases cognitive and physiological effort. Relationship disruptions entail re-defining the self as independent, which implies greater risk, increased effort, and diminished well being. The ungrafting of the self and other may mediate recovery from relationship loss. PMID:25825706

  6. Application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method to predict nursing human resources at a Family Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Bonfim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective verify the application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method in the prediction of nursing human resources at a Family Health service. Method descriptive and quantitative study, undertaken at a Family Health service in the city of São Paulo. The set of sequential operations recommended in the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method was used: definition of the professional category, type of health service and calculation of Available Work Time; definition of workload components; identification of mean time for workload components; dimensioning of staff needs based on the method, application and interpretation of the data. Result the workload proposed in the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method to nursing technicians/auxiliary nurses was balanced with the number of professionals available at the Family Health service. The Workload Indicators of Staffing Need index amounted to 0.6 for nurses and 1.0 for nursing technicians/auxiliary nurses. Conclusion the application of the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need method was relevant to identify the components of the nursing professionals' workload. Therefore, it is recommendable as a nursing staffing tool at Family Health services, contributing to the access and universal health coverage.

  7. Inconsistencies in pedigree symbols in human genetics publications: A need for standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhaus, K.A.; Bennett, R.L.; Resta, R.G. [Univ. of California at Irvine, Orange, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-10

    To determine consistency in usage of pedigree symbols by genetics professionals, we reviewed pedigrees printed in 10 human genetic and medical journals and 24 medical genetics textbooks. We found no consistent symbolization for common situations such as pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, death, or test results. Inconsistency in pedigree design can create difficulties in the interpretation of family studies and detract from the pedigree`s basic strength of simple and accurate communication of medical information. We recommend the development of standard pedigree symbols, and their incorporation into genetic publications, professional genetics training programs, pedigree software programs, and genetic board examinations. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Does post-humanism still need ethics? The normativity of an open nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In the current era, post-humanism usually adopts two forms. One of these is related to postmodern thought and its critique of Enlightenment ideals, while the other, which is usually referred to as transhumanism, declares itself the heir to optimistic belief in the technological progress of modernity. Nevertheless, both seem like new versions of the struggle between an individualist version of liberalism and its critics. In so far as they are ethical proposals, we may hold them to account for the vagueness of their moral objectives, which only seem to advocate - each in its own way - emancipation and the removal of barriers that may impede an increase in power. This defect is not, though, independent of their rejection of the notion of nature. By contrast, classical ethics does not focus so much on power or emancipation as on the nature of human telos and of his true growth, and it is only from this standpoint that it concerns itself with the means by which this can be achieved.

  9. Current state of allocation of oral health human resources in northern China and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Lu, Z; Cheng, R; Liu, L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to describe the distribution, structure and allocation of oral health services personnel, evaluate oral health service capacity and predict the needs for oral health services in northern China over the coming 10 years. The questionnaires were sent to all the dental medical institutions included in this study directly from the Sanitation Bureau and the Health Supervision Station. All the institutions and dental personnel were asked to fill out the questionnaires, and then, the questionnaires were collected through postal service and email. In Liaoning Province, which is in northern China, there are a total of 5617 dentists in total, 87.8% of whom are located in urban areas. Dentists in rural areas were found to be less educated and specialized. The ratio of dentists to nurses to technicians was about 6:2:1, and the ratio of dentists to total population was 1:7682. It was predicted that, in 2020, the number of dentists could reach 13 207. This would meet the area's needs for oral health services. Currently, in northern China, the oral health infrastructure suffers from an insufficient number of dental professionals, disproportionate distribution and inappropriate structure. To improve social equity, it is necessary to adjust the distribution of dental personnel capable of performing for oral health services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  11. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  12. Analysis of Human Needs in Kitchen Design for People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kłos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society, about twenty percent of the population has problems with eyesight. As a result of the ageing process, it is expected that till the year 2020, the problem of visual impairment will be experienced by an increasing number of people. There is a relationship between impaired vision in old age and reduced quality of life and increased risk of dangerous situations in the kitchen. This paper is an attempt to meet and describe the desires and needs of people with visual impairment. The presented results of the survey research conducted among people with sight problems are the basis for the elaboration of design concepts for kitchen furniture. This paper describes the selected solutions of kitchen furniture designed for people with visual impairment to increase their comfort of living.

  13. The French human biomonitoring program: First lessons from the perinatal component and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Fillol, Clémence; Charles, Marie-Aline; Denys, Sébastien

    2016-11-17

    This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program currently consists in two surveys: a perinatal component related to a selection of 4145 pregnant women who have been enrolled in the Elfe cohort (the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood) in 2011, and a general population survey related to adults aged 18-74 years and children as from 6 years (Esteban). The aim of this manuscript is to present highlights of the French human biomonitoring program with particular focus on the prioritization of biomarkers to be analyzed in the program and the selection of biomarkers applied to both program components. The Delphi method was used to establish a consensual list of prioritized biomarkers in 2011. First results of the perinatal component of the French HBM program have shown that the biomarkers prioritized were relevant, as almost all pregnant women were exposed to them. However, for some biomarkers, levels' decreases have been observed which may partly be explained by measures taken to prohibit some of these chemicals (e.g. atrazine) and by industrial processes evolutions leading to the substitution of others (e.g. bisphenol A, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate/DEHP, dialkyl phosphates). Therefore, the list of biomarkers to be monitored in the French HBM program has been implemented to include some substitutes of biomarkers prioritized in the first instance (e.g. bisphenol S, F). Finally, this method combines rigor and flexibility and helped us to build a prioritized list that will be shared and supported by many if not all actors.

  14. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p < .009) 'safe drinking water' (χ (2) = 13.506, p < .004) and purchasing medications (χ (2) = 9.958, p < .019). Conversely, participants from above poverty line were dissatisfied in emotional needs dimension i.e. 'commenting on physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p < .040), afraid of family members (χ (2) = 17.809, p < .000). Thus, there is an urgent need to implement mental illness awareness campaigns and government should take active steps for providing employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres.

  15. Cystoisosporiasis-related human acalculous cholecystitis: the need for increased awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Agholi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystitis is one of the common surgical indications affecting human beings in many countries. A variety of infectious agents can be associated with acute or chronic acalculous cholecystitis, especially in HIV/AIDS patients. In this investigation, the authors aim to describe two cases of histologically and molecularly documented cystoisosporiasis (syn. isosporiasis as the cause of chronic acalculous cholecystitis in two immunodeficient patients. During microscopic examinations of more than 2500 diarrheic patients’ samples, 11 cases of cystoisosporiasis-related recurrent persistent/chronic diarrhea were detected. A review of the medical records of Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli-positive patients showed that two of them, i.e. a patient with prolonged corticosteroid therapy and an AIDS patient, several months prior to fecal examinations had undergone cholecystectomy due to acalculous cholecystitis. The study was continued by a review of the histopathological investigation of the recuts prepared from the excised gallbladder tissue sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin in order to detect a possible specific clinical correlation with cystoisosporiasis. Light microscopic examination revealed the presence of various developmental stages of a coccidial parasite, namely Cystoisospora belli , in both patients’ gallbladder tissue sections. To the best of our knowledge, C. bellii -associated cholecystitis has not been previously reported in a patient with prolonged corticosteroid therapy.

  16. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  17. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  18. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  19. The Human Resources Challenge to Community Based Rehabilitation: The Need for a Scientific, Systematic and Coordinated Global Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilish McAuliffe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Report on Disability highlights some of the major challenges in the path to realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities as per the United Nations Convention. While the recently published guidelines on Community Based Rehabilitation show the way to address these challenges, effective implementation would require not only higher levels of investment in human resources, but also a significantly newer and different skill-set for the additional personnel.  The authors suggest that a scientifically sophisticated, systematic and coordinated research programme, with global reach and participation, is needed for the establishment of a useful and robust evidence-base for Community Based Rehabilitation interventions. It is also suggested that the development of a new cadre of rehabilitation workers could be a key component of the programme, and could help to alleviate the extant crisis in human resources for health in many low-income countries.

  20. Mini review of mercury contamination in environment and human with an emphasis on Malaysia: status and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; de Burbure, Claire; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on mercury (Hg) contamination in Malaysia and its evolution from 1979 to 2012. The objective of this paper was to review and provide an understanding of Hg exposures in the environment, humans, and food in Malaysia. Hg concentration in the environment is high in areas of West Port, Malacca Straits, Prai, and Johor because these areas receive anthropogenic metal loads brought about by industrial activities. Hg concentration in humans is related to seafood intake (dietary), environmental conditions, and different geographical locations. Hg levels in food showed higher concentration in the West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Hg concentration is also present in the country's tropical fruits, which is related to agrochemical and fertilizer usage. This review showed that there is an urgent need to identify Hg toxicology and bioaccumulation as well as the health effects of Hg exposure in different ecological compartments. This review aims to provide helpful recommendations for future Hg biomonitoring and research in Malaysia.

  1. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had its Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Green

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Language is nature in action and something humans do.  This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation.  It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using traditional teaching methods.  It is shown that all healthy human brains are excellent at learning and using language, and high levels of motivation to learn a foreign language are not required if teaching practices and materials replicate natural learning experiences, and class participation is ensured.  This work is of great importance to teachers as it demonstrates that teachers would help students more by investing their time in developing class materials than by worrying about student motivation. Keywords:  foreign language, cognitive linguistics, language evolution, language learnability, language usability, motivation

  2. [Stress, Needs, and Quality of Life of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in North East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chu; Lu, Po-Liang; Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-04-01

    HIV/AIDS has become a chronic disease since anti-retroviral therapy has reduced the related rates of morbidity and mortality and maintained the immunity of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus / AIDS (PLWHA). PLWHA have psychological needs and many hope to improve their quality of life (QoL) over the long course of their treatment. Despite the large number of AIDS cases, there are limited reports addressing the issue of QoL among PLWHA in China. The present study aims to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and related factors among PLWHA in China. This cross-sectional, descriptive study used a structural questionnaire to assess the stress, needs, and QoL of 100 PLWHA in Shenyang, China. The most stressful issues faced by the participants were admitting HIV/AIDS status publicly and explaining their illness to others. Their needs were mainly related to receiving adequate information about HIV-related medical services, examination, and treatment and learning how to prevent disease progression. Among the four domains of QoL, the score in the physical domain was the lowest. The stress, needs, and QoL of the participants were significantly inter-correlated. However, only stress was found to predict QoL (β = -.25 to -.60, p needs, and improve the QoL of PLWHA, healthcare providers should work to lower the risk of divulgence, provide adequate healthcare information, and work to reduce the stigma and discrimination that is associated with having HIV/AIDS.

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Equipment for the Handicapped (f) Basic Support Equipment and Supplies Necessary To Operate and Administer...

  4. Two distinct structural elements of 5S rRNA are needed for its import into human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Tarassov, Ivan; Mager-Heckel, Anne-Marie; Letzelter, Michel; Martin, Robert P; Krasheninnikov, Igor A; Entelis, Nina

    2008-04-01

    RNA import into mitochondria is a widespread phenomenon. Studied in details for yeast, protists, and plants, it still awaits thorough investigation for human cells, in which the nuclear DNA-encoded 5S rRNA is imported. Only the general requirements for this pathway have been described, whereas specific protein factors needed for 5S rRNA delivery into mitochondria and its structural determinants of import remain unknown. In this study, a systematic analysis of the possible role of human 5S rRNA structural elements in import was performed. Our experiments in vitro and in vivo show that two distinct regions of the human 5S rRNA molecule are needed for its mitochondrial targeting. One of them is located in the proximal part of the helix I and contains a conserved uncompensated G:U pair. The second and most important one is associated with the loop E-helix IV region with several noncanonical structural features. Destruction or even destabilization of these sites leads to a significant decrease of the 5S rRNA import efficiency. On the contrary, the beta-domain of the 5S rRNA was proven to be dispensable for import, and thus it can be deleted or substituted without affecting the 5S rRNA importability. This finding was used to demonstrate that the 5S rRNA can function as a vector for delivering heterologous RNA sequences into human mitochondria. 5S rRNA-based vectors containing a substitution of a part of the beta-domain by a foreign RNA sequence were shown to be much more efficiently imported in vivo than the wild-type 5S rRNA.

  5. Cassini launch contingency effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  7. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  8. Leading the Fundraising Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, G. Jeremiah; Palmer, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Community colleges now depend on fundraising to fill a growing gap between institutional needs and financial support from tuition and government taxes. As a result, fundraising has become a critical component of fiscal leadership. This chapter describes emerging ways in which fundraising is being viewed and organized in the community college.

  9. O ensino da cirurgia: a necessidade de uma visão humanística Surgical education: the need of a humanistic vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Soares Júnior

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A fragmentação e "compartimentalização" do conhecimento médico não são as únicas causas das dificuldades encontradas na formação de cirurgiões. O abandono do ensino médico vinculado às ciências humanas (sociais tem levado a formação de profissionais que entendem as ciências biológicas sem entender as ciências da vida. O afastamento da realidade cotidiana, cultural e individual cria condições para o não entendimento da singularidade e subjetividade de cada ser humano. O cirurgião tem, frequentemente, sido erroneamente descrito como portador de qualidades negativas, mas que na verdade remetem a um caráter mais firme e resoluto. De outra forma não é preciso dom para operar, mas empenho, esforço e determinação. O ensino problematizador possibilita a construção de um conhecimento crítico que leva o indivíduo a intervir na realidade que vivencia, de forma transformadora, objetiva e consciente. Esta construção crítica e humanística do conhecimento só poderá se instituir por intermédio de um ensino contextualizado sociocultural e historicamente, não apenas técnico, biocêntrico e hospitalocêntrico.The fragments and compartments of medical knowledge are not the only causes of difficulty found to form surgeons. The abandon of medical education associated with human science (social science has formed professionals that understand biological science but don't understand life science. The distance from individual and cultural everyday reality enables one to not understand uniqueness and differences of each human being. Surgeons frequently have been described as someone endowed with bad qualities which actually just represent a tough and daring aspect. In other words, you don't need to be gifted to operate. All you need is effort, hard work and determination. Education built with problems produces a critical knowledge that makes an individual intervene in reality that physicians lives in a transformer, conscious and

  10. LAUNCHING EFFORTS NEEDED FOR A HIGH-TECH PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims the difficult problem of creating new product concepts in thearea of high-technology and innovation. Because of scientific discoveries andimpressive development of technology, many companies compete for marketsupremacy on the technological innovations market. In a global market,which is currently in an economic and financial crisis, consumers make a newhierarchy of priorities in terms of expenditure and consumption. Therefore,companies that create new products must be very careful about 2 aspects,so the new product may not become a failure: the products positioning on themarket and the target group which they address to. This paper belongs to themarketing area by bringing into discussion theoretical concepts, by analyzingthe stages crossed by a company in the process of launching a new hightechproduct and crossing the abyss in the product adoption process byconsumers.

  11. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  12. Concerted Efforts Needed to Resolve Global Economic Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China seeks harmonious coexistence with the world China’s Central Economic Working Conference was concluded on December 7th,2006.With a theme of pre- venting drastic economic fluctuations the following year, the conference grabbed the attention of the whole na- tion and elevated the balance of international payments to an unprecedented level.A new way of thinking on the part of decision-makers for macroeconomic control is coming to light.

  13. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility.

  14. Policy needs and options for a common approach towards modelling and simulation of human physiology and diseases with a focus on the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Life is the result of an intricate systemic interaction between many processes occurring at radically different spatial and temporal scales. Every day, worldwide biomedical research and clinical practice produce a huge amount of information on such processes. However, this information being highly fragmented, its integration is largely left to the human actors who find this task increasingly and ever more demanding in a context where the information available continues to increase exponentially. Investments in the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) research are largely motivated by the need for integration in healthcare. As all health information becomes digital, the complexity of health care will continue to evolve, translating into an ever increasing pressure which will result from a growing demand in parallel to limited budgets. Hence, the best way to achieve the dream of personalised, preventive, and participative medicine at sustainable costs will be through the integration of all available data, information and knowledge.

  15. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical....... The medical records with possible documentation of ethical issues were independently reviewed by two philosophers in order to identify explicit ethical or philosophical considerations pertaining to the decision to resuscitate or not. RESULTS: In total, 1275 patients were either declared dead at the scene...

  16. The Future of Biobanking: A Conceptual Look at How Biobanks Can Respond to the Growing Human Biospecimen Needs of Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiari, Stella B; Somiari, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    Biobanking of human biological specimens has evolved from the simple private collection of often poorly annotated residual clinical specimens, to well annotated and organized collections setup by commercial and not-for-profit organizations. The activities of biobanks is now the focus of international and government agencies in recognition of the need to adopt best practices and provide scientific, ethical and legal guidelines for the industry. The demand for more, high quality and clinically annotated biospecimens will increase, primarily due to the unprecedented level of genomic, post genomic and personalized medicine research activities going on. Demand for more biospecimens provides new challenges and opportunities for developing strategies to build biobanking into a business that is better able to supply the biospecimen needs of the future. A paradigm shift is required particularly in organization and funding, as well as in how and where biospecimens are collected, stored and distributed. New collection sites, organized as Research Ready Hospitals (RRHs) and new public-private partnership models are needed for sustainability and increased biospecimen availability. Biobanks will need to adopt industry-wide standard operating procedures, better and "non-destructive" methods for quality assessment, less expensive methods for sample storage/distribution, and objective methods to manage scarce biospecimens. Ultimately, the success of future biobanks will rely greatly on the success of public-private partnerships, number and diversity of available biospecimens, cost management and the realization that an effective biobank is one that provides high quality and affordable biospecimens to drive research that leads to better health and quality of life for all.

  17. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  18. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 2--Nutritional Needs of Nation's Older Americans. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 14, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This hearing before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with opening statements by a number of senators. Following this, statements were made by a number of witnesses, including Hon. Claude Pepper, a U.S. Representative from the Eleventh District of the State of Florida; Dr. Jean Mayer, professor of nutrition, Harvard…

  19. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  20. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  1. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  2. Spatial patterns of fishing effort off San Diego: implications for zonal management and ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, P Ed; Dayton, Paul K; Fisher, Rachelle A; Loarie, Cina C; Darrow, Ryan D

    2010-12-01

    The essence of ecosystem-based management is managing human practices to conserve the ecosystem. Ecologists focus on understanding the ecosystem, but there are fundamental information gaps including patterns of human exploitation. In particular, the spatial distribution of fishing effort must be known at the scales needed for ecologically relevant management. Fishing is a primary impact on coastal ecosystems, yet catch distribution at scales relevant to habitats and processes are not well known for many fisheries. Here we utilized photographic time series, logbook records, and angler surveys to estimate the intensity and spatial pattern of commercial and recreational fishing. Effort was clearly aggregated for most types of fishing, the motivating factors for effort distribution varied among areas, and effort was coupled or uncoupled to habitat depending on the area and type of fishing. We estimated that approximately 60% and approximately 74% of private recreational and recreational charter vessel fishing effort, respectively, were concentrated into two small areas that also included approximately 78% of commercial sea urchin effort. Exploitation and effort were considerably greater in one kelp forest, which has important implications for patterns of kelp persistence, productivity, and ecosystem function. Areas subject to the greatest recreational fishing pressure appeared to have lower diversity. Our results indicate that fine-scale patterns of fishing effort and exploitation have profound consequences for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. 'Ecosystem-based management of nearshore ecosystems depends on an understanding of the fine-scale patterns of exploitation.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 7 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) and Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) utilizes low-pressure air separation to manufacture the oxygen required in Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). The Oxygen Plant also supplies nitrogen as needed by the H-COAL process. Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18) upgrades the raw H-COAL naphtha. The following information is provided for both plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components (Oxygen Plant only); and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  4. Impact of perception and attitude towards the study of African languages on Human Resource needs: A case for Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gora, Ruth Babra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the Zimbabwean high school curriculum has remained largely irrelevant to human resource needs for professions that draw expertise from African languages, such as teaching, translating, broadcasting and interpreting. Despite some curriculum reforms after the attainment of political independence, effects of colonial language policy and language planning with regard to the Zimbabwean education system seem to have remained intact. As a result, observations have been made that the system continues to churn out Africans who are still deeply rooted in the belief that the study of foreign languages, English in particular, prepares them for a better and brighter future than African languages would. The belief is largely that a pass in English guarantees them better, higher-paying, more prestigious and more readily available jobs than would African languages. The education system in Zimbabwe today, this paper argues, has negative perceptions and attitudes towards the study of African languages. African languages-related professions are therefore filled by people with little or no sound background knowledge in the area. In addition, those who end up being absorbed in professions that draw from the African languages area, in most cases, are not satisfied. The same can be said of most other African countries that were subjected to colonialism in the past and neo-colonialism today, under the vague and obscure concepts of globalisation and modernisation. Against this backdrop, the article advocates for the re-engineering of the Zimbabwean school core-curriculum by incorporating mandatory study of an indigenous language, at least up to ‘O’ level, in a bid to preserve and promote African languages and at the same time meet human resource needs of professions that draw from the discipline over time.

  5. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hontelez Jan AC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availability of human resources may now be the most important barrier to achieving universal access to HIV treatment in Africa. We quantify the number of HIV health workers (HHWs required to be added to the current HIV workforce to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in South Africa, under different eligibility criteria. Methods We performed a time and motion study in three HIV clinics in a rural, primary care-based HIV treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to estimate the average time per patient visit for doctors, nurses, and counselors. We estimated the additional number of HHWs needed to achieve universal access to HIV treatment within one year. Results For universal access to HIV treatment for all patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl, an additional 2,200 nurses, 3,800 counselors, and 300 doctors would be required, at additional annual salary cost of 929 million South African rand (ZAR, equivalent to US$ 141 million. For universal treatment (‘treatment as prevention’, an additional 6,000 nurses, 11,000 counselors, and 800 doctors would be required, at an additional annual salary cost of ZAR 2.6 billion (US$ 400 million. Conclusions Universal access to HIV treatment for patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl in South Africa may be affordable, but the number of HHWs available for HIV treatment will need to be substantially increased. Treatment as prevention strategies will require considerable additional financial and human resources commitments.

  6. IS AN INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE HUMAN RIGHTS LIABILITY FRAMEWORK NEEDED? AN ECONOMIC POWER, BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS, AND AMERICAN EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arevalo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available All companies, regardless of the sector they belong to, can positively or negatively impact human rights. Governments are increasingly aware of the benefits that free trade brings their nations, which has led them to do whatever is necessary to attract foreign investment, even if it means to act against the interests of their own people. The power relationship between corporations and states generates a tension derived from their nature: while the objective of states is the welfare of its members, the purpose of corporations is profit. It is in the crack generated by the collision of powers and purposes between these two actors, that this article is intended to raise the discussion on the need to establish an international framework for corporate liability for human rights violations. To achieve its goal, the article will analyze the opportunities and obstacles raised by the exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction in the American context and its relationship with the developments in the business and human rights field.

  7. Donor human milk bank data collection in north america: an assessment of current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Elizabeth A; Lussier, Mary M; Herson, Victor C; Hagadorn, James I; Marinelli, Kathleen A

    2014-02-01

    The Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA) is a nonprofit association that standardizes and facilitates the establishment and operation of donor human milk (DHM) banks in North America. Each HMBANA milk bank in the network collects data on the DHM it receives and distributes, but a centralized data repository does not yet exist. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration recognized the need to collect and disseminate systematic, standardized DHM bank data and suggested that HMBANA develop a DHM data repository. This study aimed to describe data currently collected by HMBANA DHM banks and evaluate feasibility and interest in participating in a centralized data repository. We conducted phone interviews with individuals in different HMBANA milk banks and summarized descriptive statistics. Eight of 13 (61.5%) sites consented to participate. All respondents collected donor demographics, and half (50%; n = 4) rescreened donors after 6 months of continued donation. The definition of preterm milk varied between DHM banks (≤ 32 to ≤ 40 weeks). The specific computer program used to house the data also differed. Half (50%; n = 4) indicated that they would consider participation in a centralized repository. Without standardized data across all HMBANA sites, the creation of a centralized data repository is not yet feasible. Lack of standardization and transparency may deter implementation of donor milk programs in the neonatal intensive care unit setting and hinder benchmarking, research, and quality improvement initiatives.

  8. Finding the service you need: human centered design of a Digital Interactive Social Chart in DEMentia care (DEM-DISC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, H G; Meiland, F J M; Haaker, T; Reitsma, E; Wils, H; Jonker, C; Dröes, R M

    2008-01-01

    Community dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers experience a lot of problems. In the course of the disease process people with dementia become more dependent on others and professional help is often necessary. Many informal carers and people with dementia experience unmet needs with regard to information on the disease and on the available care and welfare offer, therefore they tend not to utilize the broad spectrum of available care and welfare services. This can have very negative consequences like unsafe situations, social isolation of the person with dementia and overburden of informal carers with consequent increased risk of illness for them. The development of a DEMentia specific Digital Interactive Social Chart (DEM-DISC) may counteract these problems. DEM-DISC is a demand oriented website for people with dementia and their carers, which is easy, accessible and provides users with customized information on healthcare and welfare services. DEM-DISC is developed according to the human centered design principles, this means that people with dementia, informal carers and healthcare professionals were involved throughout the development process. This paper describes the development of DEM-DISC from four perspectives, a domain specific content perspective, an ICT perspective, a user perspective and an organizational perspective. The aims and most important results from each perspective will be discussed. It is concluded that the human centered design was a valuable method for the development of the DEM-DISC.

  9. Proteomic characterization of freeze-dried human plasma: providing treatment of bleeding disorders without the need for a cold chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Leif; Thiele, Thomas; Hammer, Elke; Bux, Jürgen; Kalus, Monika; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    Transfusion of human plasma is a basic treatment for severe coagulopathies, especially in major bleeding. The required logistics to provide plasma is challenging because of the need to maintain a cold chain. This disadvantage could be overcome by lyophilized plasma. However, it is unknown to what extent lyophilization alters plasma proteins. Quantitative proteomic technologies were applied to monitor protein changes during production of lyophilized, solvent/detergent (S/D)-treated plasma. The impact of S/D treatment and lyophilization on the plasma proteome was evaluated by differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and proteins were characterized by mass spectrometry. Clotting factor activities were determined in lyophilized S/D-treated plasma after 24 months of storage at room temperature. By 2D-DIGE, 600 individual protein spots were compared. Lyophilization did not change any of the 600 spots, whereas pathogen inactivation caused significant changes of 38 spots including alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, and alpha2-antiplasmin. Clotting factor activities remained stable over 24 months of storage. Lyophilization of human plasma neither alters its protein composition nor impairs its clotting capacity. It does not require cost-intensive logistics for storage and transport and can be quickly reconstituted. It is suggested that lyophilized, pathogen-inactivated plasma is an attractive option to provide the most important basic treatment for severe coagulopathies in areas without cold chain and to provide plasma with reduced time delay in emergency situations.

  10. Human development II: We Need an Integrated Theory for Matter, Life and Consciousness to Understand Life and Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient’s brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call “deep” cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call “holistic biology for holistic medicine”. We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination, brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor, and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain

  11. Human development II: we need an integrated theory for matter, life and consciousness to understand life and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient's brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call "deep" cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call "holistic biology for holistic medicine". We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination), brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor), and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain and consciousness, the

  12. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  13. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program

    OpenAIRE

    Freigburghaus Franziska; Zesiger Véronique; Klohn Axel; Chastonay Philippe; Mpinga Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy. The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test t...

  14. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  15. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan...

  16. Health human resources planning and the production of health: development of an extended analytical framework for needs-based health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephen; Kephart, George; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Alder, Rob; MacKenzie, Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Health human resources planning is generally based on estimating the effects of demographic change on the supply of and requirements for healthcare services. In this article, we develop and apply an extended analytical framework that incorporates explicitly population health needs, levels of service to respond to health needs, and provider productivity as additional variables in determining the future requirements for the levels and mix of healthcare providers. Because the model derives requirements for providers directly from the requirements for services, it can be applied to a wide range of different provider types and practice structures including the public health workforce. By identifying the separate determinants of provider requirements, the analytical framework avoids the "illusions of necessity" that have generated continuous increases in provider requirements. Moreover, the framework enables policy makers to evaluate the basis of, and justification for, increases in the numbers of provider and increases in education and training programs as a method of increasing supply. A broad range of policy instruments is identified for responding to gaps between estimated future requirements for care and the estimated future capacity of the healthcare workforce.

  17. What are the Mental Health Needs of Adolescents in Rural South Australia? The Perceptions of Human Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Marijeta Kurtin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Up to 20% of Australian adolescents experience the burden of having a mental health problem. Priorresearch has suggested that inhabitants of rural areas are at particular risk of mental healthmorbidity due to their location. The current study sought to investigate how ‘rurality’ influences themental health of adolescents in rural South Australia, and to explore the perceptions of the mentalhealth needs of adolescents as described by service providers in rural South Australia.METHODS:Four focus group discussions and 14 interviews were conducted with 38 human (allied health serviceproviders in the Eyre Peninsula, Spencer Gulf, Limestone Coast and Greater Green Triangle regions ofSouth Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were also conducted with three Victorianhuman service providers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify emergentthemes.RESULTS:Ninety codes were developed and subsequently categorised into five major themes: Community andSociety Factors; Youth Issues, Indigeneity; Service Delivery and Utilisation; and Occupational Factors.Significant gaps in mental health service delivery were identified. Better utilisation of currentresources was identified as a greater concern than the absence of resources per se.CONCLUSIONS:This study provided a unique opportunity for rural allied and primary health care service providers todiscuss adolescent mental health issues in their communities and as part of their work. The datagenerated by these discussions identified areas where practice could be improved.

  18. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freigburghaus Franziska

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy. The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Methods Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists. Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Results Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents. A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. Conclusion In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and

  19. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  20. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  1. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  2. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  3. Human activities to meet the diverse needs in the use of physical exercises - the basis of the mechanism of self-development of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutula Vasilij Afanas'evich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The features of social activities to meet the needs of people. A scheme for self-regulatory process of the people to respond to biological, social and biosocial needs. It is shown that the diversity of human needs is divided into three groups: biologically and socially determined needs, the needs-based biosocial nature. It is shown that in a society based on competitive interaction of people, a system of relations. These relationships are the basis for the development of physical culture. It is noted that this process acts as a public evaluation mechanism for the selection of the variety of social phenomena. At the heart of the process of competitive interactions between them reflects the process of emergence and development of socially significant events. These phenomena are different forms of social manifestations of physical culture (physical education, sport, physical recreation, physical rehabilitation and adaptive physical education.

  4. Exploring the challenges of habitation design for extended human presence beyond low-earth orbit: Are new requirements and processes needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.K.R.; Sterenborg, Glenn; Häuplik, Sandra; Aguzzi, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    With the renewed interest in a sustained human presence beyond low-earth orbit, habitation in space, on planets and on moons is an area that requires re-evaluation in terms of mission and habitat design—there is a need for a paradigmatic move from a design focus on short-term LEO missions to that of

  5. Assessing the Educational Needs of Tomorrow's "Ideal" Corporate Communicators: Should Public Relations and Human Resource Development Programs Form a "Strategic" Merger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Steven R.; And Others

    A study assessed the specific courses and educational needs professionals considered important in the proper undergraduate preparation of future public relations practitioners. A survey questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,000 human resource managers and public relations practitioners from the national membership of two professional…

  6. Exploring the challenges of habitation design for extended human presence beyond low-earth orbit: are new requirements and processes needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Douglas K.R.; Sterenborg, Glenn; Häuplik, Sandra; Aguzzi, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    With the renewed interest in a sustained human presence beyond low-earth orbit, habitation in space, on planets and on moons is an area that requires re-evaluation in terms of mission and habitat design—there is a need for a paradigmatic move from a design focus on short-term LEO missions to that of

  7. Current status of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in animals & humans in India: What needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.

  8. The Development of the Human Resource Manager – A Need that Arises from the Role of the Civil Servant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Magdalena Platis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour is the most important factor of production in any organisation. In public administration, the development of the human resource manager is vital for the increasing of the administrative performance, mostly considering the wellbeing of the citizens. This argumentation comes to identify the essential levels of benefits and rewerds provided by the human resources activity, from the most basic to the most strategic ones. The purpose of this paper is to understand the ways in which human development of the public worker can help increase public performance and respect twards the public administration.

  9. Eyeworm infections in dogs and in a human patient in Serbia: A One Health approach is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija; Petrović, Aleksandar; Gajić, Bojan; Colella, Vito; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm has been frequently reported parasitizing humans in Asia. In Europe, the parasite is endemic in wild and domestic carnivores and only eight cases have been reported in humans so far. We describe the first case of human thelaziosis in Serbia, along with two cases in dogs from the same area. A One Health approach, based on cooperation amongst veterinarians and physicians, is strongly advised for this emerging infection in order to assess the risk for and prevent of the zoonotic infection.

  10. Human Services for Low-Income and At-Risk LGBT Populations: The Knowledge Base and Research Needs (Brief)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Burwick; Gary Gates; Scott Baumgartner; Daniel Friend

    2014-01-01

    This brief summarizes the current knowledge base and identifies key areas for future research related to human services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. It focuses on three types of services funded by the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: (1) income support and self-sufficiency programs; (2) child welfare programs; and (3) programs for youth, especially services for runaway and homeless youth and sexual...

  11. Efficient and reproducible generation of high-expressing, stable human cell lines without need for antibiotic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewes Helmut

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cell lines are the most innovative choice of host cell for production of biopharmaceuticals since they allow for authentic posttranslational modification of therapeutic proteins. We present a new method for generating high and stable protein expressing cell lines based on human amniocytes without the requirement of antibiotic selection. Results Primary amniocytes from routine amniocentesis samples can be efficiently transformed with adenoviral functions resulting in stable human cell lines. Cotransfection of the primary human amniocytes with a plasmid expressing adenoviral E1 functions plus a second plasmid containing a gene of interest resulted in permanent cell lines expressing up to 30 pg/cell/day of a fully glycosylated and sialylated protein. Expression of the gene of interest is very stable for more than 90 passages and, importantly, was achieved in the absence of any antibiotic selection. Conclusion We describe an improved method for developing high protein expressing stable human cell lines. These cell lines are of non-tumor origin, they are immortalized by a function not oncogenic in human and they are from an ethically accepted and easily accessible cell source. Since the cell can be easily adapted to growth in serum-free and chemically defined medium they fulfill the requirements of biopharmaceutical production processes.

  12. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  13. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  14. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  15. Models of human operators: Their need and usefulness for improvement of advanced control systems and control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such model have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Many potential model users remain skeptical about their practically, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part from disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of common-sense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. 26 refs.

  16. EFFORT ADAPTATION OR SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musat Carmina Liana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During training processes, the human body gradually adapts itself, yet it is hard to believe that it has beenconceived in such way that it could endure the conditions of winning a modern Olympic or world medal. Withrespect to the physical effort, there is the following paradox: if the physical effort is acknowledged as a protector of the heart on the long term, then what causes these sports-related conditions that may result in sudden death?Thus arises the necessity of tracking and evaluating the cardiovascular risk targeting the professional sportsmen, their EKG fluctuations, the cardiovascular causes of sudden death, the part played by the physician and the sportsman in preventing the sudden death, as well as numerous clinical cases of sports cardiology

  17. Cognitive Effort in Modality Retrieval by Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Jeanne C.; And Others

    Recent studies of contextual attributes thought to be automatic have reported deficits among the elderly, raising the question of whether automatic memory processing does require some effortful attention and if so, whether such effort is needed during encoding, storage, or retrieval. This study used a secondary task methodology to examine these…

  18. The AstroHDF Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Masters; A. Alexov; M. Folk; R. Hanisch; G. Heber; M. Wise

    2011-01-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, req

  19. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco

  20. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  1. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  2. Becoming Good Human Beings: Low-Income Mothers' Dreams for Children and Their Insight into Children's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jennifer; Zygmunt, Eva; Clark, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A case study approach was employed to investigate low-income families' aspirations for their children and their understandings of their children's developmental needs. Participants were four women whose children or grandchildren were enrolled in an urban early childhood program and were considered "at risk." Qualitative methods including…

  3. China's Green Transformation: Efforts, Practices and Future%China's Green Transformation: Efforts, Practices and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weizhong

    2012-01-01

    I'm very pleased to be here at this side meeting, China's Green Transformation: Efforts, Practices and Future, co-sponsored by ACCA21 and UNDP. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, people around the world have made numerous efforts to- ward sustainable development and made positive develop- ment in that direction. However, we still face many new challenges and need to explore new approaches to achieve sustainable development. That's why we are gathered here today to discuss Green Economy in the Context of Sustain- able Development and Poverty Eradication, in the hope of finding new ways and measures to meet the new challenges and seek sustainable development.

  4. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Curran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  5. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kelly; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Mirelman, Andrew; Dickson, Kim; Adamu, Tigistu; Cherutich, Peter; Mahler, Hally; Fimbo, Bennett; Mavuso, Thembisile Khumalo; Albertini, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Laura; Bock, Naomi; Reed, Jason; Castor, Delivette; Stanton, David

    2011-11-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  6. Desert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Doumbia, Seydou; Henry, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database ( N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else.

  7. Four Freedoms, For All: American Information Agencies and the Effort to Publicize Nazi Crimes against Humanity Quatre libertés pour tous : les agences d’information américaine et l’effort de médiatisation des crimes nazi contre l’humanité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Demsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En juin 1942, le Président Franklin Delano Roosevelt a créé le bureau de l’information de guerre dont la mission consistait à « rendre plus accessible et intelligible l’effort de guerre américain, les politiques gouvernementales, la progression des combats et les objectifs de guerre ». Les responsables du bureau de l’information de guerre ont cherché à différencier les visions humanistes démocratiques et fascistes en contribuant à la diffusion d’histoires narrant l’intolérance raciale et religieuse des Nazis. Alors que les Nazis n’avaient de cesse de décrire les Juifs comme un peuple peu amène, les dirigeants du bureau n’hésitaient pas à diversifier les médias afin de démontrer la légitimité de défendre les Juifs comme étant partie intégrante du plus large effort de guerre américain, une preuve s’il en est d’un œcuménisme grandissant des législateurs américains qui allait s’instaurer après-guerre.

  8. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  9. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  10. Correlation of Physical Education and Human Health Needs%体育教育与人类健康需要之关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁礼锋

    2012-01-01

    随着人类文明的不断进步,体育教育与健康需要的关系越来越受到社会的关注,成为目前的热点问题。本文力求通过阐述体育教育与人类健康需要的概念、联系、现状和发展趋势,多角度、全方位地剖析、挖掘体育教育与人类健康需要的关系,并给出自己的观点与看法。%With the progress of human civilization, the correlation of physical education and hu- man health needs, which has received more and more attention, has become a hot issue at present. The correlation of physical education and human health needs is analysed from all aspects through expounding the concept, correlation, current situation and development trend of physical education and human health needs and personal views and opinions are given.

  11. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cooperative effort for industrial energy data collection (IEDC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, H.J.

    1979-10-01

    The expanding research effort in recent years in industrial energy use has created a need for detailed data on specific industrial processes. To meet this need and eliminate multiple contacts with individual plants, a cooperative effort to collect and centralize industrial energy-use data has been organized by several solar research organizations. To date, a centralized list has been produced of industrial plants and trade associations that have been contracted, and a data format has been created for use by all organizations interested in participating in this effort.

  13. Correlates of research effort in carnivores: body size, range size and diet matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe M Brooke

    Full Text Available Given the budgetary restrictions on scientific research and the increasing need to better inform conservation actions, it is important to identify the patterns and causes of biases in research effort. We combine bibliometric information from a literature review of almost 16,500 peer-reviewed publications on a well-known group of 286 species, the Order Carnivora, with global datasets on species' life history and ecological traits to explore patterns in research effort. Our study explores how species' characteristics influenced the degree to which they were studied (measured as the number of publications. We identified a wide variation in intensity of research effort at both Family and Species levels, with some of the least studied being those which may need protection in future. Our findings hint at the complex role of human perspectives in setting research agendas. We found that better-studied species tended to be large-bodied and have a large geographic range whilst omnivory had a negative relationship with research effort. IUCN threat status did not exhibit a strong relationship with research effort which suggests that the conservation needs of individual species are not major drivers of research interest. This work is the first to use a combination of bibliometric analysis and biological data to quantify and interpret gaps in research knowledge across an entire Order. Our results could be combined with other resources, such as Biodiversity Action Plans, to prioritise and co-ordinate future research effort, whilst our methods can be applied across many scientific disciplines to describe knowledge gaps.

  14. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Greater St. Louis LGBT Health and Human Services Needs Assessment: an examination of the Silent and Baby Boom generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins Morales, Meghan; King, M Denise; Hiler, Hattie; Coopwood, Martin S; Wayland, Sherrill

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand differences and similarities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Baby Boomers and members of the Silent generation in the greater St. Louis region in relation to perceived barriers to service use, LGBT identity disclosure, experiences of violence and victimization, and mental health. An online survey was completed by 118 Baby Boomers and 33 Silents. Baby Boomers were found to perceive more barriers to health care and legal services, have fewer legal documents in place, feel less safe in their communities, and have experienced an increased rate of verbal harassment compared to their predecessors. Differences may be attributed to higher levels of LGBT identity disclosure among Baby Boomers across their lifetime. These findings support the current work of Services and Advocacy for GLBT Elders Metro St. Louis, with implications for other communities, and shed light on the need for continued advancement in the development and implementation of programs as LGBT Baby Boomers age.

  17. AIDS Epidemic. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on Reviewing Federal Efforts Being Conducted toward Combating the AIDS Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The text of a Senate hearing called to review federal efforts combating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is presented in this document. Opening statements reviewing the AIDS crisis are given by Senators Edward Kennedy and Lowell Weicker, Jr. Prepared statements are included by Senators Orrin Hatch and Ted Stevens. David Baltimore and…

  18. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  19. The Waqf of Money as a Community Economic Empowerment Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waqaf is basically seen as one of the religious institutions in Islam which is relevant and functionally efforts to solve socio-economic problems and humanity, such as poverty alleviation, human resource development, and economic empowerment. The endowments are absolutely an important role in achieving a just social order. From the perspective of shapes, endowment money is seen as one of the solutions that can make endowments to be more productive. Because the money here will no longer to be used as a means of exchange, but more than it, we can explore it as a commodity to produce in the terms of economic development. Therefore, the cash money in the form of waqaf of money can result any benefit for the community. Appearances distribution of endowments can be used to productive activity in the era of economic downturn of the Islamic community in Indonesia. Now it should become the primary choice. In another sense, it is a productive waqaf endowment that must be a priority and dedicated its efforts to more fruitful. Thus, the sizes of different paradigms are done by the consumptive waqaf, because it gives a new hope for the majority of the Muslim community. Endowments are not willing to lead in worship of mahdhah which is directed to the consumptive waqaf. Using the findings of waqaf has been prioritized to give benefit in a very broad, including for economic empowerment, such as public facilities and worship activities, social facilities and educational activities as well as health, aid to poor people, displaced children, orphans, scholarship, progress and economic improvement for the people who needs the advancement of public welfare other non-contrary to the sharia business law.

  20. Needs analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静雅

    2009-01-01

    Though needs analysis has been seen as one of the fundamental defining characteristics of ESP,it is not unknown in GPE.it is a salient stage,especially for the task option and syllabus evaluation.In this essay,the meaning of needs,the importance of needs analysis,and the way to implement needs analysis are subject to analysis.

  1. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  2. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 7--Crisis in the National School Lunch Program. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., September 7, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs held hearings on the crisis in the National School Lunch Program (September 7, 1971). This transcript on the hearings includes statements by members of the Committee and the testimony of four witnesses who are involved in the administration of various school food programs. In the appendixes,…

  3. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 4--Implementation, 1970 Amendments to the National School Lunch Act. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., May 3-4, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    In trying to solve the problem of hunger in the classroom, the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs heard the testimony of many witnesses, among whom were: Miss Barbara Bode, Program Director, The Children's Foundation; Miss Barbara Hockert, President, Burlington Ad Hoc Committee on School Lunches; and, Mrs. Joseph H. Young,…

  4. Nutrition and Human Needs--1972. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate. Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session. Part 3B--Unused Food Assistance Funds: Food Stamps; Administration Witnesses. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 7 and 22, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs are organized in four parts, the contents of which are as follows. The first part concerns "Unused food assistance funds and food stamps," with opening statements by Senators Percy and McGovern, followed by the presentations of other witnesses. The focus of this section…

  5. Framework of communication needed to protect against human rights violations of individuals who exercise their right to religious freedom in minority religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus P. Pretorius

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The right to religious freedom is generally believed to be the solution to religious intolerance and discrimination and to ensure world peace amongst world citizens. On an international level, the United Nations, through the appointment of a special rapporteur for freedom of religion and belief, has introduced a tool to monitor violations of this right. This tool is known as �the framework of communications� and is focused mainly on the relationship between governments and religions. Unfortunately, religion is not excluded from the violation of human rights within its own ranks. This article pointed out that however pure the intention of freedom of religion, no real measures are in place to address violations of human rights in minority religions. Therefore, a tool is needed to investigate and address alleged violations within minority religions.

  6. Urban Courtyard Housing Form as a Response to Human Need, Culture and Environment in Hot Climate Regions: Baghdad as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wezha Hawez Baiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Courtyard housing is an important dwelling type in human history. It was founded in many ancient histories of different countries and climate zones. Many factors influenced certain types and forms of urban courtyard houses in order to create better living environments. This study try to explore some criticize points about basic human needs of courtyards. Which it refers to environmental and social backgrounds during past times, which it selected to analyze two contemporary types of traditional sample work in Baghdad.Drawings and framework used to understand the ideology of courtyards as well as other factors related to territory, society, psychology, culture and environment. Religion and traditions of Baghdad have played a special role. Through time and across cultures, territorial and environmental factors were found to be highly relevant to almost all the courtyard-housing forms. This study might be helpful for architects where they undertake contemporary design works.

  7. Implementation of the Zuluaga-Raysmith (Z-R) model for assessment of perceived basic human needs in home health clients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, B H

    2000-01-01

    The Zuluaga-Raysmith (Z-R) model is a conceptual framework that incorporates accepted concepts of universal basic human needs developed by Maslow, yet removes the hierarchical nature of these. The Z-R model recognizes the existence of a health-illness continuum and accepts that an entity (individual, family, aggregate, or community) may move freely in the direction of greater health and self-actualization or towards illness and premature death. The Z-R model identifies 10 basic needs and recognizes that a perceived deficit in any one of these needs can adversely affect the level of wellness of the entity being considered. This exploratory and descriptive study used 11 nurses as interviewers. Subjects consisted of a convenience sample of homebound clients of a home health agency in a metropolitan city, and selected caregivers (n = 27). A modified functional wellness inventory (developed in 1993 by Louvenia Carter) was used with several open-ended questions, which together related to the 10 needs of the Z-R model. Reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.84. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, using means, percentages, and frequencies. Open-ended questions were grouped according to content and ranked in order of frequency. The five most pressing needs of this small sample were income; physical health; opportunity to make a contribution; mobility; and mental, emotional, social, and spiritual health (MESSH). Nurses unanimously reported that use of the instrument and the Z-R model helped them to focus on the total person, identify strengths in their clients, identify perceived needs deficits, and therefore, with the client, facilitate the preparation of a timely and cost-effective interdisciplinary plan of care to help the entity to move to a higher level of wellness despite the presence of chronic disease, disability, or impending death. These findings suggested that further research is warranted to explore the use of the Z-R model. A

  8. Unique Efforts for Harmonious Inhabitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wind Blew

    2007-01-01

    @@ Inhabitation,or human settlemem,has bcome a hot issue thatis attracting a lot of attention around the world,from both the rich and the poor.After all,who doesn't want to have a good living environment?

  9. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses’ efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. Materials and Methods: The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts’ comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach’s alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. Findings There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Today Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident. PMID:23833614

  10. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of minimum-effort coordination games

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kun; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game, having potentially important implications in both evolutionary biology and sociology, draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classic game theory. In the framework of classic game theory, any common effort level is a strict and trembling hand perfect Nash equilibrium, so that no desideratum is provided for selecting among them. Behavior experiments, however, show that the effort levels employed by subjects are inversely related to the effort costs. Here, we combine coalescence theory and evolutionary game theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations, where the population structure itself is a consequence of the evolutio...

  11. Perceived Parenting and Adolescent Cyber-Bullying: Examining the Intervening Role of Autonomy and Relatedness Need Satisfaction, Empathic Concern and Recognition of Humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousiani, Kyriaki; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Michaelides, Michalis P; Van Petegem, Stijn

    Due to the progress in information technology, cyber-bullying is becoming one of the most common forms of interpersonal harm, especially among teenagers. The present study (N = 548) aimed to investigate the relation between perceived parenting style (in terms of autonomy support and psychological control) and cyber-bullying in adolescence. Thereby, the study tested for the intervening role of adolescent need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and relatedness), empathic concern towards others, and adolescents' recognition of full humanness to cyber-bullying offenders and victims. Findings revealed both a direct and an indirect relation between parenting and cyber-bullying. More specifically, parental psychological control directly predicted cyber-bullying, whereas parental autonomy support related to less cyber-bullying indirectly, as it was associated with the satisfaction of adolescents' need for autonomy, which predicted more empathic concern towards others, which in turn differentially related to recognition of humanness to victims and bullies. The discussion focuses on the implications of the current findings.

  12. Impact of human papilloma virus vaccination on adolescent knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for safer sexual behaviors in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayudi, Pande Kadek Aditya; Permatasari, Anak Agung Istri Yulan; Winata, I Gde Sastra; Suwiyoga, Ketut

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination on knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for continued safe sexual behavior among Indonesian girls. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried on in Denpasar, the capital city of Bali, Indonesia, during September 2015-February 2016. A total of 828 adolescent girls (12-16 years) were recruited to assess their knowledge on HPV/HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risks and need for continued safe sexual behavior. A total of 419 girls (50.7%) had received HPV vaccination prior to the study, 76.4% of whom (320/419) had sufficient knowledge about HPV. HPV vaccination was a strong and independent predictor of higher HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge (adjusted OR [AOR], 9.358; 95%CI: 6.816-12.849, P < 0.001). HPV vaccination (AOR, 0.107; 95%CI: 0.074-0.155, P < 0.001) and higher knowledge level (AOR, 0.667; 95%CI: 0.464-0.958, P = 0.028) were associated with lower perceived HPV risk. Despite the low risk perception, most of the vaccinated girls (408/419, 97.4%) continued to perceive higher need for safe sexual behaviors. On multivariate analysis, higher knowledge was the independent predictor for higher perceived need for safe sexual behaviors (AOR, 4.260; 95%CI: 2.016-9.001, P < 0.001). The HPV vaccination was associated with higher knowledge and appropriately lower perception of HPV risk. Despite the vaccination, most of the adolescents continued to perceive a need for safer sexual behavior. All adolescent girls should receive HPV vaccination in order to reduce cervical cancer burden in the future. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  14. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  15. Transnational efforts for justice and social empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2016-01-01

    of movements, organizations and communities that engage socio-cultural, political and economic activities across national territories. This paper deals with the concept of injustice herewith defined as the combined suffering from extreme poverty and the general insecurity undermining the immediate...... prerequisites for human life. The paper particularly discusses the transition from traditionalism to colonial internationalism and to the subsequent transnationalism efforts to deal with poverty and insecurity. The Somali case with its contemporary complexities of poverty and insecurity attests to a perpetual...... modernization tendencies to centralize socio-political and economic life. While transnationalism actors ideally aim at decentralizing and diversifying with bottom up more inclusive approaches in addressing poverty and insecurity. Finally in order to properly address transitional justice and consolidate social...

  16. Search, Effort, and Locus of Control

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Andrew; McGee, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that locus of control – one's perception of control over events in life – influences search by affecting beliefs about the efficacy of search effort in a laboratory experiment. We find that reservation offers and effort are increasing in the belief that one's efforts influence outcomes when subjects exert effort without knowing how effort influences the generation of offers but are unrelated to locus of control beliefs when subjects are informed about the relationship b...

  17. More efforts needed to curb air pollution caused by road transport; Transport routier et nuissances atmospheriques, des efforts a poursuivre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, M. [Institut francais de l' environnement, 45 - Orleans (France); Traimany, A. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, Observatoire des sciences et techniques (OST/ADEME), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-09-01

    In France, road transport is the main source of pollutant emissions in urban areas despite a fall in emissions of certain pollutants, recently achieved following significant technological progress and new legislation adopted. In addition, CO{sub 2} emissions from motor vehicles continue to rise, accounting for about 40 % of net CO{sub 2} emissions in France. These trends are mainly due to consumer behaviour and the use of motor vehicles. The sharp increase in passenger and freight traffic and an increase in the distances covered have negative impacts on the environment. In light of this situation, new technologies appear to be an inadequate solution to reverse emission trends. (A.L.B.)

  18. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  19. Research Needs for Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    whether to perform diagnostic procedures and how to interpret their restilts. Counseling--helping people to choose careers or consider having children ...air travel, book theatre tickets, check out groceries, diagnose illnesses, teach our children , and amuse us with sophisticated games. Computers make it...However, applied methods are necessary both as suplements to experimental methods, e.8., for problem analysis and structuring, and as substitutes

  20. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 1: The need, content and process of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in countries with low human resource for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Paul SS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective World Health Organization has identified Priority Mental Health Disorders (PMHD of adolescence. To effectively address these disorders at the primary care level paediatricians have to be trained in the low-income countries, which often have paucity of mental health resources. We studied: (1 the need of psychiatric training required among paediatricians; (2 if the content and process of the model workshop suits them to identify and treat these disorders. Methods Forty-eight paediatricians completed evaluation questionnaire at the end of a 3-day workshop on adolescent psychiatry. They participated in a focused group discussion addressing the areas in psychiatry that needs to be strengthened in these workshops, the changes in the content and process of the workshop to bolster their learning. Qualitative and descriptive analyses were appropriately used. Results Training in adolescent psychiatry was considered necessary among the paediatricians at zonal level frequently to develop their private practice, treat psychiatric disorders confidently, make correct referrals, and learn about counselling. Prioritizing training from under and postgraduate training, integrate psychiatry training with conference, conducting special workshops or Continuing Medical Education were suggested as ways of inculcating adolescent psychiatry proficiency. Mental status examination, psychopathology and management of the PMHD were considered by the respondents as important content that need to be addressed in the program but aspects of behavioural problems and developmental disabilities were also identified as areas of focus to gain knowledge and skill. Appropriate group size, flexibility in management decisions to fit the diverse clinical practice- settings was appreciated. Lack of skills in giving clinical reasoning in relation to PMHD, time management and feedback to individuals were identified as required components in the collaborative effort of this

  1. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: And further, The need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there

  2. Brain-Mind Dyad, Human Experience, the Consciousness Tetrad and Lattice of Mental Operations: And Further, The Need to Integrate Knowledge from Diverse Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other’s basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other’s work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  3. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: and further, the need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  4. Dissociating variability and effort as determinants of coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O'Sullivan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When coordinating movements, the nervous system often has to decide how to distribute work across a number of redundant effectors. Here, we show that humans solve this problem by trying to minimize both the variability of motor output and the effort involved. In previous studies that investigated the temporal shape of movements, these two selective pressures, despite having very different theoretical implications, could not be distinguished; because noise in the motor system increases with the motor commands, minimization of effort or variability leads to very similar predictions. When multiple effectors with different noise and effort characteristics have to be combined, however, these two cost terms can be dissociated. Here, we measure the importance of variability and effort in coordination by studying how humans share force production between two fingers. To capture variability, we identified the coefficient of variation of the index and little fingers. For effort, we used the sum of squared forces and the sum of squared forces normalized by the maximum strength of each effector. These terms were then used to predict the optimal force distribution for a task in which participants had to produce a target total force of 4-16 N, by pressing onto two isometric transducers using different combinations of fingers. By comparing the predicted distribution across fingers to the actual distribution chosen by participants, we were able to estimate the relative importance of variability and effort of 1:7, with the unnormalized effort being most important. Our results indicate that the nervous system uses multi-effector redundancy to minimize both the variability of the produced output and effort, although effort costs clearly outweighed variability costs.

  5. Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…

  6. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self...

  7. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self...

  8. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

  9. Human Factors of Queuing: A Library Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Jerry W.

    1981-01-01

    Classical queuing theories and their accompanying service facilities totally disregard the human factors in the name of efficiency. As library managers we need to be more responsive to human needs in the design of service points and make every effort to minimize queuing and queue frustration. Five references are listed. (Author/RAA)

  10. After the Tournament: Outcomes and Effort Provision

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Andrew; McGee, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the incentive effects of competitions among employees for promotions or financial rewards, economists have largely ignored the effects of competition on effort provision once the competition is finished. In a laboratory experiment, we examine how competition outcomes affect the provision of post-competition effort. We find that subjects who lose arbitrarily decided competitions choose lower subsequent effort levels than subjects who lose competitions decided by their effort choices. ...

  11. Using Computing Intelligence Techniques to Estimate Software Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cherng Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the IT industry, precisely estimate the effort of each software project the development cost and scheduleare count for much to the software company. So precisely estimation of man power seems to be gettingmore important. In the past time, the IT companies estimate the work effort of man power by humanexperts, using statistics method. However, the outcomes are always unsatisfying the management level.Recently it becomes an interesting topic if computing intelligence techniques can do better in this field. Thisresearch uses some computing intelligence techniques, such as Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient method and one-way ANOVA method to select key factors, and K-Means clustering algorithm todo project clustering, to estimate the software project effort. The experimental result show that usingcomputing intelligence techniques to estimate the software project effort can get more precise and moreeffective estimation than using traditional human experts did.

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of listening effort: neurodynamical modeling and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Trenado, Carlos; Bernarding, Corinna; Reith, Wolfgang; Latzel, Matthias; Froehlich, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    An increased listing effort represents a major problem in humans with hearing impairment. Neurodiagnostic methods for an objective listening effort estimation might support hearing instrument fitting procedures. However the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort is far from being understood and its neural correlates have not been identified yet. In this paper we analyze the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort by using methods of forward neurophysical modeling and time-scale electroencephalographic neurodiagnostics. In particular, we present a forward neurophysical model for auditory late responses (ALRs) as large-scale listening effort correlates. Here endogenously driven top-down projections related to listening effort are mapped to corticothalamic feedback pathways which were analyzed for the selective attention neurodynamics before. We show that this model represents well the time-scale phase stability analysis of experimental electroencephalographic data from auditory discrimination paradigms. It is concluded that the proposed neurophysical and neuropsychological framework is appropriate for the analysis of listening effort and might help to develop objective electroencephalographic methods for its estimation in future.

  13. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  14. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Pierre; Ulbrich, Philipp; Gail, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves). Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  15. NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

  16. Measuring the Cognitive Effort of Literal Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that human translators rely on some sort of literal translation equivalences to produce translations and to check their validity. More effort would be required if translations are less literal. However, to our knowledge, there is no established metric to measure and quantify t...

  17. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  18. 制造业人力资源技能需求分析研究%Human Resource Skill Training Needs Analysis for Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛占文; 程政; 刘颖异

    2012-01-01

    针对国内很多制造业面临着人力资源技能不足,且目前人力资源培训研究缺乏具体的技能需求分析方法和工具的问题,采用三步法进行作业型技能需求分析,即通过瓶颈分析和关键质量点分析从全部岗位中提取关键岗位,通过5大原则从关键岗位中提取关键动作单元,通过聚类分析和技能模拟,从而将关键动作单元转化为可直接进行培训的关键技能单元.该方法能够帮助企业对各岗位进行系统、严谨的分析,设计出有效、合理的技能培训模拟单元.实践案例表明,该方法可以准确和有效地从工作流程中提取培训需求的基本要素,为制造型企业进行系统性人力资源技能培训需求分析提供了具体的方法和工具.%Most manufacturers face with the problem of employee skill inefficiency, but current human resource training research lacks of method and process which can be applied directly. A three - step method was presented to solve the problem of operational skill training needs analysis. Jobs analysis and cross - functional discussion was introduced to collect knowledge skill training needs. Key positions were obtained by bottleneck and CTQ analysis from all positions. Key motions cells were found by five principles from key positions. And key skill cells were found by cluster analysis and simulation from key motion cells. Empirical results show that the above methods can extract information from the operations in plant to form the training needs with high efficiency and precision, providing useful tool for manufacturing industry to make training needs analysis.

  19. Analysis of Empirical Software Effort Estimation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Basha, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    Reliable effort estimation remains an ongoing challenge to software engineers. Accurate effort estimation is the state of art of software engineering, effort estimation of software is the preliminary phase between the client and the business enterprise. The relationship between the client and the business enterprise begins with the estimation of the software. The credibility of the client to the business enterprise increases with the accurate estimation. Effort estimation often requires generalizing from a small number of historical projects. Generalization from such limited experience is an inherently under constrained problem. Accurate estimation is a complex process because it can be visualized as software effort prediction, as the term indicates prediction never becomes an actual. This work follows the basics of the empirical software effort estimation models. The goal of this paper is to study the empirical software effort estimation. The primary conclusion is that no single technique is best for all sit...

  20. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations.

  1. Tsunami Defense Efforts at Samcheok Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Tsunamis mainly triggered by impulsive undersea motions are long waves and can propagate a long distance. Thus, they can cause huge casualties not only neighboring countries but also distant countries. Recently, several devastating tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the Great East Japan tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 is probably recorded as one of the most destructive tsunamis during last several decades. The Tsunami killed more than 20,000 people (including missing people) and deprived of property damage of approximately 300 billion USD. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked historically by unexpected tsunami events. These tsunamis were generated by undersea earthquakes occurred off the west coast of Japan. For example, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred on May 26, 1983 killed 3 people and caused serious property damage at Samcheok Port located at the eastern coast of Korea. Thus, a defense plan against unexpected tsunami strikes is an essential task for the port authority to protect lives of human beings and port facilities. In this study, a master plan of tsunami defense is introduced at Samcheok Port. A tsunami hazard map is also made by employing both propagation and inundation models. Detailed defense efforts are described including the procedure of development of a tsunami hazard map. Keywords: tsunami, hazard map, run-up height, emergency action plan

  2. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  3. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  5. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self-transcendence. Yet how adults can purposefully ascend Maslow’s pyramid through satisfying unfilled needs remains elusive. This brief article challenges this on the theory’s 70th anniversary by presenting a new image of the needs hierarchy, based on ecological design principles to support adults’ purposeful endeavors to climb the needs pyramid.

  6. A Classical Fuzzy Approach for Software Effort Estimation on Machine Learning Technique

    OpenAIRE

    S.Malathi; Sridhar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation with resounding reliability, productivity and development effort is a challenging and onerous task. This has incited the software community to give much needed thrust and delve into extensive research in software effort estimation for evolving sophisticated methods. Estimation by analogy is one of the expedient techniques in software effort estimation field. However, the methodology utilized for the estimation of software effort by analogy is not able to handle the ca...

  7. Linking Literature and Data: Status Report and Future Efforts

    CERN Document Server

    Accomazzi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In the current era of data-intensive science, it is increasingly important for researchers to be able to have access to published results, the supporting data, and the processes used to produce them. Six years ago, recognizing this need, the American Astronomical Society and the Astrophysics Data Centers Executive Committee (ADEC) sponsored an effort to facilitate the annotation and linking of datasets during the publishing process, with limited success. I will review the status of this effort and describe a new, more general one now being considered in the context of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory.

  8. Obesity Paradox should not interfere with public health efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Bradshaw, P T; Truesdale, K P; Jensen, M D

    2015-01-01

    The Obesity Paradox could result in confusing messages that derail beneficial environmental changes and lead to reduced efforts by physicians to provide healthy lifestyle treatment plans to their obese patients. The Obesity Paradox applies in the main to individuals who have a disease, and therefore observed associations with mortality illustrating the Paradox may be more susceptible to certain types of bias than would be found in healthy individuals. Although individualization of weight loss advice for patients with serious disease is appropriate in medical settings, this does not supplant the need for general efforts to prevent and treat obesity.

  9. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  10. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  11. TEACHER NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: engnat@hotmail.com or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire

  12. TEACHERS NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on 04.50.40.82...

  13. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  14. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic l

  15. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  16. Endogenous Effort Norms in Hierarchical Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies how a three-layer hierarchical firm (principal-supervisor-agent) optimally creates effort norms for its employees. The key assumption is that effort norms are affected by the example of superiors. In equilibrium, norms are eroded as one moves down

  17. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  18. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing partici

  19. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  20. A specific role for serotonin in overcoming effort cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyniel, Florent; Goodwin, Guy M; Deakin, Jf William; Klinge, Corinna; MacFadyen, Christine; Milligan, Holly; Mullings, Emma; Pessiglione, Mathias; Gaillard, Raphaël

    2016-11-08

    Serotonin is implicated in many aspects of behavioral regulation. Theoretical attempts to unify the multiple roles assigned to serotonin proposed that it regulates the impact of costs, such as delay or punishment, on action selection. Here, we show that serotonin also regulates other types of action costs such as effort. We compared behavioral performance in 58 healthy humans treated during 8 weeks with either placebo or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. The task involved trading handgrip force production against monetary benefits. Participants in the escitalopram group produced more effort and thereby achieved a higher payoff. Crucially, our computational analysis showed that this effect was underpinned by a specific reduction of effort cost, and not by any change in the weight of monetary incentives. This specific computational effect sheds new light on the physiological role of serotonin in behavioral regulation and on the clinical effect of drugs for depression. ISRCTN75872983.

  1. Simplified approach to effort estimation in software maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Marounek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces software support and maintenance from effort estimation perspective. Software maintenance is a set of activities needed for cost-effective support of IT solution. More or less, delivery strategies and best practices focus mostly on delivery process and only some of them partially cover effort estimation. Magne Jørgensen in his work formulated conclusions that 83 to 84% of all estimation is done by pure expert estimates and estimating models are not used basically due to their complexity. Author introduced his simplified, easy to use approach to effort estimation in software maintenance based on extending PERT formula about quality of estimator and historical experience. Both formulas were verified in sub-competence center for supporting mortgage IS with significantly better result than only pure PERT estimate (98.8% and 91.8% against pure PERT 90.1%.

  2. Needs of Terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov; Konstantin G. Surnov

    2009-01-01

    This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at diff erent stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of infl uence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  3. Needs of Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  4. STAFF NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The English National Programme, part of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire (France) needs the following staff for September 2001: A part-time teacher of primary English The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system: Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée, Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team, Induction & training are offered. A part time teacher of senior secondary history-geography in English A part time teacher of secondary mathematics in English Teachers must be mother-tongue English speakers and have a relevant degree and/or teaching qualification. For the history-geography post, either history or geography degrees are acceptable. Please send your c.v. and a letter of application to Peter Woodburn, Head, English National Programme, Lycée International, 01216 Ferney-Voltaire, France. (Email: engnat@hotmail.com) Telephone 04 50 40 82 66 for further details of posts. Ple...

  5. Measuring needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in measuring the health of populations, through measuring the demand and offers of health care, is deeply rooted in history. Population health indicators in use today are built upon from mortality measures from the 1500s; regular census information starting from the 1800s; civil registration records of vital statistics commencing in the 1850s; regular national surveys, which were first initiated in the 1950s; and health system and other administrative databases used widely since the 1960s. The ancient Greeks believed that the God of medicine had two daughters: Hygeia and Panacea, the first was the goddess of prevention and wellness, while the second was the goddess of treatment. Thus suggesting that people have long believed that there is more to health than health care. Today the actual concept of population health recognizes many interconnected aspects of society, the environment, and individuals all contributing to health. To increase opportunities for comparability, more valid, comprehensive and standardized ways of measuring and reporting on population health indicators are needed. The use of health indicators contributes to overall population health goals, namely improving the health populations, reducing health inequalities and measuring the performance of health care system. The objective of performance assessment is to provide governments and populations with information about the state of their health care system.

  6. Parabolic discounting of monetary rewards by physical effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    When humans and other animals make decisions in their natural environments prospective rewards have to be weighed against costs. It is well established that increasing costs lead to devaluation or discounting of reward. While our knowledge about discount functions for time and probability costs is quite advanced, little is known about how physical effort discounts reward. In the present study we compared three different models in a binary choice task in which human participants had to squeeze a handgrip to earn monetary rewards: a linear, a hyperbolic, and a parabolic model. On the group as well as the individual level, the concave parabolic model explained most variance of the choice data, thus contrasting with the typical hyperbolic discounting of reward value by delay. Research on effort discounting is not only important to basic science but also holds the potential to quantify aberrant motivational states in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  8. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  9. Sharing Information among various organizations in relief efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Costur, Gurkan.

    2005-01-01

    Today, information sharing is critical to almost every institution and organization. There is no more pressing need for information sharing than during an international crisis, where multi-national military-civilian coordination is formed. Successful information technology implementation for international crises could be increased by analyzing prior relief efforts. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the role of information technology in enabling the sharing of actionable information amo...

  10. Learning to Understand Natural Language with Less Human Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    correct prepositional phrase attachment in the following sentences: 1. I caught the butterfly with the net. 2. I caught the butterfly with the spots. In...sentence (1), the preposition “with” modifies “caught,” while in sentence (2) it modifies “ butterfly .” Correctly disambiguating between these options...requires understanding that, in the world, it is reasonable to find butterflies with spots, but not butterflies with nets. As another 1 example, in

  11. Explicit Learning: an Effort towards Human Scheduling Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingpeng

    2008-01-01

    Scheduling problems are generally NP-hard combinatorial problems, and a lot of research has been done to solve these problems heuristically. However, most of the previous approaches are problem-specific and research into the development of a general scheduling algorithm is still in its infancy. Mimicking the natural evolutionary process of the survival of the fittest, Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have attracted much attention in solving difficult scheduling problems in recent years. Some obstacles exist when using GAs: there is no canonical mechanism to deal with constraints, which are commonly met in most real-world scheduling problems, and small changes to a solution are difficult. To overcome both difficulties, indirect approaches have been presented (in [1] and [2]) for nurse scheduling and driver scheduling, where GAs are used by mapping the solution space, and separate decoding routines then build solutions to the original problem.

  12. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  13. Software Development Effort Estimation Techniques: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rshma Chawla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important activity in software project management process is the estimation of Software development effort. The literature shows many algorithmic cost estimation models such as Boehm’s COCOMO, Albrecht's Function Point Analysis, Putnam’s SLIM, ESTIMACS, Soft computing based techniques etc., but each model have their own advantages and disadvantages in predicting development cost and effort. This is because of the availability of project data in the initial stages of development process is often incomplete, inconsistent and vague. The accurate effort estimation in software project management process is major challenge. This paper is a systematic reviewof classic and contemporary literature on software effort estimation. A systematicsearch is done across data sources to understand the issues and research problems ineffort estimation problem domain

  14. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  15. Maternal regulation and toddlers’ effortful control

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control is a regulatory component of emotion (Calkins & Hill, 2007). This descriptive study analyzed the relation between maternal co-regulation strategies and children self-regulation strategies in order to evaluate their effortful control skills.19 dyads [mother-child] with children between 18 and 36 months old participated and were divided in three groups, the sample was taken from government´s nurseries. A transversal study with direct observation of the experimental situati...

  16. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  17. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  18. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  19. Supply Chain Coordination with Sales Effort Effects and Impact of Loss Aversion on Effort Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hansheng; WANG Jingchun; JIN Yihui

    2005-01-01

    A new supply contract based on sharing the sales profits as well as the cost of effort was developed to coordinate the supply chain with sales effort effects. The contract coordinates the supplier's actions with voluntary compliance; the contract is symmetric in the sense that both the supplier's and retailer's profits are linearly correlated and is more easily implemented in some situations. The impact of the retailer's loss aversion on his effort is investigated based on the contract. After characterizing the retailer's optimal solutions, this paper demonstrates that contrary to intuition, loss aversion weakens incentives for retailer's sales effort and the retailer's optimal effort decreases as the loss aversion increases.

  20. Productive and ineffective efforts: how student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M. D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the commonly expected benefits, the latter is associated with negative consequences. Time spent reading the course text in US high schools was negatively related to college calculus performance. Daily study time, however, was found to be either a productive or an ineffective effort, depending on the level of high school mathematics course and the student's performance in it.

  1. Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…

  2. Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…

  3. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 7--School Nutrition Education Programs. Hearings Held Pittsburgh, Pa., May 25, 1973. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The following witnesses testified before these hearings of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: Mrs. G. Marsh, area consultant, Division of Food and Nutrition Services, Pennsylvania Department of Education; Mrs. G. Chegwidden, director, School Food Service, Franklin Regional School District, Murrysville, Pa.; Mr. S. Lympany, senior…

  4. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  5. Will the Need-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency? A Comment on Basu and Pak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stephen; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Whittaker, William; Mason, Thomas

    2016-06-13

    Basu and Pak (2014) argue that need-based workforce planning models would not maximize social welfare, and use of need-based models would result in inefficiency. They propose that planning be based on service utilization to incorporate preferences or other socioeconomic factors. We show that the analysis is based on inappropriate considerations of the nature of healthcare demand, a misrepresentation of need-based approaches and misunderstanding publicly funded healthcare system objectives. We explain how current levels of utilization emerge from workload and income interests of providers that underlie utilization-based models and are incompatible with public goals of maximizing health gains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA

  7. How should we respond to the emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in humans and animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The emergence and horizontal transmission of colistin resistance highlights the need for heightened stewardship efforts across the One Health platform for this antibiotic of last resort, and indeed for all antibiotics used in animals and humans.

  8. Prosocial apathy for helping others when effort is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Hamonet, Mathilde; Zhang, Samuel H; Ratnavel, Anya; Salmony, Florentine U; Husain, Masud; Apps, Matthew A J

    2017-07-01

    Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves. Moreover, even when choosing to initiate effortful prosocial acts, people show superficiality, exerting less force into actions that benefit others than themselves. These findings replicated, were present when the other was anonymous or not, and when choices were made to earn rewards or avoid losses. Importantly, the least prosocially motivated people had higher subclinical levels of psychopathy and social apathy. Thus, although people sometimes 'help out', they are less motivated to benefit others and sometimes 'superficially prosocial', which may characterise everyday prosociality and its disruption in social disorders.

  9. Using standardized fishery data to inform rehabilitation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Stewart, Nathaniel T.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Porath, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs progress through an aging process often accelerated by human activities, resulting in degradation or loss of ecosystem services. Resource managers thus attempt to slow or reverse the negative effects of aging using a myriad of rehabilitation strategies. Sustained monitoring programs to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation strategies are often limited; however, long-term standardized fishery surveys may be a valuable data source from which to begin evaluation. We present 3 case studies using standardized fishery survey data to assess rehabilitation efforts stemming from the Nebraska Aquatic Habitat Plan, a large-scale program with the mission to rehabilitate waterbodies within the state. The case studies highlight that biotic responses to rehabilitation efforts can be assessed, to an extent, using standardized fishery data; however, there were specific areas where minor increases in effort would clarify the effectiveness of rehabilitation techniques. Management of lakes and reservoirs can be streamlined by maximizing the utility of such datasets to work smarter, not harder. To facilitate such efforts, we stress collecting both biotic (e.g., fish lengths and weight) and abiotic (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) data during standardized fishery surveys and designing rehabilitation actions with an appropriate experimental design.

  10. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    of the cultural and psychological dynamics behind the need for increased consumption i modern societies. It implies discussions of the fallback from citizen to consumer, the trend toward individualization and the experience of lack of time. The point is that urban ecology has to be revised in order to take th...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design....

  11. Characterizing fishing effort and spatial extent of coastal fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Stewart

    Full Text Available Biodiverse coastal zones are often areas of intense fishing pressure due to the high relative density of fishing capacity in these nearshore regions. Although overcapacity is one of the central challenges to fisheries sustainability in coastal zones, accurate estimates of fishing pressure in coastal zones are limited, hampering the assessment of the direct and collateral impacts (e.g., habitat degradation, bycatch of fishing. We compiled a comprehensive database of fishing effort metrics and the corresponding spatial limits of fisheries and used a spatial analysis program (FEET to map fishing effort density (measured as boat-meters per km² in the coastal zones of six ocean regions. We also considered the utility of a number of socioeconomic variables as indicators of fishing pressure at the national level; fishing density increased as a function of population size and decreased as a function of coastline length. Our mapping exercise points to intra and interregional 'hotspots' of coastal fishing pressure. The significant and intuitive relationships we found between fishing density and population size and coastline length may help with coarse regional characterizations of fishing pressure. However, spatially-delimited fishing effort data are needed to accurately map fishing hotspots, i.e., areas of intense fishing activity. We suggest that estimates of fishing effort, not just target catch or yield, serve as a necessary measure of fishing activity, which is a key link to evaluating sustainability and environmental impacts of coastal fisheries.

  12. Characterizing fishing effort and spatial extent of coastal fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Dunn, Daniel C; Bjorkland, Rhema H; Kelez, Shaleyla; Halpin, Patrick N; Crowder, Larry B

    2010-12-29

    Biodiverse coastal zones are often areas of intense fishing pressure due to the high relative density of fishing capacity in these nearshore regions. Although overcapacity is one of the central challenges to fisheries sustainability in coastal zones, accurate estimates of fishing pressure in coastal zones are limited, hampering the assessment of the direct and collateral impacts (e.g., habitat degradation, bycatch) of fishing. We compiled a comprehensive database of fishing effort metrics and the corresponding spatial limits of fisheries and used a spatial analysis program (FEET) to map fishing effort density (measured as boat-meters per km²) in the coastal zones of six ocean regions. We also considered the utility of a number of socioeconomic variables as indicators of fishing pressure at the national level; fishing density increased as a function of population size and decreased as a function of coastline length. Our mapping exercise points to intra and interregional 'hotspots' of coastal fishing pressure. The significant and intuitive relationships we found between fishing density and population size and coastline length may help with coarse regional characterizations of fishing pressure. However, spatially-delimited fishing effort data are needed to accurately map fishing hotspots, i.e., areas of intense fishing activity. We suggest that estimates of fishing effort, not just target catch or yield, serve as a necessary measure of fishing activity, which is a key link to evaluating sustainability and environmental impacts of coastal fisheries.

  13. Optimal Work Effort and Monitoring Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Todorova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple job market equilibrium model we study the relationship between work effort and monitoring by firms. Some other determinants of work effort investigated include the educational level of the worker, the minimum or start-up salary as well as the economic conjuncture. As common logic dictates, optimal work effort increases with the amount of monitoring done by the employer. Quite contrary to common logic, though, we find that at the optimum employers observe and control good workers much more stringently and meticulously than poor workers. This is because under profit maximization most of the employer’s profit and surplus result from good workers and he risks losing a large amount of profit by not observing those. Managers monitor strictly more productive workers, fast learners and those starting at a higher autonomous level of monitoring, as those contribute more substantially to the firm’s profit.

  14. Examining Requirements Change Rework Effort: A Study

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Bee Bee; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1304

    2010-01-01

    Although software managers are generally good at new project estimation, their experience of scheduling rework tends to be poor. Inconsistent or incorrect effort estimation can increase the risk that the completion time for a project will be problematic. To continually alter software maintenance schedules during software maintenance is a daunting task. Our proposed framework, validated in a case study confirms that the variables resulting from requirements changes suffer from a number of problems, e.g., the coding used, end user involvement and user documentation. Our results clearly show a significant impact on rework effort as a result of unexpected errors that correlate with 1) weak characteristics and attributes as described in the program's source lines of code, especially in data declarations and data statements, 2) lack of communication between developers and users on a change effects, and 3) unavailability of user documentation. To keep rework effort under control, new criteria in change request forms...

  15. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

  16. Humanity spirit need be strengtheied in modern niversity of China education%中国现代大学教育需强化人文精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健

    2016-01-01

    Making widely known humanity spirit to be the essential characteristic of modern university education, and should universally strengthen humanity education in the China university education, person that the sense of morality cultivated student into has in the all-round inherent requirement that will be according to person and beauty apprecia-tion senses, history sense and body and mind was healthy perfect. Science education is laid equal stress on with humani-ty education being the main melody of contemporary university education, one general objective of China college human-ity branch of learning course reformation, and should being strengthening humanity education, and establishing humani-ty education and balance development of science education reason reading. The teaching action of teacher in the mod-ern university education of China should fully embody humanity spirit, and will put into effect in course teaching and transformation of education.%张扬人文精神是现代大学教育的本质特征,中国大学教育中应普遍加强人文教育,要按照人的全面的内在要求,把学生培养成有道德感、审美感、历史感、身心健康完美的人。科学教育与人文教育并重是当代大学教育的主旋律,中国高校人文学科课程改革的一大目标,应该是加强人文教育,确立人文教育与科学教育均衡发展理念。中国现代大学教育中教师的教学行为应充分体现人文精神,要在课程教学和教学改革中实施。

  17. Monitoring, Operational Manager Efforts and Inventory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro, J A; Tribó, J. (Josep)

    2003-01-01

    Operations managers are becoming more important in modern corporations. They do not only care on firms’ inventory management but also they are involved in firms’ strategic decisions. Within this setting we ask about the consequences in the inventory policy of this new role undertaken by these managers. To do so, we develop a model where a firm’s Operations Manager can devote some efforts to develop non-inventory related activities. These efforts, although non-verifiable, may be known with a c...

  18. Defense Institution Building: The Dynamics of Change in Georgia and the Need for Continuity of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    impact of Soviet “nomenklatura” on political institutions, to the influence of pre- Soviet poetry , older history and historical heroes, and the values of...the National Security Council, and other institutions. The expansion over the wider security sector contributes also in interagency interaction and

  19. Defense Acquisition Workforce: Actions Needed to Guide Planning Efforts and Improve Workforce Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    past, some hiring decisions made by DOD components using the Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund exceeded initial 2010 career field...contracting and engineering career fields are largely the result of high attrition rates and difficulty in hiring qualified personnel. Despite these...revised career field goals or issued guidance on the use of the Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund to guide future hiring decisions . In

  20. Defense Inventory: Defense Logistics Agency Needs to Expand on Efforts to More Effectively Manage Spare Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    those levels in its reorder point calculus . 12A purchase request is a requisition for an item that has not yet been placed on order. A purchase...mean that DLA is being wasteful. They asserted that DLA strives to be a good steward of government resources. However, without such metrics, DLA cannot

  1. Response to Special Educational Needs and Teaching Efforts in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayela Dabdub-Moreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con la Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades para las Personas con Discapacidad en Costa Rica (Ley N.º 7600, los maestros deben recibir y atender individuos con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE dentro de sus clases regulares y saber cómo aplicar las diferentes adecuaciones curriculares. Por lo tanto, conocer la cantidad y el tipo de NEE que atienden los educadores y las áreas en las que estos expresan requerir facultarse, permite mejorar considerablemente la calidad y la eficiencia de las actualizaciones profesionales que se brindan a los docentes y la atención asertiva de las NEE. Para recolectar esta información, se realizó una entrevista a quince maestros de primero a sexto grado en una escuela privada en Moravia, Costa Rica. Los resultados visibilizan que las principales necesidades educativas que ellos intentan solventar son los trastornos de atención y los problemas emocionales. Las principales limitaciones que enfrentan los educadores para atender las NEE son falta de tiempo y poco apoyo de las familias. Las áreas en las que indicaron requerir capacitación son relacionadas con la aplicación eficaz de adecuaciones curriculares y las metodologías específicas para las NEE. La investigación presenta utilidad tanto para la docencia como para la Psicopedagogía.

  2. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    . The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  3. DOD Financial Management: Significant Efforts Still Needed for Remediating Audit Readiness Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    recommendations reported by external auditors : (1) identify and track them, (2) prioritize them, (3) develop corrective action plans (CAP) to remediate...when the entity is unable to provide sufficient supporting evidence to enable the auditor to express an opinion. In their reports , the IPAs identified...controls, and financial systems. Each military service is organized into two reporting entities: a general fund and a working capital fund.18 A

  4. Security Force Assistance: Additional Actions Needed to Guide Geographic Combatant Command and Service Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    versions of the system currently lack standard global business rules to guide how information on activities should be entered. Thus, it is up to the...activities, and are in the process of developing global business rules to that effect, expected to be completed by the end of fiscal year 2012

  5. Stronger Federal Efforts Needed for Providing Employment Opportunities and Enforcing Labor Standards in Sheltered Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-28

    Diablo Unified School District, West Pittsburg, California. --Arrow Services, San Diego County Association for the Retarded, San Diego, California...workshops, or their guardians , in early 1976 by the field staff of the Bureau of the Census. The study found that the level of severity of the

  6. Nursing's silence on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues: the need for emancipatory efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J; Dibble, Suzanne; Dejoseph, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to selectively review the nursing literature for publications related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health, using (1) a key word search of CINAHL, the database of nursing and allied health publications; (2) from the top-10 nursing journals by 5-year impact factor from 2005 to 2009, counting articles about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues; and (3) content analysis of the articles found in those journals. Only 0.16% of articles focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health (8 of nearly 5000 articles) and were biased toward authors outside of the United States. We discuss the impact of this silence.

  7. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    documented and disseminated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted......INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging...... to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were...

  8. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  9. Software Effort Estimation with Ridge Regression and Evolutionary Attribute Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Papatheocharous, Efi; Andreou, Andreas S

    2010-01-01

    Software cost estimation is one of the prerequisite managerial activities carried out at the software development initiation stages and also repeated throughout the whole software life-cycle so that amendments to the total cost are made. In software cost estimation typically, a selection of project attributes is employed to produce effort estimations of the expected human resources to deliver a software product. However, choosing the appropriate project cost drivers in each case requires a lot of experience and knowledge on behalf of the project manager which can only be obtained through years of software engineering practice. A number of studies indicate that popular methods applied in the literature for software cost estimation, such as linear regression, are not robust enough and do not yield accurate predictions. Recently the dual variables Ridge Regression (RR) technique has been used for effort estimation yielding promising results. In this work we show that results may be further improved if an AI meth...

  10. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormanjieva, Olga; Abran, A.; Braungarten, R.; Dumke, R.; Cuadrado-Gallego, J.; Brunekreef, J.

    2009-01-01

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient

  11. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  12. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  13. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  14. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  15. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  16. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  17. CAS Headquarters Steps Up Efficiency Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ As part of China's S&T system reform and national Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP) spearheaded by CAS, an effort to downsize the administration at the CAS headquarters has made significant progress,Vice President Yang Bailing announced at a conference for position-engagement at the CAS headquarters on Nov. 4 in Beijing.

  18. Statistical Modeling Efforts for Headspace Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    The purpose of this document is to describe the statistical modeling effort for gas concentrations in WIPP storage containers. The concentration (in ppm) of CO2 in the headspace volume of standard waste box (SWB) 68685 is shown. A Bayesian approach and an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm were used.

  19. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  20. Nash Equilibria in Shared Effort Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shared effort games model people's contribution to projects and sharing the obtained profits. Those games generalize both public projects like writing for Wikipedia, where everybody shares the resulting benefits, and all-pay auctions such as contests and political campaigns, where only the winner ob

  1. Lessons from the Physics Education Reform Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hake

    2002-01-01

    Several years ago I reported a survey (Hake 1998a,b,c) of pre/post test data for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total of 6542 students. The present article provides a summary of that survey and presents fourteen lessons from the physics-education reform effort that may assist the general upgrading of education and science literacy.

  2. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  3. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  4. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eHolec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  5. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  6. International population assistance: a spur to national effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, R M

    1974-01-01

    needs. Necessary administrative infrastructure and the necessary skills and means should also be available. Adequate communication is the most important component of the strategic effort to solve the population problem.

  7. First, you need a Gestalt: An interaction of bottom-up and top-down streams during the perception of the ambiguously rotating human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2017-04-25

    Our visual system combines sensory evidence with prior knowledge to produce a representation of an outside world. Here, we explored the limits of the feedforward computation using an ambiguously rotating human biological motion. Specifically, we investigated whether an overall rotation, which was added to all the displays used in the study, would be perceived when the point-light walker was presented upside-down, a condition that typically obliterates perception of a human Gestalt. We report that inversion of the point-light walker or the absence of an identifiable Gestalt abolished the perception of an overall rotation. Perception of rotation was restored if the human walker Gestalt could be identified (an upright walker), if observers were informed about the nature of the motion display, or if observers expected to see the rotation of an unknown dynamic object. This implies that a mathematically more complex human motion was accounted for before the remaining motion components could be used to infer an overall rotation. Our results indicate that the perceptual inference does not proceed in a hierarchical manner with the simpler components being identified first. Instead, prior knowledge acts as a starting point for the decomposition of an even relatively simple combination of two motions.

  8. Conclusions, Research Needs, and Recommendations of the Expert Panel: Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of "The Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research on Environmental Chemicals in the United States" was organized to develop state-of-the-science protocols describing the various aspects of such a program. The 2-day workshop was held at the Mi...

  9. The need for psychological needs: a role for social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L; Flanagan, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert embraces a "supply side" model of human needs, underplaying a "demand" model whereby individuals, motivated by psychological needs, develop coping strategies that help them meet their personal goals and collectively exert an influence on social and economic systems. Undesirable climates may inflate the value of financial capital, but they also boost the value of social capital.

  10. Federally Supported Centers Provide Needed Services for Runaways and Homeless Youths. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act authorizes funds under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 for community-based centers that serve the shelter needs of runaway or homeless youths. To examine the effectiveness of the programs and the characteristics of program participants, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) visited 17…

  11. Fifteen years after "Wingspread"--environmental endocrine disrupters and human and wildlife health: where we are today and where we need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Rider, Cynthia V; Blystone, Chad R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hartig, Phillip C; Ankley, Gerald T; Foster, Paul M; Gray, Clark L; Gray, L Earl

    2008-10-01

    In 1991, a group of expert scientists at a Wingspread work session on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) concluded that "Many compounds introduced into the environment by human activity are capable of disrupting the endocrine system of animals, including fish, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine disruption can be profound because of the crucial role hormones play in controlling development." Since that time, there have been numerous documented examples of adverse effects of EDCs in invertebrates, fish, wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Hormonal systems can be disrupted by numerous different anthropogenic chemicals including antiandrogens, androgens, estrogens, AhR agonists, inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis, antithyroid substances, and retinoid agonists. In addition, pathways and targets for endocrine disruption extend beyond the traditional estrogen/androgen/thyroid receptor-mediated reproductive and developmental systems. For example, scientists have expressed concern about the potential role of EDCs in increasing trends in early puberty in girls, obesity and type II diabetes in the United States and other populations. New concerns include complex endocrine alterations induced by mixtures of chemicals, an issue broadened due to the growing awareness that EDCs present in the environment include a variety of potent human and veterinary pharmaceutical products, personal care products, nutraceuticals and phytosterols. In this review we (1) address what have we learned about the effects of EDCs on fish, wildlife, and human health, (2) discuss representative animal studies on (anti)androgens, estrogens and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like chemicals, and (3) evaluate regulatory proposals being considered for screening and testing these chemicals.

  12. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  13. The Need for International Asian Otter Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Not enough is known about the variable ecology and behaviour of the otter species in Asia. Much work is needed with these species throughout their ranges in India and Southeast Asia to determine their status and the relative size of their populations. Because otters, as high-order carnivores, are very susceptible to the pressures of human population, trapping, and habitat destruction, and because they do not survive in waters that are polluted, there is reason to suspect that in many areas of their so-called range throughout Asia they are in trouble. Unless status surveys and ecological research is begun soon to document their status, we may not know in time. For all of these reasons, it is important that an effort be made immediately to heighten the awareness of Asian biologists and conservationists into the plight faced by otters and their habitat in this region. Holding an International Asian Otter Symposium in India will serve this purpose and hopefully stimulate more research and conservation efforts with these species.

  14. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  15. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  16. Herbivory Network: An international, collaborative effort to study herbivory in Arctic and alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, I. C.; Hik, D. S.; Jónsdóttir, I. S.; Bueno, C. G.; Mörsdorf, M. A.; Ravolainen, V. T.

    2016-09-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are central to the functioning of tundra ecosystems, but their outcomes vary over space and time. Accurate forecasting of ecosystem responses to ongoing environmental changes requires a better understanding of the processes responsible for this heterogeneity. To effectively address this complexity at a global scale, coordinated research efforts, including multi-site comparisons within and across disciplines, are needed. The Herbivory Network was established as a forum for researchers from Arctic and alpine regions to collaboratively investigate the multifunctional role of herbivores in these changing ecosystems. One of the priorities is to integrate sites, methodologies, and metrics used in previous work, to develop a set of common protocols and design long-term geographically-balanced, coordinated experiments. The implementation of these collaborative research efforts will also improve our understanding of traditional human-managed systems that encompass significant portions of the sub-Arctic and alpine areas worldwide. A deeper understanding of the role of herbivory in these systems under ongoing environmental changes will guide appropriate adaptive strategies to preserve their natural values and related ecosystem services.

  17. Tools and data services registry: a community effort to document bioinformatics resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Jon; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Ménager, Hervé; Kalaš, Matúš; Rydza, Emil; Chmura, Piotr; Anthon, Christian; Beard, Niall; Berka, Karel; Bolser, Dan; Booth, Tim; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Brezovsky, Jan; Casadio, Rita; Cesareni, Gianni; Coppens, Frederik; Cornell, Michael; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Davidsen, Kristian; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Dogan, Tunca; Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Emery, Laura; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gatter, Thomas; Goldberg, Tatyana; Grosjean, Marie; Grüning, Björn; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ienasescu, Hans; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Jimenez, Rafael; Juty, Nick; Juvan, Peter; Koch, Maximilian; Laibe, Camille; Li, Jing-Woei; Licata, Luana; Mareuil, Fabien; Mičetić, Ivan; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Moretti, Sebastien; Morris, Chris; Möller, Steffen; Nenadic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Hedi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Rice, Peter; Romano, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Saidi, Rabie; Schafferhans, Andrea; Schwämmle, Veit; Smith, Callum; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Stockinger, Heinz; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; de la Torre, Victor; Uva, Paolo; Via, Allegra; Yachdav, Guy; Zambelli, Federico; Vriend, Gert; Rost, Burkhard; Parkinson, Helen; Løngreen, Peter; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Life sciences are yielding huge data sets that underpin scientific discoveries fundamental to improvement in human health, agriculture and the environment. In support of these discoveries, a plethora of databases and tools are deployed, in technically complex and diverse implementations, across a spectrum of scientific disciplines. The corpus of documentation of these resources is fragmented across the Web, with much redundancy, and has lacked a common standard of information. The outcome is that scientists must often struggle to find, understand, compare and use the best resources for the task at hand. Here we present a community-driven curation effort, supported by ELIXIR—the European infrastructure for biological information—that aspires to a comprehensive and consistent registry of information about bioinformatics resources. The sustainable upkeep of this Tools and Data Services Registry is assured by a curation effort driven by and tailored to local needs, and shared amongst a network of engaged partners. As of November 2015, the registry includes 1785 resources, with depositions from 126 individual registrations including 52 institutional providers and 74 individuals. With community support, the registry can become a standard for dissemination of information about bioinformatics resources: we welcome everyone to join us in this common endeavour. The registry is freely available at https://bio.tools. PMID:26538599

  18. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-05-01

    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.

  19. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  20. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  1. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    . Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  2. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  3. Observing the Anthropocene from Space: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, John

    2016-07-01

    The rapid growth of human population since the industrial revolution has been coupled with a much increased standard of living and bountiful production of food. The dominant energy source sustaining this development has been fossil fuel combustion. However this has resulted in pollution which now spans all scales. There have significant impacts on air quality, water quality, stratospheric ozone and climate. The impacts can sudden and large and also slowly accumulate over time in the long term. The first decades of the space age resulted in pioneering efforts to establish adequate measurement capability. This process is continuing to evolve. Over the past two decades there have been a number of efforts to define the contribution and needs for a space segment which can separate anthropogenic form natural changes in the earth system. This talk introduces this topic of the use of the space segment to deconvolve change from anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena.

  4. Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

  5. Survival tactics for managing the hospital marketing effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaupp, D L; Ponzurick, T G; Schaupp, F W

    1994-01-01

    Hospital marketing is an intricate and complex process. Especially difficult is the transition the hospital marketer must make from designing marketing strategies to implementing those strategies. This transition usually causes the marketer to call upon a different set of skills. These skills involve managing the personnel needed to implement the designed marketing strategy. Unfortunately, little in the way of formal training is provided the marketer for developing these management skills. Therefore, the authors have comprised a series of tactical procedures designed to assist the hospital marketer to survive this transition. Using these tactics for decision-making guidelines may help to improve the management of the hospital's marketing effort.

  6. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  7. Asymmetric Best Effort Service for Packet Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Hamdi, M; Blazevic, L.; P. Thiran

    1998-01-01

    We propose a system and method for providing a ``throughput versus delay'' differentiated service for IP packets. We distinguish two types of traffic: type A and type B. It is expected that type A traffic receives less throughput per flow than type B. On the other hand, type A packets experience considerably smaller delay. The method is intended to be implemented in Internet routers. No bandwidth or buffer reservation is assumed in this system. The service remains a Best Effort service, thus ...

  8. Asymmetric Best Effort Service for Packet Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Blazevic, Ljubica; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Thiran, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    We propose a system and method for providing a ``throughput versus delay`` differentiated service for IP packets. We distinguish two types of traffic: type A and type B. It is expected that type A traffic receives less throughput per flow than type B. On the other hand, type A packets experience considerably smaller delay. The method is intended to be implemented in Internet routers. No bandwidth or buffer reservation is assumed in this system. The service remains a Best Effort service, thus...

  9. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  10. Announcement as effort on topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Ditmarsch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-agent logic of knowledge, public and arbitrary announcements, that is interpreted on topological spaces in the style of subset space semantics. The arbitrary announcement modality functions similarly to the effort modality in subset space logics, however, it comes with intuitive and semantic differences. We provide axiomatizations for three logics based on this setting, and demonstrate their completeness.

  11. What Motivates California's Global Promotion Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrad, Lee

    1991-01-01

    State governments in the U.S. have increasingly been promoting their business climate and products abroad. The motivation behind these efforts at "global promotion" might seem obvious to persons acquainted with export base theory. According to this theory, growth in a region's total economy-usually measured in either jobs or income -is a function of growth in its export or "basic" sectors; one builds an economy by building exports. Export base theory has been a mainstay of economic ...

  12. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  14. International efforts to develop biospecimen best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Jimmie B; Caboux, Elodie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Variables introduced during the processes involved in biospecimen collection, processing, storage, and analysis are among the potential sources of bias in biomarker research. International efforts are under way to develop best practices to standardize biospecimen handling protocols. In general, documents on best practices address three major recurring themes: technical best practices on infrastructure and specimen handling, recommendations on informatics and data management, and recommendations on ethical, legal, and social issues. There are many areas of agreement among various international efforts, but no single set of practices has emerged as a unifying document. The ethical, legal, and social issues are particularly difficult to harmonize due to the many country-specific issues that are governed by a variety of local and federal rules and regulations. Given the increasingly international nature of research involving biomarkers and biospecimens, it will be necessary to continue to cooperate in the development of harmonized evidence-based best practices. Several international organizations including the International Cancer Genome Consortium are engaged in such efforts.

  15. Fortification Challenges and Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Experience in many parts of the developing world has shown thatfood fortification offers a cost-effective and sustainable solution to the problem of micronutrient malnutrition. Building on the advances in science and technology and backed by studies on the economic benefits of fortification programs, governments and industry are beginning to respond positively to the call of nutrition advocates to adopt fortification as a long-term strategy. On the other hand, formidable challenges still remain in many countries in Asia, constraining the widespread adoption of this strategy. The science and technology community needs to provide adequate scientific and technological information as basis for planning and decision making. The government faces the challenge of providing the enabling environment for all stakeholders to cooperate in the fortification effort. Industry faces the challenge of adapting its production system to the requirements of fortification in order that they can contribute to social objectives while pursuing their economic objectives. The international and bilateral aid agencies need to seek tried and innovative ways to support the multiple players of food fortification, as these players in turn face the challenges that confront them.

  16. Fortification Challenges and Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RODOLFOF.FLORENTINO

    2001-01-01

    Experience in many parts of the developing world has shown that food fortification offers a costeffective and sustainable solution to the problem of micronutrient malnutrition.Building on the advances in science and technology and backed by studies on the economic benefits of fortification programs,govenments and industry are beginning to respond positively to the call of nutrition advocates to adopt fortification as a long-term strategy.On the other hand,formidable challenges still remain in many countries in Asia,constraining the widespread adoption of this strategy,The science and technology community needs to provide adequate scientific and technological information as basis for planning and decision making,The governent faces the challenge of providing the enabling environment for all stakeholders to cooperate in the fortification effort.Industry faces the challenge of adapting its production system to the requirements of fortification in oreder that they can contribute to social bojectives while pursuing their economic objectives,The international and bilateral aid agencies need to seek tried and innovative ways to support the multiple players of food fortification,as these players in turn face the challenges that confront them.

  17. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  18. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  19. On the Humanities Needs of Labor Continuing Education in Shipping Enterprises%航运企业员工继续教育的人文需求及渗透路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞

    2014-01-01

    The social attributes of human beings in the workplace have decided the objective existence of the humanistic demand attention,and to meet this demand,the humanistic quality of staff and promote coordi-nated development of occupation skill,have truly achieve favorable long-term development of enterprises. On the shipping enterprises,the occupation characteristics more humane spirit needs to provide effective support. To do a good job of shipping enterprises staff continuing education,need to start from the two aspects of shipping enterprise culture and employee training,and consider how employees humane needs,strengthen the infiltration of humanistic spirit.%人类的社会属性决定了企业员工有客观存在的人文需求。重视并满足这一需求,促进员工的人文素养与职业技能协调发展,有利于企业真正实现长远发展。航运企业职业特点更加需要人文精神提供有效支撑。航运企业的员工继续教育要从企业文化建设和员工培训两方面入手,切实考虑员工的人文需求,加强人文精神的渗透。

  20. Postconcussive complaints, cognition, symptom attribution and effort among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric B; Kondiles, Bethany R; Starr, Christine R; Zollman, Felise S

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of postconcussive symptoms is not clearly understood. Development of etiological models of those symptoms will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and for planning effective treatment. Such a model should characterize the role of subject characteristics (education, premorbid intelligence), social psychological factors and symptom validity. Toward that end, the present study examined the association of postconcussive complaints and cognitive performance with symptom attribution and level of effort on testing. In a sample of 155 veterans, attribution to concussion was associated with endorsement of more severe postconcussive complaints, after controlling for the effects of other factors such as subject characteristics. Similarly, effort was associated with cognitive performance after controlling for the effects of these other factors. The present findings are consistent with previous reports that illness perception and effort on testing are associated with postconcussive complaints. This supports previous recommendations to routinely educate all concussion patients immediately after injury to reduce distorted perceptions and related persistent complaints. Finally, these findings highlight a need for routine assessment of patients' perception of their injury to identify cases that may require psychotherapy to address any misattributions that develop.

  1. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  2. Team building and perceived effort in an exercise setting: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Spink, Kevin S

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of gender on the team building (TB)/perceived effort relationship in an exercise setting. Youths (n=100) who participated in either a TB or control group exercise setting completed a measure of perceived effort prior to and following a TB intervention. A 2 (group)×2 (gender) ANCOVA controlling for baseline perceived effort revealed a significant interaction, F (1, 95)=4.50, p<.05. The interaction revealed that females in the TB condition reported significantly more perceived effort at the post-assessment than did those in the control condition whereas the perceived effort reported by males did not differ between conditions. These results provide preliminary evidence that gender may need to be considered in future TB investigations that include perceived effort as a dependent measure.

  3. ON THE DIFFERENCE OF HUMAN VISUAL AESTHETIC FROM MASLOW'S NEEDS%从马斯洛需求角度解读人的视觉审美差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建良

    2016-01-01

    Why other people don't necessarily like the things you like? Why do different people have different aesthetics? These questions point to the same problem, which is the visual aesthetic differences between people? This paper wil be through the interpretation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory to reveal the hidden things behind the needs of the visual aesthetic characteristics. That is four aesthetic differences: 1. from concrete to abstract; 2. from complex to simple; 3. from form to meaning; 4. from quantity to quality.%你喜欢的事物为什么其他人不一定喜欢?为什么不同的人会有不同的视觉审美?这些疑问都指向了同一个问题。,即人的视觉审美差异是如何产生的?为此,本文将通过对马斯洛需求层级理论的解读,揭示出隐藏在需求背后的视觉审美特征,分别为四个审美差异:1.从具象到抽象;2.从复杂到简单;3.从形态到意义;4.从数量到质量。

  4. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  5. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  6. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  7. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E., E-mail: holden@bnl.gov

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  8. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  9. Review and Prospect of the UN Efforts for Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xinzhang

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews the UN important efforts to promote global sustainable development in the chronological order since UN Conference on Human Environment in 1972, and ana- lyzes the progress and gap. The results show that the UN system has made great efforts for global sustainable development since the UN Conference on Human Environment, especially since UN Conference on Environment and Development, promoted the for- mation of important consensus and multilateral internhtional con- ventions on many fields, boosted the development of partnership in the field of sustainable development, and accelerated actions for sustainable development of many countries and regions. However, at present, the progress made is still far below the level required, prominently reflected in the slow progress toward the millen-nium development goals, the difficulties in negotiations in the field of environment and development, insufficient fulfillment of international agreements and conventions, and undesirable effects of partnership in the field of sustainable development. Based on these, the paper puts forward four suggestions for UN Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012(Rio+20): (1) to revitalize the "spirit of Rio" and accelerate the implementation of existing politi- cal commitments; (2) to make new political commitments focusing on climate change and other major global challenges under the Rio principles; (3) to lay out a blueprint of green economy under the Rio principles; and (4) to promote South-South cooperation as the focus of international cooperation.

  10. Opportunities and challenges of international coordination efforts in space exploration - the DLR perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Andrea

    The German Aerospace Center and German Space Agency DLR has defined internationalisation one of the four pillars of its corporate strategy. Driven by global challenges, national space agencies like DLR are seeking partnerships to contribute to essential societal needs, such as human welfare, sustainability of life, economic development, security, culture and knowledge. All partnerships with both traditional and non-traditional partners must reflect a balanced approach between national requirements and needs of the international community. In view of the challenges emerging from this complexity, endeavours like space exploration must be built on mutual cooperation especially in a challenging political environment. Effective and efficient exploitation of existing expertise, human resources, facilities and infrastructures require consolidated actions of stakeholders, interest groups and authorities. This basic principle applies to any space exploration activity. DLR is among the agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) from its beginning in 2007. The strategic goals of DLR regarding space exploration correspond to the purpose of ISECG as a forum to share objectives and plans to take concrete steps towards partnerships for a globally coordinated effort in space exploration. DLR contributes to ISECG publications especially the “Global Exploration Roadmap” and the “Benefits stemming from Space Exploration” to see those messages reflected that support cooperation with internal and external exploration stakeholders in science and technology and communication with those in politics and society. DLR provides input also to other groups engaging in space exploration. However, taking into account limited resources and expected results, the effectiveness of multiple coordination and planning mechanisms needs to be discussed.

  11. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  12. HEP data in education and outreach efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matt

    2010-02-01

    The High Energy Physics (HEP) community has recognized that data preservation is an important part of our future and has organized an international working committee to address this. Beyond the continued data mining which can take place, there is a great opportunity to use these datasets as teaching tools, both for university students and an interested general public. The BABAR experiment at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has a dedicated group working on the preservation effort; the education and outreach effort is a significant goal of this group. Retention of knowledge and conceptual understanding is enhanced by active participation in problem solving -- a challenge that can be addressed with more involved projects than currently available to the general public from the HEP outreach centers. We are developing a framework that will make subsets of the BABAR dataset available to others, along with computing tools and tutorials, so that interested parties can work through either parts or the whole of a variety of analyses. With the proper framework, this may be used by other HEP experiments as a way to make their physics available and teachable beyond our community. The scope of this project may be extended to teach the next generation of particle physicists, who may lack immediate data, by providing them with datasets with which to prepare themselves for upcoming experiments. )

  13. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  14. Effort, Wages, and the International Division of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Edward E. Leamer

    1999-01-01

    This paper embeds variable effort into a traditional multi-sector model. Effort enters a production function like total-factor-productivity and on the assumption that effort doesn't affect capital depreciation, the capital-cost savings from high effort operations are passed on to workers. The labor market thus offers a set of contracts with higher wages compensating for higher effort. Among the implications of the model are: The capital savings from effort are greatest in the capital-intensiv...

  15. The exodus of health professionals from sub-Saharan Africa: balancing human rights and societal needs in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda; Mill, Judy E; Astle, Barbara; Fanning, Anne; Opare, Mary

    2007-06-01

    Increased international migration of health professionals is weakening healthcare systems in low-income countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. The migration of nurses, physicians and other health professionals from countries in sub-Saharan Africa poses a major threat to the achievement of health equity in this region. As nurses form the backbone of healthcare systems in many of the affected countries, it is the accelerating migration of nurses that will be most critical over the next few years. In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of the literature and argue that, from a human rights perspective, there are competing rights in the international migration of health professionals: the right to leave one's country to seek a better life; the right to health of populations in the source and destination countries; labour rights; the right to education; and the right to non-discrimination and equality. Creative policy approaches are required to balance these rights and to ensure that the individual rights of health professionals do not compromise the societal right to health.

  16. Legislative activity related to the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine in the United States (2006–2015: a need for evidence-based policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keim-Malpass J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Keim-Malpass,1,2 Emma M Mitchell,1 Pamela B DeGuzman,1 Mark H Stoler,3 Christine Kennedy,1,2 1School of Nursing, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: State-based policies to mandate HPV vaccination are politically challenging and have received broad criticisms. There is a critical need to understand the legislative activities that underpin subsequent policy implementation. The objective of this policy analysis was to analyze state legislation that focused on HPV vaccination from 2006–2015. A content analysis was conducted among primary sources of legislative data from HPV vaccine-related bills, including using the National Conference of State Legislatures as a search-source. Findings reveal that much of the legislative activity occurred early after the HPV vaccination was introduced, and focused on increased information for parents, public financing, awareness campaigns, etc. Far fewer states focused on voluntary or mandatory vaccination. Understanding the barriers to achieving mandatory vaccination policy and implementation of such policies for HPV vaccines remains a public health priority. Keywords: HPV vaccine, adolescent, policy, legislation

  17. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in principle be a product of chemistry. In this paper we go through the chemical gradient model and argue that this is not able to explain the ontogenesis. We discuss the used gradients as information carriers in chemical self-organizing systems and argue that by use of the “Turing structures” we are only able to modelling the mostly simple biological systems. The bio-chemical model is only able to model simple organization but not to explain the complexity of biological phenomena. We conclude that we seemingly have presented a formal proof (a NO-GO theorem that the self-organizing chemical systems that are using chemical gradients are not able to explain complex biological matters as the ontogenesis. We need a fundamentally new, information-carrying principle to understand biological information and biological order.

  18. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Supporting Repressed Scientists: Continuing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Joseph L.

    2010-02-01

    Some years ago, Max Perutz asked ``By What Right Do We Scientists Invoke Human Rights?" My presentation will start with mentioning actions of the international community which relate to this question. Such action as the creation in 1919 of the International Research Council, and continuing on to the present with the UN sanctioned International Council of Scientific Unions [ICSU], and other Committees such as those formed by APS, CCS, NYAS, AAAS which give support to repressed scientists around the world now. My own work has attempted to combine my individual initiatives with work as a member and officer of these groups. Together with like minded colleagues who are deeply affected when colleagues are discharged from their positions, exiled, imprisoned and subject to brutal treatment, often after mock ``trials", we react. On visits in 1968 to conferences in Budapest, and then in 1969 to Moscow, Tallin and Leningrad I became personally and deeply touched by the lives of colleagues who were seriously constrained by living under dictatorships. I could move freely into and out of their countries,speak openly about my work or any other matter. They could not, under penalty of possibly serious punishment. Yet, I felt these people were like my extended family. If my grandparents had not left Eastern Europe for the USA in the late 189Os our situations could have been reversed. A little later in the 197O's, ``refusenik" and ``dissident" scientists in the USSR needed support. Colleagues like Andrei Sakharov, Naum Meiman, Mark Azbel, Yakov Alpert, Yuri Orlov and others were being punished for exercising their rights under the UN sanctioned international protocals on ``Universality of Science and Free Circulation of Scientists". Their own governments [which signed these agreements] ignored the very protections they had supported. On frequent trips to the USSR during the 7Os,and 8Os I also seized the opportunity for ``individual initiative" to help these colleagues. I asked for

  19. EMOTIVE EFFORT AMONG MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Bilal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between work complexity, emotive effort and its effects on job satisfaction and Emotion Management related stress among medical professionals; as in accordance with ‘The Managed Heart’ by Arlie Hochschild, it is asserted that emotive toil is carried out by medical professionals. Correspondence among work complexity, emotive toil and job satisfaction are ascertained by circulating questionnaires among medical personnel. This correspondence is investigated by the use of regression analysis. Conclusions drawn on the basis of analysis disclose that emotive struggle was considerably negatively associated to job satisfaction and work complexity. The research verdicts are only restricted to the medical professionals working in different hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan

  20. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.