WorldWideScience

Sample records for human effort needed

  1. Human Capital: Additional Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Civilians (n=21) 6 5 8 2 h) Substance abuse (alcohol or drugs ) Servicemembers (n= 186) 43 53 82 8 Civilians (n=22) 9 8 4 1 Source: GAO | GAO...Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma Why GAO Did This Study A 2010 DOD task force on suicide prevention concluded that stigma—the negative...Representatives A 2010 Department of Defense (DOD) Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces concluded that

  2. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W

    1988-12-01

    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  3. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  4. Social entrepreneurship in religious congregations' efforts to address health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2014-01-01

    Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Multiple case studies. Los Angeles County, California. Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races/ethnicities (African-American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n = 57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed by using a qualitative, code-based approach. Congregations' health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations' health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from-and for-faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as "incubators" for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Although the small scale of congregations' health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations' position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways.

  5. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  6. Living systematic reviews: 2. Combining human and machine effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain; Wallace, Byron; McDonald, Steven; Mavergames, Chris; Glasziou, Paul; Shemilt, Ian; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Elliott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    New approaches to evidence synthesis, which use human effort and machine automation in mutually reinforcing ways, can enhance the feasibility and sustainability of living systematic reviews. Human effort is a scarce and valuable resource, required when automation is impossible or undesirable, and includes contributions from online communities ("crowds") as well as more conventional contributions from review authors and information specialists. Automation can assist with some systematic review tasks, including searching, eligibility assessment, identification and retrieval of full-text reports, extraction of data, and risk of bias assessment. Workflows can be developed in which human effort and machine automation can each enable the other to operate in more effective and efficient ways, offering substantial enhancement to the productivity of systematic reviews. This paper describes and discusses the potential-and limitations-of new ways of undertaking specific tasks in living systematic reviews, identifying areas where these human/machine "technologies" are already in use, and where further research and development is needed. While the context is living systematic reviews, many of these enabling technologies apply equally to standard approaches to systematic reviewing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Child Support; Need to Improve Efforts to Identify Fathers and Obtain Support Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    34 Reduces the stigma of illegitimacy and helps give the child a sense of identity. • Increases the child’s opportunity to develop a close parental...A179 979 CHILD SUPPORT; NEED TO IMPROVE EFFORTS TO IDENTIFY 1/1 FATHERS AND OBTAIN SUPPORT ORDERS(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC HUNAN...April 30, 1987 The Honorable Otis R. Bowen, M.D. The Secretary of Health and Human Services Dear Mr. Secretary: This report discusses child support

  8. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  9. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  10. APA efforts in promoting human rights and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Pickren, Wade E; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2017-11-01

    This article reviews the American Psychological Association's (APA) efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. Beginning with a historical review of the conceptualizations of human rights and social justice, the social challenges that have faced the United States over time are discussed in relation to the APA's evolving mission and strategic initiatives enacted through its boards, committees, and directorates. From early efforts on the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology and the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the establishment of the Public Interest Directorate, the APA's efforts to address these human rights and social justice challenges through its task force reports, guidelines, and policies are described. Specifically, issues related to diversity and underrepresentation of minority group members and perspective within the APA, as well as women's issues (prochoice, violence against women, sexualization of young girls, human trafficking) were central to these efforts. These minority groups included racial and ethnic minority groups; immigrants and refugees; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer individuals; and those with disabilities. Later attention shifted to broader social justice challenges within a public health perspective, such as AIDS, obesity, and violence. Also included is a brief discussion of the Hoffman Report. The article ends with a discussion of future directions for the APA's efforts related to human rights and social justice related to health disparities, violent extremism, social inequality, migration, cultural and racial diversity, and an evidence-based approach to programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. DOD Financial Management: Significant Efforts Still Needed for Remediating Audit Readiness Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Significant Efforts Still Needed for Remediating Audit Readiness Deficiencies Report to...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-17-85, a report to congressional committees February 2017 DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Significant Efforts Still...actions to address the IPAs’ recommendations. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidance and the Department of Defense’s (DOD) Financial

  12. Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    the chair of the group, while the teams each have some level of activity in additive manufacturing , it is not identified as one of the teams. Page...DEFENSE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts Report to...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Additive Manufacturing : DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts 5a

  13. Cognitive capacity limitations and Need for Cognition differentially predict reward-induced cognitive effort expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Dasha A; Otto, A Ross

    2018-03-01

    While psychological, economic, and neuroscientific accounts of behavior broadly maintain that people minimize expenditure of cognitive effort, empirical work reveals how reward incentives can mobilize increased cognitive effort expenditure. Recent theories posit that the decision to expend effort is governed, in part, by a cost-benefit tradeoff whereby the potential benefits of mental effort can offset the perceived costs of effort exertion. Taking an individual differences approach, the present study examined whether one's executive function capacity, as measured by Stroop interference, predicts the extent to which reward incentives reduce switch costs in a task-switching paradigm, which indexes additional expenditure of cognitive effort. In accordance with the predictions of a cost-benefit account of effort, we found that a low executive function capacity-and, relatedly, a low intrinsic motivation to expend effort (measured by Need for Cognition)-predicted larger increase in cognitive effort expenditure in response to monetary reward incentives, while individuals with greater executive function capacity-and greater intrinsic motivation to expend effort-were less responsive to reward incentives. These findings suggest that an individual's cost-benefit tradeoff is constrained by the perceived costs of exerting cognitive effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A human factors needs assessment and planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, H.E.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1982-06-01

    A study was done to assess the need for human factors research, development, and regulatory action in the Atomic Energy Control Board. Further study or development in nine human factors areas is proposed. The urgency, schedule, and resources judged to be necessary for the proposed efforts are estimated. Special emphasis is placed on the need for task analysis information, for the evaluation of control room and maintenance human engineering, and for the development of an improved human error reporting system

  15. Molecular biologists backing effort to map entire human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurer, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses how the program to map and sequence the human genome will be managed. The National Research Council (NRC) recommends that a 15-year $200-million-a-year effort to map all human genes should begin immediately. However, some people have balked at the idea, saying it is a ploy to raise money. Part of the skeptic's uneasiness stems from the involvement of the Department of Energy (DOE), an agency not often linked with biological research. The DOE's interest arises from its commitment to understanding the biological effects of nuclear radiation. Critics say it is a budget-boosting tactic. This article explains some of the arguments for and against the project and explains exactly what it would involve

  16. Restructuring Vocational Special Needs Education through Interdisciplinary Team Effort: Local Motion in the Pacific Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garnett J.; Stodden, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The Restructuring through Interdisciplinary Team Effort project focuses on changing the culture and structure of vocational special needs education in the Pacific Basin. Its three dimensions are cognitive core (best practices, outcome-focused design, strategic planning); team network of stakeholders; and systemic renewal (school-to-work…

  17. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  18. Human transportation needs in rural Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Mobility is extremely important, especially in rural areas, which have dispersed populations and locations. : This study was conducted among rural minority populations to evaluate human transportation needs of the : underserved rural population in Ok...

  19. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  20. Lessons learned from HRA and human-system modeling efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Human-System modeling is not unique to the field of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). Since human factors professionals first began their explorations of human activities, they have done so with the concept of open-quotes systemclose quotes in mind. Though the two - human and system - are distinct, they can be properly understood only in terms of each other: the system provides a context in which goals and objectives for work are defined, and the human plays either a pre-defined or ad hoc role in meeting these goals. In this sense, every intervention which attempts to evaluate or improve upon some system parameter requires that an understanding of human-system interactions be developed. It is too often the case, however, that somewhere between the inception of a system and its implementation, the human-system relationships are overlooked, misunderstood, or inadequately framed. This results in mismatches between demands versus capabilities of human operators, systems which are difficult to operate, and the obvious end product-human error. The lessons learned from human system modeling provide a valuable feedback mechanism to the process of HRA, and the technologies which employ this form of modeling

  1. The National Institute of Justice's Technology Efforts to Meet the Evolving Needs of the Responder Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D.

    2002-05-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research arm of the Department of Justice. Through its Office of Science & Technology (OS&T), NIJ has actively pursued development of better tools for public safety agencies to combat terrorism since 1997, when, pursuant to the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Penalty Act of 1996 (P.L. 104 -132), it began development of technology to better enable law enforcement agencies to combat terrorism. NIJ quickly realized that effectively combating terrorism required a multi disciplinary, multi agency response. Additionally, it came to understand that, as noted by the Gilmore Commission, the best way to prepare the responder community to deal with the consequences of terrorist incidents, was to ``emphasize programs and initiatives that build appropriately on existing State and local capabilities for other emergencies and disasters.'' For example, an effective critical incident management system is just as important to the ability to deal with a terrorist attack, such as occurred at the World Trade Center, as with a major natural disaster or the crash of a commercial airliner or passenger train. Consequently, NIJ's efforts have evolved to focus on the responder community's common, unaddressed needs for better tools to deal with critical incidents. The Institutes efforts focus on five technology areas: infrastructure security, personnel location, explosives detection and remediation, communications and information technology and training, and development of standards.

  2. Maslow's Human Motivation Needs Hierarchy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas B.

    Over two hundred periodical, dissertation, book, research paper, and essay citations of works published between 1948 and 1972 are listed in this bibliography which concerns itself with human motivation needs. Over 140 authors are represented. Some of the wide ranging topics included, in addition to and in relation to various aspects of motivation,…

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN HUMAN NEEDS SYSTEM - PERSONALITY - HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela MINICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main attributes of an economic approach of needs and preferences, with detailed focus on the correlation between meta-needs and personality, by correlating the principle of hierarchy established by Maslow with the balance theory. Adopting an integrated system of human capital motivation, which takes into account the complex aspects involved in the knowledge society, represents a managerial requirement for any organisation.

  4. Global Trafficking Prevalence Data Distorts Efforts to Stop Patterns of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Dottridge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For everyone engaged in efforts to stop the exploitation and harm associated with human trafficking, it always sounds helpful to know how many people are being exploited in particular places and where they come from. Finding out should help us assess whether efforts to cut down these numbers are effective or not.

  5. Pitfalls in Designing Zero-Effort Deauthentication: Opportunistic Human Observation Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Huhta, O.; Shrestha, P.; Udar, S.; Juuti, M.; Saxena, N.; Asokan, N.

    2015-01-01

    VK: Asokan, N. Deauthentication is an important component of any authentication system. The widespread use of computing devices in daily life has underscored the need for zero-effort deauthentication schemes. However, the quest for eliminating user effort may lead to hidden security flaws in the authentication schemes. As a case in point, we investigate a prominent zero-effort deauthentication scheme, called ZEBRA, which provides an interesting and a useful solution to a difficult problem ...

  6. Fulfillment of Safety Needs and Efforts to Prevent Fall in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam, R. Siti; Rosidawati, Rosidawati; Hartini, Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to describe safety needs for the elderly in nursing home Region of DKI Jakarta. The method used survey with the nursing staff by 43 respondents and the elderly by 53 respondents. The results found that the safety needs for the elderly in nursing home are good by 79.1 %; elderly aged around 60-95 years; 62.3 % female, have a history of falling 58.5 %, the biggest fall location of 45.2 % at the street and 22.6 % in the bedroom, most of the elderly suffering from 98.1 % (like h...

  7. Biosurveillance: Efforts to Develop a National Biosurveillance Capability Need a National Strategy and a Designated Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Medicine and the Center for Biosecurity —related to public health, disease detection, bioterrorism, biodefense, and emergency management. We also reviewed...public health workers.19 CDC officials said that states and communities nationwide report needing more public health nurses , informaticians...we met with experts from research organizations that study biodefense issues, including the University of Pittsburgh Center for Biosecurity , the

  8. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    of Major Systems Involved in Processing and Reporting Navy Military Payroll 8 Figure 3: Management Representation Letter Timeline for the April 2013...Figure 3: Management Representation Letter Timeline for the April 2013 Military Payroll Examination Without a policy that addresses...DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related

  9. Psychoanalysis and Humanism: A Review and Critical Examination of Integrationist Efforts with Some Proposed Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Critically reviews efforts at theoretical integration of psychoanalysis and humanism along the lines of F. Pine's (1990) four psychologies of psychoanalysis. Concludes that psychoanalysis and humanism have certain compatible features, but that they generally represent opposing vantage points in the study of subjectivity. Provides recommendations…

  10. Intergenerational Efforts to Develop a Healthy Environment for Everyone: Sustainability as a Human Rights Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Savage, Caroline E; Newsham, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    As climate change proceeds at an unprecedented rate, concern for the natural environment has increased. The world's population aging also continues to rise at an unprecedented rate, giving greater attention to the implications of an older population. The two trends are linked through the fact that changes to the environment affect older adults, and older adults affect the environment. Sustainability is, therefore, an intergenerational phenomenon, and protecting resources today leaves a positive legacy and enhances quality of life for future generations. Older adults have much to share with younger generations about behaviors that promote sustainable living, yet few sustainability efforts are intergenerational in nature. As large numbers of people currently subsist without secure access to basic needs, ensuring equitable resource consumption for all generations is urgent and aligns with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Through exploring linkages between aging and sustainability, we identify intergenerational strategies to protect the environment and promote human rights and quality of life for older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. HESS Opinions "More efforts and scientific rigour are needed to attribute trends in flood time series"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hundecha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The question whether the magnitude and frequency of floods have changed due to climate change or other drivers of change is of high interest. The number of flood trend studies is rapidly rising. When changes are detected, many studies link the identified change to the underlying causes, i.e. they attribute the changes in flood behaviour to certain drivers of change. We propose a hypothesis testing framework for trend attribution which consists of essential ingredients for a sound attribution: evidence of consistency, evidence of inconsistency, and provision of confidence statement. Further, we evaluate the current state-of-the-art of flood trend attribution. We assess how selected recent studies approach the attribution problem, and to which extent their attribution statements seem defendable. In our opinion, the current state of flood trend attribution is poor. Attribution statements are mostly based on qualitative reasoning or even speculation. Typically, the focus of flood trend studies is the detection of change, i.e. the statistical analysis of time series, and attribution is regarded as an appendix: (1 flood time series are analysed by means of trend tests, (2 if a significant change is detected, a hypothesis on the cause of change is given, and (3 explanations or published studies are sought which support the hypothesis. We believe that we need a change in perspective and more scientific rigour: detection should be seen as an integral part of the more challenging attribution problem, and detection and attribution should be placed in a sound hypothesis testing framework.

  12. Why the developing nations like India need strong capacity building efforts in greenhouse gases mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishal, V.; Sudhakaran, A.; Singh, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Today, India rubs shoulders with nations like USA and China for being the major shareholders in global greenhouse emissions and has more emissions than Russia! Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) has been proven as a reliable method to counter global warming and keep the 2ºC per year policy in check and is currently in the pilot stage in many developed nations. The three major requirements for CCUS are: manpower in diverse fields, implementation potential and capital. Keeping other social problems aside, India still has sufficient mankind in all spheres of research ranging from earth science, engineering, basic sciences, economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. to successfully work on such challenges. India has leading academic institutions, research labs and universities in science and engineering. They also have a working power force in aspects like economy, policy making, regulation, public outreach etc. in various management institutes of repute. India, however, lacks in sufficient funding for advanced research and capacity building schemes to support projects of such scale. Deployment of facts and concepts on climate change need an approach of much greater scope than what is anticipated. The above workforces can put forth a clear picture about the various entities surrounding CCUS and provide sensible planning and implementation information through scientific research. CCUS is only possible when the direct anthropogenic emitters like fossil fuel plants modify their features to incorporate the methods associated with it. The rural population has to be educated in context to the safety of the storage sites. Above all, the Indian government must holistically divert funds for such programs and provide economic incentives to the industries for the industries. The bottom line is that India has been working in lots of aspects with not very clear cuts objectives. There are CO2 capture technologies like amine scrubbing and membrane

  13. Human oocyte chromosome analyses need a standardized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies of DNA polymorphisms in human trisomic abor- tions and liveborn have ... Keywords. human oocyte chromosomes; cytogenetic analysis; aneuploidy; nondisjunction; predivision. Journal of .... oocytes and giant embryos. Hum. Reprod.

  14. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  15. The Need for Inclusion of Human Resources Accounting in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    terms of skill, sex etc. for effective human resources planning, control and management. ... accounting system to provide human resource accounting for its managers. ... A similar effort in disclosing human resource information in the financial ... Estimate the effect of managerial actions on employees' morale, productivity and ...

  16. [Is an effort needed in order to replace the punitive culture for the sake of patient safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Ubeda, S R

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to introduce a safety culture have flourished in a growing number of health care organisations. However, many of these organisational efforts have been incomplete with respect to the manner on how to address the resistance to change offered by the prevailing punitive culture of healthcare organisations. The present article is intended to increase the awareness on three reasons of why an effort is needed to change the punitive culture before introducing the patient safety culture. The first reason is that the culture needs to be investigated and understood. The second reason is that culture is a complex construct, deeply embedded in organisations and their contexts, and thus difficult to change. The third reason is that punitive culture is not compatible with some components of safety culture, thus without removing it there are great possibilities that it would continue to be active and dominant over safety culture. These reasons suggest that, unless planning and executing effective interventions towards replacing punitive culture with safety culture, there is the risk that punitive culture would still prevail. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts : Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and

  18. Human Needs Theory: Applications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author reviews needs theory as a field of research and scholarship, examines seven needs theories (including Nussbaum's capabilities approach), and synthesizes elements of all of these into a list he used tentatively and speculatively to analyze two common instructional practices in music education. The author's intent is to…

  19. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  20. Labor of love. A model for planning human resource needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, F J

    1989-01-01

    Typically, the annual budgeting process is the hospital's only attempt to forecast human resource requirements. In times of rapid change, this traditional ad hoc approach is incapable of satisfying either the Catholic hospital's ethical obligations as an employer or its responsibilities to provide healthcare to the poor and suffering. Assumptions about future activity, including volume projections on admissions, patient days, and other services, influence the budgeting process to a large degree. Because the amount of work to be done and the number of employees required to do it are related, changes in demand for service immediately and directly affect staffing requirements. A hospital cannot achieve ethical human resource management or provide high-quality healthcare if inadequate planning forces management into a cycle of crisis-coping--reacting to this year's nursing shortage with a major recruiting effort and next year's financial crunch with a traumatic reduction in force. The human resource planning approach outlined here helps the hospital meet legitimate business needs while satisfying its ethical obligations. The model has four phases and covers a charge to the planning committee; committee appointments; announcements; the establishment of ground rules, focus, and task forces; and the work of each task force.

  1. Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts: Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne McGonigle Leyh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and best practices was difficult. Today that situation has significantly changed. The purpose of this article is to explore the changing landscape of civil society documentation of serious human rights violations, and what that means for standardising and professionalising documentation efforts. Using the recent Hisséne Habré case as an example, this article begins by looking at how civil society documentation can successfully influence an accountability process. Next, the article touches upon barriers that continue to impede greater documentation efforts. The article examines the changing landscape of documentation, focusing on technological changes and the rise of citizen journalism and unofficial investigations, using Syria as an example, as well as on the increasing support for documentation efforts both in Syria and worldwide. The changing landscape has resulted in the proliferation of international documentation initiatives aimed at providing local civil society actors guidelines and practical assistance on how to recognise, collect, manage, store and use information about serious human rights violations, as well as on how to minimise the risks associated with the documentation of human rights violations. The recent initiatives undertaken by international civil society, including those by the Public International Law & Policy Group, play an important role in helping to standardise and professionalise documentation work and promote the foundational principles of documentation, namely the ‘do no harm’ principle, and the principles of informed consent and confidentiality. Recognising the drawback that greater professionalisation may bring, it

  2. Serving human needs. Nuclear technologies in the marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jihui; Burkart, Werner

    2001-01-01

    Many peaceful nuclear technologies today stand firmly established. They are being widely applied and accepted around the world in such fields as health care, food production, manufacturing, electricity generation, and environmental protection. Among the IAEA's 132 Member States, interest in constructively applying the tools of nuclear science and technology - especially outside the energy sector - remains high, although priorities, needs, and policies have changed over time. For the IAEA - whose specific mandate is to 'accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity' - the changing and challenging global picture has strengthened efforts to enhance the contribution of nuclear science and technologies in key fields of human development. A multi-faceted programme of technical cooperation serves as the main vehicle for the transfer of nuclear science and technology to developing countries. The programme's emphasis is on supporting projects that respond to the priority needs of each country, produce an economic or social impact, and reflect the distinct advantages of nuclear technology over other approaches

  3. Toward rubella elimination in Poland: need for supplemental immunization activities, enhanced surveillance, and further integration with measles elimination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Laura; Rogalska, Justyna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Haponiuk, Marzena; Kosek, Adam; Pauch, Ewa; Plonska, Elzbieta; Veltze, Daniel; Czarkowski, Miroslaw P; Buddh, Nilesh; Reef, Susan; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2011-07-01

    All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella. We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008. Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  4. Education for Sustainability: The Need for a New Human Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Anthony

    Disturbing global trends show that human activity continues to threaten our ability to meet current human needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability will become more inaccessible without a dramatic change in our current mindset and behavior. As the primary centers of teaching, research, and…

  5. Using Human Capital Planning to Predict Future Talent Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Donald; Jansen, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Human capital planning is an important tool in predicting future talent needs and sustaining organizational excellence over the long term. This article examines the concept of human capital planning and outlines how institutions can use HCP to identify the type and number of talent needed both now and in the future, recognize and prioritize talent…

  6. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougan, A; Dreicer, M; Essner, J; Gaffney, A; Reed, J; Williams, R

    2009-11-16

    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  7. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.; Dreicer, M.; Essner, J.; Gaffney, A.; Reed, J.; Williams, R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  8. Further effort is needed to improve management of chronic pain in primary care. Results from the Arkys project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Piccinocchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic pain is challenging. The Arkys project was initiated in Italy to assist general practitioners (GPs in the management of chronic pain. The main objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Arkys for selecting new therapeutic strategies. An online interactive questionnaire for assessing pain and guiding therapeutic decisions was made available to GPs participating to Arkys. The GPs were invited to complete the questionnaire for each patient who presented moderate-severe chronic pain, and to decide on a new analgesic treatment based on the information provided by the questionnaire. Two hundred and forty four GPs participated with a total of 3035 patients. Patients (mean age 68.9 years had mostly chronic non-cancer pain (87.7%. In 42.3%, pain had neuropathic components. Only 53.6% of patients were in treatment with analgesics (strong opioids, 38.9%; NSAIDs, 32.6%; weak opioids, 25.6%; anti-epileptics, 17.3%; paracetamol, 14.9%. Use of the questionnaire resulted in the prescription of analgesics to all patients and in increased prescription of strong opioids (69.7%. NSAID prescription decreased (12.8%, while anti-epileptics use remained stable. These findings show that current management of chronic pain in primary care is far from optimal and that efforts are needed to educate GPs and improve guideline implementation.

  9. Human Needs as an Approach to Designed Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Aly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach of landscape architecture has always focused on the aesthetic and visual aspects of landscapes while giving less attention to other aspects. This view has limited the benefits that can be derived from designed landscapes, despite the wide-ranging potential they carry for humans; socially, environmentally and economically. As a result, many researchers and practitioners are currently challenging this view to develop a more holistic and multidimensional approach. The present research therefore aims at proposing a new perspective for public designed landscapes based on fundamental human needs. The study methodology was comprised of critical content analysis for three main domains: sustainable development, human needs in specific relation to public landscapes, and significant approaches to fundamental human needs. Reconciliation among these domains was achieved based on a modified version of Max-Neef’s matrix of fundamental human needs. Human needs in public landscapes were merged into the matrix to reach a comprehensive yet specific perspective. The study concluded with a conceptual framework that can provide a wider perspective to human needs in designed landscapes. It proposes a new tool for the analysis of the benefits of public landscapes and their value for humans, which can be further used in various applications.

  10. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; McHale, Timothy S; Carré, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review field studies of human male hormones and reproductive behavior. We first discuss life history theory and related conceptual considerations. As illustrations, distinctive features of human male life histories such as coalitional aggression, long-term partnering and paternal care are noted, along with their relevance to overall reproductive effort and developmental plasticity. We address broad questions about what constitutes a human male field study of hormones and behavior, including the kinds of hormone and behavioral measures employed in existing studies. Turning to several sections of empirical review, we present and discuss evidence for links between prenatal and juvenile androgens and sexual attraction and aggression. This includes the proposal that adrenal androgens-DHEA and androstenedione-may play functional roles during juvenility as part of a life-stage specific system. We next review studies of adult male testosterone responses to competition, with these studies emphasizing men's involvement in individual and team sports. These studies show that men's testosterone responses differ with respect to variables such as playing home/away, winning/losing, and motivation. Field studies of human male hormones and sexual behavior also focus on testosterone, showing some evidence of patterned changes in men's testosterone to sexual activity. Moreover, life stage-specific changes in male androgens may structure age-related differences in sexual behavior, including decreases in sexual behavior with senescence. We overview the considerable body of research on male testosterone, partnerships and paternal care, noting the variation in social context and refinements in research design. A few field studies provide insight into relationships between partnering and paternal behavior and prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In the third section of the review, we discuss patterns, limitations and directions for future research. This

  11. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  12. Effort, performance, and motivation: insights from robot-assisted training of human golf putting and rat grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Rowe, Justin B; Sharp, Kelli; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Robotic devices can modulate success rates and required effort levels during motor training, but it is unclear how this affects performance gains and motivation. Here we present results from training unimpaired humans in a virtual golf-putting task, and training spinal cord injured (SCI) rats in a grip strength task using robotically modulated success rates and effort levels. Robotic assistance in golf practice increased trainees feelings of competence, and, paradoxically, increased their sense effort, even though it had mixed effects on learning. Reducing effort during a grip strength training task led rats with SCI to practice the task more frequently. However, the more frequent practice of these rats did not cause them to exceed the strength gains achieved by rats that exercised less often at higher required effort levels. These results show that increasing success and decreasing effort with robots increases motivation, but has mixed effects on performance gains.

  13. Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

  14. Tailoring a Human Reliability Analysis to Your Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Companies at risk of accidents caused by human error that result in catastrophic consequences include: airline industry mishaps, medical malpractice, medication mistakes, aerospace failures, major oil spills, transportation mishaps, power production failures and manufacturing facility incidents. Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) is used to analyze the inherent risk of human behavior or actions introducing errors into the operation of a system or process. These assessments can be used to identify where errors are most likely to arise and the potential risks involved if they do occur. Using the basic concepts of HRA, an evolving group of methodologies are used to meet various industry needs. Determining which methodology or combination of techniques will provide a quality human reliability assessment is a key element to developing effective strategies for understanding and dealing with risks caused by human errors. There are a number of concerns and difficulties in "tailoring" a Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) for different industries. Although a variety of HRA methodologies are available to analyze human error events, determining the most appropriate tools to provide the most useful results can depend on industry specific cultures and requirements. Methodology selection may be based on a variety of factors that include: 1) how people act and react in different industries, 2) expectations based on industry standards, 3) factors that influence how the human errors could occur such as tasks, tools, environment, workplace, support, training and procedure, 4) type and availability of data, 5) how the industry views risk & reliability, and 6) types of emergencies, contingencies and routine tasks. Other considerations for methodology selection should be based on what information is needed from the assessment. If the principal concern is determination of the primary risk factors contributing to the potential human error, a more detailed analysis method may be employed

  15. Human Resource Management: The need for theory and diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Wolfgang; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Human Resource Management as an academic discipline needs to be theoretically grounded, i.e. it requires support through theories, theory-driven empirical research and critiques. In doing so, different theoretical perspectives are addressed suggesting a problem-orientated theory selection which leads inevitably to theoretical diversity.

  16. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-01-01

    Background McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. Methods During the 6?month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n?=?80); a student online PA interest survey (n?=?465); a PA and nutr...

  17. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  18. Theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L; Bowen, D M

    2017-11-01

    Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM). Using the Walker and Avant Theory Analysis, a seven-step process, the DH HNCM, was analysed and evaluated for its meaningfulness and contribution to dental hygiene. The steps include the following: (i) investigate the origins; (ii) examine relationships of the theory's concepts; (iii) assess the logic of the theory's structure; (iv) consider the usefulness to practice; (v) judge the generalizability; (vi) evaluate the parsimony; and (vii) appraise the testability of the theory. Human needs theory in nursing and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory prompted this theory's development. The DH HNCM depicts four concepts based on the paradigm concepts of the profession: client, health/oral health, environment and dental hygiene actions, and includes validated eleven human needs that evolved overtime to eight. It is logical, simplistic, allows scientific predictions and testing, and provides a unique lens for the dental hygiene practitioner. With this model, dental hygienists have entered practice, knowing they enable clients to meet their human needs. For the DH HNCM, theory analysis affirmed that the model is reasonable and insightful and adds to the dental hygiene professions' epistemology and ontology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  20. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  1. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savioja, Paula; Norros, Leena; Liinasuo, Marja; Laarni, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object.

  2. Needs assessment of school and community physical activity opportunities in rural West Virginia: the McDowell CHOICES planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Elliott, Eloise; Bulger, Sean; Jones, Emily; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Neal, William

    2015-04-03

    McDowell CHOICES (Coordinated Health Opportunities Involving Communities, Environments, and Schools) Project is a county wide endeavor aimed at increasing opportunities for physical activity (PA) in McDowell County, West Virginia (WV). A comprehensive needs-assessment laid the foundation of the project. During the 6 month needs assessment, multiple sources of data were collected in two Town Hall Meetings (n = 80); a student online PA interest survey (n = 465); a PA and nutrition survey among 5(th) (10-11 years) and 8(th) graders (13-14 years) with questions adapted from the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (n = 442, response rate = 82.2%); six semi-structured school and community focus groups (n = 44); school site visits (n = 11); and BMI screening (n = 550, response rate = 69.7%). One third of children in McDowell County meet the national PA minimum of 60 minutes daily. At least 40% of 5(th) and 8(th) graders engage in electronic screen activity for 3 hours or more every day. The prevalence of obesity in 5(th) graders is higher in McDowell County than the rest of WV (~55% vs. 47% respectively). SWOT analyses of focus group data suggest an overall interest in PA but also highlight a need for increase in structured PA opportunities. Focus group data also suggested that a central communication (e.g. internet-based) platform would be beneficial to advertise and boost participation both in current and future programs. Schools were commonly mentioned as potential facilities for public PA participation throughout the county, both with regards to access and convenience. School site visits suggest that schools need more equipment and resources for before, during, and after school programs. An overwhelming majority of participants in the McDowell CHOICES needs assessment were interested to participate in more PA programs throughout the county as well as to improve opportunities for the provision of such programs. Public schools were widely recognized as the hub

  3. Assessing state efforts to meet baby boomers' long-term care needs: a case study in compensatory federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    The role of the state government and the character of federal-state relations in social policy have evolved considerably. Frank Thompson uses the phrase compensatory federalism to describe increased activity by state governments to make up for a diminished federal role. For compensatory federalism to work, it is essential for states to take leadership roles in key policy areas. Few studies examine whether states have risen to the challenge of compensatory federalism in social policy. This paper examines an emerging issue of great significance in social policy-challenges involved in meeting future long-term care needs for the baby boomer generation. The paper provides an in-depth case study of attempts by Maryland to meet the challenges of financing long-term care needs for the baby boomer generation. The detailed description of the agenda-setting and problem-structuring process in Maryland is followed by an analysis that uses three different frameworks to assess the policy development processes. These models are rooted in a bureaucratic politics perspective, an agenda-setting perspective and an interest group politics perspective. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations and possibilities of state leadership in the social policy sphere.

  4. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3% of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.

  5. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    -human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab...

  6. Ambient Persuasive Technology Needs Little Cognitive Effort: The Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on Lighting Feedback versus Factual Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees

    Persuasive technology can influence behavior or attitudes by for example providing interactive factual feedback about energy conservation. However, people often lack motivation or cognitive capacity to consciously process such relative complex information (e.g., numerical consumption feedback). Extending recent research that indicates that ambient persuasive technology can persuade the user without receiving the user's conscious attention, we argue here that Ambient Persuasive Technology can be effective while needing only little cognitive resources, and in general can be more influential than more focal forms of persuasive technology. In an experimental study, some participants received energy consumption feedback by means of a light changing color (more green=lower energy consumption, vs. more red=higher energy consumption) and others by means of numbers indicating kWh consumption. Results indicated that ambient feedback led to more conservation than factual feedback. Also, as expected, only for participants processing factual feedback, additional cognitive load lead to slower processing of that feedback. This research sheds light on fundamental characteristics of Ambient Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Lighting, and suggests that it can have important advantages over more focal persuasive technologies without losing its persuasive potential.

  7. Contaminated Sediment Management in Dam Removals and River Restoration Efforts: Critical Need for Research and Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.

  8. Global climate change and human health: Information needs, research priorities, and strategic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, M.P.; Kanciruk, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); O' Hara, F.M. Jr. (O' Hara (Fred M., Jr.), Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The US Global Research Plan and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme were created to assess the effects of global climate change but have not been able to devote much attention to the consequences climate change will have on human health and welfare. Although researchers and policy makers recognize that climate change will have complex effects on resources, in general, the social and medical sciences have not received appropriate international attention under the banner of global change. To address this imbalance, the public health research community needs to launch a international coordinated effort so that the social and medical sciences are as fully represented as other scientific disciplines. This document discusses the information needs, research priorities and strategic considerations of the global change and its impact on human health.

  9. Healthy working days: The (positive) effect of work effort on occupational health from a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Nuñez, Imanol

    2018-04-01

    The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers. Using a sample from 2010 of 20,000 European workers we find that, under adequate working conditions, the level of effort (measured in working hours) at which health starts to deteriorate is very high (120 h per week). However, if working conditions are not adequate, even a moderate effort (35 h per week) can harm workers health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Humanization of medical education: Need of the hour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the importance of psychological factors in maintenance of health, as well as etiology and prognosis of diseases have been recognized in ancient medicine by discerning and thoughtful clinicians in all ages, for the large majority of the practitioners such a perception has not been there. A cross-sectional, organ-based, and symptom-centered clinical approach was largely prevalent in day-to-day medicine. Medical training also followed more or less the same path. The positive psychological and behavioral qualities needed in the physician are left to the individual student to develop on his own during studies or to the physician afterwards. Some do, many do not. The importance of communication, doctor-patient relationship, empathy and psychological sensitivity in the making of a physician started getting identified in advanced medical universities in western countries by the middle of the last century. Since then behavioral science and medical humanities have been incorporated as important modules in the graduate medical training curriculum not only in advanced western medical universities, but also in good universities elsewhere. The situation in India, till now has been quite unsatisfactory. The undergraduate medical students had only 2 weeks of clinical posting and few hours of lectures, allotted for psychiatry: Even these were not actually carried out in many institutions properly. Responding to repeated representations from mental health experts in the country and abroad, medical universities and educationists, the Medical Council of India in 2012 has made 2 weeks of Residential Internship in Psychiatry (CRRI mandatory, and also recommended incorporation of medical humanities in the MBBS curriculum. The paper presents a brief outline of how a Clinical Behavioral Sciences Training Program l incorporating medical humanities can be developed and carried out as a mainstream component for the undergraduate medical training in the country. The

  11. Global status of nuclear power and the needed human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Corazon C.

    2009-01-01

    According to projections of the OECD/IEA, the world energy demand will expand by 45% from now until 2030, with coal accounting for more than a third of the overall rise. To reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change, many countries are resorting to renewables and nuclear power. Some statistics about nuclear energy in the global energy mix and about nuclear power plants worldwide, as well as the energy situation in the country are presented. According to sources from the Department of Energy on the Philippine Energy Plan, nuclear power is a long-term energy option and will likely enter the energy mix by 2025. Preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power has to start ten to fifteen years before the first plant comes online. The needed human resources, the education and training required are present. (Author)

  12. The Existence of Human Rights Court as a National Effort to Eliminate the Severe Violation of Human Rights in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Junaedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The law on human rights court has brought the new hopes for certain people have suffered because of the human rights violation happened in the past government (before the law enacted in the years of 2000. The demand of justice has been made by victims, the families of victims and other sympathetic parties by bringing those who have violated human rights in the past. The demand for justice does not only focus on human rights violations, which occurred in the past but also similar human rights violations that will occur in the future. The existence of a permanent Human Rights Court seems to imply that human rights will be upheld and protected. The resolution of past human rights violations via a conflict approach is preferable for the national reconciliation. The resolution of past human rights violations through extra-judicial organizations is an advanced step towards resolving the case, whereas a conflict approach can be used to settle the case. The existence of the Human Rights Law provides a new frontier in implementing the principle of restorative justice in the approach of case settlement. It is hoped that such restorative justice can create a political balance between the past and the future.

  13. Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse unconjugated glycans that are highly abundant in and unique to human milk. Originally, HMOs were discovered as a prebiotic “bifidus factor” that serves as a metabolic substrate for desired bacteria and shapes an intestinal microbiota composition with health benefits for the breast-fed neonate. Today, HMOs are known to be more than just “food for bugs”. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that HMOs are antiadhesive antimicrobials that serve as soluble decoy receptors, prevent pathogen attachment to infant mucosal surfaces and lower the risk for viral, bacterial and protozoan parasite infections. In addition, HMOs may modulate epithelial and immune cell responses, reduce excessive mucosal leukocyte infiltration and activation, lower the risk for necrotizing enterocolitis and provide the infant with sialic acid as a potentially essential nutrient for brain development and cognition. Most data, however, stem from in vitro, ex vivo or animal studies and occasionally from association studies in mother–infant cohorts. Powered, randomized and controlled intervention studies will be needed to confirm relevance for human neonates. The first part of this review introduces the pioneers in HMO research, outlines HMO structural diversity and describes what is known about HMO biosynthesis in the mother's mammary gland and their metabolism in the breast-fed infant. The second part highlights the postulated beneficial effects of HMO for the breast-fed neonate, compares HMOs with oligosaccharides in the milk of other mammals and in infant formula and summarizes the current roadblocks and future opportunities for HMO research. PMID:22513036

  14. Ebola's Revelations — A Threefold Human Security Analysis of Liberia & Its Peacebuilding Efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammann, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    enhanced local ownership of the peacebuilding process; and (5) a more accurate reflection of lived, social realities. The article shows the applicability of this compass at the example of Liberia where it manifests that human insecurity prevails in Liberia and consequently, peacebuilding failed...... has failed to establish sustainable peace. The withdrawal of UNMIL and the 2017 elections will show how stable Liberian peace truly is. In the end, the voices of the people should prevail....

  15. A Case Study of the Global Group for Sharing Knowledge and Efforts in Human Resources within the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: One of the main conclusions from the IAEA’s HRD Conference in 2014 was that people and organisations in the global nuclear industry could cooperate more in sharing information and efforts. This was an inspiring conclusion, and there seemed an especially great opportunity for such sharing of information and efforts related to the attraction, recruitment, development and retention of people within the nuclear workforce. Founding members include people from the IAEA, WNA, WANO, EDF and OPG amongst others, the global working group for Human Resource matters aimed at “Building and Sustaining a Competent Nuclear Workforce” was established. This global working group is free to join and is open to anyone concerned with Building and Sustaining a Competent NuclearWorkforce. The objectives of the group are to share useful information, find others with similar objectives to cooperate with, ask questions, share opinions and crucially to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. The group already has 160 members from more than 15 countries and is currently hosted as a group on the LinkedIn website. The vision for the group is that it will become an invaluable resource for people across the world in the nuclear industry for sharing information and efforts. (author

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...

  17. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  18. Update: What Nurses Need to Know about Human Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Joy

    Nurses are key people who interact with victims of human trafficking in healthcare and other settings. This article provides a current overview of human trafficking, explains legal definitions, elements for protocols in healthcare settings when trafficking is suspected, nursing roles and responses, interview tools, resources, public health recommendations, and nursing education approaches to address human trafficking.

  19. Human factors in the Canadian nuclear industry: future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.

    2008-01-01

    Currently the industry is facing refurbishment and new builds. At present most licensees in Canada do not have sufficient numbers of Human Factors staff. As a result, the activities of the CNSC are too often focused on providing guidance regarding the application of Human Factors, in addition to reviewing work submitted by the licensee. Greater efficiencies for both the licensee and the CNSC could be realized if licensee staff had greater Human Factors expertise. Strategies for developing Human Factors expertise should be explored through cooperative partnerships with universities, which could be encouraged to include Human Factors courses specific to nuclear. (author)

  20. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Results Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). Discussion and conclusions These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know. PMID:19126314

  1. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwain Terry F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

  2. Human Sex Trafficking in America: What Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litam, Stacey Diane A.

    2017-01-01

    The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Counselors should…

  3. Does Every Research Library Need a Digital Humanities Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Jennifer; Erway, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    The digital humanities (DH) are attracting considerable attention and funding at the same time that this nascent field is striving for an identity. Some research libraries are making significant investments by creating digital humanities centers. However, questions about whether such investments are warranted persist across the cultural heritage…

  4. Does the Russian Economy Need Human Capital? Ten Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpelson, V. E.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human capital is an important factor in economic growth, but its impact on growth depends on the demand for education and skills on the labor market. Demand for human capital is largely determined by the institutional environment that governs the basic conditions for economic activity. The author expresses ten doubts…

  5. The Need for Inclusion of Human Resources Accounting in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Director to place appropriate values on our physical resources so as to maximize utilization of human assets. This paper has attempted to bring the views of different researchers on the concept of human resource accounting into focus and the ...

  6. Efforts for nuclear energy human resource development by industry-government-academic sectors cooperation. Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development Council Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The report consists of eighteen sections such as the present conditions of nuclear energy, decreasing students in the department of technology and decreasing numbers of nuclear-related subjects, The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Program (HRD Program), The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Council (HRD Council), the industry-academia partnership for human resource development, the present situation of new graduates in the nuclear field, new workers of nuclear industry, the conditions of technical experts in the nuclear energy industry, long-range forecast of human resource, increasing international efforts, nuclear energy human resources development road map, three points for HRD, six basic subjects for HRD, the specific efforts of the industrial, governmental and academic sectors, promoting a better understanding of nuclear energy and supporting job hunting and employment, students to play an active part in the world, and support of the elementary and secondary schools. Change of numbers of nuclear-related subjects of seven universities, change of number of new graduates in nuclear field of various companies from 1985 to 2006, number of people employed by nuclear industries from 1998 to 2007, number of technical experts in the electric companies and the mining and manufacturing industries and forecast of number of technical experts in total nuclear industries are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  7. Humans Need Not Apply: Robotization of Kepler Planet Candidate Vetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.; Kepler Team

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the vast majority of Kepler planet candidate vetting has been performed by a dedicated team of humans. While human expertise has been invaluable in understanding the nuances of Kepler data, human vetting is very time-consuming and can be inconsistent. Over 20,000 threshold crossing events have been produced by the latest pipeline run on all 17 quarters of Kepler mission data, and many more artificial planet transits have been injected to estimate completeness. Given these large numbers, human vetting is no longer feasible on a reasonable time-scale, and would be difficult to characterize. We have created automated vetting programs known as "robovetters" that are specifically designed to mimic the decision-making process employed by the humans. They analyze both the light curve and pixel-level data in order to produce specific reasons for identifying false positives. We present benchmark tests on the Q1-Q16 Kepler planet catalog, which was vetted by humans, and present preliminary robovetter results based on a recent transit-search of the newly reprocessed Q1-Q17 data set.

  8. Human babesiosis in Europe: what clinicians need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A; Gray, J S; Hunfeld, K-P

    2013-12-01

    Although best known as an animal disease, human babesiosis is attracting increasing attention as a worldwide emerging zoonosis. Humans are commonly infected by the bite of ixodid ticks. Rare ways of transmission are transplacental, perinatal and transfusion-associated. Infection of the human host can cause a very severe host-mediated pathology including fever, and hemolysis leading to anemia, hyperbilirubinuria, hemoglobinuria and possible organ failure. In recent years, apparently owing to increased medical awareness and better diagnostic methods, the number of reported cases in humans is rising steadily worldwide. Hitherto unknown zoonotic Babesia spp. are now being reported from geographic areas where babesiosis was not previously known to occur and the growing numbers of travelers and immunocompromised individuals suggest that the frequency of cases in Europe will also continue to rise. Our review is intended to provide clinicians with practical information on the clinical management of this rare, but potentially life-threatening zoonotic disease. It covers epidemiology, phylogeny, diagnostics and treatment of human babesiosis and the potential risk of transfusion-transmitted disease with a special focus on the European situation.

  9. Artificial intelligence in medicine: humans need not apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprose, William; Buist, Nicholas

    2016-05-06

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly growing field with a wide range of applications. Driven by economic constraints and the potential to reduce human error, we believe that over the coming years AI will perform a significant amount of the diagnostic and treatment decision-making traditionally performed by the doctor. Humans would continue to be an important part of healthcare delivery, but in many situations, less expensive fit-for-purpose healthcare workers could be trained to 'fill the gaps' where AI are less capable. As a result, the role of the doctor as an expensive problem-solver would become redundant.

  10. Addressing unmet mental health and substance abuse needs: a partnered planning effort between grassroots community agencies, faith-based organizations, service providers, and academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C; Chung, Bowen; Stover, Gabriel; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Felica; Litt, Paula; Klap, Ruth S; Patel, Kavita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2011-01-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Restoration Center Los Angeles, a community-academic partnered planning effort aimed at holistically addressing the unmet mental health and substance abuse needs of the Los Angeles African American community. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions on key domains of partnership effectiveness were conducted with a random stratified sample of participants varying by level of involvement. Eleven partners representing grassroots community agencies, faith-based organizations, service providers, and academic institutions. Common themes identified by an evaluation consultant and partners relating to partnership effectiveness, perceived benefits and costs, and future expectations. Findings underscore the importance of considering the potential issues that may arise with the increasing diversity of partners and perspectives. Many of the challenges and facilitating factors that arise within academic-community partnerships were similarly experienced between the diverse set of community partners. Challenges that affected partnership development between community-to-community partners included differences in expectations regarding the final goal of the project, trust-building, and the distribution of funds. Despite such challenges, partners were able to jointly develop a final set of recommendations for the creation of restoration centers, which was viewed as a major accomplishment. Limited guidance exists on how to navigate differences that arise between community members who have shared identities on some dimensions (eg, African American ethnicity, Los Angeles residence) but divergent identities on other dimensions (eg, formal church affiliation). With increasing diversity of community representation, careful attention needs to be dedicated to not only the development of academic-community partnerships but also community-community partnerships.

  11. Joint Community Health Needs Assessments as a Path for Coordinating Community-Wide Health Improvement Efforts Between Hospitals and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Singh, Simone Rauscher

    2018-05-01

    To examine the association between hospital-local health department (LHD) collaboration around community health needs assessments (CHNAs) and hospital investment in community health. We combined 2015 National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) Forces of Change, 2013 NACCHO Profile, and 2014-2015 Area Health Resource File data to identify a sample of LHDs (n = 439) across the United States. We included data on hospitals' community benefit from their 2014 tax filings (Internal Revenue Service Form 990, Schedule H). We used bivariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine LHDs' involvement in hospitals' CHNAs and implementation strategies and the relationship with hospital investment in community health. The LHDs that collaborated with hospitals around CHNAs were significantly more likely to be involved in joint implementation planning activities than were those that did not. Importantly, LHD involvement in hospitals' implementation strategies was associated with greater hospital investment in community health improvement initiatives. Joint CHNAs may improve coordination of community-wide health improvement efforts between hospitals and LHDs and encourage hospital investment in community health improvement activities. Public Health Implications. Policies that strengthen LHD-hospital collaboration around the CHNA may enhance hospital investments in community health.

  12. Patenting human stem cells: an urgent need for a clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2008-09-01

    Patenting human stem cells has become one of the most controversial issues of the bioethics field at the beginning of the XXIst century, at least in industrial countries. This article relates the story of the long legal adventure that preceded the ruling of the Warf case by the Enlarged board of appeal of the European Patent Office on 25th November 2008.

  13. The Human Resources for Health Effort Index: a tool to assess and inform Strategic Health Workforce Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Alfredo L; Deussom, Rachel; Burlew, Randi; Gilroy, Kate; Nelson, David

    2017-07-19

    Despite its importance, the field of human resources for health (HRH) has lagged in developing methods to measure its status and progress in low- and middle-income countries suffering a workforce crisis. Measures of professional health worker densities and distribution are purely numerical, unreliable, and do not represent the full spectrum of workers providing health services. To provide more information on the multi-dimensional characteristics of human resources for health, in 2013-2014, the global USAID-funded CapacityPlus project, led by IntraHealth International, developed and tested a 79-item HRH Effort Index modeled after the widely used Family Planning Effort Index. The index includes seven recognized HRH dimensions: Leadership and Advocacy; Policy and Governance; Finance; Education and Training; Recruitment, Distribution, and Retention; Human Resources Management; and Monitoring, Evaluation, and Information Systems. Each item is scored from 1 to 10 and scores are averaged with equal weights for each dimension and overall. The questionnaire is applied to knowledgeable informants from public, nongovernmental organization, and private sectors in each country. A pilot test among 49 respondents in Kenya and Nigeria provided useful information to improve, combine, and streamline questions. CapacityPlus applied the revised 50-item questionnaire in 2015 in Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, Ghana, and Mali, among 92 respondents. Additionally, the index was applied subnationally in the Dominican Republic (16 respondents) and in a consensus-building meeting in Mali (43 respondents) after the national application. The results revealed a range of scores between 3.7 and 6.2 across dimensions, for overall scores between 4.8 and 5.5. Dimensions with lower scores included Recruitment, Distribution, and Retention, while Leadership and Advocacy had higher scores. The tool proved to be well understood and provided key qualitative information on the health workforce to assist

  14. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation.Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  15. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  16. Expanded prediction equations of human sweat loss and water needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R R; Cheuvront, S N; Montain, S J; Goodman, D A; Blanchard, L A; Berglund, L G; Sawka, M N

    2009-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine expressed a need for improved sweating rate (msw) prediction models that calculate hourly and daily water needs based on metabolic rate, clothing, and environment. More than 25 years ago, the original Shapiro prediction equation (OSE) was formulated as msw (g.m(-2).h(-1))=27.9.Ereq.(Emax)(-0.455), where Ereq is required evaporative heat loss and Emax is maximum evaporative power of the environment; OSE was developed for a limited set of environments, exposures times, and clothing systems. Recent evidence shows that OSE often overpredicts fluid needs. Our study developed a corrected OSE and a new msw prediction equation by using independent data sets from a wide range of environmental conditions, metabolic rates (rest to losses were carefully measured in 101 volunteers (80 males and 21 females; >500 observations) by using a variety of metabolic rates over a range of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, 15-46 degrees C; water vapor pressure, 0.27-4.45 kPa; wind speed, 0.4-2.5 m/s), clothing, and equipment combinations and durations (2-8 h). Data are expressed as grams per square meter per hour and were analyzed using fuzzy piecewise regression. OSE overpredicted sweating rates (Pdata (21 males and 9 females; >200 observations). OSEC and PW were more accurate predictors of sweating rate (58 and 65% more accurate, Perror (standard error estimate<100 g.m(-2).h(-1)) for conditions both within and outside the original OSE domain of validity. The new equations provide for more accurate sweat predictions over a broader range of conditions with applications to public health, military, occupational, and sports medicine settings.

  17. [Work as a basic human need and health promoting factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzi, P A

    2010-01-01

    The Italian Constitution (1948) defines 'work' as the founding value of the Italian Republic. This choice was not motivated by mere economic reasons, but rather stemmed from the recognition that work is the most appropriate tool for the expression of the human personality in society, that it is an asset and a right that will increase the dignity of every person, and which corresponds to a fundamental human desire to fulfil oneself in relationship with other persons and the entire world This view of work, including its technical and manual aspects, was unknown to the ancient mentality and became familiar to us through the monastic orders of the early middle ages, which began to conceive and practise human work as a means of participating in the work of creation and transmitted this value over the centuries. As we experience today, if occupation is lacking, a basic condition for the development of the person and for his/her contribution to the growth of society is lost. Given the meaning of work in human experience, it is not surprising that unemployment represents not only a worrisome economic indicator, but also the cause of ill health. At the end of 2009 unemployment in the European Union reached 10%, similar to the rate in the US; in Italy it was estimated at 8.5% in December 2009 and is expected to reach 10% in 2010. In Lombardy, although employment had been constantly increasing between 1995 and 2008, and the current unemployment rate is as low as 4.9%, 100,000 jobs were lost in 2009. Several scientific papers have demonstrated the association between lack of occupation and lack of physical and mental health. In the present period of crisis, increases of 30% in cases of anxiety syndrome and of 15% in cases of depression have been reported. An increase in suicides among unemployed persons has been documented in several countries even if there are still problems of interpretation of the causal chain of events. Mortality among the unemployed increased, not only

  18. From constraint to sufficiency. The decoupling of energy and carbon from human needs, 1975-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, University of Klagenfurt, Vienna (Austria); Roberts, J. Timmons [Center for Environmental Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the relationship between human needs, energy consumption and carbon emissions for several indicators of human development: life expectancy, literacy, income and the Human Development Index. We find that high human development can be achieved at moderate energy and carbon levels; increasing energy and carbon past this level does not necessarily contribute to higher living standards. By conducting a novel longitudinal analysis from 1975 to 2005, we observe a previously undetected decoupling of the per capita energy and carbon required for human needs. If resources were equally distributed, current energy and carbon levels would be more than sufficient to satisfy global human needs at high levels of human development. By projecting current trends to 2030, we demonstrate that the global energy consumption and carbon emissions required to satisfy human needs will decrease with time, despite growth in population. (author)

  19. Economic analysis of needs the training of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Vesna V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of lifelong learning is linked to the voluntary and motivated to seek knowledge from personal or organizational reasons. The fact that an individual learns driven by personal career goals, desire for self improvement and motivation refers to the importance of lifelong learning for the entire social inclusion, sustainability, and competitiveness and employment. The common denominator of all the problems of investment in education is an issue of increasing allocations to the social issues, the pace that in this area manifest needs. Relative resource constraints requires that the investment in professional development taking place in accordance with the expected contribution to the creation of new value, increase productivity and social development of society as a whole. Respecting this request, in general, should provide maximum socio-economic effects with minimal investment. Precise measurement is achieved by tools of economic analysis: cost & benefit, economic sensitivity analysis, risk assessment.

  20. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Sook-Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstructions (MRs are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Results Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Conclusion Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  1. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan M T; Hsiung, Chao A; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L; Özdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L; Shin, Sook-il; Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O; Adkins, Joshua N; Bumann, Dirk

    2011-01-18

    Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  2. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan MT; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid CJ; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Özdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook-Il; Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Finally, taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  3. Gender-related differences in the human rights needs of patients with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2012-06-01

    Individuals with mental illness commonly experience human rights violations while seeking to meet their basic needs. There is lack of research in developing countries on gender-related differences in human rights needs. This study investigated gender differences in perceived human rights needs at the family and community levels in individuals with mental illness in India. This descriptive study surveyed 100 asymptomatic individuals with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Subject selection employed a random sampling method. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews based on a structured needs assessment questionnaire. Data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics. Subjects enjoyed a satisfactory level of fulfillment in the physical dimension of human rights needs, which included food, housing, and clothing. Men expressed lower satisfaction than women with perceived human rights needs fulfillment in the emotional dimension. This included fear of family members (χ = 9.419, p human rights needs fulfillment in social and ethical dimensions. The former included freedom to leave the home (χ = 11.277, p human rights needs of people with mental illness and that legislation must be strengthened to meet the human rights needs of this disadvantaged population.

  4. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  5. The Dilemma of Department of Defense Business System Modernization Efforts: Why Intended Outcomes Have Not Been Fully Met and What Needs to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    between contract writing systems and the associated accounting and logistics systems. Employing this modular plug and play approach simplifies system...Automated Contract Preparation System (ACPS), Integrated Technical Item Management (ITIMP), and EProcurement are the contract writing systems that...research was on the DOD contract writing systems (CWS). This JAP seeks to report on the progress of DOD business system modernization efforts and

  6. A Human-Needs-Based Dynamics to Simulate Technology Policy and Its Effects on Both Business Success and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeon Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how human needs are reflected in the market and how several technological and political policies affect the market share of government-supported industries, as well as the satisfaction of human desires and consequent happiness. In this paper, we seek to understand the dynamics of consumer decision-making processes in relation to technology products in the market. In this study, we present a new marketing model based on human needs, wants, and demands, and focus on both holistic and social perspectives. We have shown that human-based policy dynamics and sustainable human happiness can be realized by stimulating national policies for consumer happiness in the human-needs-based sector, e.g., the healthcare industry.

  7. Human needs as predictors for organizational commitment and job involvement: An exploratory empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yang-Kyu; Lee, Chul-in; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    While the literature on the determinants of organizational commitment (OC) and job involvement (JI) is vast, little has been studied about the impact of human needs. In search for the institutional stars, this study examines whether human needs can serve a predictor for both high OC and high JI. Exploratory empirical results based on quantile regressions suggest that the needs for achievement, belonging, and power are more important than others in predicting OC and JI. In addition, the basic ...

  8. Live/Dead Comparisons of Ostracodes in Temperate Lakes Reveal Evidence of Human Impact and Provides a Tool to Measure the Progress of Remediation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, J.; Kimball, K. C.; Fitzpatrick, S. A.; Michelson, A. V.; Leonard-Pingel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake ecosystems face a multitude of environmental threats including: eutrophication, overfishing, and heavy metal pollution. Tools to identify lakes impacted by human activity and quantify that impact are needed to combat their environmental degradation. One such promising tool has been the comparison between living communities and associated time-averaged death assemblages of mollusks in marine environments. Here we extend the reach of such live/dead comparisons using ostracodes in temperate lakes. We sampled six lakes in Wisconsin for living communities and associated death assemblages of ostracodes: two lakes impacted by human activity, two relatively "pristine" lakes, and two remediated lakes. We took sixteen grab samples of the upper centimeter of sediment in each lake, capturing simultaneously living benthic ostracodes and discarded valves of dead ostracodes. We found that impacted lakes had lower live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-order abundance distributions and greater within-lake variation in death assemblages than "pristine" lakes. Additionally, the living communities in the impacted lakes tended to be lower in species richness and have lower evenness than "pristine" lakes. Remediated lakes displayed similar live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-abundance distributions to "pristine" lakes and had lower within-lake variation in death assemblages than impacted lakes. Remediated lakes also contained living communities that tended to be richer and more even than impacted lakes. The lower live/dead fidelity of ostracodes in impacted lakes indicate live/dead ostracode comparisons can provide a tool to identify lake ecosystems impacted by humans. The similar results of remediated and "pristine" lakes indicate remediation efforts in these lakes have been successful in alleviating environmental impact detrimental to ostracode communities. This result indicates live/dead comparisons of ostracodes can be a useful tool to monitor

  9. Present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Myung; Lee, Eui-Jin

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) began training technical personnel in the field of radioisotope utilization and radiation protection during the 1960's. During the first stage of the nation's nuclear power project in the 1970's, the main effort of the Center focused on training those in nuclear power and nuclear engineering. During a stage of increased technical self-reliance in the 1980's, the Center extended its training role to implement more specific training courses on nuclear power and safety fields. Since 1983, the Center has been empowered at the request of government to provide retraining courses for nuclear-related license holders and qualified engineers. The Center has offered IAEA regional training course annually for Asia and Pacific region member states since 1988. Since 1967, the total number of trainees is up to 27,777 as of the end of 1998. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) started Nuclear Power Education Center (NPEC) in 1990. The outlines of KEPCO's in-house training programs are presented in the report. The reactor operators, and the persons engaged in nuclear fuel materials, radioisotope or radiation generating devices need particular licenses in accordance with Korean Atomic Energy Laws and Regulation. NTC/KAERI and NPEC/KEPCO should report annual retraining programs for licensed personnel to Ministry Of Science and Technology (MOST) every year. The outlines of projects, which are directly related to human resources development in nuclear field in Korea, are described in the paper. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made efforts to provide training programs for technical personnel of developing countries for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Korea has also received lots of assistance for her manpower development from the Agency. Korea is now on the verge of transforming herself from a technology recipient country in some practical and fundamental fields. The

  10. Present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young-Myung; Lee, Eui-Jin [Nuclear Training Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) began training technical personnel in the field of radioisotope utilization and radiation protection during the 1960's. During the first stage of the nation's nuclear power project in the 1970's, the main effort of the Center focused on training those in nuclear power and nuclear engineering. During a stage of increased technical self-reliance in the 1980's, the Center extended its training role to implement more specific training courses on nuclear power and safety fields. Since 1983, the Center has been empowered at the request of government to provide retraining courses for nuclear-related license holders and qualified engineers. The Center has offered IAEA regional training course annually for Asia and Pacific region member states since 1988. Since 1967, the total number of trainees is up to 27,777 as of the end of 1998. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) started Nuclear Power Education Center (NPEC) in 1990. The outlines of KEPCO's in-house training programs are presented in the report. The reactor operators, and the persons engaged in nuclear fuel materials, radioisotope or radiation generating devices need particular licenses in accordance with Korean Atomic Energy Laws and Regulation. NTC/KAERI and NPEC/KEPCO should report annual retraining programs for licensed personnel to Ministry Of Science and Technology (MOST) every year. The outlines of projects, which are directly related to human resources development in nuclear field in Korea, are described in the paper. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made efforts to provide training programs for technical personnel of developing countries for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Korea has also received lots of assistance for her manpower development from the Agency. Korea is now on the verge of transforming herself from a technology recipient country in some practical and

  11. A Conflict Transformation Perspective on Efforts to Protect Human Rights of Haitian Migrants and their Descendants in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Skeie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata el largo debate en los ámbitos académico y profesional, sobre la relación entre la protección de los derechos humanos y la transformación de conflictos. Son dos enfoques que frecuentemente se han presentado como dos opuestos, representando respectivamente los principios y el pragmatismo. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años, se ha notado una tendencia de considerar cómo ambos campos pueden beneficiarse de las herramientas y las ideas del otro. El artículo utiliza la situación de la República Dominicana como un estudio de caso, observando los esfuerzos de la sociedad civil para promover y proteger los derechos de inmigrantes haitianos y sus descendientes, enfocándose particularmente en el papel de las organizaciones no gubernamentales internacionales (‘INGOs’, por sus siglas en inglés. El artículo argumenta la utilidad de la aplicación del análisis de transformación de conflicto, y específicamente intenta mostrar la relevancia de usar un análisis sistémico de conflicto, analizando y entendiendo los abusos contra los derechos humanos dentro de en una perspectiva más amplia de las relaciones dominico-haitianas. El artículo muestra cómo las intervenciones de las INGO afecta las dinámicas del conflicto tanto positivamente como negativamente, y discute las implicaciones para futuras estrategias para los participantes de la sociedad civil. English: This paper addresses the long-standing debate within academic and practitioner circles about the relationship between human rights protection and conflict transformation. While the two approaches have often been pitted against each other, as representing principles vs. pragmatism respectively, there has over the last years been an increasing tendency to consider how the two camps can benefit from each other's tools and lines of thoughts. The article takes the situation in the Dominican Republic as a case, looking into civil society actors' efforts to promote

  12. Climate change: The need for a human rights agenda within a framework of shared human security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis edited volume publishes as a special issue of the quarterly social science journal Social Research, a collection of articles on Human Rights and the Global Economy. The topics addressed are Human Rights and Economy Policy; Global Poverty and the Obligations of Rich Countries; Human Rights, Climate Change and Global Justice; and Corporations and Human Rights Obligations. This issue contains the edited proceedings of the November 2011 conference at the New School, where experts...

  13. Climate change: The need for a human rights agenda within a framework of shared human security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis edited volume publishes as a special issue of the quarterly social science journal Social Research, a collection of articles on Human Rights and the Global Economy. The topics addressed are Human Rights and Economy Policy; Global Poverty and the Obligations of Rich Countries; Human

  14. Identification of human capital needs, for the development of a production initiative for cocoa in Caqueta, 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parcival Peña Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At present to rely on productive sectors that stir the departmental economies into action it becomes necessary to advance efforts tending to strengthen those chains with international projection and that are better structured so that it allows them to answer to the requirements of the globalized market that join to the different agreements of free trade, they represent an opportunity to improve their market shares and to contribute in an increase of the regional GDP. It is a labor that must be accompanied of efforts of the different actors of the economy, but especially the productive chains must worry to improve their infrastructure, technologies, human talent, financial resources and internal processes, increasing their efficiency, with the intention to be productive and then, to be to the level of a market that have a highly competitive trend. But this competitive position is not achieved alone, needs a synergy that is structured from the management and administration of the resources that arranges the productive chain, is the human talent the responsible for generating this synergy, for which has selected the productive chain of international projection and that possess a greater degree of coordination and organization as it is the Cacao chain, identifying the needs of the qualified personnel for the development of the chains in 2019.

  15. Corporate philanthropic responses to emergent human needs: the role of organizational attention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Whiteman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate philanthropy typically focuses on organization-external pressures and aggregated donation behavior. Hence, our understanding of the organization-internal structures that determine whether a given organization will respond philanthropically to a specific human need remains

  16. The need and direction of a human factors research program for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, H.S.; Meyer, O.R.; Nelson, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    It is axiomatic that the need for a human factors program in the nuclear power industry must be based upon an examination of the process of nuclear energy production and the role that the human plays in this process. It has been pointed out by others that a large number of incidents in technology based industries can be attributed to human error, thereby demonstrating the need to understand the human in interacting with complex processes. But an emphasis upon human ''error'' is a negative approach and can be non-productive, particularly when the ''correct'' human action has not been clearly defined prior to the incident. Some industries have expended great resources in a positive attempt to maximize the performance of the human in critical roles, e.g., the man-in-space program, the commercial airlines industry, deep-sea exploration. Central to this issue of human factors in nuclear power is the question of the role that the human plays in reducing the risk of the total system. If, as in other areas of application, the nuclear industry can make substantial improvements in the performance of humans, one needs to know how much risk is really reduced

  17. Climate change and sustainable welfare: an argument for the centrality of human needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Gough

    2014-01-01

    Since climate change threatens human wellbeing across the globe and into the future, we require a concept of wellbeing that encompasses an equivalent ambit. This paper argues that only a concept of human need can do the work required. It compares need theory with three alternative approaches. Preference satisfaction theory is criticised on the grounds of subjectivity, epistemic irrationality, endogenous and adaptive preferences, the limitlessness of wants, the absence of moral evaluation, and...

  18. Climate Change and Sustainable Welfare: An Argument for the Centrality of Human Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Gough

    2014-01-01

    Since climate change threatens human wellbeing across the globe and into the future, we require a concept of wellbeing that encompasses an equivalent ambit. This paper argues that only a concept of human need can do the work required. It compares need theory with three alternative approaches. Preference satisfaction theory is criticised on the grounds of subjectivity, epistemic irrationality, endogenous and adaptive preferences, the limitlessness of wants, the absence of moral evaluation, and...

  19. Modelling efforts needed to advance herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine development: Key findings from the World Health Organization Consultation on HSV Vaccine Impact Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Giersing, Birgitte; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chesson, Harrell; Looker, Katharine J; Schiffer, Joshua; Spicknall, Ian; Hutubessy, Raymond; Broutet, Nathalie

    2017-06-21

    Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important goal for global sexual and reproductive health. In order to more precisely define the health and economic burden of HSV infection and the theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of an HSV vaccine, in 2015 the World Health Organization convened an expert consultation meeting on HSV vaccine impact modelling. The experts reviewed existing model-based estimates and dynamic models of HSV infection to outline critical future modelling needs to inform development of a comprehensive business case and preferred product characteristics for an HSV vaccine. This article summarizes key findings and discussions from the meeting on modelling needs related to HSV burden, costs, and vaccine impact, essential data needs to carry out those models, and important model components and parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Can we define an infant's need from the composition of human milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Boehm, Guenther

    Human milk is recommended as the optimal nutrient source for infants and is associated with several short- and long-term benefits for child health. When accepting that human milk is the optimal nutrition for healthy term infants, it should be possible to calculate the nutritional needs of these

  1. Assessment of unsaturated zone transport for shallow land burial of radioactive waste: summary report of technology needs, model verification, and measurement efforts (FY 1978 to FY 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two main topics are addressed in this report. The first topic relates to the assessment process for shallow land burial site design. This overview includes basic descriptions of water balance, transport processes and technology needs for waste management at an arid (dry) site. The second topic deals with specific results of research activities at PNL related to water and radionuclide transport under arid, shallow land burial conditions. Technology needs at arid-zone (dry) sites are summarized and unique features of radionuclide disposal at dry sites are explained. The report emphasizes the need to understand the interaction between climate, soil, plants, engineered barriers, and buried waste in order to evaluate performance of a waste disposal system at a dry site. Water balance data, collected since FY 1978 at the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) at Hanford, are used to illustrate the influence of climate variables (rainfall distribution patterns and evaporative conditions) on soil water storage and drainage at an arid site. For dry site conditions, with no vegetation and coarse soil, significant deep drainage was measured. Deep drainage below the root zone was also measured at a grass-covered site on the Hanford site after early spring rains, which emphasizes the need to carefully monitor site water balances even at arid (dry) sites. The monitoring technology, water balance, and radionuclide transport at arid sites are discussed, and the use of neutron probes, electrical resistance units, tensiometers, and psychrometers are explained, and examples are given on their applications in arid-site monitoring. Measurements of water flow and radionuclide transport coefficients needed to describe movement in unsaturated soils are documented. 40 references, 21 figures, 5 tables

  2. Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform SocialConstructionis Social constructionism is a school of thought Peter L...HUMAN, SOCIAL , CULTURAL BEHAVIOR (HSCB) MODELING WORKSHOP I: CHARACTERIZING THE CAPABILITY NEEDS FOR HSCB MODELING FINAL REPORT... Social , Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  4. Human-centered automation and AI - Ideas, insights, and issues from the Intelligent Cockpit Aids research effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the NASA-Langley Intelligent Cockpit Aids research program, which encompasses AI, human/machine interfaces, and conventional automation. Attention is being given to decision-aiding concepts for human-centered automation, with emphasis on inflight subsystem fault management, inflight mission replanning, and communications management. The cockpit envisioned is for advanced commercial transport aircraft.

  5. The need for interaction between assisted reproduction technology and genetics: recommendations of the European Societies of Human Genetics and Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Infertility and reproductive genetic risk are both increasing in our societies because of lifestyle changes and possibly environmental factors. Owing to the magnitude of the problem, they have implications not only at the individual and family levels but also at the community level. This leads to an increasing demand for access to assisted reproduction technology (ART) and genetic services, especially when the cause of infertility may be genetic in origin. The increasing application of genetics in reproductive medicine and vice versa requires closer collaboration between the two disciplines. ART and genetics are rapidly evolving fields where new technologies are currently introduced without sufficient knowledge of their potential long-term effects. As for any medical procedures, there are possible unexpected effects which need to be envisaged to make sure that the balance between benefits and risks is clearly on the benefit side. The development of ART and genetics as scientific activities is creating an opportunity to understand the early stages of human development, which is leading to new and challenging findings/knowledge. However, there are opinions against investigating the early stages of development in humans who deserve respect and attention. For all these reasons, these two societies, European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE), have joined efforts to explore the issues at stake and to set up recommendations to maximize the benefit for the couples in need and for the community.

  6. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexem Kari R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  7. Need Assessment of the Digital Archives Industry Human Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For an industry to develop successfully, one of the most important factors is to have sufficient and high quality human resources. Digital archives industry will be one of the major industries in Taiwan. We need sufficient human resources in different areas, therefore the job categories, job descriptions, and core technologies of these human resources shall be closely tightened to the need of digital content industry in different development stages. The purpose of this study is to investigate the present status and issues of human resource development of the digital archives industry. It then will study the planning of learning map of the digital archives industry to serve as guideline for Digital Content Institute, educational training and enterprise personnel recruitment. To achieve the above objectives, the method of depth interview is used in this study. We also try to design modular training courses for human resource development of the digital archives industry. [Article Content in Chinese

  8. The clinical profile of women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain. More effort is needed in secondary prevention. SIRENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, J M; Ripoll, T; Barrios, V; Anguita, M; Pedreira, M; Madariaga, I

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for women, especially ischaemic heart disease, which is still considered a man's disease. In Spain, there are various registries on ischaemic heart disease, although none are exclusively for women. The objectives of the SIRENA study were to describe the clinical profile of women with ischaemic heart disease treated in cardiology consultations, to estimate its prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and understand its clinical management. A multicentre observational study was conducted with a sample of 631 women with stable ischaemic heart disease, consecutively included during cardiology consultations. Forty-one researchers from all over Spain participated in the study. The mean age was 68.5 years. The clinical presentation was in the form of acute coronary syndrome in up to 67.2% of the patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high (77.7% of the patients had hypertension, 40.7% had diabetes and 68% had dyslipidaemia), with 30.7% having uncontrolled hypertension, 78.4% having LDL-cholesterol levels higher than 70mg/dL and 49.2% having HbA1c levels greater than 7%. The considerable majority of the patients underwent optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and hypolipidaemic agents. Coronary angiography was performed for 88.3% of the patients, and 63.4% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain initially present some form of acute coronary syndrome and a high prevalence of inadequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors, despite undergoing optimal medical therapy. A high percentage of these women undergo coronary revascularisation. Increased efforts are required for secondary prevention in women with stable ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Human Resource Competency as Effort to Increase SMEs Economic Sector Productivity with Gender as Differentiating Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Wibawa, Dian Prihardini

    2018-01-01

    Competence is a very important factor in increasing work productivity. A qualified workforce will have a positive impact on improving business productivity. Thus, the level of corporate profitability also increased. Human resource improvement strategy is an excellent strategy apart from other factors such as technology improves. Increased strategy through human resource competence can be done with the improvement of ability, attitude, knowledge, and expertise. The purpose of this research is ...

  10. Reasserting the primacy of human needs to reclaim the 'lost half' of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark; Longhurst, James W S

    2018-04-15

    The concept of sustainable development evolved from growing awareness of the interdependence of social and economic progress with the limits of the supporting natural environment, becoming progressively integrated into global agreements and transposition into local regulatory and implementation frameworks. We argue that transposition of the concept into regulation and supporting tools reduced the focus to minimal environmental and social standards, perceived as imposing constraints rather than opportunities for innovation to meet human needs. The aspirational 'half' of the concept of sustainable development specifically addressing human needs was thus lost in transposing high ideals into regulatory instruments. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) restore focus on interlinked human needs, stimulating innovation of products and processes to satisfy them. Through three case studies - PVC water pipes, river quality management in England, and UK local air quality management - we explore the current operationalisation of the concept in diverse settings, using the SDG framework to highlight the broader societal purposes central to sustainable development. Partnerships involving civil society support evolution of regulatory instruments and their implementation, optimising social and ecological benefits thereby serving more human needs. Restoring the visionary 'lost half' of sustainable development - meeting human needs in sustainable ways - creates incentives for innovation and partnership; an innovation framework rather than a perceived constraint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The US-Nigerian Military Cooperation: US Africom As A Mentor For Nigeria’s Military Efforts At Promoting Respect For Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A MENTOR FOR NIGERIA’S MILITARY EFFORTS AT PROMOTING RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS By Mohammed Asuekome Imam, Major, Nigerian Air Force BSc...security aspects should be integrated into the local environment to mentor military personnel on international best practices.30 This could provide...Similarly, a mentor team from US AFRICOM could periodically visit detention facilities to observe how terror suspects are being treated and then provide

  12. THE EFFORTS TO TERMINATE THE SITUATION WITH NO-CITIZENSHIP AND HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION OF ROHINGYA ETHNIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefriani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The refusal to recognize citizenship of Rohingnya ethnic by Myanmar government caused this ethnic without national and international protection. Statelessness situation is also became the entry point of other violation of human right such as ethnic cleansing and genocide which caused this ethnic became refugee. Some solutions offered to end this situation are: cooperate with UNHCR provide temporary shelter for those people; urge UNHCR granted refugee status for Rohingya; urge ASEAN conducted humanitarian diplomacy pursued Myanmar recognized citizenship of Rohingnya ; applied R to P to end the gross violation on human right toward Rohingnya if the threshold were fulfilled.

  13. Human spaceflight technology needs-a foundation for JSC's technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, J. M.

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which added risks and became a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (Tech Needs) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology disciplines. Th

  14. Enhancing atmospheric mercury research in China to improve the current understanding of the global mercury cycle: the need for urgent and closely coordinated efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2012-06-05

    The current understanding of the global mercury (Hg) cycle remains uncertain because Hg behavior in the environment is very complicated. The special property of Hg causes the atmosphere to be the most important medium for worldwide dispersion and transformation. The source and fate of atmospheric Hg and its interaction with the surface environment are the essential topics in the global Hg cycle. Recent declining measurement trends of Hg in the atmosphere are in apparent conflict with the increasing trends in global anthropogenic Hg emissions. As the single largest country contributor of anthropogenic Hg emission, China's role in the global Hg cycle will become more and more important in the context of the decreasing man-made Hg emission from developed regions. However, much less Hg information in China is available. As a global pollutant which undergoes long-range transport and is persistence in the environment, increasing Hg knowledge in China could not only promote the Hg regulation in this country but also improve the understanding of the fundamental of the global Hg cycle and further push the abatement of this toxin on a global scale. Then the atmospheric Hg research in China may be a breakthrough for improving the current understanding of the global Hg cycle. However, due to the complex behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, a deeper understanding of the atmospheric Hg cycle in China needs greater cooperation across fields.

  15. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  16. What Machines Need to Learn to Support Human Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Alonso

    2017-01-01

    In the development of intelligent systems that interact with humans, there is often confusion between how the system functions with respect to the humans it interacts with and how it interfaces with those humans. The former is a much deeper challenge than the latter it requires a system-level understanding of evolving human roles as well as an understanding of what humans need to know (and when) in order to perform their tasks. This talk will focus on some of the challenges in getting this right as well as on the type of research and development that results in successful human-autonomy teaming. Brief Bio: Dr. Alonso Vera is Chief of the Human Systems Integration Division at NASA Ames Research Center. His expertise is in human-computer interaction, information systems, artificial intelligence, and computational human performance modeling. He has led the design, development and deployment of mission software systems across NASA robotic and human space flight missions, including Mars Exploration Rovers, Phoenix Mars Lander, ISS, Constellation, and Exploration Systems. Dr. Vera received a Bachelor of Science with First Class Honors from McGill University in 1985 and a Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1991. He went on to a Post-Doctoral Fellowship in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University from 1990-93.

  17. Social use of alcohol among adolescent offenders: a fundamental approach toward human needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo D?Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined some basic health care approaches toward human needs, with a particular focus on nursing. We aimed to incorporate these approaches into the discussion of the mental health of adolescent offenders who consume alcohol. We discuss specific needs of the delinquent group, critique policies that prioritize coercion of adolescent offenders, and the role that nurses could play in the sphere of juvenile delinquency.

  18. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why fundamental freedoms are so unevenly distributed across the earth. Climato-economic theorizing proposes that humans adapt needs, stresses, and choices of goals, means, and outcomes to the livability of their habitat. The evolutionary process at work is one of collectively

  20. Technology Needs of Future Space Infrastructures Supporting Human Exploration and Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The path to human presence beyond near-Earth will be paved by the development of infrastructure. A fundamental technology in this infrastructure is energy, which enables not only the basic function of providing shelter for man and machine, but also enables transportation, scientific endeavors, and exploration. This paper discusses the near-term needs in technology that develop the infrastructure for HEDS.

  1. What Is Education For? A Discussion of Nussbaum's "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of the book, "Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities" by Martha C. Nussbaum from the perspective of a visiting scholar to the United States from China. It begins by addressing two critical topics discussed by Nussbaum: consequences of focusing only on economic growth and the importance of…

  2. Data analysis and integration of environmental sensors to meet human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; De Rango, Floriano; Barletta, Domenico; Falbo, Domenico; Imbrogno, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays one of the main task of technology is to make people's life simpler and easier. Ambient intelligence is an emerging discipline that brings intelligence to environments making them sensitive to us. This discipline has developed following the spread of sensors devices, sensor networks, pervasive computing and artificial intelligence. In this work, we attempt to enhance the Internet Of Things (loT) with intelligence and environments exploring various interactions between humans' beings and the environment they live in. In particular, the core of the system is composed of an automation system, which is made up with a domotic control unit and several sensors installed in the environment. The task of the sensors is to collect information from the environment and to send them to the control unit. Once the information is collected, the core combines them in order to infer the most accurate human needs. The knowledge of human needs and the current environment status compose the inputs of the intelligence block whose main goal is to find the right automations to satisfy human needs in a real time way. The system also provides a Speech Recognition service which allow users to interact with the system by their voice so human speech can be considered as additional input for smart automatisms.

  3. Graduate medical education in humanism and professionalism: a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.

  4. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

  5. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo YA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness.

  6. A Review of Human Reliability Needs in the U.S. Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    In this survey, 34 subject matter experts from the U.S. nuclear industry were interviewed to determine specific needs for human reliability analysis (HRA). Conclusions from the interviews are detailed in this article. A summary of the findings includes: (1) The need for improved guidance on the use of HRA methods generally and for specific applications. (2) The need for additional training in HRA to provide more hands-on experience in the application of HRA methods. (3) Thedevelopment of HRA approaches suitable for advanced reactors, severe accident situations, and low-power and shutdown applications. (4) The refinement of HRA methods to account forfactors such as crew variability, latent errors, more sophisticated dependency modeling, and errors of commission. (5) The continued need for simplified HRA methods appropriate for field applications. (6) The need for tighter coupling of HRA and human factors. (7) The need for improvements in the quantitative basis of HRA methods. These findings suggest the field of HRA is mature but still benefits from refinements.

  7. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: Human subjects research – are more standards needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David T; Hadian, Mehrnaz

    2006-01-01

    There are many controversial issues surrounding ethics in study design and conduct of human subjects research. In this review we briefly touch on the origin of ethics in clinical research and how the current regulations and standards came into practice. We then discuss current controversies regarding informed consent, conflicts of interest, institutional review boards, and other relevant issues such as innovative procedures and quality improvement projects. The question of whether we need more standards is a very important yet challenging one to which there is no simple answer. We address this question by reviewing and commenting on relevant literature. We conclude that what is needed are not more standards per se, but rather refinement and uniformity of current standards, and their interpretation and application both to protect human subjects and to advance medicine. PMID:17184560

  9. Bench-to-bedside review: human subjects research--are more standards needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David T; Hadian, Mehrnaz

    2006-01-01

    There are many controversial issues surrounding ethics in study design and conduct of human subjects research. In this review we briefly touch on the origin of ethics in clinical research and how the current regulations and standards came into practice. We then discuss current controversies regarding informed consent, conflicts of interest, institutional review boards, and other relevant issues such as innovative procedures and quality improvement projects. The question of whether we need more standards is a very important yet challenging one to which there is no simple answer. We address this question by reviewing and commenting on relevant literature. We conclude that what is needed are not more standards per se, but rather refinement and uniformity of current standards, and their interpretation and application both to protect human subjects and to advance medicine.

  10. Comparing immediate-type food allergy in humans and companion animals-revealing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pali-Schöll, I; De Lucia, M; Jackson, H; Janda, J; Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2017-11-01

    Adverse food reactions occur in human as well as veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in both. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on immediate-type food allergy vs other food adverse reactions in companion animals, and compare this to the human situation. While the prevalence of food allergy in humans has been well studied for some allergens, this remains to be investigated for animal patients, where owner-reported as well as veterinarian-diagnosed food adverse reactions are on the increase. The characteristics of the disease in humans vs dogs, cats, and horses are most often caused by similar, but sometimes species-dependent different pathophysiological mechanisms, prompting the specific clinical symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments. Furthermore, little is known about the allergen molecules causative for type I food allergy in animals, which, like in human patients, could represent predictive biomarkers for risk evaluation. The definite diagnosis of food allergy relies-as in humans-on elimination diet and provocation tests. Besides allergen avoidance in daily practice, novel treatment options and tolerization strategies are underway. Taken together, numerous knowledge gaps were identified in veterinary food allergy, which need to be filled by systematic comparative studies. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Humanizing Aggregated Data: Developing Personas to Prioritize User Needs for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; Sellnow, D. D.; Given, D. D.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Methods that use storytelling to gather and synthesize data from people can be advantageous in understanding user needs and designing successful communication products. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we research and prioritize user needs for the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/), drawing on best practices from social and behavioral science, risk communication, and human-centered design. We apply quantitative and qualitative human data collection methods including user surveys, interviews, journey maps, personas, and scenarios. Human-centered design methods leverage storytelling (a) in the acquisition of qualitative behavioral data (e.g. with journey mapping), (b) through goal-driven behaviors and needs that are synthesized into a persona as a composite model of the data, and (c) within context scenarios (the story plot or projected circumstances) in which the persona is placed in context to inform the design of relevant and usable products or services. ShakeAlert, operated by the USGS and partners, has transitioned into a production prototype phase in which users are permitted to begin testing pilot implementations to take protective actions in response to an earthquake alert. While a subset of responses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications of the technology will alert individuals by broadcast, public address, or mobile device notifications and require self-protective behavioral decisions (e.g., "Drop, Cover, and Hold On"). To better understand ShakeAlert user decisions and needs, we use human-centered design methods to synthesize aggregated behavioral data into "personas," which model the common behavioral patterns that can be used to guide plans for the ShakeAlert interface, messaging, and training. We present user data, methods, and resulting personas that will inform decisions moving forward to shape ShakeAlert messaging and training that will be most usable by alert recipients.

  12. IAEA scientific forum to focus on nuclear technology's role in serving human needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Science and technology's critical role in eradicating famine and disease - among the root causes of global instability - was addressed by some of the world's leading experts at an IAEA forum in Vienna, 18-19 September. The meeting underlined the contribution of nuclear science and technology to sustainable development and the betterment of human welfare and stressed the need for the world's wealthiest nations to give it more support

  13. Human Gongylonema pulchrum Infection: Esophageal Symptoms and Need for Prolonged Albendazole Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertin, Claudia R; Reza, Mohammed; Peterson, Joy H; Lewis, Jason; Hata, D Jane

    2017-04-01

    AbstractWe describe a case of human infection with Gongylonema pulchrum acquired in southeast Georgia. The patient presented with intermittent yet persistent nausea and vomiting for months. This case describes the need for extraction of worms on two occasions each followed by courses of albendazole treatment. Gongylonema pulchrum infections with high worm burden may relapse after extraction of the worm and a 3-day short course of albendazole therapy. Longer courses of albendazole may be indicated in selected circumstances.

  14. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1982-06-01

    There seems to be a trend towards expecting energy conservation to be a panacea for the world's ills. In fact, a global perspective on energy needs shows that more, not less, energy is needed and technological innovation in energy sources is essential in order to meet the needs of more than just the developed countries. Energy-intensive technology is the amplification of our natural resources rather than their depletion. A fundamental bioethical principle must be established if we are to analyze and organize scientific evidence about hazards from currently feasible energy resources, and separate genuine from counterfeit claims to credibility. In particular, public fears about radiation hazards and radioactive waste disposal are influenced too much by rhetorical cleverness and forensic skills of a vociferous minority. Potential hazard management is ethically equitable only if it is proportioned to actual basic harm that can be identified and reduced by expenditures of human effort, time and money

  15. Walisongo’s Educational Leadership through Modelling and Fulfilment of Human Basic Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Hasan Susanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to trace the Walisongo’s (the Nine Saints leadership model that is often considered successful in Islamizing the Javanese community in a relatively short time and almost without conflict. Through the literature search using analytic descriptive, this study brings the conclusion that based on the conventional leadership model division, the Walisongo’s leadership can be categorized into transformational leadership with characteristics capable of fostering the trust, pride, loyalty and respect of Javanese society. In addition, the Walisongo's leadership also conforms to the characteristics proposed by Tobroni, which include spiritual leadership, with characteristics based on the divine aspect, done with honesty and sincerely, drawing public sympathy and mobilizing them to follow the Walisongo’s teachings. This research also produces a finding that the success of Walisongo in educating the people of Java is due to their concern on the efforts to meet the basic needs of the society and provide models to follow.

  16. "We need a mechanism to report abuses of women's human rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the only instrument protecting the human rights of women at the international level. However, even if the convention was the best possible women's human rights documentation, there was no mechanism for reporting the abuses. The women's movement has long been pressing for the approval of the mechanism like the Optional Protocol, because they believe that the Protocol would fulfill the need in allowing the individual and collective accusations of human rights abuses. It means that a woman or a group of women can go to the committee and denounce an action as discriminatory. The committee can only receive reports and make recommendations, whereas having a Protocol would allow the committee to direct complaints, be able to investigate them, and make more specific recommendations. Those countries ratifying the CEDAW don't automatically agree to the Protocol, thus it is the country's discretion to either comply with the Protocol or not. There are also those who are against the Protocol and claim ironically that an Optional Protocol for Political and Civil rights already exists. But such mechanisms do not work for women's rights. What is most needed now is to lobby all national delegations to push the 5th Commission of the United Nations' General Assembly to approve the budget for the protocol.

  17. The care dependency scale for measuring basic human needs: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Muszalik, Marta; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Suzuki, Mizue

    2012-10-01

    To report a study conducted to compare the utility of the care dependency scale across four countries. The care dependency scale provides a framework for assessing the needs of institutionalized patients for nursing care. Henderson's components of nursing care have been used to specify the variable aspects of the concept of care dependency and to develop the care dependency scale items. The study used a cross-cultural survey design. Patients were recruited from four different countries: Japan, The Netherlands, Poland and Turkey. In each of the participating countries, basic human needs were assessed by nurses using a translated version of the original Dutch care dependency scale. Psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity of the care dependency scale have been assessed using Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, inter-item correlation and principal components analysis. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009. High internal consistency values were demonstrated. Principal component analysis confirmed the one-factor model reported in earlier studies. Outcomes confirm Henderson's idea that human needs are fundamental appearing in every patient-nurse relationship, independent of the patient's age, the type of care setting and/or cultural background. The psychometric characteristics of the care dependency scale make this instrument very useful for comparative research across countries. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. MAKING THE NEIGHBOURHOOD A BETTER PLACE TO LIVE. A SWB APPROACH IMPLEMENTING FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Anna Papachristou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being (SWB studies have been at the centre of researchers’ attention during the last years. With the majority of people now living in cities, the necessity for a more anthropocentric approach for the study and betterment of urban environments is constantly increasing. In this sense, defining and measuring SWB in urban contexts can be of particular benefit in urban design and planning processes. In this article, a method for measuring SWB for urban places based on the accomplishment of the fundamental human needs is presented and applied at a neighbourhood of Barcelona; that of Vila de Gràcia. For the measurement, a survey was constructed based on the specific geographical and socio-economic characteristics of the study case. Retrieved from Max-Neef’s Human Scale Development Paradigm (Max-Neef et al. 1991, human needs correspond to the domains of study of the suggested method. The matching of the survey’s questions to each need is the outcome of two consecutive processes: a first qualitative one, involving the work of an expert group, and a second quantitative one, involving the definition of weights among the questions that affect the same need. Although the final result is positive (although low for this study case, results for each need show considerable differences in their level of accomplishment. At the same time people seem to truly believe that most of their feelings are affected by their living environment, with stress and calmness leading the list. In summary, the method defines and applies a simple tool to quantify and evaluate current levels of SWB at different urban scales and to determine more holistic urban indexes in order to improve decision making processes, policies and plans. The classification of the questions per need favours the identification of a potential problem at the urban grid and consequently can be used as a process for implementing related measures of improvement. The method can also be seen

  19. Application of the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene to the role of the clinician : part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M M; Darby, M

    1993-01-01

    In summary, the theories of Maslow and of Yura and Walsh have been highlighted as background for understanding the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene. In addition, 11 human needs have been identified and defined as being especially related to dental hygiene care, and a sample evaluation tool for their clinical assessment and a dental hygiene care plan have been presented. The four concepts of client, environment, health/oral health, and dental hygiene actions explained in terms of human need theory, and the 11 human needs related to dental hygiene care constitute the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene. Within the framework of the human needs conceptual model of dental hygiene, the dental hygiene process is a systematic approach to dental hygiene care that involves assessment of the 11 human needs related to dental hygiene care; analysis of deficits in these needs; determination of the dental hygiene care plan based on identified deficits; implementation of dental hygiene interventions stated in the care plan; and evaluation of the effectiveness of dental hygiene interventions in achieving specific goals, including subsequent reassessment and revision of the dental hygiene care plan. This human needs conceptual model for dental hygiene provides a guide for comprehensive and humanistic client care. This model allows the dental hygienist to view each client (whether an individual or a group) holistically to prevent oral disease and to promote health and wellness. Dental hygiene theorists are encouraged to expand this model or to develop additional conceptual models based on dental hygiene's paradigm.

  20. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  1. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Human capital needs - teaching, training and coordination for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retegan, T.; Ekberg, C. [Department of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); John, J. [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Nordlund, A. [Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Human capital is the accumulation of competencies, knowledge, social and creativity skills and personality attributes, which are necessary to perform work so as to produce economic value. In the frame of the nuclear fuel cycle, this is of paramount importance that the right human capital exists and in Europe this is fostered by a series of integrated or directed projects. The teaching, training and coordination will be discussed in the frame of University curricula with examples from several programs, like e.g. the Master of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University, Sweden and two FP7 EURATOM Projects: CINCH - a project for cooperation in nuclear chemistry - and ASGARD - a research project on advanced or novel nuclear fuels and their reprocessing issues for generation IV reactors. The integration of the university curricula in the market needs but also the anchoring in the research and future fuel cycles will be also discussed, with examples from the ASGARD project. (authors)

  3. [Association between types of need, human development index, and infant mortality in Mexico, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe; López-Arellano, Oliva

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between different types of economic and social deprivation and infant mortality rates reported in 2008 in Mexico. We conducted an ecological study analyzing the correlation and relative risk between the human development index and levels of social and economic differences in State and national infant mortality rates. There was a strong correlation between higher human development and lower infant mortality. Low schooling and poor housing and crowding were associated with higher infant mortality. Although infant mortality has declined dramatically in Mexico over the last 28 years, the decrease has not been homogeneous, and there are persistent inequalities that determine mortality rates in relation to different poverty levels. Programs with a multidisciplinary approach are needed to decrease infant mortality rates through comprehensive individual and family development.

  4. Human capital needs - teaching, training and coordination for nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retegan, T.; Ekberg, C.; John, J.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-01-01

    Human capital is the accumulation of competencies, knowledge, social and creativity skills and personality attributes, which are necessary to perform work so as to produce economic value. In the frame of the nuclear fuel cycle, this is of paramount importance that the right human capital exists and in Europe this is fostered by a series of integrated or directed projects. The teaching, training and coordination will be discussed in the frame of University curricula with examples from several programs, like e.g. the Master of Nuclear Engineering at Chalmers University, Sweden and two FP7 EURATOM Projects: CINCH - a project for cooperation in nuclear chemistry - and ASGARD - a research project on advanced or novel nuclear fuels and their reprocessing issues for generation IV reactors. The integration of the university curricula in the market needs but also the anchoring in the research and future fuel cycles will be also discussed, with examples from the ASGARD project. (authors)

  5. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  6. Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  7. Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Stacey; Jakobowitz, Sharon; Abas, Melanie; Bick, Debra; Howard, Louise M; Stanley, Nicky; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Sian

    2016-07-29

    Despite the multiple physical and psychological health consequences associated with human trafficking, there is little evidence-based guidance available for health providers on assessing and meeting the health needs of trafficked people. We aimed to review literature that provided guidance or research on care provision for people who had been trafficked. We conducted a systematic review and qualitative analysis of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Data sources included electronic databases, reference list screening, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. Documents were included if they reported on: 1) male or females (adults or children) who were currently or had previously been trafficked; 2) health interventions or service provision; 3) primary, secondary, tertiary or specialist post-trafficking services; and 4) World Bank high income countries. Two reviewers independently screened and quality appraised documents. Framework analysis was used to analyse extracted data. Forty-four documents were included, 19 of which reported findings of primary studies and nine of which exclusively addressed children. Evidence to inform the identification, referral and care of trafficked people is extremely limited. Within current literature on survivor identification, key indicators included signs of physical and sexual abuse, absence of documentation, and being accompanied by a controlling companion. Findings highlighted the importance of interviewing possible victims in private, using professional interpreters, and building trust. For provision of care, key themes included the importance of comprehensive needs assessments, adhering to principles of trauma-informed care, and cultural sensitivity. Further prominent themes were the necessity of multi-agency working strategies and well-defined referral pathways. Human trafficking survivors require healthcare that is trauma-informed and culturally sensitive to their particular needs. Coordination is needed between health

  8. Evaluation of Human Resource Needs for a New Nuclear Power Plant: Armenian Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    Rising expectations of an increased role for nuclear power in providing energy for future national and global sustainable development have become a reality in many Member States of the IAEA. Over the last several years, dozens of Member States have announced plans to embark on or expand nuclear power programmes. Reflecting on these developments, the IAEA has adjusted its priorities to focus more on the nuclear power programmes of newcomers. Specifically, the IAEA has produced publications providing guidance on the development of a national infrastructure for nuclear power (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1) and on managing human resources in the field of nuclear energy (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-2.1). Additionally, assistance to eligible Member States through new technical cooperation (TC) projects has been increased, including direct support through on-site assist visits. In 2007-2008, the IAEA carried out a TC project titled 'Feasibility study of nuclear energy development in Armenia: Evaluation of human resource needs in conjunction with new NPP build' (ARM-005). The project analysed the human resource demands required to support work at all stages of the life cycle of a new power unit planned for Armenia. This included drafting proposals for the means, conditions and requirements for development of human resource capabilities needed to carry out the work. This report is intended to complement the previous IAEA publications by providing an in-depth technical consideration into this critical area of human resource development. The report summarizes major findings of the TC project and details the tasks linked to management of the human resources that will be required by a country planning to build a new NPP. Additional guidance on the development of a national nuclear infrastructure can be found in the IAEA publication 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power', IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1. The

  9. Ergonomics/Human Factors Needs of an Ageing Workforce in the Manufacturing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Stedmon, Alex; Howells, Hannah; R. Wilson, John; Dianat, Iman

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work¬ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) pers¬pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen’s framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored. Results: There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers. Conclusion: Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs. PMID:24688925

  10. Ergonomics/Human Factors Needs of an Ageing Workforce in the Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex W. Stedmon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work-ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force.Methods: This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF pers-pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen’s framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored.Results: There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers.Conclusion: Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  11. Ergonomics/Human factors needs of an ageing workforce in the manufacturing sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Stedmon, Alex; Howells, Hannah; R Wilson, John; Dianat, Iman

    2012-01-01

    As the effects of demographic transition are realised around the world, many in-dustrial societies are facing the effects of a baby boom generation, increased life expectancies, decreased birth rates and recent changes to retirement legislation with the result that older work¬ers are set to comprise a greater proportion of the labour force. This paper reviews the evidence for the physical and cognitive factors that characterise an ageing workforce in manufacturing. From an ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) pers¬pective, characteristics of manufacturing tasks and the effects of ageing provide an insight into how the industry will have to adapt to support the user needs of the older worker in the future. The approach taken is drawn from Ilmarinen's framework of age, experience, and work performance, from which specific E/HF issues are explored. There would appear to potential to support physical decline in older workers within manufacturing jobs through increased mechanisation and automation; however, those factors associated with cognitive human factors are less clear. Increased mechanisation and automation can place greater loads and demands on the older worker where cognitive decline is more subtle and varied between workers. Using historical and contemporary findings and the relationship between age, experience, and work performance is redrawn to include both cognitive skills and physical attributes to provide recommendations for future job design and worker needs.

  12. 76 FR 12963 - Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-007): Needs and Approaches for Assessing the Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-007): Needs and Approaches for Assessing the Human Health Impacts of Exposure to Mixtures AGENCY: National Institutes of... analyzes its findings to assess potential hazards to human health from exposure to environmental substances...

  13. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  14. Human resource needs and development for the gas industry of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas industry will confront many challenges in the 1990s and beyond, one of which is the development of human resources to meet future needs. An efficient, trained work force in this era of environmental concern, high technology, and alternative fuels is essential for the industry to continue to meet the competition and to safely deliver our product and service to all customers. Unfortunately, during this period there will be an increasing shortfall of technical personnel to replace those lost to attrition and a steady decline in the availability of new employees who are able to read, write, and perform simple math. Technological and government developments that will impact the industry and the skill levels needed by the industry employees are reviewed. In-house and external training of professional and nonprofessional personnel and the benefits and disadvantages of selected advanced training methods are discussed. Recommendations are presented that can help improve the training of gas industry employees to meet future needs. 22 refs

  15. Advancing the human rights of children with communication needs in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Aoife L; Tancredi, Haley; Graham, Linda J

    2018-02-01

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. However, due to difficulties in communicating, children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) are at particular risk of not being heard. Although it is recommended that children with SLCN can and should be actively involved as equal partners in decision-making about their communication needs, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can lose sight of the importance of supporting communication as a tool for the child to shape and influence choices available to them in their lives. Building these skills is particularly important for SLPs working in mainstream educational contexts. In this commentary, the authors argue the need for a shift in emphasis in current practice to a rights-based approach and for SLPs to take more of an active role in supporting children with SLCN to develop agency and be heard. We also present some concepts and frameworks that might guide SLPs to work in a right-based way in schools with this population.

  16. The Importance of Human Needs during Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: University Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Tang, Theresa Li-Na

    The importance of human needs during the retrospective peacetime in 1990 and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 was examined among 564 college students in the United States. Results of factor analyses showed that during peacetime, two factors (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified. During the war, all needs were rated as more important and…

  17. Indonesia's present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, Jeni; Sagala, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    BATAN, started out as a governmental committee established in 1954, has a new organizational structure, based on Presidential Decree of 1998. BATAN has developed its researches in almost practically all-nuclear fields. The situation in Indonesia has been much influenced by the economic crisis, which still being faced by Indonesia. BATAN's strategic planning is described in four areas, those are: 1. Basic human needs, 2. Energy, natural resources and environment, 3. Industry, 4. Socio-cultural and institution. Priority has been given to fulfill, as well as to promote agriculture, health and the industry related to people's welfare, which may develop and improve the immediate needs of the people. In the meantime, we have made considerable investments in manpower development in anticipation of the introduction of nuclear power. BATAN, as of September 1999, has 3889 employees, 26 % of them have bachelor degree, 6 % hold master degrees, and only 2% hold doctoral degree, a total of 34 % employees with university education. Others 11 % have either non-vocational or vocational education beyond High School. The rest of 55 % have high school education or lower, they are administrative clerks (25 %) or technicians (30 %). In the human resources development, BATAN's Education and Training Center, in collaboration with some universities and other national/international institutions, is managing education and training programs for employees. To date, there are 43 BATAN employees studying in various universities in Japan, while another 42 employees are studying in six different countries. Research and Development that have more direct impact to the community will become a priority in the coming years. Without undermining the importance of basic research in advanced fields, we will expect to have more research on application to optimize utilization of research reactors and related facilities for the benefit of both the energy and non-energy sectors. (Tanaka, Y.)

  18. Defining, Measuring, and Incentivizing Sustainable Land Use to Meet Human Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Brady, M. V.; Olin, S.; Ekroos, J.; Hall, M.; Seaquist, J. W.; Lehsten, V.; Smith, H.

    2016-12-01

    Land is a natural capital that supports the flow of an enormous amount of ecosystem services critical to human welfare. Sustainable land use, which we define as land use that meets both current and future human needs for ecosystem services, is essential to meet global goals for climate mitigation and sustainable development, while maintaining natural capital. However, it is not clear what governance is needed to achieve sustainable land use under multiple goals (as defined by the values of relevant decision-makers and land managers), particularly under climate change. Here we develop a conceptual model for examining the interactions and tradeoffs among multiple goals, as well as their spatial interactions (teleconnections), in research developed using Design Thinking principles. We have selected five metrics for provisioning (food production, and fiber production for wood and energy), regulating and maintenance (climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation), and cultural (heritage) ecosystem services. Using the case of Sweden, we estimate indicators for these metrics using a combination of existing data synthesis and process-based simulation modeling. We also develop and analyze new indicators (e.g., combining data on land use, bird conservation status, and habitat specificity to make a predictive model of bird diversity changes on agricultural or forested land). Our results highlight both expected tradeoffs (e.g., between food production and biodiversity conservation) as well as unexpected opportunities for synergies under different land management scenarios and strategies. Our model also provides a practical way to make decision-maker values explicit by comparing both quantity and preferences for bundles of ecosystem services under various scenarios. We hope our model will help in considering competing interests and shaping economic incentives and governance structures to meet national targets in support of global goals for sustainable management of land

  19. Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines why fundamental freedoms are so unevenly distributed across the earth. Climato-economic theorizing proposes that humans adapt needs, stresses, and choices of goals, means, and outcomes to the livability of their habitat. The evolutionary process at work is one of collectively meeting climatic demands of cold winters or hot summers by using monetary resources. Freedom is expected to be lowest in poor populations threatened by demanding thermal climates, intermediate in populations comforted by undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head, and highest in rich populations challenged by demanding thermal climates. This core hypothesis is supported with new survey data across 85 countries and 15 Chinese provinces and with a reinterpretative review of results of prior studies comprising 174 countries and the 50 states in the United States. Empirical support covers freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of expression and participation, freedom from discrimination, and freedom to develop and realize one's human potential. Applying the theory to projections of temperature and income for 104 countries by 2112 forecasts that (a) poor populations in Asia, perhaps except Afghans and Pakistanis, will move up the international ladder of freedom, (b) poor populations in Africa will lose, rather than gain, relative levels of freedom unless climate protection and poverty reduction prevent this from happening, and (c) several rich populations will be challenged to defend current levels of freedom against worsening climato-economic livability.

  20. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  1. A new workforce in the making? A case study of strategic human resource management in a whole-system change effort in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Greenhalgh, Trish; Humphrey, Charlotte; Hughes, Jane; Butler, Ceri; Pawson, Ray

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to describe the exploration of human resource issues in one large-scale program of innovation in healthcare. It is informed by established theories of management in the workplace and a multi-level model of diffusion of innovations. A realist approach was used based on interviews, ethnographic observation and documentary analysis. Five main approaches ("theories of change") were adopted to develop and support the workforce: recruiting staff with skills in service transformation; redesigning roles and creating new roles; enhancing workforce planning; linking staff development to service needs; creating opportunities for shared learning and knowledge exchange. Each had differing levels of success. The paper includes HR implications for the modernisation of a complex service organisation. This is the first time a realist evaluation of a complex health modernisation initiative has been undertaken.

  2. Complexity of Complement Resistance Factors Expressed by Acinetobacter baumannii Needed for Survival in Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larrayoz, Amaro F; Elhosseiny, Noha M; Chevrette, Marc G; Fu, Yang; Giunta, Peter; Spallanzani, Raúl G; Ravi, Keerthikka; Pier, Gerald B; Lory, Stephen; Maira-Litrán, Tomás

    2017-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A. baumannii serum resistance, a transposon (Tn) sequencing (Tn-seq) approach was used to identify genes contributing to this trait. An ordered Tn library in strain AB5075 with insertions in every nonessential gene was subjected to selection in NHS. We identified 50 genes essential for the survival of A. baumannii in NHS, including already known serum resistance factors, and many novel genes not previously associated with serum resistance. This latter group included the maintenance of lipid asymmetry genetic pathway as a key determinant in protecting A. baumannii from the bactericidal activity of NHS via the alternative complement pathway. Follow-up studies validated the role of eight additional genes identified by Tn-seq in A. baumannii resistance to killing by NHS but not by normal mouse serum, highlighting the human species specificity of A. baumannii serum resistance. The identification of a large number of genes essential for serum resistance in A. baumannii indicates the degree of complexity needed for this phenotype, which might reflect a general pattern that pathogens rely on to cause serious infections. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Generating human resources in nuclear engineering in India: need of the hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Prateep

    2010-01-01

    With the fast growth of energy requirement scenario, particularly, in India with limited dependence on fossil power and increased emphasis on green power we have lots of nuclear power plant and associated projects in pipeline. This requires enormous human resources trained and qualified in nuclear engineering who will be engaged in all aspects of nuclear plant projects right from conceptualization, design, construction, development, operation, maintenance till decommissioning. As on today, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in Government of India is almost the only agency catering to this need. DAE grooms graduate engineers from various disciplines and postgraduates from sciences, specially, Physics and Chemistry. But, it takes enough financial resources and full 1-year duration past graduation from Indian Government. Even after imparting training to these freshly recruited DAE employees, sizeable chunk of the population quit DAE for better prospect such as higher studies abroad, management studies, IT profession etc. Also, the people trained in nuclear engineering are fewer in number than required and the gap would be increasingly large as time progresses and increasing number of nuclear plants would be constructed/operational. Comparatively larger number of engineering graduates currently produced in India are in Computer Engineering/Information Technology rather than in conventional disciplines like Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering. This poses another problem of orienting/motivating the manpower in nuclear fields. Considering these problems the author proposes to produce and develop nuclear engineering graduates directly in the academic institutions which will help the nation in reducing the gap between the increasing demand of manpower in view of large number of nuclear plants in the pipeline and the availability of the nuclear engineers. Even large number of industries related to manufacturing and consultancy also

  4. Two-dose strategies for human papillomavirus vaccination: how well do they need to protect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Laprise, Jean-François; Boily, Marie-Claude; Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc

    2014-05-30

    Two-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine schedules may provide short-term protection but their long-term population impact is unknown. Two models of HPV transmission and associated cervical disease (squamous and glandular, neoplasia and cancer) were fitted to data from England and Canada on HPV epidemiology, sexual behaviour, cervical screening outcomes and cervical cancer incidence. Models suggest that at 40-80% coverage, if two-dose schedules protect vaccinees for 20 years, then the benefits of the third dose are small. If two doses protect for 10 years, then the third dose may prevent as many cancers as the first two. At 80% coverage, numbers needed to receive a third dose to prevent an additional cancer are 5900-110,000 (England), 3000-5100 (Canada) with 20 years two-dose protection, and 2000-5300 (England), 760-950 (Canada) with 10 years two-dose protection. Results enable decision makers to quantify risks associated with two-dose schedules despite remaining uncertainties in vaccine duration and cross-protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  6. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  7. Preparing for the future: Higher education meeting environmental restoration and waste management human resource needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlpart, Alfred

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has as its goal the elimination of risks from hazardous waste to human health and safety and the environment or the reduction of these risks to prescribed safe levels. The achievement of this goal requires the availability of sufficient and appropriately educated scientists, engineers, and technicians. A preliminary workforce needs assessment conducted for the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management in 1990 indicated that the technical workforce involved in ER/WM activities would grow by 50 to 70 percent by 1995. A more exhaustive assessment is currently underway. To ensure the availability of the necessary human resources, the Office has initiated a series of education programs. The programs designed for the college/university levels are expected to increase the number of students pursuing associate, baccalaureate, and advanced degrees in ER/WM relevant science and engineering disciplines and to initiate research and training in technical areas supportive of the ER/WM mission. The ER/WM Scholarship program provides scholarships to undergraduate students pursuing science and engineering degrees at designated two- and four-year academic institutions. Fifty-four four-year and six two-year institutions are involved. The ER/WM Fellowship program supports graduate study and research at designated academic institutions in specified science and engineering disciplines or in interdisciplinary programs, Thirty graduate students are pursuing advanced degrees in disciplines supportive of the ER/WM mission at 14 different academic institutions. Scholars and fellows are required to spend one summer at a DOE facility participating in ongoing ER/WM projects. The fellowship and scholarship programs are expected to create a pool of appropriately educated professionals ready to enter the workforce and contribute to the DOE mission. To ensure the full

  8. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, Corazon C.; Roceles, Pilar C. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    2000-12-01

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will

  9. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Corazon C.; Roceles, Pilar C.

    2000-01-01

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will be

  10. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  11. Need for a gender-sensitive human security framework: results of a quantitative study of human security and sexual violence in Djohong District, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen Kaur; Agrawal, Pooja; Goyal, Ravi; Scott, Jennifer; Greenough, P Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Human security shifts traditional concepts of security from interstate conflict and the absence of war to the security of the individual. Broad definitions of human security include livelihoods and food security, health, psychosocial well-being, enjoyment of civil and political rights and freedom from oppression, and personal safety, in addition to absence of conflict. In March 2010, we undertook a population-based health and livelihood study of female refugees from conflict-affected Central African Republic living in Djohong District, Cameroon and their female counterparts within the Cameroonian host community. Embedded within the survey instrument were indicators of human security derived from the Leaning-Arie model that defined three domains of psychosocial stability suggesting individuals and communities are most stable when their core attachments to home, community and the future are intact. While the female refugee human security outcomes describe a population successfully assimilated and thriving in their new environments based on these three domains, the ability of human security indicators to predict the presence or absence of lifetime and six-month sexual violence was inadequate. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the study demonstrates that common human security indicators do not uncover either lifetime or recent prevalence of sexual violence. These data suggest that current gender-blind approaches of describing human security are missing serious threats to the safety of one half of the population and that efforts to develop robust human security indicators should include those that specifically measure violence against women.

  12. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100) with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (χ2 = 7.447, P illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (χ2 = 13.266, P < 0.004), not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (χ2 = 21.133, P < 0.00) and called with filthy nicknames (χ2 = 8.334, P < 0.040), were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (χ2 = 9.459, P < 0.024), were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (χ2 = 9.823, P < 0.044). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness. PMID:26167021

  13. Does education plays a role in meeting the human rights needs of Indian women with mental illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally women are one of the vulnerable populations and women without education and with mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: To find out the role of education in meeting the human rights needs of women with mental illness at family and community levels. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design was carried out among randomly selected recovered women (N = 100 with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that human rights needs in physical needs dimension, i.e. access to safe drinking water (c2 = 7.447, P < 0.059 and serving in the same utensils (c2 = 10.866, P < 0.012, were rated higher in women with illiteracy. The human rights needs in emotional dimension, i.e. afraid of family members (c2 = 13.266, P < 0.004, not involved in making decisions regarding family matters (c2 = 21.133, P < 0.00 and called with filthy nicknames (c2 = 8.334, P < 0.040, were rated higher in literate women. The human rights needs in religious needs dimension, i.e. allowed to go to temple, church, mosque etc. (c2 = 9.459, P < 0.024, were not satisfied by the illiterate women. Similarly, literate women felt that they were discriminated by community members due to their illness (c2 = 9.823, P < 0.044. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that women without education were more deprived of human rights needs than literate women. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve literacy of women and to strengthen the legal framework to protect the rights of the women with mental illness.

  14. Do we need sustainability as a new approach in human factors and ergonomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.

  15. Using a Functional Architecture to Identify Human-Automation Trust Needs and Design Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    example, Parasuraman cites a study performed by Muir (1988) on the use of an automated aid to control a simulated beverage manufacturing plant (1997, 236...human trust are developed from a literature review covering theory and empirical studies that have investigated the importance of human trust in...The factors that affect human trust are developed from a literature review covering theory and empirical studies that have investigated the

  16. Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

    The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…

  17. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  18. Human Resources Development and Career Development: Where Are We, and Where Do We Need to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; McDonald, Kim; Rocco, Tonette S.; Byrd, Marilyn; Dawes, Elliott

    2018-01-01

    At the 2017 meeting of the Academy of Human Resource Development Annual Town Hall, four scholars discussed their diverse outlooks on the research and practice of career development in the Human Resource Development field. What follows in this curated collection of voices is a look into the perspective of each person who spoke at the 2017 Town Hall…

  19. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (χ (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (χ (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres.

  20. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® Vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  1. HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...

  2. Emerging Concepts for Integrating Human and Environmental Water Needs in River Basin Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petts, Geoff; Kennedy, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The key to successful water and river management is the advancement of holistic approaches that seek to benefit human societies by sustaining the full range of resources created by rivers, including...

  3. FOREIGN LANGUAGES: Human Capital Approach Needed to Correct Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The government also employs tens of thousands of individuals who use foreign language skills in positions such as cryptologic linguists, human intelligence collectors,4 FBI special agents and legal...

  4. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  5. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ge; Segura, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  6. The Humanities as a Public Good and the Need for Developing Accountability Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Stampe Lund

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present political and economic context of the humanities is more demanding than ever in regards to its justification, social impact and evaluation of research activities. These processes call for an updated understanding of the situation and a prudent counter-strategy that, in a best-case scenario, could result in appreciation opportunities that have thus far been neglected. This article contributes to a differentiation of these grand challenges at three levels: (1 Improved understanding of the policy agenda: The humanities, like other research disciplines, still have to map the full picture of all opportunities in funding policies. The EU’s framework programs could be one example of a funding system that contains inclusive mechanisms that have not yet been fully discovered. (2 Research management in the humanities: To benefit the most from those identified inclusive mechanisms, the humanistic disciplines have to develop better and more sophisticated research management tools for their projects and improve their strategic planning and capacity. (3 The humanities as public good: The humanities represent one of the greatest cultural resources of humankind. The task is to make this as explicit and clear as possible to the general public through the explanatory power of the main categories, including recognition, judgment, experience, wisdom and common sense, which mirror some of the most important historical and cultural experiences of human history.

  7. The Human Brain Does Not Need High Levels of Motivation to Learn a Foreign Language: Motivation Has Had Its Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Language is nature in action and something humans do. This literature review presents evidence from the literature that suggests that learning a foreign language in a classroom situation does not require high levels of student motivation. It is instead suggested that high levels of motivation are needed to make progress when a teacher is using…

  8. 31 CFR 500.573 - Certain donations of funds and goods to meet basic human needs authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain donations of funds and goods to meet basic human needs authorized. 500.573 Section 500.573 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  9. FOREIGN LANGUAGES: Human Capital Approach Needed to Correct Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Although more than 70 federal agencies have foreign language needs, some of the largest programs are concentrated in the Army, the State Department, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Federal...

  10. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  11. Maslow's hierarchy of needs: a framework for achieving human potential in hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalenski, Robert J; Raspa, Richard

    2006-10-01

    Although the widespread implementation of hospice in the United States has led to tremendous advances in the care of the dying, there has been no widely accepted psychological theory to drive needs assessment and intervention design for the patient and family. The humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow, especially his theory of motivation and the hierarchy of needs, has been widely applied in business and social science, but only sparsely discussed in the palliative care literature. In this article we review Maslow's original hierarchy, adapt it to hospice and palliative care, apply the adaptation to a case example, and then discuss its implications for patient care, education, and research. The five levels of the hierarchy of needs as adapted to palliative care are: (1) distressing symptoms, such as pain or dyspnea; (2) fears for physical safety, of dying or abandonment; (3) affection, love and acceptance in the face of devastating illness; (4) esteem, respect, and appreciation for the person; (5) selfactualization and transcendence. Maslow's modified hierarchy of palliative care needs could be utilized to provide a comprehensive approach for the assessment of patients' needs and the design of interventions to achieve goals that start with comfort and potentially extend to the experience of transcendence.

  12. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  13. A brief history of soils and human health work and needs for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 B.C. the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 B.C. the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered ...

  14. Balancing the needs and preferences of humans against concerns for fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kadri, S.

    2009-01-01

    How can stakeholders within the fisheries community engage in constructive ethical discussions? Drawing on experiences from previous debates surrounding the human use of animals, this paper presents a proactive approach whereby stakeholders can create a framework for ethical discussion of capture...

  15. Interactive machine learning for health informatics: when do we need the human-in-the-loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning (ML) is the fastest growing field in computer science, and health informatics is among the greatest challenges. The goal of ML is to develop algorithms which can learn and improve over time and can be used for predictions. Most ML researchers concentrate on automatic machine learning (aML), where great advances have been made, for example, in speech recognition, recommender systems, or autonomous vehicles. Automatic approaches greatly benefit from big data with many training sets. However, in the health domain, sometimes we are confronted with a small number of data sets or rare events, where aML-approaches suffer of insufficient training samples. Here interactive machine learning (iML) may be of help, having its roots in reinforcement learning, preference learning, and active learning. The term iML is not yet well used, so we define it as "algorithms that can interact with agents and can optimize their learning behavior through these interactions, where the agents can also be human." This "human-in-the-loop" can be beneficial in solving computationally hard problems, e.g., subspace clustering, protein folding, or k-anonymization of health data, where human expertise can help to reduce an exponential search space through heuristic selection of samples. Therefore, what would otherwise be an NP-hard problem, reduces greatly in complexity through the input and the assistance of a human agent involved in the learning phase.

  16. Bridging future needs to todays companies' capabilities. competences of the new (human) engineer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr.Ir. Hay Geraedts; Dr. Ir. ing. C. Blokhuizen; Ir. M. Rutten; Ir. P. Leijten

    2001-01-01

    The Fontys University of professional Education, department of Mechanical Engineering, has started development of a new curriculum during the year 2000-2001, Human Mechanical Engineering (HME). Next to immersion of our students in actual technology practices, we aim to include for our students new

  17. Renal denervation and hypertension - The need to investigate unintended effects and neural control of the human kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisk, Olaf

    2017-05-01

    Increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is present in human and experimental forms of arterial hypertension. Experimental denervation studies showed that renal nerves contribute to the development of hypertension. Clinical trials provided equivocal results on the antihypertensive efficacy of renal denervation in patients spurring discussions on technical aspects of renal denervation and further research on the role of renal nerves for the regulation of kidney function as well as the pathophysiology of hypertension. This review summarizes recent findings on adrenoceptor expression and function in the human kidney, adrenoceptor-dependent regulation of sodium chloride transport in the distal nephron, experimental data on chronic RSNA and the development of high arterial pressure and consequences of renal denervation that may limit its antihypertensive efficacy. Future research needs to reduce the gap between our knowledge on neural control of renal function in animals vs. humans to facilitate translation of experimental animal data to humans. More experimental studies on the temporal relationship between RSNA and arterial pressure in the chronic setting are needed to better define the pathogenetic role of heightened RSNA in different forms of arterial hypertension in order to improve the rational basis for renal denervation in antihypertensive therapy. Finally, research on unintended consequences of renal denervation including but not limited to reinnervation and denervation supersensitivity needs to be intensified to further assess the potential of renal denervation to slow the progression of renal disease and hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  20. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  1. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  2. Human serum-derived protein removes the need for coating in defined human pluripotent stem cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Tamm, Christoffer; Schuster, Jens; Sobol, Maria; Forsberg, Lars; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Annerén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Reliable, scalable and time-efficient culture methods are required to fully realize the clinical and industrial applications of human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells. Here we present a completely defined, xeno-free medium that supports long-term propagation of hPS cells on uncoated tissue culture plastic. The medium consists of the Essential 8 (E8) formulation supplemented with inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), a human serum-derived protein, recently demonstrated to activate key pluripotency pathways in mouse PS cells. IαI efficiently induces attachment and long-term growth of both embryonic and induced hPS cell lines when added as a soluble protein to the medium at seeding. IαI supplementation efficiently supports adaptation of feeder-dependent hPS cells to xeno-free conditions, clonal growth as well as single-cell survival in the absence of Rho-associated kinase inhibitor (ROCKi). This time-efficient and simplified culture method paves the way for large-scale, high-throughput hPS cell culture, and will be valuable for both basic research and commercial applications. PMID:27405751

  3. Human aspirations, environmental care, and the much-needed World Decade of the Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    An editorial dealing with a world-wide need to support a common cause such as the maintenance of our biosphere as our home and planetary life-support is presented. The planned World Decade of the Biosphere which is intended to inform and educate people throughout the world about the biosphere and man's relationship to it is discussed. (KRM)

  4. Skill Needs and Human Resources Development in the Emerging Field of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert Mayfield

    2010-01-01

    Strong societal requirements and consumer acceptance are the driving force of nanotechnology development. The necessity for qualified experts and strong demand on education in the multi-, trans- and interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology is a logical consequence of this driving force. There is the need for a comprehensive national…

  5. Re-conceptualizing the International System: The Need for nsa Inclusion in the International Human Rights Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BALDA ASPIAZU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of nonstate actors in an international system that was created to deal mainly with state and not entities has allowed these actors considerable freedom from the accountability of their actions, especially in the realm of human rights. Both International Relations theory and International Law need to deal in an interdisciplinary manner to close this loophole in order to at least offer an incentive for nonstate actors to avoid further violations of human rights and humanitarian law in the future.

  6. Isocyanates and human health: Multi-stakeholder information needs and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, JE; Redlich, CA; Streicher, R; Pfahles-Hutchens, A; Hakkinen, PJ; Ellison, GL; Harber, P; Utell, M; Holland, J; Comai, A; White, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective Outline the knowledge gaps and research priorities identified by a broad-base of stakeholders involved in the planning and participation of an international conference and research agenda workshop on isocyanates and human health held in Potomac, Maryland in April 2013. Methods A multi-modal iterative approach was employed for data collection including pre-conference surveys, review of a 2001 consensus conference on isocyanates, oral and poster presentations, focused break-out sessions, panel discussions and post-conference research agenda workshop. Results Participants included representatives of consumer and worker health, health professionals, regulatory agencies, academic and industry scientists, labor, and trade associations. Conclusions Recommendations were summarized regarding knowledge gaps and research priorities in the following areas: worker and consumer exposures; toxicology, animal models, and biomarkers; human cancer risk; environmental exposure and monitoring; and respiratory epidemiology and disease, and occupational health surveillance. PMID:25563538

  7. Engaging Survivors of Human Trafficking: Complex Health Care Needs and Scarce Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Abigail M; Murphy, Jennifer A; Hidalgo, Jose; Macias-Konstantopoulos, Wendy

    2018-05-01

    Human trafficking, also known as modern-day slavery, is an egregious human rights violation associated with wide-ranging medical and mental health consequences. Because of the extensive health problems related to trafficking, health care providers play a critical role in identifying survivors and engaging them in ongoing care. Although guidelines for recognizing affected patients and a framework for developing response protocols in health care settings have been described, survivors' ongoing engagement in health care services is very challenging. High rates of disengagement, lost contact, premature termination, and attrition are common outcomes. For interventions to be effective in this marginalized population, challenges in engaging survivors in long-term therapeutic primary and mental health care must be better understood and overcome. This article uses the socioecological model of public health to identify barriers to engagement; offers evidence- and practice-based recommendations for overcoming these barriers; and proposes an interdisciplinary call to action for developing more flexible, adaptable models of care.

  8. People for sale: the need for a multidisciplinary approach towards human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, K

    2000-01-01

    The article addresses the question of how to develop appropriate measures to tackle trafficking in women, based on the findings of a study of trafficking between the Philippines and Belgium. It argues that there is no easy or unidimensional solution to human trafficking, since it is influenced by a complex set of factors, often working in combination with one another. It concludes that control measures alone cannot stop the flow of trafficking in women and that a legal approach which relies solely on one type of legislation would be too narrow. An effective strategy must combine and balance punitive measures with protection of human rights, stricter border control and the removal of the root causes of irregular movements. Measures must be agreed and coordinated between origin, transit and receiving countries.

  9. Mapping the Human Planet: Integrating Settlement, Infrastructure, and Population Data to Support Sustainable Development, Climate, and Disaster Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; Downs, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    A central issue in international efforts to address climate change, large-scale disaster risk, and overall sustainable development is the exposure of human settlements and population to changing climate patterns and a range of geological, climatological, technological, and other hazards. The present and future location of human activities is also important in mitigation and adaptation to climate change, and to ensuring that we "leave no one behind" in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the international community in September 2015. The extent and quality of built infrastructure are key factors in the mortality, morbidity, and economic impacts of disasters, and are simultaneously essential to sustainable development. Earth observations have great potential to improve the coverage, consistency, timeliness, and richness of data on settlements, infrastructure, and population, in ways that complement existing and emerging forms of socioeconomic data collection such as censuses, surveys, and cell phone and Internet traffic. Night-time lights from the Suomi-NPP satellite may be able to provide near real-time data on occupance and economic activity. New "big data" capabilities make it possible to rapidly process high-resolution (50-cm) imagery to detect structures and changes in structures, especially in rural areas where other data are limited. A key challenge is to ensure that these types of data can be translated into forms useful in a range of applications and for diverse user communities, including national statistical offices, local government planners, development and humanitarian organizations, community groups, and the private sector. We report here on efforts, in coordination with the GEO Human Planet Initiative, to develop new data on settlements, infrastructure, and population, together with open data services and tools, to support disaster risk assessment, climate vulnerability analysis, and sustainable development decision making.

  10. Veterans Health Administration: Management Attention Is Needed to Address Systemic, Long standing Human Capital Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    assess VHA’s employee performance management processes, we reviewed VA directives and handbooks , and procedures related to the performance...primary pay and classification system.30 VHA’s HR staff are classified as either an HR specialist, who manage , supervise, and deliver HR products ...Board. 815 C.F.R. § 430; Department of Veterans Affairs, Performance Management Systems, VA Handbook 5013, Part I. VHA Needs to Strengthen

  11. Unmet needs among men with human immunodeficiency virus in community mental health care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Sirotich, Frank; Antoniou, Tony; Roesslein, Kay; Durbin, Janet; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-07-01

    While community-based mental health services play an important role in caring for persons with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and co-existing mental health disorders, the extent to which their support needs are addressed in this setting is unknown. Accordingly, we examined if HIV infection was associated with unmet support needs among men living with and without HIV receiving community mental health care. This cross-sectional study examined 215 men (135 living with HIV and 80 without HIV) receiving case management services in urban Ontario. Using the Camberwell Assessment of Need, we ascertained the prevalence of support needs in 13 domains grouped into three clusters: Basic needs (accommodation, food, benefits, and money management); self-care/functional needs (daytime activities, self-care, and looking after the home); and health/safety needs (physical, psychological distress, psychotic symptoms, safety to self, and safety to others). We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to examine the association between HIV and unmet need in each domain. Compared to HIV-negative men, men with HIV were more likely to have mood and concurrent disorders, and intellectual and developmental disabilities. Following multivariable analyses, men with HIV had greater unmet needs related to food (odds ratio + 95% confidence interval: 9.36 (4.03, 21.75), p health and safety domains]. Despite living in a setting with universal health insurance, men with HIV receiving community mental health support had greater unmet need in basic and health domains than HIV-negative men receiving such support. Further research is required to develop and evaluate interventions to best support community-dwelling persons with HIV and mental health disorders.

  12. HEALTH NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human needs are of great interest to different scientific fields: sociology, anthropology, psychology, medicine, economy… Malinowski, Maslow, Adler and From have largely contributed to studying the needs. While trying to define the need concept, not only one definition is acceptable. In psychology, need is defined as a lack or disorder, i.e. the necessity to dislodge this lack. It was Maslow who gave the fullest classification and explanation of human needs. If we start from the fact that need represents the lack or deficit of something, in this context health needs would indicate the lack of health, and the measurement of health needs would be the same as the measurement of health. Therefore, almost all human needs can be enumerated as health needs, i.e. those which, after being satisfied, can lead to physical, psychical and social welfare. According to WHO, health needs can be defined as scientifically settled evasions from health which require preventive, curative and probably regulative and eradicative measurements. According to the medical method used by the health service while regarding the needs, the emphasis is on morbidity, mortality, incidence, prevalence, inability, etc. Usually, when we have very low level of health culture, and the responsibility for personal health is in most of the cases unacceptable, for the health service user the curative services will have priority over preventive ones. The measurement of health needs is a complex task. The needs can be regarded through medical documentation and by perception of the needs by people in the community.

  13. Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies Deaths by 2030: Needs Assessment and Alternatives for Progress Based on Dog Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Cleaton, Julie; Franka, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Rabies imposes a substantial burden to about half of the world population. The World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have set the goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030. This could be achieved largely by massive administration of post-exposure prophylaxis—in perpetuity—, through elimination of dog rabies, or combining both. Here, we focused on the resources needed for the elimination...

  14. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Qui Viet; Vu Dang Ninh

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  15. Does post-humanism still need ethics? The normativity of an open nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In the current era, post-humanism usually adopts two forms. One of these is related to postmodern thought and its critique of Enlightenment ideals, while the other, which is usually referred to as transhumanism, declares itself the heir to optimistic belief in the technological progress of modernity. Nevertheless, both seem like new versions of the struggle between an individualist version of liberalism and its critics. In so far as they are ethical proposals, we may hold them to account for the vagueness of their moral objectives, which only seem to advocate - each in its own way - emancipation and the removal of barriers that may impede an increase in power. This defect is not, though, independent of their rejection of the notion of nature. By contrast, classical ethics does not focus so much on power or emancipation as on the nature of human telos and of his true growth, and it is only from this standpoint that it concerns itself with the means by which this can be achieved.

  16. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Qui Viet [Department of Organization and Scientific Human Resource Development, The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Dang Ninh [Department of Administration and Personnel, The Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-12-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  17. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors

  18. Respecting the Rights of Others in a Violent Society: A Public Policy Perspective. The Need for a Concerted Effort To Teach Children Respect for People and Property. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Val J.

    This Boys' Town publication for parents presents guidelines for a parental and societal response to purse-snatching, shoplifting, and other kinds of stealing that are a part of violence. The guide maintains that a comprehensive public policy approach is needed, one that is based on an appreciation of the development of learning respect for the…

  19. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification......This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  20. Meeting the oral health needs of 12-year-olds in China: human resources for oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. Methods We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus, dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake, and social factors (parental education. Children’s risk for dental caries was classified in four levels from low (level 1 to high (level 4. We built maximum and minimum intervention models of dental care for each risk level, informed by contemporary evidence-based practice. The needs-led HROH model we used in the present study incorporated need for treatment and risk-based prevention using timings verified by experts in China. These findings were used to estimate HROH for the survey sample, extrapolated to 12-year-olds nationally and the total population, taking account of urban and rural coverage, based on different levels of clinical commitment (60-90%. Results We found that between 40,139 and 51,906 dental professionals were required to deliver care for 12-year-olds nationally based on 80% clinical commitment. We demonstrated that the majority of need for HROH was in the rural population (72.5%. Over 93% of HROH time was dedicated to prevention within the model. Extrapolating the results to the total population, the estimate for HROH nationally was 3.16–4.09 million to achieve national coverage; however, current HROH are only able to serve an estimated 5% of the population with

  1. Meeting the oral health needs of 12-year-olds in China: human resources for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Zheng, Shuguo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2017-06-20

    An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus), dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake), and social factors (parental education). Children's risk for dental caries was classified in four levels from low (level 1) to high (level 4). We built maximum and minimum intervention models of dental care for each risk level, informed by contemporary evidence-based practice. The needs-led HROH model we used in the present study incorporated need for treatment and risk-based prevention using timings verified by experts in China. These findings were used to estimate HROH for the survey sample, extrapolated to 12-year-olds nationally and the total population, taking account of urban and rural coverage, based on different levels of clinical commitment (60-90%). We found that between 40,139 and 51,906 dental professionals were required to deliver care for 12-year-olds nationally based on 80% clinical commitment. We demonstrated that the majority of need for HROH was in the rural population (72.5%). Over 93% of HROH time was dedicated to prevention within the model. Extrapolating the results to the total population, the estimate for HROH nationally was 3.16-4.09 million to achieve national coverage; however, current HROH are only able to serve an estimated 5% of the population with minimum intervention based on a HROH spending 90% of

  2. Studies of adaptation in human energy needs done in Malaysia using doubly-labelled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Noor, M.; Tee Ai Chang; Poh Bee Koon

    1993-01-01

    The knowledge of energy expenditure is important in order to make accurate estimates of energy requirement of a given population. The ability of man to adjust metabolically to variations in energy balance is widely recognized. However, it is not clear to what extent this adjustment can be accomplished without 'cost'. The objective of the study is to highlight the incremental improvements in the evaluation of energy requirements on the basis of increasing numbers of parameters, thus providing valuable tests of the validity of requirement values suggested in the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU report. The studies were conducted in 3 phases. The first phase involved the measurement of BMR using the conventional Douglas bag method on normal adult males and females of 3 ethnic origins (Malay, Chinese and Indians). The second phase took advantage of a human respiratory chamber constructed in 1990 to study 24th energy expenditure. A total of 7 adult males and 9 adult females volunteered in this preliminary study. The final phase carried out was to determine TEE using factorial and DLW methods. Seven laboratory assistants (mean BMI 22.6) and 7 rubber plantation workers volunteered for the study. Overall, the studies confirm the low BMR in Malaysian adults as compared to the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) and Henry and Rees (1991) equations. 26 refs, 10 tabs

  3. Effects of bovine pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of milk: the significance for humans needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, R; Regal, P; Díaz-Bao, M; Vázquez, B I; Cepeda, A

    2017-04-01

    Milk from 40 Holstein dairy cows was collected from two different farms in Galicia (Spain). The differences in the fatty acid composition of two groups of cows, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant, was studied to determine whether pregnancy status is a determinant factor that can alter the fatty acid profile of milk. Gas-chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID) was used for the determination of the fatty acids. Differences in the milk fatty acids between pregnant and non-pregnant cows were pronounced showing statistically significant differences for some fatty acids and the total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Milk from non-pregnant cows was lower in saturated fatty acids and higher in monounsaturated fatty acids (unlike milk from pregnant cows). The effects of the consumption of bovine milk, particularly milk fat, on human health have been studied in depth and sometimes are associated with negative effects, but milk has also several beneficial characteristics linked to some fatty acids.

  4. Cystoisosporiasis-related human acalculous cholecystitis: the need for increased awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Agholi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystitis is one of the common surgical indications affecting human beings in many countries. A variety of infectious agents can be associated with acute or chronic acalculous cholecystitis, especially in HIV/AIDS patients. In this investigation, the authors aim to describe two cases of histologically and molecularly documented cystoisosporiasis (syn. isosporiasis as the cause of chronic acalculous cholecystitis in two immunodeficient patients. During microscopic examinations of more than 2500 diarrheic patients’ samples, 11 cases of cystoisosporiasis-related recurrent persistent/chronic diarrhea were detected. A review of the medical records of Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli-positive patients showed that two of them, i.e. a patient with prolonged corticosteroid therapy and an AIDS patient, several months prior to fecal examinations had undergone cholecystectomy due to acalculous cholecystitis. The study was continued by a review of the histopathological investigation of the recuts prepared from the excised gallbladder tissue sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin in order to detect a possible specific clinical correlation with cystoisosporiasis. Light microscopic examination revealed the presence of various developmental stages of a coccidial parasite, namely Cystoisospora belli , in both patients’ gallbladder tissue sections. To the best of our knowledge, C. bellii -associated cholecystitis has not been previously reported in a patient with prolonged corticosteroid therapy.

  5. Humanization in healthcare arises from the need for a holistic approach to illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Martos, C; Rojas-Amezcua, M; Gómez-Espejo, M R; Lara-Aguayo, P; Morán-Fernandez, E; Aguilar-Alonso, E

    2018-03-01

    Suffering is not only exclusive to patients or their relatives, but also to the health professionals, who feel to be at the center of the depersonalization process. Over-technification and the fact that the disease process is sometimes the only focal point of our activities, together with the ever-increasing influence of institutional power seen in recent times, all cause the health professional to be the first in demanding a change in health institution dynamics. Following initial reflection from one of the most technified medical specialties (Intensive Care Medicine), classically isolated from the rest of the Hospital and from the community, we implemented a project aimed at securing integration and empathy in our approach to patients and their relatives in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Infanta Margarita Hospital. The project was designed to incorporate tools for working on the most important elements of a humanization plan, i.e., the patients, their relatives, the health professionals and the community, attempting to disclose the work done in the ICU over a period of 12 months. This project is referred to as the Project ICU Infanta Margarita: 1 year: 12 months for 12 commitments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Mini review of mercury contamination in environment and human with an emphasis on Malaysia: status and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; de Burbure, Claire; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on mercury (Hg) contamination in Malaysia and its evolution from 1979 to 2012. The objective of this paper was to review and provide an understanding of Hg exposures in the environment, humans, and food in Malaysia. Hg concentration in the environment is high in areas of West Port, Malacca Straits, Prai, and Johor because these areas receive anthropogenic metal loads brought about by industrial activities. Hg concentration in humans is related to seafood intake (dietary), environmental conditions, and different geographical locations. Hg levels in food showed higher concentration in the West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Hg concentration is also present in the country's tropical fruits, which is related to agrochemical and fertilizer usage. This review showed that there is an urgent need to identify Hg toxicology and bioaccumulation as well as the health effects of Hg exposure in different ecological compartments. This review aims to provide helpful recommendations for future Hg biomonitoring and research in Malaysia.

  7. [Stress, Needs, and Quality of Life of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in North East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chu; Lu, Po-Liang; Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-04-01

    HIV/AIDS has become a chronic disease since anti-retroviral therapy has reduced the related rates of morbidity and mortality and maintained the immunity of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus / AIDS (PLWHA). PLWHA have psychological needs and many hope to improve their quality of life (QoL) over the long course of their treatment. Despite the large number of AIDS cases, there are limited reports addressing the issue of QoL among PLWHA in China. The present study aims to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and related factors among PLWHA in China. This cross-sectional, descriptive study used a structural questionnaire to assess the stress, needs, and QoL of 100 PLWHA in Shenyang, China. The most stressful issues faced by the participants were admitting HIV/AIDS status publicly and explaining their illness to others. Their needs were mainly related to receiving adequate information about HIV-related medical services, examination, and treatment and learning how to prevent disease progression. Among the four domains of QoL, the score in the physical domain was the lowest. The stress, needs, and QoL of the participants were significantly inter-correlated. However, only stress was found to predict QoL (β = -.25 to -.60, p stress, meet the needs, and improve the QoL of PLWHA, healthcare providers should work to lower the risk of divulgence, provide adequate healthcare information, and work to reduce the stigma and discrimination that is associated with having HIV/AIDS.

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and... Supplement No. 2 to Part 740—Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian... Medicines and Supplies (c) Clothes and Household Goods Bedding Clothes Cooking Utensils Fabric Personal...

  9. Policy needs and options for a common approach towards modelling and simulation of human physiology and diseases with a focus on the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Life is the result of an intricate systemic interaction between many processes occurring at radically different spatial and temporal scales. Every day, worldwide biomedical research and clinical practice produce a huge amount of information on such processes. However, this information being highly fragmented, its integration is largely left to the human actors who find this task increasingly and ever more demanding in a context where the information available continues to increase exponentially. Investments in the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) research are largely motivated by the need for integration in healthcare. As all health information becomes digital, the complexity of health care will continue to evolve, translating into an ever increasing pressure which will result from a growing demand in parallel to limited budgets. Hence, the best way to achieve the dream of personalised, preventive, and participative medicine at sustainable costs will be through the integration of all available data, information and knowledge.

  10. Stress, needs, and quality of life of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chu Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS is a manageable infectious disease by the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS-related stigma and conflict may create distress and deteriorate quality of life (QoL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study using structural questionnaires aimed to explore the stress, needs, QoL, and associated factors of PLWHA in Taiwan. A total of 200 PLWHA participating in this study needed most on treatment of HIV and prevention of AIDS, and health maintenance. They had worse QoL in physical, psychological, and social domains (all p < 0.001 than the general population. Stress was the most significant predictor (β = −0.25 to −0.54, p < 0.01 for all four domains of QoL. Needs was not significantly associated with QoL. The QoL of PLWHA can be explained by demographics, self-perception on health, needs, and stress for 25.3–40.7% of variances. No association existed between CD4+ counts and QoL in Taiwanese PLWHA. It is important to recognize the perception of PLWHA on their health status, which is significantly associated with their QoL, besides monitoring their physical indicators of health (CD4+ counts. To recognize the stress and needs that PLWHA experience and to develop intervention programs targeting strategies on HIV disclosure, prevention and health maintenance are crucial for PLWHA's QoL.

  11. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prstačić, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility.

  12. Energy and human needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, S.C.; Curran, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in five parts, as follows: energy sources and converted forms; fossil fuels and their depletion; the nuclear option (fission and fusion phenomena; fission reactors; the economics of nuclear power; energy from fusion); the provision of energy (including - energy as electricity, transmission, the hydrogen economy, energy storage, heat pumps, energy conservation and energy from waste, energy analysis); social, environmental and international aspects (the environment - non radioactive pollution; nuclear power and safety, reprocessing and waste disposal; political aspects of the civil uses of nuclear power; proliferation and terrorism, summary and some thoughts for the future). (U.K.)

  13. Reducing Youth Violence. Coordinated Federal Efforts and Early Intervention Strategies Could Help. Statement of Gregory J. McDonald, Director of Human Services, Policy and Management Issues, Human Resources Division. Testimony before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The testimony presented in this document discusses the extent of the problem of youth violence, risk factors, type of approach required, federal prevention efforts, and conclusions. It is suggested that young people at risk of later violence tend to: come from families that are abusive, neglectful, and otherwise dysfunctional; show an early…

  14. The analysis and design of urban near-home environments according to psycho-social needs and behavior of human beings

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil, Burçak

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-132. In this study, the design of urban near-home environments is examined considering the social and psychological needs of human beings as well as human spatial behavior. After an introduction to the concepts such as environment, near-home environments, human-e...

  15. Human Capital. Corps of Engineers Needs to Update Its Workforce Planning Process to More Effectively Address Its Current and Future Workforce Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia Committee on Homeland Security and...allows flex-time, telecommuting , or alternative work schedules. Page 17 GAO-08-596 Corps of Engineers Table 1: Examples of Human Capital...programs and policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed oversight , policy, and funding

  16. IS AN INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE HUMAN RIGHTS LIABILITY FRAMEWORK NEEDED? AN ECONOMIC POWER, BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS, AND AMERICAN EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arevalo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available All companies, regardless of the sector they belong to, can positively or negatively impact human rights. Governments are increasingly aware of the benefits that free trade brings their nations, which has led them to do whatever is necessary to attract foreign investment, even if it means to act against the interests of their own people. The power relationship between corporations and states generates a tension derived from their nature: while the objective of states is the welfare of its members, the purpose of corporations is profit. It is in the crack generated by the collision of powers and purposes between these two actors, that this article is intended to raise the discussion on the need to establish an international framework for corporate liability for human rights violations. To achieve its goal, the article will analyze the opportunities and obstacles raised by the exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction in the American context and its relationship with the developments in the business and human rights field.

  17. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  18. Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Raul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Methods Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. Results We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. Conclusion The assist-as-needed

  19. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  20. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  1. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  2. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  3. Impact of perception and attitude towards the study of African languages on Human Resource needs: A case for Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gora, Ruth Babra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the Zimbabwean high school curriculum has remained largely irrelevant to human resource needs for professions that draw expertise from African languages, such as teaching, translating, broadcasting and interpreting. Despite some curriculum reforms after the attainment of political independence, effects of colonial language policy and language planning with regard to the Zimbabwean education system seem to have remained intact. As a result, observations have been made that the system continues to churn out Africans who are still deeply rooted in the belief that the study of foreign languages, English in particular, prepares them for a better and brighter future than African languages would. The belief is largely that a pass in English guarantees them better, higher-paying, more prestigious and more readily available jobs than would African languages. The education system in Zimbabwe today, this paper argues, has negative perceptions and attitudes towards the study of African languages. African languages-related professions are therefore filled by people with little or no sound background knowledge in the area. In addition, those who end up being absorbed in professions that draw from the African languages area, in most cases, are not satisfied. The same can be said of most other African countries that were subjected to colonialism in the past and neo-colonialism today, under the vague and obscure concepts of globalisation and modernisation. Against this backdrop, the article advocates for the re-engineering of the Zimbabwean school core-curriculum by incorporating mandatory study of an indigenous language, at least up to ‘O’ level, in a bid to preserve and promote African languages and at the same time meet human resource needs of professions that draw from the discipline over time.

  4. Using a Critical Incident Scenario With Virtual Humans to Assess Educational Needs of Nurses in a Postanesthesia Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey; Chuah, Joon; Robb, Andrew; Lok, Benjamin; Lampotang, Samsun; Lizdas, David; Martindale, James; Pi, Guillermo; Wendling, Adam

    2015-01-01

    During critical incidents, teamwork failures can compromise patient safety. This study provides evidence that virtual humans can be used in simulated critical incidents to assess the learning needs of health professionals, and provide important information that can inform the development of continuing education programs in patient safety. We explored the effectiveness of information transfer during a devolving medical situation between postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses and a virtual attending physician. We designed a three-stage scenario: tutorial, patient transfer, and critical incident. We developed 2 checklists to assess information transfer: Critical Patient Information and Interprofessional Communication Skills. All participants were videotaped; 2 raters reviewed all videos and assessed performance using the checklists. Participants (n = 43) who completed all 3 stages scored 62.3% correct on critical patient information transfer and 61.6% correct on interprofessional communication skills. Almost 87% missed a fatal drug error. The checklists measured each item on a 1/0 (done/not) calculation. Additionally, no relationship was found between years of nursing experience and performance on either checklist. The PACU nurses in this study did not consistently share critical information with an attending (virtual) physician during a critical incident, and most missed a fatal dosage error. These findings strongly suggest a crucial need for additional structured team training among practicing health care teams, and they demonstrate the utility of using virtual humans to simulate team members. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  5. Upholding the human right of children in New Zealand experiencing communication difficulties to voice their needs and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Elizabeth; Clendon, Sally

    2018-02-01

    New Zealand Ministry of Education's proposal for an updated service to support children experiencing communication difficulties provides an opportunity to consider the essential criteria required for children to express their opinion, information and ideas as outlined under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This commentary begins with a summary of key policies that provide strategic direction for enhancing children's rights to be actively involved in the development of services designed to support them and to communicate and participate in inclusive environments. The authors use a human rights lens to inform the development of speech-language pathology services that facilitate individuals' contribution and engagement and are responsive to their needs. A review of international literature describing the lived experience of children and young people identifies key factors related to accessible information, service coordination, holistic practice, and partnerships that facilitate co-constructed understanding and decision-making. The commentary concludes with suggested recommendations for structuring services, establishing partnership models, and capability building.

  6. The human right to communicate and our need to listen: Learning from people with a history of childhood communication disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jane; Baker, Elise; Crowe, Kathryn

    2018-02-01

    In 2013, the Australian Government Senate formed a committee for inquiry and report into the prevalence of speech, language, and communication disorders and speech pathology services in Australia. Submissions were sought from individuals and organisations. In this paper, submissions made by individuals with a history of childhood communication disorder were examined to explore their life experiences and the impact on their lives when the right to communicate could not be enacted. There were 305 submissions to the Australian Government Senate Committee Inquiry, of which 288 were publically accessible. In this study, the submissions (n = 17) from children or adults with a history of communication disorder (including speech, language and stuttering), who provided personal accounts of their experiences, were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Four themes emerged relating to: personal identity, life with communication disorder, the importance of help, and how life would be different without a communication disorder. This paper gives voice to children and adults with communication disorder. In listening to these voices, the impact of communication disorder on the right to communicate and on other human rights can be heard, and the need for a response is clear. However, the challenge is to determine how the voices of these individuals, and others like them, can be enabled to exert real influence on practice and policy so communication disorder will no longer be a barrier to attainment of their human rights.

  7. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 3. Operator information needs summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents a summary of operator information needs, identifying the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  8. Human development II: We Need an Integrated Theory for Matter, Life and Consciousness to Understand Life and Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient’s brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call “deep” cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call “holistic biology for holistic medicine”. We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination, brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor, and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain

  9. Human development II: we need an integrated theory for matter, life and consciousness to understand life and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient's brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call "deep" cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call "holistic biology for holistic medicine". We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination), brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor), and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain and consciousness, the

  10. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  11. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  12. LAUNCHING EFFORTS NEEDED FOR A HIGH-TECH PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims the difficult problem of creating new product concepts in thearea of high-technology and innovation. Because of scientific discoveries andimpressive development of technology, many companies compete for marketsupremacy on the technological innovations market. In a global market,which is currently in an economic and financial crisis, consumers make a newhierarchy of priorities in terms of expenditure and consumption. Therefore,companies that create new products must be very careful about 2 aspects,so the new product may not become a failure: the products positioning on themarket and the target group which they address to. This paper belongs to themarketing area by bringing into discussion theoretical concepts, by analyzingthe stages crossed by a company in the process of launching a new hightechproduct and crossing the abyss in the product adoption process byconsumers.

  13. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  14. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  15. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  16. Highly Selective Fluorescence Determination of the Hematin Level in Human Erythrocytes with No Need for Separation from Bulk Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijuan; Chen, Li; Wu, Ping; Gervasio, Dominic F; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-04-05

    Hematin-induced fluorescence quenching of boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) allows for determination of hematin concentration in human erythrocytes with no need for separating hematin from hemoglobin before performing the assay. The BGQDs are made by oxidizing a graphite anode by holding the voltage between a graphite rod and a Pt cathode at 3 V for 2 h in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The fluorescence intensity of BGQDs is measurable in real time, and its quenching is very sensitive to the concentration of hematin in the system but not to other coexisting biological substances. The analytical signal is defined as ΔF = 1 - F/F0, where F0 and F are the fluorescence intensities of the BGQDs before and after interaction with hematin, respectively. There is a good linear relationship between ΔF and hematin concentration, ranging from 0.01 to 0.92 μM, with the limit of detection (LOD) being ∼0.005 ± 0.001 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This new method is sensitive, label-free, simple, and inexpensive, and many tedious procedures related to sample separation and preparation can be omitted, implying that this method has potential for applications in clinical examinations and disease diagnoses. For example, the determination of the hematin levels in two kind of red blood cell samples, healthy human and sickle cell erythrocytes, gives average concentrations of hematin of ∼(23.1 ± 4.9) μM (average of five samples) for healthy red cell cytosols and ∼(52.5 ± 9.5) μM (average of two samples) for sickle red cell cytosols.

  17. Comparing human peritoneal fluid and phosphate-buffered saline for drug delivery: do we need bio-relevant media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Prabhat; Rahiri, Jamie Lee; Sua, Bruce; McDonald, Jessica E; Bansal, Mahima; Hanning, Sara; Sharma, Manisha; Chandramouli, Kaushik; Harrison, Jeff; Procter, Georgina; Andrews, Gavin; Jones, David S; Hill, Andrew G; Svirskis, Darren

    2018-06-01

    An understanding of biological fluids at the site of administration is important to predict the fate of drug delivery systems in vivo. Little is known about peritoneal fluid; therefore, we have investigated this biological fluid and compared it to phosphate-buffered saline, a synthetic media commonly used for in vitro evaluation of intraperitoneal drug delivery systems. Human peritoneal fluid samples were analysed for electrolyte, protein and lipid levels. In addition, physicochemical properties were measured alongside rheological parameters. Significant inter-patient variations were observed with regard to pH (p < 0.001), buffer capacity (p < 0.05), osmolality (p < 0.001) and surface tension (p < 0.05). All the investigated physicochemical properties of peritoneal fluid differed from phosphate-buffered saline (p < 0.001). Rheological examination of peritoneal fluid demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and predominantly exhibited the characteristics of an entangled network. Inter-patient and inter-day variability in the viscosity of peritoneal fluid was observed. The solubility of the local anaesthetic lidocaine in peritoneal fluid was significantly higher (p < 0.05) when compared to phosphate-buffered saline. Interestingly, the dissolution rate of lidocaine was not significantly different between the synthetic and biological media. Importantly, and with relevance to intraperitoneal drug delivery systems, the sustained release of lidocaine from a thermosensitive gel formulation occurred at a significantly faster rate into peritoneal fluid. Collectively, these data demonstrate the variation between commonly used synthetic media and human peritoneal fluid. The differences in drug release rates observed illustrate the need for bio-relevant media, which ultimately would improve in vitro-in vivo correlation.

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 7 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) and Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) utilizes low-pressure air separation to manufacture the oxygen required in Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). The Oxygen Plant also supplies nitrogen as needed by the H-COAL process. Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18) upgrades the raw H-COAL naphtha. The following information is provided for both plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components (Oxygen Plant only); and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  19. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Klohn, Axel Max; Zesiger, Véronique; Freigburghaus, Franziska; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2009-08-24

    The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy.The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists.Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents.A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and coordinated responses through specific intervention projects.

  20. Developing a health and human rights training program for french speaking Africa: lessons learned, from needs assessment to a pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freigburghaus Franziska

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy. The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Methods Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists. Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Results Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents. A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. Conclusion In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and

  1. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  2. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  3. Does Europe need two Courts of Human Rights? On the Relationship between the Strasbourg and Luxembourg Courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2003-01-01

    Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol, European Court of Human Rights, EF-Domstolen, European Court of Justice......Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol, European Court of Human Rights, EF-Domstolen, European Court of Justice...

  4. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  5. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Audio-visual Collections and the User Needs of Scholars in the Humanities: a Case for Co-Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Scagliola, Stef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the factors that impede a clear communication and a more fruitful collaboration between humanities scholars and ICT developers. One of the observations is that ICT-researchers who design tools for humanities researchers, are less inclined to take into account

  7. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  8. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  9. Current status of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in animals & humans in India: What needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.

  10. Eyeworm infections in dogs and in a human patient in Serbia: A One Health approach is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Trenkić-Božinović, Marija; Petrović, Aleksandar; Gajić, Bojan; Colella, Vito; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm has been frequently reported parasitizing humans in Asia. In Europe, the parasite is endemic in wild and domestic carnivores and only eight cases have been reported in humans so far. We describe the first case of human thelaziosis in Serbia, along with two cases in dogs from the same area. A One Health approach, based on cooperation amongst veterinarians and physicians, is strongly advised for this emerging infection in order to assess the risk for and prevent of the zoonotic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Being there: The continuing need for human presence in the deep ocean for scientific research and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, P.; Fornari, D.; Perfit, M.; Von Damm, K.; Humphris, S.; Fox, P. J.; Lippsett, L.

    We see with our mind's eye. This poetic phrase attempts to describe a complex set of human interactions by which we take in and process information about the physical world around us. For millennia, scientists and philosophers have relied on our ability to apply the uniquely human traits of perception, cognition, memory and motor action to scientific observations and experiments. "There is no authority higher than the human eye," observed Leonardo Da Vinci, and his statement still holds true; as most field scientists will attest, there is no substitute for direct observation.

  12. Review of the human resources needed for development of the activity in a service hospital radio physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansa, J. F.; Burgos, D. E.; Guerrero, R.

    2011-01-01

    The age of the recommendations on minimum human and material resources of the SEFM, along with the emergence of new imaging techniques and new equipment, plus analysis of recent international publications relating to the subject and the establishment of relative value units in several Spanish regions, justify a revision of the minimum necessary human resources to carry out the tasks of Radio physics service with adequate safety and quality.

  13. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  14. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  15. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The Number of Interviews Needed to Yield New Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cases Among Partners of People Diagnosed With Syphilis, North Carolina, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoff, Erika; Cope, Anna B; Maxwell, Jason; Thomas, Francina; Mobley, Victoria L

    2017-08-01

    Compare syphilis investigation yield among patient groups using number needed to interview. To increase investigation efficiency. Retrospective review of North Carolina 2015 syphilis investigations, using the number of cases needed to interview (NNTI) and the total number of cases and contacts needed to interview (TNTI) to compare yield of new syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses between patient groups. We reviewed 1646 early syphilis cases and 2181 contacts; these yielded 241 new syphilis cases (NNTI, 6.9; TNTI, 16.4) and 38 new human immunodeficiency virus cases (NNTI, 43). Interviews of women (prevalence difference [PD] = 6%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 12-16), patients 1:16 (PD = 5%, 95% CI, 1-9) yielded more new syphilis cases in our adjusted model; no other patient factors increased investigation yield. The NNTI and TNTI are useful measures of efficiency. Prioritizing early syphilis investigation by gender, rapid plasmin reagin titer, and age provides small increases in efficiency; no other factors increased efficiency.

  17. Why we need to find time for digital humanities: presenting a new partnership model at the University of Sussex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Harvell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that academic libraries should develop and nurture strong, mutually beneficial relationships with researchers in digital humanities, the authors believe it is strategically important to invest time and resources exploring ideas and partnering with academic colleagues on projects. This approach can provide many unforeseen benefits to both the Library service and to the workforce. The article is based on our experience as Core Associates of the Sussex Humanities Lab at the University of Sussex. It outlines the impact this collaboration has had, including influencing working practices and culture within the Library, involvement in research bids, informing the development of new services, and addressing library questions using digital humanities methods. Most importantly, it exemplifies a new model of the librarian as equal partner in the research process.

  18. Models of human operators: Their need and usefulness for improvement of advanced control systems and control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB ampersand C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such model have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Many potential model users remain skeptical about their practically, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part from disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of common-sense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB ampersand C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. 26 refs

  19. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  20. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  1. Human right to sanitation in the legal and non-legal literature : The need for greater synergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    This review paper analyzes the legal and non-legal literature on the human right to sanitation (HRS). It shows that despite applying different paradigms in framing the HRS, both literature support the following three main conclusions: (a) state and non-state actors, particularly NGOs and private

  2. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  3. Clearance Prediction Methodology Needs Fundamental Improvement: Trends Common to Rat and Human Hepatocytes/Microsomes and Implications for Experimental Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, F L; Houston, J B; Hallifax, D

    2017-11-01

    Although prediction of clearance using hepatocytes and liver microsomes has long played a decisive role in drug discovery, it is widely acknowledged that reliably accurate prediction is not yet achievable despite the predominance of hepatically cleared drugs. Physiologically mechanistic methodology tends to underpredict clearance by several fold, and empirical correction of this bias is confounded by imprecision across drugs. Understanding the causes of prediction uncertainty has been slow, possibly reflecting poor resolution of variables associated with donor source and experimental methods, particularly for the human situation. It has been reported that among published human hepatocyte predictions there was a tendency for underprediction to increase with increasing in vivo intrinsic clearance, suggesting an inherent limitation using this particular system. This implied an artifactual rate limitation in vitro, although preparative effects on cell stability and performance were not yet resolved from assay design limitations. Here, to resolve these issues further, we present an up-to-date and comprehensive examination of predictions from published rat as well as human studies (where n = 128 and 101 hepatocytes and n = 71 and 83 microsomes, respectively) to assess system performance more independently. We report a clear trend of increasing underprediction with increasing in vivo intrinsic clearance, which is similar both between species and between in vitro systems. Hence, prior concerns arising specifically from human in vitro systems may be unfounded and the focus of investigation in the future should be to minimize the potential in vitro assay limitations common to whole cells and subcellular fractions. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Twenty-ninth day: accommodating human needs and numbers to the Earth's resources. [ecological impacts of overpopulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The global lily pond in which four billion of us live may already be half full. The author believes that UN projections showing world population continuing to grow until it reaches ten to sixteen billion is unrealistic. In this analysis of the four principal biological systems on which humanity depends - fisheries, forests, grasslands, and croplands - the author shows that the demands at current levels of population and per capita consumption often exceed the long-term carrying capacity. The effects of overfishing, deforestation, and overgrazing that are gradually undermining human life-support systems are documented. With energy shortages anticipated inthe early eighties and the projected downturn in world oil production in the early nineties, the world must quickly shift to renewable energy resources. These accommodations constitute an enormous challenge and suggest changes that will affect virtually every facet of human existence. The coming transformation will surely give rise to new social structures and to an economic system materially different from any we know today. Like other periods of convulsive change, it will put great stress on both individuals and institutions. 106 references, 17 figures, 18 tables.

  5. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  6. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  7. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  8. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. [Collections of human biological resources for research purposes: from regulations to the need of a guide of good collection practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, N; de Montgolfier, S; di Donato, J-H; Boccon-Gibod, L; Teillac, P; Hervé, C; Berthon, P

    2003-12-01

    In France, collections of human biological resources are regulated by the "Bioethics Law", currently in revision. Hence, we analyse the regulatory and ethical issues of these practices in the context of scientific research. The ultimate aim of such collections is to improve biological and medical knowledge. We think that the French regulatory system is quite complicated and non-explicit for "collection holders". The multiplicity of legal texts concerning this activity has made their application difficult, especially in the absence of application decrees. The project amending the actual law has clarified the legal status of collections but it did not shed light on the status of human body detached parts. Furthermore, the text is still very far from the international bioethical recommendations, and does not reflect the actual collection's implementation. The establishment of a guideline of Good Collection Practices, based on clear principles, should help to simplify the situation, especially when it is imbedded in the regulation and linked to control procedures. It would allow a balance between collective interests and the protection of individuals, taking into account of the international highly competitive scientific and economical constraints. The major issue is to preserve and to perpetuate the existing and future collections because of their precious value as an important tool for biomedical knowledge. The efficiency of a regulation depends on its legibility and accessibility, two requirements that seem to determine the acceptance of the regulatory tool and its application allowing subsequently to reach fairness in proceedings.

  10. Phase transitions in least-effort communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Ay, Nihat; Obst, Oliver; Polani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We critically examine a model that attempts to explain the emergence of power laws (e.g., Zipf's law) in human language. The model is based on the principle of least effort in communications—specifically, the overall effort is balanced between the speaker effort and listener effort, with some trade-off. It has been shown that an information-theoretic interpretation of this principle is sufficiently rich to explain the emergence of Zipf's law in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems (one signal for all referable objects) and indexical reference systems (one signal per object). The phase transition is defined in the space of communication accuracy (information content) expressed in terms of the trade-off parameter. Our study explicitly solves the continuous optimization problem, subsuming a recent, more specific result obtained within a discrete space. The obtained results contrast Zipf's law found by heuristic search (that attained only local minima) in the vicinity of the transition between referentially useless systems and indexical reference systems, with an inverse-factorial (sub-logarithmic) law found at the transition that corresponds to global minima. The inverse-factorial law is observed to be the most representative frequency distribution among optimal solutions

  11. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  12. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Need for a well-balanced sunscreen to protect human skin from both Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin exposure to sunlight can cause many adverse effects. It is now recognized that both Ultraviolet A (UVA and UVB wavelengths are responsible for the detrimental effects of solar radiation on skin. With our increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of UVA, the need for effective, well-balanced photoprotection has become more crucial. Numerous clinical studies showed that well-balanced sunscreen, with a SPF/UVAPF ratio ≤ 3, provide the most effective protection against pigmentation (especially on dark skin, DNA damage, UV-induced skin immunosuppression and photodermatoses. The calculation of UVA protection required in Asia revealed its particular importance in India, and gives clear evidence that the SPF value alone is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen.

  14. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  15. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; West, Haley; Borland, Rosilyne; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program. Participants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana, and Jordan. We assessed participants' knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. 178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93%) and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%). Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider's role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the "Role of the Health Provider," "Basic Definitions and Concepts," and "Health Consequences of Trafficking." Training health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners' knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for survivors.

  16. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  17. Complete genome sequence analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 reveals a saprobic lifestyle and the genes needed for human pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans.

  18. Complete genome sequence analysis of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 reveals a saprobic lifestyle and the genes needed for human pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    Full Text Available Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68% G+C content that encodes 8,414 proteins. We observed orthologs for virulence factors, a higher number of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and gene clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds, such as antibiotics, terpenes, and polyketides. An in silico analysis of the sequence supports the conclusion that the bacteria acquired diverse genes by horizontal transfer from other soil bacteria, even from eukaryotic organisms. The genome composition reflects the evolution of bacteria via the acquisition of a large amount of DNA, which allows it to survive in new ecological niches, including humans.

  19. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  20. Report on studies with doubly labelled water on adaptation in human energy needs in India, Mexico and Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggarty, P.; McNeill, G.; James, W.P.T.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the use of the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for estimating energy expenditure in free living subjects to investigate possible adaptation to low energy intakes in subjects in India, Mexico and Malaysia. The DLW method, which utilizes, the stable isotopes 2 H and 18 O, was used together with established methodologies to determine whether adaptation of energy needs to chronically low energy intakes occurs and, if so, whether it operates via an effect on metabolism, body composition or behaviour. Experimental design relevant on the DLW method is discussed with reference to the methodological problems anticipated for each of the groups studied. Particular attention is given to errors introduced by isotope sequestration and fractionation and the measures taken to deal with these potential sources of error. New approaches to monitoring mass spectrometer performance during routine sample analysis are described. A method is described whereby serial dilutions of the dose material may be analyzed as if they were biological samples and the pool size and water and CO 2 flux rates calculated as normal. The accuracy of pool size and water flux may be verified by comparison with the gravimetric data and the accuracy of the CO 2 flux determined by comparison with the theoretical value of zero. The formulae used to calculate pool size, and water and CO 2 flux rates are given. The results of the complete DLW studies are presented and areas of continuing work described. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease: need for mucosal viral load measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Campanini, Giulia; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Vanoli, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-02-14

    To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/10(5) cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/10(5) cells; P diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mucosal specimens.

  2. Quantifying commercial catch and effort of monkfish Lophius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch-per-unit-effort (cpue) data of vessels targeting monkfish and sole (the two ... analysed using two different methods to construct indices of abundance. ... in Namibia to all tail-weight classes is not appropriate for the current fishery and needs ... Keywords: catch per unit effort, Generalized Linear Model, Lophius vaillanti, ...

  3. Construction Students Aid in Hurricane Recovery Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiha, G. H.; Houston, Shelton

    2010-01-01

    According to Jacoby (1996), service-learning, officially defined in 1967, is "a form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities intentionally designed to promote student learning and development." Service-learning combines academic study,…

  4. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  5. Framework of communication needed to protect against human rights violations of individuals who exercise their right to religious freedom in minority religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus P. Pretorius

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The right to religious freedom is generally believed to be the solution to religious intolerance and discrimination and to ensure world peace amongst world citizens. On an international level, the United Nations, through the appointment of a special rapporteur for freedom of religion and belief, has introduced a tool to monitor violations of this right. This tool is known as �the framework of communications� and is focused mainly on the relationship between governments and religions. Unfortunately, religion is not excluded from the violation of human rights within its own ranks. This article pointed out that however pure the intention of freedom of religion, no real measures are in place to address violations of human rights in minority religions. Therefore, a tool is needed to investigate and address alleged violations within minority religions.

  6. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    The author first discusses the various concepts and definitions associated with energy needs, and then the difference between actual needs and energy needs by distinguishing personal needs, needs of the productive sector, energetic needs and services. In the next part, he discusses how energy needs are assessed. He discusses the relationship between energy needs and energy consumption, how energy consumptions can be analysed and interpreted. He comments how energy needs can be assessed and analysed in time and in space. He notices and explains why economy and climate are the main causes of spatial differences for energy needs per habitant, and comments the evolution of energy consumption over long periods

  7. Nanoparticle exposures from nano-enabled toner-based printing equipment and human health: state of science and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra Vanessa; Martin, John; Bello, Dhimiter; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-09-01

    , nasal blockage, excessive sputum production, breathing difficulties, and shortness of breath, in copier operators relative to controls. Such symptoms can be exacerbated during chronic exposures, and in individuals susceptible to inhaled pollutants. Thus respiratory, immunological, cardiovascular, and other disorders may be developed following such exposures; however, further toxicological and larger scale molecular epidemiological studies must be done to fully understand the mechanism of action of these TPE emitted nanoparticles. Major research gaps have also been identified. Among them, a methodical risk assessment based on "real world" exposures rather than on the toner particles alone needs to be performed to provide the much-needed data to establish regulatory guidelines protective of individuals exposed to TPE emissions at both the occupational and consumer level. Industry-wide molecular epidemiology as well as mechanistic animal and human studies are also urgently needed.

  8. Implementation of the Zuluaga-Raysmith (Z-R) model for assessment of perceived basic human needs in home health clients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, B H

    2000-01-01

    The Zuluaga-Raysmith (Z-R) model is a conceptual framework that incorporates accepted concepts of universal basic human needs developed by Maslow, yet removes the hierarchical nature of these. The Z-R model recognizes the existence of a health-illness continuum and accepts that an entity (individual, family, aggregate, or community) may move freely in the direction of greater health and self-actualization or towards illness and premature death. The Z-R model identifies 10 basic needs and recognizes that a perceived deficit in any one of these needs can adversely affect the level of wellness of the entity being considered. This exploratory and descriptive study used 11 nurses as interviewers. Subjects consisted of a convenience sample of homebound clients of a home health agency in a metropolitan city, and selected caregivers (n = 27). A modified functional wellness inventory (developed in 1993 by Louvenia Carter) was used with several open-ended questions, which together related to the 10 needs of the Z-R model. Reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.84. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, using means, percentages, and frequencies. Open-ended questions were grouped according to content and ranked in order of frequency. The five most pressing needs of this small sample were income; physical health; opportunity to make a contribution; mobility; and mental, emotional, social, and spiritual health (MESSH). Nurses unanimously reported that use of the instrument and the Z-R model helped them to focus on the total person, identify strengths in their clients, identify perceived needs deficits, and therefore, with the client, facilitate the preparation of a timely and cost-effective interdisciplinary plan of care to help the entity to move to a higher level of wellness despite the presence of chronic disease, disability, or impending death. These findings suggested that further research is warranted to explore the use of the Z-R model. A

  9. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  10. Perceived Parenting and Adolescent Cyber-Bullying: Examining the Intervening Role of Autonomy and Relatedness Need Satisfaction, Empathic Concern and Recognition of Humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousiani, Kyriaki; Dimitropoulou, Panagiota; Michaelides, Michalis P; Van Petegem, Stijn

    Due to the progress in information technology, cyber-bullying is becoming one of the most common forms of interpersonal harm, especially among teenagers. The present study ( N  = 548) aimed to investigate the relation between perceived parenting style (in terms of autonomy support and psychological control) and cyber-bullying in adolescence. Thereby, the study tested for the intervening role of adolescent need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and relatedness), empathic concern towards others, and adolescents' recognition of full humanness to cyber-bullying offenders and victims. Findings revealed both a direct and an indirect relation between parenting and cyber-bullying. More specifically, parental psychological control directly predicted cyber-bullying, whereas parental autonomy support related to less cyber-bullying indirectly, as it was associated with the satisfaction of adolescents' need for autonomy, which predicted more empathic concern towards others, which in turn differentially related to recognition of humanness to victims and bullies. The discussion focuses on the implications of the current findings.

  11. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  12. The Waqf of Money as a Community Economic Empowerment Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waqaf is basically seen as one of the religious institutions in Islam which is relevant and functionally efforts to solve socio-economic problems and humanity, such as poverty alleviation, human resource development, and economic empowerment. The endowments are absolutely an important role in achieving a just social order. From the perspective of shapes, endowment money is seen as one of the solutions that can make endowments to be more productive. Because the money here will no longer to be used as a means of exchange, but more than it, we can explore it as a commodity to produce in the terms of economic development. Therefore, the cash money in the form of waqaf of money can result any benefit for the community. Appearances distribution of endowments can be used to productive activity in the era of economic downturn of the Islamic community in Indonesia. Now it should become the primary choice. In another sense, it is a productive waqaf endowment that must be a priority and dedicated its efforts to more fruitful. Thus, the sizes of different paradigms are done by the consumptive waqaf, because it gives a new hope for the majority of the Muslim community. Endowments are not willing to lead in worship of mahdhah which is directed to the consumptive waqaf. Using the findings of waqaf has been prioritized to give benefit in a very broad, including for economic empowerment, such as public facilities and worship activities, social facilities and educational activities as well as health, aid to poor people, displaced children, orphans, scholarship, progress and economic improvement for the people who needs the advancement of public welfare other non-contrary to the sharia business law.

  13. Impact of human papilloma virus vaccination on adolescent knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for safer sexual behaviors in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayudi, Pande Kadek Aditya; Permatasari, Anak Agung Istri Yulan; Winata, I Gde Sastra; Suwiyoga, Ketut

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination on knowledge, perception of sexual risk and need for continued safe sexual behavior among Indonesian girls. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried on in Denpasar, the capital city of Bali, Indonesia, during September 2015-February 2016. A total of 828 adolescent girls (12-16 years) were recruited to assess their knowledge on HPV/HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risks and need for continued safe sexual behavior. A total of 419 girls (50.7%) had received HPV vaccination prior to the study, 76.4% of whom (320/419) had sufficient knowledge about HPV. HPV vaccination was a strong and independent predictor of higher HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge (adjusted OR [AOR], 9.358; 95%CI: 6.816-12.849, P < 0.001). HPV vaccination (AOR, 0.107; 95%CI: 0.074-0.155, P < 0.001) and higher knowledge level (AOR, 0.667; 95%CI: 0.464-0.958, P = 0.028) were associated with lower perceived HPV risk. Despite the low risk perception, most of the vaccinated girls (408/419, 97.4%) continued to perceive higher need for safe sexual behaviors. On multivariate analysis, higher knowledge was the independent predictor for higher perceived need for safe sexual behaviors (AOR, 4.260; 95%CI: 2.016-9.001, P < 0.001). The HPV vaccination was associated with higher knowledge and appropriately lower perception of HPV risk. Despite the vaccination, most of the adolescents continued to perceive a need for safer sexual behavior. All adolescent girls should receive HPV vaccination in order to reduce cervical cancer burden in the future. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Effort and Accuracy in Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    AUTOMIS . CONTPRACT OR GANT MUNGICAfO) Eric J. Johnson John W. Payne . NOOO-14-80-C-a 114 UPCOVRIMIS ORGANIZATION NDE1 AND AGOREM If- =AtI9ET PR 1T...concerning human rationality in the absence of a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of the criterion and the cost involved in evaluating the alternatives (p...can be thought of as being part of long-term memory. Arguments for the value of production systems as a representation of human cognitive processes

  15. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M

    2015-09-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…

  17. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: and further, the need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  18. Costing commodity and human resource needs for integrated community case management in thie differing community health strategies of Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefdt, Rory; Ribaira, Eric; Diallo, Khassoum

    2014-10-01

    To ensure correct and appropriate funding is available, there is a need to estimate resource needs for improved planning and implementation of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM). To compare and estimate costs for commodity and human resource needs for iCCM, based on treatment coverage rates, bottlenecks and national targets in Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia from 2014 to 2016. Resource needs were estimated using Ministry of Health (MoH) targets fronm 2014 to 2016 for implementation of case management of pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria through iCCM based on epidemiological, demographic, economic, intervention coverage and other health system parameters. Bottleneck analysis adjusted cost estimates against system barriers. Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia were chosen to compare differences in iCCM costs in different programmatic implementation landscapes. Coverage treatment rates through iCCM are lowest in Ethiopia, followed by Kenya and Zambia, but Ethiopia had the greatest increases between 2009 and 2012. Deployment of health extension workers (HEWs) in Ethiopia is more advanced compared to Kenya and Zambia, which have fewer equivalent cadres (called commu- nity health workers (CHWs)) covering a smaller proportion of the population. Between 2014 and 2016, the propor- tion of treatments through iCCM compared to health centres are set to increase from 30% to 81% in Ethiopia, 1% to 18% in Kenya and 3% to 22% in Zambia. The total estimated cost of iCCM for these three years are USD 75,531,376 for Ethiopia, USD 19,839,780 for Kenya and USD 33,667,742 for Zambia. Projected per capita expen- diture for 2016 is USD 0.28 for Ethiopia, USD 0.20 in Kenya and USD 0.98 in Zambia. Commodity costs for pneumonia and diarrhea were a small fraction of the total iCCM budget for all three countries (less than 3%), while around 80% of the costs related to human resources. Analysis of coverage, demography and epidemiology data improves estimates of fimding requirements for iCCM. Bottleneck

  19. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

    1995-01-01

    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  1. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses' efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam

    2012-03-01

    One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts' comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach's alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident.

  2. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  3. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  4. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  5. Workforce capacity to address obesity: a Western Australian cross-sectional study identifies the gap between health priority and human resources needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Andrea; Pollard, Christina Mary

    2016-08-25

    The disease burden due to poor nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity is high and increasing. An adequately sized and skilled workforce is required to respond to this issue. This study describes the public health nutrition and physical activity (NAPA) practice priorities and explores health managers and practitioner's beliefs regarding workforce capacity to deliver on these priorities. A workforce audit was conducted including a telephone survey of all managers and a postal survey of practitioners working in the area of NAPA promotion in Western Australia in 2004. Managers gave their perspective on workforce priorities, current competencies and future needs, with a 70 % response rate. Practitioners reported on public health workforce priorities, qualifications and needs, with a 56 % response rate. The top practice priorities for managers were diabetes (35 %), alcohol and other drugs (33 %), and cardiovascular disease (27 %). Obesity (19 %), poor nutrition (15 %) and inadequate physical activity (10 %) were of lower priority. For nutrition, managers identified lack of staff (60.4 %), organisational and management factors (39.5 %) and insufficient financial resources (30.2 %) as the major barriers to adequate service delivery. For physical activity services, insufficient financial resources (41.7 %) and staffing (35.4 %) and a lack of specific physical activity service specifications (25.0 %) were the main barriers. Practitioners identified inadequate staffing as the main barrier to service delivery for nutrition (42.3 %) and physical activity (23.3 %). Ideally, managers said they required 152 % more specialist nutritionists in the workforce and 131 % specialists for physical activity services to meet health outcomes in addition to other generalist staff. Human and financial resources and organisational factors were the main barriers to meeting obesity, and public health nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Services were being delivered by

  6. Dissociating variability and effort as determinants of coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O'Sullivan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When coordinating movements, the nervous system often has to decide how to distribute work across a number of redundant effectors. Here, we show that humans solve this problem by trying to minimize both the variability of motor output and the effort involved. In previous studies that investigated the temporal shape of movements, these two selective pressures, despite having very different theoretical implications, could not be distinguished; because noise in the motor system increases with the motor commands, minimization of effort or variability leads to very similar predictions. When multiple effectors with different noise and effort characteristics have to be combined, however, these two cost terms can be dissociated. Here, we measure the importance of variability and effort in coordination by studying how humans share force production between two fingers. To capture variability, we identified the coefficient of variation of the index and little fingers. For effort, we used the sum of squared forces and the sum of squared forces normalized by the maximum strength of each effector. These terms were then used to predict the optimal force distribution for a task in which participants had to produce a target total force of 4-16 N, by pressing onto two isometric transducers using different combinations of fingers. By comparing the predicted distribution across fingers to the actual distribution chosen by participants, we were able to estimate the relative importance of variability and effort of 1:7, with the unnormalized effort being most important. Our results indicate that the nervous system uses multi-effector redundancy to minimize both the variability of the produced output and effort, although effort costs clearly outweighed variability costs.

  7. Human reliability guidance - How to increase the synergies between human reliability, human factors, and system design and engineering. Phase 1: The Nordic Point of View - A user needs analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxstrand, J.; Boring, R.L.

    2010-12-01

    The main goal of this Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) council project is to produce guidance for how to use human reliability analysis (HRA) to strengthen overall safety. This project is intended to work across (and hopefully diminish) the borders that exist between human reliability analysis (HRA) and human-system interaction, human performance, human factors, and probabilistic risk assessment at Nordic nuclear power plants. This project consists of two major phases, where the initial phase (phase 1) is a study of current practices in the Nordic region, which is presented in this report. Even though the project covers the synergies between HRA and all other relevant fields, the main focus for the phase is to bridge HRA and design. Interviews with 26 Swedish and Finnish plant experts are summarized the present report, and 10 principles to improve the utilization of HRA at plants are presented. A second study, which is not documented in this preliminary report, will chronicle insights into how the US nuclear industry works with HRA. To gain this knowledge the author will conduct interviews with the US regulator, research laboratories, and utilities. (Author)

  8. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  9. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasburg, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  10. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self...

  11. Estimation of total Effort and Effort Elapsed in Each Step of Software Development Using Optimal Bayesian Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zare Baghiabad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy in estimating the needed effort for software development caused software effort estimation to be a challenging issue. Beside estimation of total effort, determining the effort elapsed in each software development step is very important because any mistakes in enterprise resource planning can lead to project failure. In this paper, a Bayesian belief network was proposed based on effective components and software development process. In this model, the feedback loops are considered between development steps provided that the return rates are different for each project. Different return rates help us determine the percentages of the elapsed effort in each software development step, distinctively. Moreover, the error measurement resulted from optimized effort estimation and the optimal coefficients to modify the model are sought. The results of the comparison between the proposed model and other models showed that the model has the capability to highly accurately estimate the total effort (with the marginal error of about 0.114 and to estimate the effort elapsed in each software development step.

  12. Empowering Learning through Natural, Human, and Building Ecologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobet, Robert J.

    This article asserts that it is critical to understand the connections between human ecology and building ecology to create humane environments that show inspiration and creativity and that also serve diverse needs. It calls for efforts to: (1) construct an environmental education approach that fuses the three ecologies (natural, human, and…

  13. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  14. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    diverted into the Porong River through a mud pump system. Also we continuously monitor changes in eruption behavior and try to anticipate the consequences, particularly after the Ring Dyke (of main vent) collapsed and became useless in controlling the flow. In September 2009 spectacular eruption intensity with kick and wave developed and is continuing. Surface and subsurface investigations continue ceaselessly to try to understand the forces driving the eruption. There are no precedents for mitigation of such a large scale mud volcano in a densely populated area that seems destined to continue for a very long time. This makes all efforts to stop eruption together with the emergency efforts, which have to be conducted simultaneously with recovery and reconstruction efforts that cover all basic needs of people live in the area. This is why BPLS has to develop innovative and creative efforts, mainly by applying the basic principle of learning by doing.

  15. Trust and Reciprocity: Are Effort and Money Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts) money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate). Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences. PMID:21364931

  16. Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Research needs were identified during working sessions for several potential separation options. These options include sequestering agents, solvent extraction, membranes, solid sorbents, novel approaches, organic separation and destruction methods, and radiation and chemical stability of separation materials

  17. The Vatican and Unesco Link Efforts for World Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Leo V., Brother

    1970-01-01

    The problem of functional literacy has been recognized as a moral issue and offers a special challenge to religious authorities. Founded at the Vatican level in March 1969, the Committee on Human Development was commissioned to promote and animate efforts in: (a) basic education; (b) leadership training; (c) vocational education; (d) opinion…

  18. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves. Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  19. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  20. Korean efforts for education and training network in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyong-Won; Lee, Eui-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been a backbone for Korea's remarkable economic growth, and will continue its essential role with 18 nuclear power plants in operation, 2 more units under construction, 6 more units in planning. Korea is operating its own designed nuclear power plants, such as KSNP, 1400, as well as self-design and operation of 30 MW Hanaro research reactor. Korea makes strong efforts to develop future nuclear technology. They are the System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor, SMART, Korea Advanced Liquid Metal reactor, KALIMER, Hydrogen Production reactor, and Proliferation-resistant Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In parallel, Korea is establishing an Advanced Radiation Technology R and D Center and a High Power Proton Accelerator Center. International, next generation nuclear power technologies are being developed through projects such as the IAEA Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle, INPRO, Generation IV International Forum, GIF, and International thermonuclear Experimental reactor, ITER. In the new millennium, Korea expects that radiation technology combined with bio, nano, and space technology will sustain our civilization. About 21,000 qualified nuclear human resources are engaged in power and non-power fields such as design and manufacturing of equipment, plant operation and maintenance, safety, RI production, R and D, etc. However, it is recognized that the first generation of nuclear work force is getting older and retired, less of our youth are studying nuclear science and engineering. Korean Government has established a promotion program on nuclear human resources development, which is needed until 2010. For the sustainable development of nuclear science and technology, it calls for more qualified human resources. We ought to encourage our youth to become more interested in nuclear studies and careers. Korea is making strong efforts to support nuclear education and training for young generations. It is believed that internationally accepted advanced

  1. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  2. "HPV? Never heard of it!": a systematic review of girls' and parents' information needs, views and preferences about human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Maggie; Lewis, Ruth; Clements, Alison; Damery, Sarah; Wilkinson, Clare

    2013-10-25

    Two human papillomavirus vaccines were licenced in 2006/2007 for cervical cancer prevention. National vaccination programmes for schoolgirls were subsequently introduced in some European countries, North America and Australia. To understand factors influencing vaccine uptake and to inform the development of appropriate UK educational materials, we aimed to synthesise evidence of girls' and parents' information needs, views and preferences regarding HPV vaccination. Systematic review and mixed method synthesis of qualitative and survey data. Twelve electronic databases; bibliographies of included studies 1980 to August 2011. Two reviewers independently screened papers and appraised study quality. Studies were synthesised collaboratively using framework methods for qualitative data, and survey results integrated where they supported, contrasted or added to the themes identified. Twenty-eight qualitative studies and 44 surveys were included. Where vaccination was offered, uptake was high. Intention to decline was related to a preference for vaccinating later to avoid appearing to condone early sexual activity, concerns about vaccine safety and low perception of risk of HPV infection. Knowledge was poor and there were many misconceptions; participants tried to assess the potential benefits and harms of vaccination but struggled to interpret limited information about HPV in the context of existing knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and cancer. Conclusion Many girls and their parents have limited understanding to an extent that impinges on their ability to make informed choices about HPV vaccination and could impact on future uptake of cervical screening. This is a considerable challenge to those who design and provide information, but getting the messages right for this programme could help in developing patient information about other HPV related cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  4. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments."…

  5. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  6. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC

    2015-01-25

    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  7. Need theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Need theory of happiness is linked to affect theory, which holds that happiness is a reflection of how well we feel generally. In this view, we do not "calculate" happiness but rather "infer" it, the typical heuristic being "I feel good most of the time, hence

  8. Health information technology needs help from primary care researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Green, Lee A; Phillips, Robert L; Beasley, John W; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Klinkman, Michael S; Hughes, John; Puro, Jon; Fox, Chester H; Burdick, Tim

    2015-01-01

    While health information technology (HIT) efforts are beginning to yield measurable clinical benefits, more is needed to meet the needs of patients and clinicians. Primary care researchers are uniquely positioned to inform the evidence-based design and use of technology. Research strategies to ensure success include engaging patient and clinician stakeholders, working with existing practice-based research networks, and using established methods from other fields such as human factors engineering and implementation science. Policies are needed to help support primary care researchers in evaluating and implementing HIT into everyday practice, including expanded research funding, strengthened partnerships with vendors, open access to information systems, and support for the Primary Care Extension Program. Through these efforts, the goal of improved outcomes through HIT can be achieved. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  9. Value, utility and needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Positive Psychology and Self-Determination Theory (SDT, Deci & Ryan, 2000) share an ambition to identify the sources of value and human flourishing. In the 19th century, the emerging science of economics similarly investigated the nature of social value in a capitalist society that placed a price...... in SDT have gathered extensive evidence that needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness must be met for human flourishing and eudaimonia to occur (Ryan, Huta and Deci, 2013). There is a short step to arguing that what is valuable in life is what satisfies human needs. As has been established by SDT...... on every commodity. In this conceptual paper, SDTs’ mini-theory of Basic Psychological Needs is applied to solve the “paradox of value” in economics (Weisskopf, 1956): Why are some things that are practically free, such as oxygen, water and fellowship, so valuable to people, while others, often craved...

  10. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  11. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  12. Pocket money and child effort at school

    OpenAIRE

    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  13. Learning to Understand Natural Language with Less Human Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Supervision Distant supervision is a recent trend in information extraction. Distantly-supervised extractors are trained using a corpus of unlabeled text...consists of fill-in-the-blank natural language questions such as “Incan emperor ” or “Cunningham directed Auchtre’s second music video .” These questions...with an 132 unknown knowledge base, simultaneously learning how to semantically parse language and pop - ulate the knowledge base. The weakly

  14. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  15. Climbing the Needs Pyramids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s theory of human adult motivation is often represented by a pyramid image showing two proposals: First, the five needs stages in emergent order of hierarchical ascension and second, a percentage of the adult population suggested to occupy each needs tier. Specifically, Maslow proposed that adults would be motivated to satisfy their unfilled needs until they reached the hierarchy’s apex and achieved self-transcendence. Yet how adults can purposefully ascend Maslow’s pyramid through satisfying unfilled needs remains elusive. This brief article challenges this on the theory’s 70th anniversary by presenting a new image of the needs hierarchy, based on ecological design principles to support adults’ purposeful endeavors to climb the needs pyramid.

  16. Implementation of a national school-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign in Fiji: knowledge, vaccine acceptability and information needs of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vincente, S F; Mielnik, D; Jenkins, K; Bingwor, F; Volavola, L; Marshall, H; Druavesi, P; Russell, F M; Lokuge, K; Mulholland, E K

    2015-12-18

    In 2008 Fiji implemented a nationwide Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign targeting all girls aged 9-12 years through the existing school-based immunisation program. Parents of vaccine-eligible girls were asked to provide written consent for vaccination. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' knowledge, experiences and satisfaction with the campaign, the extent to which information needs for vaccine decision-making were met, and what factors were associated with vaccine consent. Following vaccine introduction, a cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with parents of vaccine-eligible girls from randomly selected schools, stratified by educational district. Factors related to vaccine consent were explored using Generalised Estimating Equations. There were 560 vaccine-eligible girls attending the participating 19 schools at the time of the campaign. Among these, 313 parents could be contacted, with 293 agreeing to participate (93.6%). Almost 80% of participants reported having consented to HPV vaccination (230/293, 78.5%). Reported knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV prior to the campaign was very low. Most respondents reported that they were satisfied with their access to information to make an informed decision about HPV vaccination (196/293, 66.9%). and this was very strongly associated with provision of consent. Despite their young age, the vaccine-eligible girls were often involved in the discussion and decision-making. Most consenting parents were satisfied with the campaign and their decision to vaccinate, with almost 90% indicating they would consent to future HPV vaccination. However, negative media reports about the vaccine campaign created confusion and concern. Local health staff were cited as a trusted source of information to guide decision-making. Just over half of the participants who withheld consent cited vaccine safety fears as the primary reason (23/44, 52.3%). This is the first reported experience of HPV introduction

  17. Health care providers and human trafficking: What do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  18. TEACHER NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Part-time teacher of primary English needed from 1st December 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: engnat@hotmail.com or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before November 20th. English National Programme - Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire

  19. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  1. TEACHERS NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The English Language Programme of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire has two teaching posts available for la rentrée 2001. 1. Part-time teacher of Primary-level English Candidates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree and teaching qualification. The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system. Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée. Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team. Induction & training are offered. 2. Part-time teacher of Secondary-level history-geography Candididates for the post need to be mother-tongue English speakers. They should have a relevant degree in history or geography and also a strong interest in the other subject. They should have a relevant teaching qualification and be confident classroom practioners. For more information on either of these posts please contact the school office on 04.50.40.82...

  2. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  3. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  4. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  5. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  6. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  7. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  8. EFFORTS AND INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BOLIVIAN LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Rico Encinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equitable distribution of income, along with human development indices, is among the factors that differentiate developed from developing countries. In this paper, efforts and other variables related to the circumstances of individuals were quantified and analyzed together with traditional determinants in order to explain inequality in the working population of Bolivia. We estimated econometric models by merging the extended Mincer equation with John Roemer’s theory of Inequality of Opportunity. We find that efforts are important determinants of the levels of wage inequality in the country as well as regional development, labor informality, gender and ethnicity. In this sense, the paper separates the part of wage inequality that may be attributed to situations that are beyond the control of individuals and that can be attributed to conscious decisions. Micro simulations determined that it would be possible to reduce inequality by as much as 21% if it gives people the chance to make similar efforts to improve their wages.

  9. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  10. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  11. Concept of Household Waste in Environmental Pollution Prevention Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarsih, Elvi

    2014-01-01

    Background : Waste is materials that are not used anymore which is the rest of human activities result including household, industrial, and mining. At a certain concentration, the presence of the waste can have a negative impact on the environment and on human health, so we need a proper handling for the waste. Household waste is waste from the kitchen, bathroom, laundry, house hold waste and industrial former human waste. Household waste that is over and it is not overcome is very potential ...

  12. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  13. Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are a primary method in malaria control efforts. However, a decline in the biological efficacy and physical integrity over a period of comparatively lesser time than claimed, waning of naturally acquired immunity among regular users and misuse of LLINs are serious concerns. Search and selection of literature: The literature for the current review was searched in PubMed, SCOPUS Database and Google using combined search strings of related key-words. Literature with sufficient data and information on the current subject was selected to reach a valid conclusion. Findings: The World Health Organization (WHO has emphasized that LLINs should be considered a public good for people inhabiting malaria endemic settings. LLINs exhibited a cumulative effect on the vector density and may force anthropophilic mosquito vectors to find alternative animal hosts for blood meal. However, the physical integrity and biological activity of LLINs declines faster than the anticipated time due to different operational conditions and the spread of insecticide resistance. LLINs have been successful in reducing malaria incidences by either reducing or not allowing human exposure to the vector mosquitoes, but at the same time, LLINs debilitate the natural protective immunity against malaria parasite. Misuse of LLINs for deviant purposes is common and is a serious environmental concern, as people believe that traditional methods of prevention against malaria that have enabled them to survive through a long time are effective and sufficient. Moreover, people are often ill-informed regarding the toxic effects of LLINs. Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial

  14. Literacy And Reward: Teachers’ Effort To Build Children Reading Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Arisandi Komang Widia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children at early levels of primary school require appropriate guidance in their initial reading skill. They need to be trained on how reading becomes an enjoyable routine activity. This study aimed at describing teachers’ effort to build children reading habit. This study employed a qualitative descriptive study and conducted at North Bali Bilingual School Bali. The data were collected through observations and interview. The findings of the study showed that there were several activities conducted by the teacher as efforts to build children reading habit. In terms of building students’ reading habit, the teacher used (1 Point-written in Reading Rocket Chart (PRRC, (2 Chip (white, yellow, green for appreciating good behaviour in reading and using English, (3 Certificate, (4 Class Reward, and (5 Free Play Time. With these efforts, it is evident that the students’ literacy improves and they exhibited great enthusiasm in their reading and studying literacy in the classroom.

  15. Inpo/industry job and task analysis efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the goals of INPO is to develop and coordinate industrywide programs to improve the education, training and qualification of nuclear utility personnel. To accomplish this goal, INPO's Training and Education Division: conducts periodic evaluations of industry training programs; provides assistance to the industry in developing training programs; manages the accreditation of utility training programs. These efforts are aimed at satisfying the need for training programs for nuclear utility personnel to be performance-based. Performance-based means that training programs provide an incumbent with the skills and knowledge required to safely perform the job. One of the ways that INPO has provided assistance to the industry is through the industrywide job and task analysis effort. I will discuss the job analysis and task analysis processes, the current status of JTA efforts, JTA products and JTA lessons learned

  16. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

  17. Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…

  18. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  19. Overlapping neural systems represent cognitive effort and reward anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassena, Eliana; Silvetti, Massimo; Boehler, Carsten N; Achten, Eric; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Anticipating a potential benefit and how difficult it will be to obtain it are valuable skills in a constantly changing environment. In the human brain, the anticipation of reward is encoded by the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Striatum. Naturally, potential rewards have an incentive quality, resulting in a motivational effect improving performance. Recently it has been proposed that an upcoming task requiring effort induces a similar anticipation mechanism as reward, relying on the same cortico-limbic network. However, this overlapping anticipatory activity for reward and effort has only been investigated in a perceptual task. Whether this generalizes to high-level cognitive tasks remains to be investigated. To this end, an fMRI experiment was designed to investigate anticipation of reward and effort in cognitive tasks. A mental arithmetic task was implemented, manipulating effort (difficulty), reward, and delay in reward delivery to control for temporal confounds. The goal was to test for the motivational effect induced by the expectation of bigger reward and higher effort. The results showed that the activation elicited by an upcoming difficult task overlapped with higher reward prospect in the ACC and in the striatum, thus highlighting a pivotal role of this circuit in sustaining motivated behavior.

  20. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  1. STAFF NEEDED

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The English National Programme, part of the Lycée International de Ferney-Voltaire (France) needs the following staff for September 2001: A part-time teacher of primary English The post involves teaching the English curriculum to pupils who are within the French educational system: Classes take place on Tuesday afternoons at the Lycée, Team spirit necessary as teachers work as a team, Induction & training are offered. A part time teacher of senior secondary history-geography in English A part time teacher of secondary mathematics in English Teachers must be mother-tongue English speakers and have a relevant degree and/or teaching qualification. For the history-geography post, either history or geography degrees are acceptable. Please send your c.v. and a letter of application to Peter Woodburn, Head, English National Programme, Lycée International, 01216 Ferney-Voltaire, France. (Email: engnat@hotmail.com) Telephone 04 50 40 82 66 for further details of posts. Ple...

  2. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  3. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either or from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system. (author)

  4. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  5. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  6. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  7. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  8. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  9. Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this year's Scientific Forum is to increase Member States' awareness that technical co-operation in non-power applications can produce cost-effective solutions to high-priority problems of sustainable development. The major themes covered include nuclear applications in food production and preservation, human and animal health, pest control and eradication

  10. Serving human needs: Nuclear technology for sustainable development. Scientific forum during the 45th regular session of the IAEA General Conference. Programme and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this year's Scientific Forum is to increase Member States' awareness that technical co-operation in non-power applications can produce cost-effective solutions to high-priority problems of sustainable development. The major themes covered include nuclear applications in food production and preservation, human and animal health, pest control and eradication.

  11. Current and future availability of and need for human resources for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Arias, Maria; Nove, Andrea; Michel-Schuldt, Michaela; de Bernis, Luc

    2017-05-03

    The WHO African region, covering the majority of Sub-Saharan Africa, faces the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in the world. This study uses data from the State of the World's Midwifery 2014 survey to cast a spotlight on the WHO African region, highlight the specific characteristics of its sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health (SRMNH) workforce and describe and compare countries' different trajectories in terms of meeting the population need for services. Using data from 41 African countries, this study used a mathematical model to estimate potential met need for SRMNH services, defined as "the percentage of a universal SRMNH package that could potentially be obtained by women and newborns given the composition, competencies and available working time of the SRMNH workforce." The model defined the 46 key interventions included in this universal SRMNH package and allocated them to the available health worker time and skill set in each country to estimate the potential met need. Based on the current and projected potential met need in the future, the countries were grouped into three categories: (1) 'making or maintaining progress' (expected to meet more, or the same level, of the need in the future than currently): 14 countries including Ghana, Senegal and South Africa, (2) 'at risk' (currently performing relatively well but expected to deteriorate due to the health workforce not keeping pace with population growth): 6 countries including Gabon, Rwanda and Zambia, and (3) 'low performing' (not performing well and not expected to improve): 21 countries including Burkina Faso, Eritrea and Sierra Leone. The three groups face different challenges, and policy solutions to increasing met need should be tailored to the specific context of the country. National health workforce accounts should be strengthened so that workforce planning can be evidence-informed.

  12. Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge people's choices to enable them live a healthy and prolonged life, acquire knowledge, and have access to resources needed to earn a decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other ...

  13. Achievement of Abraham Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory among Teachers: Implications for Human Resource Management in the Secondary School System in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiele, E.E.; Abraham, Nath. M.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the achievement of Abraham Maslow's need hierarchy theory among secondary school teachers in Rivers State. A 25-item questionnaire was designed, validated and administered on a sample of 500 teachers drawn from 245 secondary schools in Rivers State. The result revealed that secondary school teachers indicated insignificant…

  14. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  15. Challenges and needs for China to eliminate rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenwu; Dong, Jie; Tu, Changchun; Edwards, John; Guo, Fusheng; Zhou, Hang; Yu, Hongjie; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-10-02

    In China, rabies is a significant public health concern where dogs remain the main reservoir of disease transmission to humans; rabies-related mortality ranks second in the world.We compiled all published articles and official documents on rabies in mainland China to examine challenges and needs to eliminate rabies in the country. The Chinese authorities have identified rabies as a priority, recognized rabies control in dogs as key to control rabies in humans and required intersectoral collaborations. Efforts have been made to respond effectively to the latest re-emergence of rabies, which peaked in 2007 with >3,300 cases. Despite these outcomes and the increasing volume of publications and regulations in the recent years, our review points to some major information gaps to improve rabies control activities and envisage elimination program. An emphasis on laboratory or pathogen-associated and basic epidemiology research in the literature has contrasted with the absence of information to monitor various systems in humans and animals (e.g. quality of surveillance, response and post-exposure prophylaxis). Information is also lacking to appropriately inform policymakers (e.g. economic disease burden, impact of policies) and assist program managers (e.g. comprehensive and strategic guidance for cost-effective prevention and control activities, public education and dog population management).In conclusion, strategic planning is needed to provide a sense of direction, demonstrate feasibility of elimination in China, and develop a research agenda, addressing country's operational needs and constraints. The planning should be a multisectoral effort.

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of NASA’s Human Computer Interaction Group Examining the Root Causes of Focusing on Derivative System Improvements Versus Core User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    toward qualitative analysis methods where they excelled at user research and workflow process analysis consistent with their formal training, rather...to a single one (e.g., one type of user research or graphic design) at larger Silicon Valley firms. The core competency of the design team tended...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF NASA’S HUMAN COMPUTER

  17. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Coker; Samuel Kizito

    2018-01-01

    An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the re...

  18. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA

  19. The Mechanisms to Consolidate Staff Efforts in the Targeting of Increasing the Competitive Potential of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legominova Svitlana V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The topicality of focusing efforts to improve the competitive potential of enterprise through intellectualization of its staff, using continuous training in accordance with technological regimes and modern trends, has been rationalized. The author has analyzed the structural features of intellectual capital, determining the need for their efficient interaction to gain competitive value. A combination of behavioristic and cognitive approaches has been proposed, using a holistic model of human resources management in order to ensure efficient management and consideration of specific characteristics of cognitive behavior. It has been proven that the competitive potential of enterprise is directly dependent on the accumulation and diffusion of knowledge, should be of permanent nature, ensuring a stable increase in the competitive potential of enterprise and creating the ground for the formation of leadership positions, thus determining the basic mainstreams of development.

  20. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

  1. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  2. DOD Financial Management: Improvement Needed in DOD Components’ Implementation of Audit Readiness Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    DOD Financial Management Abbreviations AFB Air Force Base COSO Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway... Management and mismanagement.11 All of DOD’s programs on GAO’s High- Risk List relate to its business operations, including systems and processes... Management maintains audit readiness through risk -based periodic testing of internal controls utilizing the OMB Circular No. A-123, Appendix A

  3. More efforts needed to curb air pollution caused by road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Traimany, A.

    2001-09-01

    In France, road transport is the main source of pollutant emissions in urban areas despite a fall in emissions of certain pollutants, recently achieved following significant technological progress and new legislation adopted. In addition, CO 2 emissions from motor vehicles continue to rise, accounting for about 40 % of net CO 2 emissions in France. These trends are mainly due to consumer behaviour and the use of motor vehicles. The sharp increase in passenger and freight traffic and an increase in the distances covered have negative impacts on the environment. In light of this situation, new technologies appear to be an inadequate solution to reverse emission trends. (A.L.B.)

  4. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    documented and disseminated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted......INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging...... to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were...

  5. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were documented and disseminated. Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted and information about project results and dissemination were obtained. More than half of all projects were disseminated to professionals as well as to the public and used two-way communication. However, it was generally difficult to obtain an overview of the projects due to dynamic changes in names and scopes. We propose that the funding authorities require designs comprising proper evaluation models that will subsequently allow the investigators to publish their findings. Furthermore, a dissemination plan comprising both peers and other professions should be made mandatory. The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. not relevant. not relevant.

  6. Defense Business Transformation: A Comprehensive Plan, Integrated Efforts, and Sustained Leadership are Needed to Assure Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, David M

    2006-01-01

    .... These high-risk areas relate to most of DOD's major business operations. DOD's failure to effectively resolve these high-risk areas has resulted in billions of dollars of waste each year, ineffective performance, and inadequate accountability...

  7. Defense Institution Building: The Dynamics of Change in Georgia and the Need for Continuity of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    including military personnel. Based on his personal interviews and observations, Driscoll argues that “warlords could thus formalize their patron ...had “displayed leadership and an acute grasp of military affairs.”95 Consequently, his Ministry of Defense was heavily staffed by Soviet or Russian

  8. Defense Management. Overarching Organizational Framework Needed to Guide and Oversee Energy Reduction Efforts for Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M; Gosling, Thomas; Angulo, Karyn; Czyz, Alissa; Mak, Marie

    2008-01-01

    .... Dependence on foreign oil, projected increases in worldwide demand, and rising oil costs, as well as the significant logistics burden associated with moving fuel on the battlefield, will likely...

  9. DOD Financial Management: Improvements Needed in the Navys Audit Readiness Efforts for Fund Balance with Treasury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    the Navy’s FBWT FIP key deliverables, such as process narratives and flowcharts , internal control assessments, and test results. What GAO...Navy did not fully document its FBWT process in system narratives and flowcharts . For example, the Navy’s analysis did not explain the complex process...information systems supporting financial statement line items or other discrete portions of the program ). Identifying controls by assessable unit

  10. Growth and neurological outcome in ELBW preterms fed with human milk and extra-protein supplementation as routine practice: do we need further evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Augusto; Marvulli, Lucia; Neri, Erica; China, Mariachiara; Stella, Marcello; Monti, Fiorella

    2012-10-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight infants (ELBW) should be given nutrients to enable them to grow at the same rate as foetuses of the same gestational age, and lean body components, particularly the brain, are dependent on protein intake. Fortified human milk remains the best food for these preterms. Two groups of preterm infants weighing 580-1250 g and with a gestational age of 23-32 weeks were fed with different protein intakes in fortified human/maternal milk (3.5 g kg(-1) per day and 4.8 g kg(-1) per day in the control and extra-protein groups, respectively). The tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 9 months corrected age were evaluated. The extra-protein regime showed an intrahospital growth advantage (mostly in growth of head circumference, p 0.02, and length, p 0.04) only in the preterms weighing 580-980 g and aged 23-30 weeks. In the same preterms, the Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 months corrected age showed higher scores than in the control group (p 0.04). Growth during the post-discharge period for the experimental group at 9 months corrected age showed mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group (p 0.04).

  11. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  12. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  13. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  14. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  15. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  16. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  17. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  18. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reasonable limits to radiation protection efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that change in life expectancy (ΔLE) is an improved estimate for risks and safety efforts, reflecting the relevant social goal. A cost-effectiveness index, safety investment/ΔLE, is defined. The harm from low level radiation is seen as a reduction of life expectancy instead of an increased probability of contracting cancer. (author)

  20. Need for appropriate formulations for children: the national institute of child health and human development-pediatric formulations initiative, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The development and compounding of pharmacotherapeutic formulations that are suitable for infants and young children can be a challenging problem. This problem results from the lack of knowledge on the acceptability of different dosage forms and formulations in children in relation to age and developmental status, as well as the lack of reliable documentation of formulations used in pediatric clinical trials. As part of its mandate under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act to improve pediatric therapeutics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has sponsored the Pediatric Formulation Initiative. The goal of this ongoing initiative is to address the issues and concnerns associated with pediatric therapeutics by convening groups of researchers and experts in pediatric formulations from academia, pharmaceutical companies, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  1. Vocal effort modulates the motor planning of short speech structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitz, Alan; Shalom, Diego E.; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2018-05-01

    Speech requires programming the sequence of vocal gestures that produce the sounds of words. Here we explored the timing of this program by asking our participants to pronounce, as quickly as possible, a sequence of consonant-consonant-vowel (CCV) structures appearing on screen. We measured the delay between visual presentation and voice onset. In the case of plosive consonants, produced by sharp and well defined movements of the vocal tract, we found that delays are positively correlated with the duration of the transition between consonants. We then used a battery of statistical tests and mathematical vocal models to show that delays reflect the motor planning of CCVs and transitions are proxy indicators of the vocal effort needed to produce them. These results support that the effort required to produce the sequence of movements of a vocal gesture modulates the onset of the motor plan.

  2. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eHolec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  3. Andrei Sakharov Prize Talk: Supporting Repressed Scientists: Continuing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Joseph L.

    2010-02-01

    Some years ago, Max Perutz asked ``By What Right Do We Scientists Invoke Human Rights?" My presentation will start with mentioning actions of the international community which relate to this question. Such action as the creation in 1919 of the International Research Council, and continuing on to the present with the UN sanctioned International Council of Scientific Unions [ICSU], and other Committees such as those formed by APS, CCS, NYAS, AAAS which give support to repressed scientists around the world now. My own work has attempted to combine my individual initiatives with work as a member and officer of these groups. Together with like minded colleagues who are deeply affected when colleagues are discharged from their positions, exiled, imprisoned and subject to brutal treatment, often after mock ``trials", we react. On visits in 1968 to conferences in Budapest, and then in 1969 to Moscow, Tallin and Leningrad I became personally and deeply touched by the lives of colleagues who were seriously constrained by living under dictatorships. I could move freely into and out of their countries,speak openly about my work or any other matter. They could not, under penalty of possibly serious punishment. Yet, I felt these people were like my extended family. If my grandparents had not left Eastern Europe for the USA in the late 189Os our situations could have been reversed. A little later in the 197O's, ``refusenik" and ``dissident" scientists in the USSR needed support. Colleagues like Andrei Sakharov, Naum Meiman, Mark Azbel, Yakov Alpert, Yuri Orlov and others were being punished for exercising their rights under the UN sanctioned international protocals on ``Universality of Science and Free Circulation of Scientists". Their own governments [which signed these agreements] ignored the very protections they had supported. On frequent trips to the USSR during the 7Os,and 8Os I also seized the opportunity for ``individual initiative" to help these colleagues. I asked for

  4. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  5. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  6. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormanjieva, Olga; Abran, A.; Braungarten, R.; Dumke, R.; Cuadrado-Gallego, J.; Brunekreef, J.

    2009-01-01

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient

  7. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    1994-01-01

    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  8. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  9. Evaluative language, cognitive effort and attitude change.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Pligt, J.; van Schie, E.C.M.; Martijn, C.

    1994-01-01

    Tested the hypotheses that evaluatively biased language influences attitudes and that the magnitude and persistence of attitude change depends on the amount of cognitive effort. 132 undergraduates participated in the experiment, which used material focusing on the issue of restricting adolescent driving over the weekends to reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents. Results indicate that evaluatively biased language can affect attitudes. Using words that evaluate the pro-position positivel...

  10. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  11. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  12. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  13. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric; Kizito, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region. PMID:29494501

  14. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric; Kizito, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region.

  15. Need for appropriate formulations for children: the national institute of child health and human development-pediatric formulations initiative, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The development and compounding of pharmacotherapeutic formulations that are suitable for infants and young children can be a challenging problem. This problem results from the lack of knowledge on the acceptability of different dosage forms and formulations to children in relation to age and developmental status, as well as the lack of reliable documentation of formulations used in pediatric clinical trials. As part of its mandate under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act to improve pediatric therapeutics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has sponsored the Pediatric Formulations Initiative. The goal of this ongoing initiative is to address the issues and concerns associated with pediatric therapeutics by convening groups of researchers and experts in pediatric formulations from academia, pharmaceutical companies, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this second part of a two-part article, the activities of the various groups that constitute the Pediatric Formulations Initiative are discussed, in addition the Initiative's future activities and plans are outlined.

  16. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Coker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts from ambient air pollution in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of human disease attributable to ambient air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa is growing, yet estimates of its impact on the region are possibly underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, a paucity of air pollution epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of ambient air pollution epidemiologic data in sub-Saharan Africa is also an important global health disparity. Thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America, rather than in urban areas that have some of the highest measured air pollution levels in world, including urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we provide a systematic and narrative review of the literature on ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in the region to date. Our review of the literature focuses on epidemiologic studies that measure air pollutants and relate air pollution measurements with various health outcomes. We highlight the gaps in ambient air pollution epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing ambient air pollution in the region.

  17. Pediatric tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in the United Kingdom highlights the need for better therapy monitoring tools: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Honeyborne, Isobella; McHugh, Timothy D; Klein, Nigel; Shingadia, Delane

    2017-02-26

    Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy. In order to determine whether there was any live bacteria present in his specimens, we applied the newly developed molecular bacterial load assay that detects the presence of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid derived from the bacteria. Using this methodology, we were able to quantify his bacterial load and inform the management of his treatment in order to reduce the disease burden. Following this intervention he went on to make a complete recovery. This case report highlights the value of improved biomarkers for monitoring the treatment of tuberculosis and the role of molecular assays such as the molecular bacterial load assay applied here. The molecular bacterial load assay detects bacterial ribonucleic acid which corresponds closely with the number of live bacilli as compared with polymerase chain reaction that detects deoxyribonucleic acid and may include dead bacteria.

  18. Duke Power's liquid radwaste processing improvement efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.E. Jr.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The rising cost of processing liquid radwaste and industry efforts to reduce offsite isotopic contributions has drawn greater attention to the liquid radwaste area. Because of economic pressures to reduce cost and simultaneously improve performance, Duke Power has undertaken a wide ranging effort to cost effectively achieve improvements in the liquid radwaste processing area. Duke Power has achieved significant reductions over recent years in the release of curies to the environment from the Liquid Radwaste Treatmentt systems at its Catawba, McGuire, and Oconee stations. System wide site curie reductions of 78% have been achieved in a 3 year period. These curie reductions have been achieved while simultaneously reducing the amount of media used to accomplish treatment. The curie and media usage reductions have been achieved at low capital cost expenditures. A large number of approaches and projects have been used to achieve these curie and media usage reductions. This paper will describe the various projects and the associated results for Duke Power's processing improvement efforts. The subjects/projects which will be described include: (1) Cooperative philosophy between stations (2) Source Control (3) Processing Improvements (4) Technology Testing

  19. Achieving Operational Unity of Effort in SSTR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worthan, Ryan L

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of recent operations in Afghanistan and Iraq combined with an increasingly unstable security environment highlight the increased need for organizations to effectively conduct Security...

  20. Recognising the common origins of dystonia and the development of human movement: A manifesto of unmet needs in isolated childhood dystonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia in childhood may be severely disabling and often un-remitting and un-recognised. Considered a rare disorder, dystonic symptoms in childhood are pervasive in many conditions including disorders of developmental delay, cerebral palsy, autism, neurometabolic, neuroinflammatory and neurogenetic disorders. Collectively, there is a need to recognise the role of early postures and movements which characterise phases of normal fetal, infant and child development as a backdrop to the many facets of dystonia in early childhood neurological disorders and to be aware of the developmental context of dystonic symptoms. The role of co-contraction is explored throughout infancy, childhood, young adulthood and in the elderly. Under-recognition of pervasive dystonic disorders of childhood, including within cerebral palsy is reviewed. Original descriptions of cerebral palsy by William Gowers are reviewed and contemporary physiological demonstrations are used to illustrate support for an interpretation of the tonic labyrinthine response as a manifestation of dystonia. Early recognition and molecular diagnosis of childhood dystonia where possible is desirable for appropriate clinical stratification and future precision medicine and functional neurosurgery where appropriate.

  1. Human Development V: Biochemistry Unable to Explain the Emergence of Biological Form (Morphogenesis and Therefore a New Principle as Source of Biological Information is Needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's biomedicine builds on the conviction that biochemistry can explain the creation of the body, its anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately there are still deep mysteries strangely “fighting back” when we try to define and understand the organism and its creation in the ontogenesis as emerging from biochemistry. In analysing this from a theoretical perspective using a mathematical model focusing on the noise in complex chemical systems we argue that evolving biological structure cannot in principle be a product of chemistry. In this paper we go through the chemical gradient model and argue that this is not able to explain the ontogenesis. We discuss the used gradients as information carriers in chemical self-organizing systems and argue that by use of the “Turing structures” we are only able to modelling the mostly simple biological systems. The bio-chemical model is only able to model simple organization but not to explain the complexity of biological phenomena. We conclude that we seemingly have presented a formal proof (a NO-GO theorem that the self-organizing chemical systems that are using chemical gradients are not able to explain complex biological matters as the ontogenesis. We need a fundamentally new, information-carrying principle to understand biological information and biological order.

  2. Tools and data services registry: a community effort to document bioinformatics resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Jon; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Ménager, Hervé; Kalaš, Matúš; Rydza, Emil; Chmura, Piotr; Anthon, Christian; Beard, Niall; Berka, Karel; Bolser, Dan; Booth, Tim; Bretaudeau, Anthony; Brezovsky, Jan; Casadio, Rita; Cesareni, Gianni; Coppens, Frederik; Cornell, Michael; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Davidsen, Kristian; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Dogan, Tunca; Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Emery, Laura; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gatter, Thomas; Goldberg, Tatyana; Grosjean, Marie; Grüning, Björn; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ienasescu, Hans; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Jimenez, Rafael; Juty, Nick; Juvan, Peter; Koch, Maximilian; Laibe, Camille; Li, Jing-Woei; Licata, Luana; Mareuil, Fabien; Mičetić, Ivan; Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Moretti, Sebastien; Morris, Chris; Möller, Steffen; Nenadic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Hedi; Profiti, Giuseppe; Rice, Peter; Romano, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Saidi, Rabie; Schafferhans, Andrea; Schwämmle, Veit; Smith, Callum; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Stockinger, Heinz; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; de la Torre, Victor; Uva, Paolo; Via, Allegra; Yachdav, Guy; Zambelli, Federico; Vriend, Gert; Rost, Burkhard; Parkinson, Helen; Løngreen, Peter; Brunak, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Life sciences are yielding huge data sets that underpin scientific discoveries fundamental to improvement in human health, agriculture and the environment. In support of these discoveries, a plethora of databases and tools are deployed, in technically complex and diverse implementations, across a spectrum of scientific disciplines. The corpus of documentation of these resources is fragmented across the Web, with much redundancy, and has lacked a common standard of information. The outcome is that scientists must often struggle to find, understand, compare and use the best resources for the task at hand. Here we present a community-driven curation effort, supported by ELIXIR—the European infrastructure for biological information—that aspires to a comprehensive and consistent registry of information about bioinformatics resources. The sustainable upkeep of this Tools and Data Services Registry is assured by a curation effort driven by and tailored to local needs, and shared amongst a network of engaged partners. As of November 2015, the registry includes 1785 resources, with depositions from 126 individual registrations including 52 institutional providers and 74 individuals. With community support, the registry can become a standard for dissemination of information about bioinformatics resources: we welcome everyone to join us in this common endeavour. The registry is freely available at https://bio.tools. PMID:26538599

  3. Decellularized human amniotic membrane: more is needed for an efficient dressing for protection of burns against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Bandehpour, M; Mozafari, M; Hashemi, A; Ghanbarian, H; Sameni, M; Salimi, M; Gholami, M; Samadikuchaksaraei, A

    2015-11-01

    Human amniotic membranes (HAMs) have attracted the attention of burn surgeons for decades due to favorable properties such as their antibacterial activity and promising support of cell proliferation. On the other hand, as a major implication in the health of burn patients, the prevalence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics is increasing due to overuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAMs (both fresh and acellular) are an effective antibacterial agent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients. Therefore, a HAM was decellularized and tested for its antibacterial activity. Decellularization of the tissue was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In addition, the cyto-biocompatibility of the acellular HAM was proven by the cell viability test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, MTT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resistant bacteria were isolated from burns, identified, and tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics using both the antibiogram and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Among the isolated bacteria, three blaIMP gene-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were chosen for their high resistance to the tested antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of the HAM was also tested for Klebsiella pneumoniae (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 700603) as a resistant ATCC bacterium; Staphylococcus aureus (mecA positive); and three standard strains of ATCC bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27833), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Antibacterial assay revealed that only the latter three bacteria were susceptible to the HAM. All the data obtained from this study suggest that an alternative strategy is required to complement HAM grafting in order to fully protect burns from nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  5. TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME IN INDONESIA: THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mitchell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing infuence of transnational organised crime on the nations of South East Asia. Human trafficking, maritime piracy, terrorism and wildlife trafficking are major transnational crimes that cause significant harm to both individuals and national economies. This article examines the continuing domestic and international legislative, law enforcement and policy efforts of South East Asian nations to address transnational organised crime. it is concluded that to effectively counter transnational organised crime there is a need to employ international cooperation that is focused on addressing the unique factors of each crime.

  6. The Death Penalty: Pancasila, with Efforts to Eradicated Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    R., Anggun Ariena; Ky, Ade Oktariatas

    2015-01-01

    The rise of drugs criminal in Indonesia at this time, making Indonesia would be drugs emergency. Drugs is an extraordinary crime and need special attention in the eradication effort. Therefore it takes great strength to use legal action heaviest where Indonesia has a death penalty sentence. The purpose of the death penalty is to give hard effect for drugs criminal and as warning for the others. The reality of the death penalty in Indonesia shows the operation of the judicial system is not go...

  7. Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

  8. Technology-development needs for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Steiner, D.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1983-03-01

    The technology-development needs for magnetic fusion have been identified from an assessment of the conceptual design studies which have been performed. A summary of worldwide conceptual design effort is presented. The relative maturity of the various confinement concepts and the intensity and continuity of the design efforts are taken into account in identifying technology development needs. A major conclusion of this study is that there is a high degree of commonality among the technology requirements identified for the various confinement concepts

  9. Observing the Anthropocene from Space: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, John

    2016-07-01

    The rapid growth of human population since the industrial revolution has been coupled with a much increased standard of living and bountiful production of food. The dominant energy source sustaining this development has been fossil fuel combustion. However this has resulted in pollution which now spans all scales. There have significant impacts on air quality, water quality, stratospheric ozone and climate. The impacts can sudden and large and also slowly accumulate over time in the long term. The first decades of the space age resulted in pioneering efforts to establish adequate measurement capability. This process is continuing to evolve. Over the past two decades there have been a number of efforts to define the contribution and needs for a space segment which can separate anthropogenic form natural changes in the earth system. This talk introduces this topic of the use of the space segment to deconvolve change from anthropogenic activity and natural phenomena.

  10. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2003-11-01

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  11. Economic effort management in multispecies fisheries: the FcubEcon model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans; Ulrich, Clara

    2010-01-01

    in the development of management tools based on fleets, fisheries, and areas, rather than on unit fish stocks. A natural consequence of this has been to consider effort rather than quota management, a final effort decision being based on fleet-harvest potential and fish-stock-preservation considerations. Effort...... allocation between fleets should not be based on biological considerations alone, but also on the economic behaviour of fishers, because fisheries management has a significant impact on human behaviour as well as on ecosystem development. The FcubEcon management framework for effort allocation between fleets...... the past decade, increased focus on this issue has resulted in the development of management tools based on fleets, fisheries, and areas, rather than on unit fish stocks. A natural consequence of this has been to consider effort rather than quota management, a final effort decision being based on fleet...

  12. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  13. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  14. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level

  15. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  16. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  17. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Mohamed; Daneva, Maya; Ormandjieva, Olga

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient attention to this need. This paper presents a flexible, yet systematic approach to the early requirements-based effort estimation, based on Non-Functional Requirements ontology. It complementarily uses one standard functional size measurement model and a linear regression technique. We report on a case study which illustrates the application of our solution approach in context and also helps evaluate our experiences in using it.

  18. International Efforts for the Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Lee, Ho Jin; Shim, Hye Won; Lee, Jong Uk

    2005-01-01

    Many concerns have been focused on the nuclear security since the 9.11. With increasing the threat related to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the demand of strengthening the international physical protection system has been raised. Along with this, the international communities are making their efforts to increase nuclear security. The agreement of revising the 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials'(hereafter, CPPNM), which was held in Vienna on the July of 2005, was one of these efforts. U.N is also preparing the 'International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism' to show its firm resolution against nuclear terror. It is important to understand what measures should be taken to meet the international standard for establishing national physical protection system. To do this, international trend on the physical protection system such as CPPNM and U.N. convention should be followed. This paper explains about the content of the CPPNM and U.N convention. They will be helpful to consolidate the physical protection system in Korea

  19. Opportunities and challenges of international coordination efforts in space exploration - the DLR perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Andrea

    The German Aerospace Center and German Space Agency DLR has defined internationalisation one of the four pillars of its corporate strategy. Driven by global challenges, national space agencies like DLR are seeking partnerships to contribute to essential societal needs, such as human welfare, sustainability of life, economic development, security, culture and knowledge. All partnerships with both traditional and non-traditional partners must reflect a balanced approach between national requirements and needs of the international community. In view of the challenges emerging from this complexity, endeavours like space exploration must be built on mutual cooperation especially in a challenging political environment. Effective and efficient exploitation of existing expertise, human resources, facilities and infrastructures require consolidated actions of stakeholders, interest groups and authorities. This basic principle applies to any space exploration activity. DLR is among the agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) from its beginning in 2007. The strategic goals of DLR regarding space exploration correspond to the purpose of ISECG as a forum to share objectives and plans to take concrete steps towards partnerships for a globally coordinated effort in space exploration. DLR contributes to ISECG publications especially the “Global Exploration Roadmap” and the “Benefits stemming from Space Exploration” to see those messages reflected that support cooperation with internal and external exploration stakeholders in science and technology and communication with those in politics and society. DLR provides input also to other groups engaging in space exploration. However, taking into account limited resources and expected results, the effectiveness of multiple coordination and planning mechanisms needs to be discussed.

  20. A community effort to protect genomic data sharing, collaboration and outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Tang, Haixu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Bu, Diyue; Carey, Knox; Dyke, Stephanie Om; Fox, Dov; Jiang, Chao; Lauter, Kristin; Malin, Bradley; Sofia, Heidi; Telenti, Amalio; Wang, Lei; Wang, Wenhao; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2017-01-01

    The human genome can reveal sensitive information and is potentially re-identifiable, which raises privacy and security concerns about sharing such data on wide scales. In 2016, we organized the third Critical Assessment of Data Privacy and Protection competition as a community effort to bring together biomedical informaticists, computer privacy and security researchers, and scholars in ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) to assess the latest advances on privacy-preserving techniques for protecting human genomic data. Teams were asked to develop novel protection methods for emerging genome privacy challenges in three scenarios: Track (1) data sharing through the Beacon service of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. Track (2) collaborative discovery of similar genomes between two institutions; and Track (3) data outsourcing to public cloud services. The latter two tracks represent continuing themes from our 2015 competition, while the former was new and a response to a recently established vulnerability. The winning strategy for Track 1 mitigated the privacy risk by hiding approximately 11% of the variation in the database while permitting around 160,000 queries, a significant improvement over the baseline. The winning strategies in Tracks 2 and 3 showed significant progress over the previous competition by achieving multiple orders of magnitude performance improvement in terms of computational runtime and memory requirements. The outcomes suggest that applying highly optimized privacy-preserving and secure computation techniques to safeguard genomic data sharing and analysis is useful. However, the results also indicate that further efforts are needed to refine these techniques into practical solutions.

  1. Systems Engineering Force XXI: Experimental Analysis Integration and Systems Engineering Support to the Force XXI Design Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, H

    1996-01-01

    .... Effective needs are critical because the definition of a successful design effort is meeting or exceeding the effective needs of the client or stakeholder group in a cost-effective, high-quality way...

  2. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  3. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  4. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  5. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  6. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  7. Superconducting cavities developments efforts at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.; Bagre, M.; Dwivedi, J.; Shrivastava, P.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S.C.; Potukuchi, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting RE cavities are the work-horse for many existing and proposed linear accelerators. Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) has initiated a comprehensive R and D program for development of Superconducting RF cavities suitable for high energy accelerator application like SNS and ADS. For the initial phase of technology demonstration several prototype 1.3 GHz single cell-cavities have been developed. The work began with development of prototype single cell cavities in aluminum and copper. This helped in development of cavity manufacturing process, proving various tooling and learning on various mechanical and RF qualification processes. The parts manufacturing was done at RRCAT and Electron beam welding was carried out at Indian industry. These cavities further served during commissioning trials for various cavity processing infrastructure being developed at RRCAT and are also a potential candidate for Niobium thin film deposition R and D. Based on the above experience, few single cell cavities were developed in fine grain niobium. The critical technology of forming and machining of niobium and the intermediate RF qualification were developed at RRCAT. The EB welding of bulk niobium cavities was carried out in collaboration with IUAC, New Delhi at their facility. As a next logical step efforts are now on for development of multicell cavities. The prototype dumbbells and end group made of aluminium, comprising of RF and HOM couplers ports have also been developed, with their LB welding done at Indian industry. In this paper we shall present the development efforts towards manufacturing of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities and their initial processing and qualification. (author)

  8. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Increased productivity through waste reduction effort in oil and gas company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, J.; Silviana, NA; Matondang, RA

    2018-02-01

    National companies engaged in oil and gas activities in the upstream sector. In general, the on going operations include drilling, exploration, and production activities with the result being crude oil channelled for shipment. Production activities produce waste gas (flare) of 0.58 MMSCFD derived from 17.05% of natural gas produced. Gas flares are residual gases that have been burning through flare stacks to avoid toxic gases such as H2S and CO that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, appropriate environmental management is needed; one of them is by doing waste reduction business. Through this approach, it is expected that waste reduction efforts can affect the improvement of environmental conditions while increasing the productivity of the company. In this research begins by identifying the existence of problems on the company related to the amount of waste that is excessive and potentially to be reduced. Alternative improvements are then formulated and selected by their feasibility to be implemented through financial analysis, and the estimation of alternative contributions to the level of productivity. The result of this research is an alternative solution to solve the problem of the company by doing technological based engineering by reusing gas flare into fuel for incinerator machine. This alternative contributes to the increased productivity of material use by 23.32%, humans 83.8%, capital 10.13 %, and waste decreased by 0.11%.

  10. Indian Schistosomes: A Need for Further Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available India is uniquely positioned with regard to schistosomes and schistosomiasis—discovering seven new mammalian species with the existence of three more schistosome species: Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, O. harinasutai, and Schistosoma haematobium(?. An endemic focus of urinary schistosomiasis was reported from Gimvi village of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra with infrequent occurrence of schistosome eggs in human stools. Cercarial dermatitis has been reported to be more abundant in rural population using ponds, tanks, and so forth, for their domestic purposes. Few dermatitis cases were tested positive by CHR. Schistosome antigen was also detected in urine of five cases suggesting existence of active schistosomiasis in India. Nevertheless, human kind does not appear to be the usual host for Indian schistosomes in contrast to S. haematobium, S. mansoni, or S. japonicum. Various reasons for this phenomenon are discussed including evolution of Indian schistosomes, immune mechanisms, and environmental conditions. These and other aspects such as seasonal effect on the prevalence, snail infectivity, heterologous mating, existence of hybrids, and number of schistosomes in heterologous infections need further investigations with application of molecular techniques. Joint efforts by the national as well as international scientific community would be much more rewarding for better understanding of the parasite and the infection.

  11. Information needs changing over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show...

  12. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards.

  13. Running Head: Implementing Six Sigma Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jamie Eleaitia Mae

    2005-01-01

    Six Sigma is an organization wide program that provides common set of goals, language, and methodology for improving the overall quality of the processes within the organization (Davis & Heineke 2004). Six Sigma main concern is for the customer. What will the customers want? Need? Six Sigma has a model that helps Sigma get implemented DMAIC model…

  14. Uganda's Vision 2040 and Human Needs Promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target the physical, economic, political and social development of Uganda. Although ... affordable quality health care and education, clean environment and green ..... focuses on preventive, curative and palliative medical services (Doyal and .... representation, tolerance, equity and constructive dialogues and openness to.

  15. Humanity faced with climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.; Lesourne, J.

    2009-01-01

    Humanity is for the first time confronted with a global change phenomenon of the eco-sphere which makes her entering a long transition era with at the same time economical, social and political impacts. Every country and every human activity will be impacted. The resulting problems may be solved by changing our way of life, limiting transports and by the large-scale implementation of existing technologies or technologies under development. The challenge is not to reject technology but to intensify the efforts to develop and adapt it according to the real needs of populations. (J.S.)

  16. Efforts to transform computers reach milestone

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, G

    2001-01-01

    Scientists in San Jose, Californina, have performed the most complex calculation ever using a quantum computer - factoring the number 15. In contast to the switches in conventional computers, which although tiny consist of billions of atoms, quantum computations are carried out by manipulating single atoms. The laws of quantum mechanics which govern these actions in fact mean that multiple computations could be done in parallel, this would drastically cut down the time needed to carry out very complex calculations.

  17. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  18. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  19. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  20. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo