WorldWideScience

Sample records for human eating behavior

  1. Common genetic variation near MC4R has a sex-specific impact on human brain structure and eating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Horstmann

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

  2. Eating Behavior of Autistic Children

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    Maulina Handayani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children

  3. Eating habits and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our bodies the energy we need to function. Food is also a part of traditions and culture. This can mean that eating has an emotional component as well. For many people, changing eating ... part of your daily life, so you do not think much about them.

  4. Stress and eating behaviors.

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    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  5. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Jordan M.; Galloway, Amy T.; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M.; Farrow, Claire V.

    2016-01-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. W...

  6. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  7. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic architecture of eating behavior in pigs and its implications for humans obesity by comparative mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    are important for genetic improvement of pig feed efficiency. We have also conducted pig-human comparative gene mapping to reveal key genomic regions and/or genes on the human genome that may influence eating behavior in human beings and consequently affect the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome......This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behavior in Danish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behavior in humans. Data regarding individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...

  8. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

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    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  9. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Genetic Architecture of Eating Behaviors in Pigs and its Implications for Humans Obesity by Comparative Genome Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage;

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying genomic regions controlling feeding behaviors inDanish Duroc boars and its potential implications for eating behaviors in humans.Individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of dailyvisits to feeder (NVD), time spent to eat...... chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD (p =9.6E-07). Thirty six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs havepreviously been reported...... for geneticimprovement of pig feed efficiency. The results of pig-human comparative genemapping revealed some important genomic regions and/or genes on the humangenome that may influence eating behavior in human and consequently affect thedevelopment of obesity and metabolic syndromes. This is the first...

  11. Human eating: diagnosis and prognosis.

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    Herman, C P

    1996-01-01

    Despite substantial recent progress, we remain without a comprehensive theory of human eating. The constraining influence of the single-factor, hunger-satiety model of feeding in animals is addressed. Three aspects of human eating--counter-regulation in dieters, the effects of social models, and the influence of distress on eating--are reviewed briefly, in an attempt to demonstrate that a simple hunger-satiety model cannot handle the data. It is imperative that we consider social, cognitive, and other influences on eating as important casual agents in their own right; these influences are not necessarily mediated by their effect on hunger-satiety. A comprehensive theory of human eating is not likely to appear soon, but there are grounds for optimism in the process (rather than the final result) of research.

  12. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

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    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  13. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  14. The role of NMDA receptors in human eating behavior: evidence from a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Perogamvros, Lampros; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice Anne Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Research in animal models has implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) in the control of food intake. Until now, these findings have been not replicated in humans. Here we describe a 22-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and no prior neurological or psychiatric history. Her clinical course was marked by successive eating disorders: anorexia followed by hyperphagia. We propose that, much as they do in other animals, NMDARs in humans interact with the neuroendocrine, h...

  15. The Development of Eating Behavior - Biology and Context

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    Gahagan, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Eating is necessary for survival, gives great pleasure and can be perturbed leading to undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders. The development of feeding in humans relies on complex interplay between homeostatic mechanisms; neural reward systems; and child motor, sensory and socio-emotional capability. Furthermore, parenting, social influences and the food environment influence the development of eating behavior. The rapid expansion of new knowledge in this field, from basic science to clinical and community-based research, is expected to lead to urgently needed research in support of effective, evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders in early childhood. Using a biopsychosocial approach, this review covers current knowledge of the development of eating behavior from the brain to the individual child, taking into account important contextual influences. PMID:22472944

  16. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  17. The role of NMDA receptors in human eating behavior: evidence from a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

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    Perogamvros, Lampros; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Beatrice

    2012-06-01

    Research in animal models has implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) in the control of food intake. Until now, these findings have been not replicated in humans. Here we describe a 22-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and no prior neurological or psychiatric history. Her clinical course was marked by successive eating disorders: anorexia followed by hyperphagia. We propose that, much as they do in other animals, NMDARs in humans interact with the neuroendocrine, homeostatic, and reward systems controlling food intake in the central and peripheral nervous system structures related to feeding and satiety.

  18. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  19. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

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    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  20. Thinness and eating expectancies predict subsequent binge-eating and purging behavior among adolescent girls.

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    Smith, Gregory T; Simmons, Jean R; Flory, Kate; Annus, Agnes M; Hill, Kelly K

    2007-02-01

    One's expectancies for reinforcement from eating or from thinness are thought to represent summaries of one's eating-related learning history and to thus influence the development of binge-eating and purging behavior. In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors tested this hypothesis and the hypothesis that binge eating also influences subsequent expectancy development. The authors used trajectory analysis to identify groups of middle school girls who followed different trajectories of binge eating, purging, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies. Initial eating and thinness reinforcement expectancies identified girls whose binge eating and purging increased during middle school, and expectancies differentiated girls who began these problem behaviors from girls who did not. Initial binge-eating scores differentiated among eating expectancy developmental trajectories. The onset of most behaviors can be understood in terms of learned expectancies for reinforcement from these behaviors. The same model can be applied to the risk for eating disorders.

  1. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

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    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

  2. The bamboo-eating giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca has a sweet tooth: behavioral and molecular responses to compounds that taste sweet to humans.

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    Peihua Jiang

    Full Text Available A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3 we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals

  3. Eating behaviors and negative affect in college women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E; Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Participants (N = 127, age M = 19.6 years, BMI M = 25.5) completed five daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, and restricting food intake) and noneating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multilevel models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. These findings elucidate the processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge among musical theatre students.

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    Vitzthum, Karin; Endres, Eva; Koch, Franziska; Groneberg, David A; Quarcoo, David; Wanke, Eileen; Mache, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    Eating is a central part in human (social) life. Athletic performance and physical attractiveness are linked to appropriate nutritional behavior, especially for performing artists. Eating behavior and nutrition knowledge have not been examined in musical theatre students so far, which this study aims to analyze. We administered a cross-sectional questionnaire study to 37 musical theatre students. Results for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) showed non-pathological values for 92% of all participants, but 81% of participants answered correctly on only 30-59% of questions on the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Our study results reveal the need for specific nutritional knowledge transfer programs for this target group.

  5. Prospective associations of eating behaviors with weight gain in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Desti N.; Paula C. Chandler-Laney

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal reports of infant eating behaviors are stable over time and whether eating behaviors are prospectively associated with weight gain. Methods In an ongoing study of infant growth, weight and length were measured at 2-weeks, 3-months, and 5-months of age. Food responsiveness (FR), satiety responsiveness (SR), enjoyment of feeding (EF), and slow eating (SE) were assessed with the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine...

  6. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  7. The selfish brain: stress and eating behavior.

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    Peters, Achim; Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Langemann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a "selfish" manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this "cerebral supply chain" model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we take experimental data which allow assessing the supply, demand and need of the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress. The experimental results show that the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress actively demands energy from the body, in order to cover its increased energy needs. The data demonstrate that the stressed brain uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" to limit glucose fluxes into peripheral tissue (muscle, fat) and to enhance cerebral glucose supply. Furthermore psychosocial stress elicits a marked increase in eating behavior in the post-stress phase. Subjects ingested more carbohydrates without any preference for sweet ingredients. These experimentally observed changes of cerebral demand, supply and need are integrated into a logistic framework describing the supply chain of the selfish brain.

  8. The Selfish Brain: Stress and Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim ePeters

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a "selfish" manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this "cerebral supply chain" model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we take experimental data which allow to assess the supply, demand and need of the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress. The experimental results show that the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress actively demands energy from the body, in order to cover its increased energy needs. The data demonstrate that the stressed brain uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" to limit glucose fluxes into peripheral tissue (muscle, fat and to enhance cerebral glucose supply. Furthermore psychosocial stress elicits a marked increase in eating behavior in the post-stress phase. Subjects ingested more carbohydrates without any preference for sweet ingredients. These experimentally observed changes of cerebral demand, supply and need are integrated into a logistic framework describing the supply chain of the selfish brain.

  9. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  10. Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight: associations with adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Maclehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. To examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from 2 linked multilevel population-based studies. Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009-2010. Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2793; mean age, 14.4 years) and parents from Project Families and Eating and Activity in Teens (Project F-EAT) (n = 3709; mean age, 42.3 years). EXPOSURE Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and binge eating. Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight-control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight or obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Additionally, subanalyses with adolescents with data from 2 parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight or obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors.

  11. University Students' Eating Behaviors: An Exploration of Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Linda; Blotnicky, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Problem: There is evidence that university students have poor eating behaviors that can lead to short and long term negative health effects. Understanding the influences on eating behaviors will aid universities and health agencies in developing effective healthy eating promotion strategies. Purpose and Method: To determine the impact of a range…

  12. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  13. University Students' Eating Behaviors: An Exploration of Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Linda; Blotnicky, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Problem: There is evidence that university students have poor eating behaviors that can lead to short and long term negative health effects. Understanding the influences on eating behaviors will aid universities and health agencies in developing effective healthy eating promotion strategies. Purpose and Method: To determine the impact of a range…

  14. Body Image Distortion and Pathological Eating Behaviors : Sociocultural Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    OMORI, Mika

    2000-01-01

    Body image distortion is often cited as a causal factor contributing to the development of eating disorders or pathological eating behaviors. Sociocultural factors, such as the societal preference for thinness and ...

  15. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  16. Raw-fish-eating behavior and fishborne zoonotic trematode infection in people of northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phan, Van Thi; Ersbæll, Annette Kjær; Do, Dung Trung

    2011-01-01

    eating raw fish in restaurants had 3.6 times higher odds of FZT infection (p = 0.009) than people eating raw fish at home. A successful program to control FZT must be based on in-depth knowledge on the social and anthropological determinants of people's raw-fish-eating behavior and hygiene practices...... fishborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infection. The present study was done in a fish-farming community in Nam Dinh, Vietnam, to obtain information about habits of eating raw fish dishes and risks for human FZT infection. Discussions were held in different groups divided by gender and age on raw......-fish-eating behavior. A total of 180 household members were interviewed and their stool samples analyzed to identify risk factors of FZT infection. There was awareness about the risk of liver fluke infections from eating raw fish. However, many older people accepted these risks and continued eating raw fish...

  17. Obesity susceptibility loci and uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint behaviors in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rimm, Eric B; Curhan, Gary C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Van Dam, Rob M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2...

  18. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Paola; Obregón Ana M; Cataldo Rodrigo; Domínguez-Vásquez Patricia; Smalley Susan V; González Andrea; Ho-Urriola Judith A; Santos José L; Weisstaub Gerardo; Hodgson M Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the ...

  19. The audience eats more if a movie character keeps eating: An unconscious mechanism for media influence on eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuo; Shapiro, Michael A; Wansink, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Media's presentation of eating is an important source of influence on viewers' eating goals and behaviors. Drawing on recent research indicating that whether a story character continues to pursue a goal or completes a goal can unconsciously influence an audience member's goals, a scene from a popular movie comedy was manipulated to end with a character continuing to eat (goal ongoing) or completed eating (goal completed). Participants (N = 147) were randomly assigned to a goal status condition. As a reward, after viewing the movie clip viewers were offered two types of snacks: ChexMix and M&M's, in various size portions. Viewers ate more food after watching the characters continue to eat compared to watching the characters complete eating, but only among those manipulated to identify with a character. Viewers were more likely to choose savory food after viewing the ongoing eating scenes, but sweet dessert-like food after viewing the completed eating scenes. The results extend the notion of media influence on unconscious goal contagion and satiation to movie eating, and raise the possibility that completing a goal can activate a logically subsequent goal. Implications for understanding media influence on eating and other health behaviors are discussed.

  20. Occupational burnout, eating behavior, and weight among working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanperä, Nina J; Hopsu, Leila; Kuosma, Eeva; Ukkola, Olavi; Uitti, Jukka; Laitinen, Jaana H

    2012-04-01

    Eating behavior affects weight and thus the development of obesity. Studies on the effect of occupational burnout (exhaustive fatigue, cynicism, and lost occupational self-respect caused by chronic work stress) on eating behavior are lacking. The objective was to investigate associations between occupational burnout, eating behavior, and weight among working women. A total of 230 working women participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial (Nuadu) that aimed at changing the health behaviors of those with health risks. We assessed eating behavior using the Three-Factor Eating Behavior Questionnaire 18 and burnout using the Bergen Burnout Indicator 15 at both baseline and 12 mo. Body weight and percentage body fat were also measured at baseline and at 12 mo. The intervention and control groups were combined and divided by burnout and weight-change variables. Women experiencing burnout at baseline had significantly higher scores in emotional eating (EE; P = 0.002) and uncontrolled eating (UE; P = 0.001) than did those without burnout. A significant difference was found between the change in UE from baseline to 12 mo in those with and without burnout (P = 0.05). UE decreased significantly among those without burnout at baseline (P < 0.001). Those experiencing burnout may be more vulnerable to EE and UE and have a hindered ability to make changes in their eating behavior. We recommend that burnout should be treated first and that burnout and eating behavior should be evaluated in obesity treatment.

  1. Nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Breitfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12 follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in all study subjects. RESULTS: Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05. Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  3. Parental Attachment and Eating Behaviors in Late Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Leigh Rush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Females demonstrating unhealthy eating behaviors in early adolescence may continue to exhibit them in later years, yet there is little empirical research including late adolescents. Attachment theories suggest that adolescents with eating disorders demonstrate insecure attachments to parents. This non-experimental descriptive study in 249 late adolescent females examined the relationship between eating behaviors and parental attachment, and explored the relationship between selected demographic variables and parental attachment. Participants responded to an electronically collected survey of demographic variables, self-reported eating behaviors, and completed the Parent Attachment Questionnaire. Participants reporting healthy eating behaviors had higher scores on two of the three maternal scales, indicating a greater level of attachment. Significantly higher scores were found for two maternal and two paternal attachment scales for selected sociodemographic variables. Quantifying parental attachment in late adolescent females enhances understanding of eating disorders in this population and may help to identify issues important to address in therapy.

  4. Eating Behavior and Eating Disorders in Adults Prior to Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), prior to bariatric surgery. Method Prior to surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m2) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. Results The vast majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, while just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least 4 meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Discussion Prior to undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. PMID:24719222

  5. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  6. Future-oriented Self-Regulation in Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, C.D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Although many people want to change their unhealthy eating behavior, only few actually succeed in the long run. One reason for such frequent failure is that people are remarkably inept in dealing with the obstacles that accompany the road to healthier eating behavior and weight. Such obstacles compr

  7. Development and preliminary validation of Chinese preschoolers' eating behavior questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. METHODS: To assess children's eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children's eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers' Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. RESULTS: The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05. Differences in caregiver's education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers' eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care

  8. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  9. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  10. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  11. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  12. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  13. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    Disorder Diagnostic Scale [23] is a 22-item scale that is useful as a screening tool for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder...for Bulimia , and 93% for Binge Eating Disorder. There is also evidence of internal consistency across items (alpha = .89) [23]. The Beck...Diagnostic Scale revealed that only 24% of the total sample met criteria for Bulimia Nervosa or Binge Eating Disordered behavior (sub- or threshold

  14. Eating behaviors are risk factors for the development of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés, Ana

    2013-10-01

    This research aimed to characterize eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their gender and body mass index and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in the eating behavior of normal-weight and overweight people, and also between men and women. Further, we hypothesized that overweight participants would show more abnormal eating behaviors than their normal-weight counterparts. Two hundred ninety-two participants (205 women and 87 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean body mass index was 26.58 kg/m² (women 26.22 kg/m², men 27.41 kg/m²), that is, within the overweight range. Participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) tended to eat faster and in greater quantities, selected more hyper-calorie foods, and engaged in a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds. The results suggest that, in addition to what people eat, the question of how people eat may also contribute to the rapid increase in the levels of overweight and obesity in the Chilean population.

  15. Are food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices associated with adolescent disordered eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Method Adolescents (N=2231) and their parents (N=3431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Results Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or food restriction was significantly and positively associated with use of disordered eating behaviors among boys. For every one unit increase [Scale Range: 1-(low control) to 4 – (high control)] in mothers’ food restriction, boys were twice as likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p≤0.01). Examination of the association between food-related parenting practices and disordered eating behaviors among girls revealed fewer significant associations. However, analyses did reveal that for every one unit increase in mothers’ food restriction, girls were 1.33 times more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p=0.04). Discussion Study findings provide evidence of an association between controlling food-related parenting practices and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, particularly in boys. Future longitudinal research is needed to establish directionality of observed associations. PMID:24105668

  16. Combined eating behaviors and overweight: Eating quickly, late evening meals, and skipping breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Su; Mishra, Gita; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Various eating behaviors have been linked with body weight management. However, combined effects of major eating behaviors are not fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the association of the combination of eating quickly (EQ), late evening meals (LEM), and skipping breakfast (SB) with being overweight. A cross-sectional study with standardized questions for EQ, LEM, and SB was conducted. Stratified random sampling of 5% of residents aged 20 to 80years was surveyed in a city in northeast Japan in 2011, and 4249 (84.9%) residents were analyzed. Association of combinations of eating behaviors on being overweight (BMI (kg/m(2)≥25.0)) was estimated by using logistic analysis, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidential interval were calculated after adjustment for potential covariates. LEM, SB, or a combination of LEM and SB was not significantly associated with being overweight. However, the combination of EQ or only EQ was significantly associated with being overweight. As the number of eating behavior practices increased, there was a linear increase in OR for being overweight. The OR of all three combined eating behaviors was higher than that of any combined two behaviors or of each behavior. This study result supports the evidence that EQ increases the risk of being overweight whether by itself or in combinations with LEM and/or SB. However, only LEM or only SB did not increase the risk of being overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  18. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  19. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  20. Body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint influence binge eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    As binge eating is a common behavior throughout the general population, we hypothesized that body dissatisfaction would produce binge eating via its prediction of dieting. Six hundred eight individuals were nonrandomly recruited from the community. The mean age and body mass index of participants were 34.76 years (SD, 14.41) and 27.82 kg/m(2) (SD, 9.54), respectively. Participants were asked to complete several self-report questionnaires, which included measures of dieting status, binge eating behavior, body dissatisfaction, overvaluation of weight and shape, and self-esteem. The results showed that dieting was a common behavior; 38.1% of participants reported dieting during the past year. Binge eating during the previous 6 months was reported by 9.9% of the sample and was associated with a higher body mass index as well as more frequent dieting. A model including dieting status, overvaluation of weight and shape, shape satisfaction, and self-esteem showed the best fit for the prediction of binge eating behavior. Moreover, those who dieted and overvalued their weight and shape were 2.01 and 2.31 times more likely, respectively, to binge eat. Structural equation modeling revealed that body dissatisfaction caused dietary restraint, thus triggering binge eating. Both dieting and overvaluation of weight and shape are important risk factors for the development of binge eating disorders. Dieting and binge eating are common behaviors that represent a risk for the development of both excess weight and eating disorders. The structural model proposed in this study could be beneficial in understanding this causal relationship.

  1. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.

  2. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).

  3. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  4. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  5. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  6. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo Yeon Lee; Seong Ah Ha; Jung Sook Seo; Cheong Min Sohn; Hae Ryun Park; Kyung Won Kim

    2014-01-01

    ... on children’s health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS...

  7. Perceived community environmental influences on eating behaviors: A Photovoice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-12-01

    People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people's perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds.

  8. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.

  9. Binge eating and emotional eating behaviors among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katharine; Woo, Julia; Timmins, Vanessa; Collins, Jordan; Islam, Alvi; Newton, Dwight; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates nutritional behavior among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder (BP) in comparison to those without history of major psychiatric disorder. 131 participants (82 BP, 49 controls) with a mean age of 16.11 ± 1.61 years were included. The self-reported Quick Weight, Activity, Variety & Excess (WAVE) Screener was used to assess dietary habits, yielding a total nutritional score as well as Excess, Variety, and Household Food Insecurity subscale scores. Specifically, the Variety subscale was used to measure daily consumption of essential nutrients; the Excess subscale measured unhealthy eating behaviors such as binge eating and excessive intake of fat and sugar; and the Household Food Insecurity subscale was used to detect food insecurity. Within-group analysis was conducted on participants with BP to identify correlates of unhealthy diet. BP participants scored significantly lower than controls on the WAVE (t=2.62, p=0.010), specifically the Excess subscale (t=3.26, p=0.001). This was related to higher prevalence of binge eating and emotional eating behaviors among participants with BP compared to controls. Within-group analyses showed that self-reported emotional dysregulation/impulsivity was associated with maladaptive nutritional behaviors (t=3.38, p=0.035). Cross-sectional design. Within-group analyses were underpowered. Diet quality was measured using a brief self-report screener. Adolescents and young adults with BP have poorer nutritional behaviors compared to controls, and this difference is related to stress-induced eating. This demonstrates the need to screen for stress-induced eating and to intervene when needed in order to optimize nutritional behaviors among adolescents and young adults with BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as d...

  11. A regulatory focus perspective on eating behavior: how prevention and promotion focus relates to emotional, external, and restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Sassenrath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT) to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230), it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed.

  12. Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

    2008-01-01

    This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…

  13. Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

    2008-01-01

    This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…

  14. Eating attitudes and behaviors of pre- and postpubertal females: clues to the etiology of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, J M; Goldstein, S J

    1995-07-01

    Eating disorders are most likely to occur in females in early adolescence. In the hope of identifying the nature of the changes occurring across puberty which may predispose adolescents to eating disorders three groups, 30 prepubertal girls, 28 postpubertal girls, and 28 adult women matched on height and weight to the postpubertal group were compared for meal pattern characteristics and food intake regulation, as well as changes in eating attitudes and behaviors. They completed a set of psychometrics measuring their eating attitudes, body image, and disposition and also maintained 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Neither the overall intakes nor the meal sizes significantly differed between age groups. The prepubertal females ate the most relative to body weight, ate with more other people present and earlier in the day. They were relatively happy, calm, slightly hungry, unrestrained, satisfied with their bodies and depression was associated with lower intake. The postpubertal group, on the other hand, were relatively restrained, ate faster, and ate only 76.5% of the recommended amount. They had a more negative body image, greater dissatisfaction with their bodies, and greater restraint of eating than the prepubertal group, and depression was associated with higher intake. These changes may leave the young woman extremely vulnerable and under the appropriate conditions or with the appropriate personality type may lead to the development of an eating disorder.

  15. Special aspects of Ukrainian schoolchildren’s eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of school age children’s eating behavior. Materials: in questioning 408 schoolchildren (15-16 and 17-18 years’ age participated. Distribution by sex was practically equal: 56.62% were girls and 43.38% - boys. The questionnaire included questions about frequency of eating some food during recent 30 days. Separate block of questions was devoted to eating habits and presence of the so-called “food trash” in diet. The bent to alimentary diseases was assessed by incidence of excessive body mass in respondents’ families. Results: The determined food consumption permitted to assume the presence of certain eating stereotype: for boys it is directed at development o muscular mass and for girls - mainly of limiting character, connected with diets for correction of constitution. Analysis of some food eating frequency permitted to mark out alimentary risk factors, which require correction and prophylaxis. Conclusions: the found special aspects of eating behavior permit to assess children’s health state as pre-nosology of alimentary genesis, manifested in excessive body mass, deficit of essential vitamins, minerals and food fibers; functional disorders of digestion.

  16. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palascha, A.; Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body

  17. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palascha, A.; Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body

  18. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palascha, Aikaterini; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2015-05-01

    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body mass index, dieting) were assessed. Results showed that eating-specific dichotomous thinking (dichotomous beliefs about food and eating) mediates the association between restraint eating and weight regain. We conclude that holding dichotomous beliefs about food and eating may be linked to a rigid dietary restraint, which in turn impedes people's ability to maintain a healthy weight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Eating Behaviors and Negative Affect in College Women’s Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E.; Scott, Stacey B.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Method Participants (N=127, age M=19.6, BMI M=25.5) completed 5 daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, restricting food intake) and non-eating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multi-level models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Results Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. Discussion These findings elucidate processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. PMID:24797029

  20. Clusters of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors Are Associated With Body Mass Index Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Hargreaves, Margaret; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Schlundt, David; Wallston, Kenneth A; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-05-01

    To identify eating styles from 6 eating behaviors and test their association with body mass index (BMI) among adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-report survey data. Twelve primary care and specialty clinics in 5 states. Of 11,776 adult patients who consented to participate, 9,977 completed survey questions. Frequency of eating healthy food, frequency of eating unhealthy food, breakfast frequency, frequency of snacking, overall diet quality, and problem eating behaviors. The primary dependent variable was BMI, calculated from self-reported height and weight data. k-Means cluster analysis of eating behaviors was used to determine eating styles. A categorical variable representing each eating style cluster was entered in a multivariate linear regression predicting BMI, controlling for covariates. Four eating styles were identified and defined by healthy vs unhealthy diet patterns and engagement in problem eating behaviors. Each group had significantly higher average BMI than the healthy eating style: healthy with problem eating behaviors (β = 1.9; P eating behaviors (β = 5.1; P eating styles should address not only the consumption of healthy foods but also snacking behaviors and the emotional component of eating. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie; Shim, Jin Joo; Bruening, Meg; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs.

  2. Eating behaviors of older African Americans: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Ralston, Penny A; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Harris, Cynthia M; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57-63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans' intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans' eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints.

  3. Eating behavior, prenatal and postnatal growth in Angelman syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Line Granild Bie; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida;

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate eating behavior and growth parameters in Angelman syndrome. We included 39 patients with Angelman syndrome. Twelve cases had a larger Class I deletion, eighteen had a smaller Class II deletion, whereas paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) or a...

  4. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  5. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of t

  6. Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…

  7. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  8. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  9. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  10. Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…

  11. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  12. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention.

  13. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  15. Eating Behavior and Social Interactions from Adolescence to Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta

    This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI)...... during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior....

  16. Latent Profile Analysis to Determine the Typology of Disinhibited Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Crosby, Ross D.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A.; Kozlosky, Merel; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify children and adolescents into subtypes based on the overlap of disinhibited eating behaviors--eating in the absence of hunger, emotional eating, and subjective and objective binge eating. Method: Participants were 411 youths (8-18 years) from the community who reported on their…

  17. The histamine H3 receptor and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passani, Maria Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio; Torrealba, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the histaminergic system as a potential target for the treatment of feeding disorders is driven by the unsatisfactory history of the pharmacotherapy of obesity. Eating behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems, peripheral endocrine stimuli, the circadian rhythm, and environmental cues, all factors that change the behavioral state and alter homeostatic aspects of appetite and energy expenditure. Key factors driving eating behavior are appetite and satiety that are regulated through different mechanisms. Brain histamine has long been considered a satiety signal in the nervous system. Recent observations, however, indicate that histamine does not meet the criteria for being a satiety signal, because augmented histamine release accompanies the appetitive phase of feeding behavior rather than food consumption and satiety. The appetitive phase requires a high and yet optimal arousal state, and the histaminergic system is crucial for sustaining a high degree of arousal during motivated behavior. Histamine H(1) receptors in the brain are crucial for the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of food intake and the regulation of obesity; however, from a therapeutic standpoint, no brain-penetrating H(1) receptor agonists have been identified that would have antiobesity effects. Despite conflicting preclinical data, insights are emerging into the potential role of histamine H(3) receptors as a target of antiobesity therapeutics. The aim of this review is to outline the relevance of the histaminergic system in controlling feeding behavior and evaluate the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic ligands for the treatment of eating disorders.

  18. The Differential Role of Smell and Taste For Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longer-term effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people's eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.

  19. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ(2)-test or t-test. The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P family dinners. Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals.

  20. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giovanni; Dalia, Carmine; Tafuri, Domenico; Monda, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Filomena; Dato, Amelia; Russo, Angelo; De Blasio, Saverio; Messina, Antonietta; De Luca, Vincenzo; Chieffi, Sergio; Monda, Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The "thermoregulatory hypothesis" of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview.

  1. Eating Behavior and Social Interactions from Adolescence to Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta

    ) in a dynamic linear- in-means model, where individual- and group-speci…c unobservable e¤ects are controlled for. We show that the main drivers of eating behavior are habituation and imitation e¤ects. Imitation e¤ects explain most of the variation in BMI of individuals who were normal-weight and overweight......This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI...... during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior....

  2. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eMessina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The thermoregulatory hypothesis of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview.

  3. Perinatal stress: characteristics and effects on adult eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cesiana da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.

  4. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  5. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB, obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.

  6. Evaluating eating behavior treatments by FDA standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janet eTomiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral treatments for obesity are not evaluated by the same criteria as pharmaceutical drugs, even though treatments such as low-calorie dieting are widely prescribed, require the patients’ time and investment, and may have risks. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA has a procedure for evaluating drugs, in which drugmakers must answer the following questions: (1 Is the treatment safe? (2 How dangerous is the condition the intervention is treating? (3 Is the treatment effective? (4 Is the treatment safe and effective for large numbers of people? We argue that using this framework to evaluate behavioral interventions could help identify unanswered research questions on their efficacy and effectiveness, and we use the example of low-calorie dieting to illustrate how FDA criteria might be applied in the context of behavioral medicine.

  7. The role of Metacognition in eating behavior: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Quattropani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the occidental world, feeding is not only a physiological need but it may become a compulsive behavior. In fact, the tendency to instant gratification may represent a way to escape from unpleasant moods and may lead to addictive behaviors. In this process, Metacognitions, defined as internal cognitive factors that control, monitor and evaluate thinking processes, have a central role. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between eating behavior, psychological needs and metacognitive processes. We evaluated 44 adults using the following instruments: Eating Disorders Inventory III (EDI-III, Metacognition Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30 and Frontal Lobe Score. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows applying correlational analysis (Spearman’s Rho. We found that negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger were positive correlated with general psychological maladjustment composite (0.61 p<.01. In particular negative beliefs were positive correlated with specific subscales, such as personal alienation (0.57 p<.01 and emotional dysregulation (0.51 p<.01. Results confirmed the importance to explore metacognitive processes and to understand their role in emotional regulation, especially in overweight/obese subjects. Furthermore, we aim to examine the role of cognitive functions in eating behavior.

  8. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Flavia Marcele Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 bo...

  9. Eating behavior and stress: a pathway to obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sominsky, Luba; Sarah J. Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hou...

  10. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Alan Watkins; Jeffrey eKim

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endogenous endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converte...

  11. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Bruce A.; Kim, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converted to these en...

  12. Peculiarities of application the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shebanova, Vitaliya

    2014-01-01

    The article presented peculiarities of applying the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating disorders. Described stages of correction work with desadaptive eating behavior. Author makes accent on the rules self-assembly formula intentions.

  13. The Selfish Brain: Stress and Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Achim ePeters; Britta eKubera; Christian eHubold; Dirk eLangemann

    2011-01-01

    The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a "selfish" manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this "cerebral supply chain" model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we t...

  14. The Selfish Brain: Stress and Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Achim; Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Langemann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a “selfish” manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this “cerebral supply chain” model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we take experimental dat...

  15. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  16. Eating behavior in obese and overweight persons with and without anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Anna-Maria; Rasinaho, Elsi; Hakko, Helinä; Savolainen, Markku; Lindeman, Sari

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in body mass index and eating behavior in obese and overweight persons with and without anhedonia during a weight loss intervention study. Psychiatric diagnostics were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders. Eating behavior was assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-18) and binge eating by the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Out of 82 participants, 20 (24.4%) reported experiencing anhedonia at least once during the study period. Those suffering from anhedonia scored significantly higher values in BES at baseline and at follow-up. They also reported more uncontrolled and emotional eating at the first follow-up. Overall, persons suffering from anhedonia achieved a poorer outcome in weight loss compared to those without anhedonia. Anhedonia was associated with uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, and binge eating, all of which may have contributed to the poorer outcomes achieved in weight loss.

  17. Eating behaviors and overweight among adolescents: a population-based survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12-13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Among boys (n = 1586), fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76-4.38) than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41-4.20). Among girls (n = 1542), fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.

  18. Eating Behaviors and Overweight among Adolescents: A Population-Based Survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Ochiai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. Among boys (n=1586, fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76–4.38 than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41–4.20. Among girls (n=1542, fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Conclusions. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.

  19. Similarities and reciprocal influences in eating behavior within sibling pairs: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Snoek, Harriëtte M; van Leeuwe, Jan F J; van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated similarities and reciprocal influences in emotional, external and restrained eating in adolescent siblings, and the moderating role of sex and quality of relationship. A total of 415 sibling pairs (aged 13-16 years) participated in this two-wave one-year longitudinal study. Analyses were conducted by means of Structural Equation Modeling. Cross-sectional findings demonstrated that siblings are moderately similar in their eating behavior. Longitudinal findings showed that the younger siblings exert a small influence on the emotional and external eating behavior of the older siblings. No support was found for the older siblings affecting the younger siblings in their eating behavior. Furthermore, no sex differences were found in the associations between sibling eating behaviors within and over time. However, we did find a moderating effect for the quality of the relationship concerning similarities in emotional eating. Future research focusing on various sociocultural influences on adolescents' eating behaviors should also include younger siblings.

  20. Weight discrimination and unhealthy eating-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of disordered eating behavior in women by sexual orientation: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Pantalone, David W

    2014-01-01

    Most disordered eating research has focused on White, heterosexual women. More empirical work is needed to better understand disordered eating among women of diverse backgrounds. Given evidence of disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) women in other health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use) and outcomes (e.g., cardiovascular disease), it appears important to study disordered eating behaviors among sexual minority women. In this article, we review the extant literature on disordered eating behaviors in women across sexual orientations, with a focus on research examining potential mechanisms of disparities in disordered eating, including awareness and internalization of sociocultural norms.

  2. Influence of awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top on eating behavior and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top on eating behavior and obesity in Japan. Participants were 1,558 Japanese male and female adults (40.2±12.2 years) who had been registered with a social research company. The cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted via the Internet in November 2007. Potential respondents were invited to complete the survey via e-mail, which contained a link to the survey Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The measures were awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, eating knowledge scores, eating attitude scores, and eating behaviors scores, according to the recommendations of the Health Japan 21 and the Food Balance Guide Spinning Top. Obesity was assessed by self-reported body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The relationships between awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, eating knowledge scores, eating attitude scores, eating behavior scores, and obesity were analyzed using path analysis. Path analysis revealed that awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top was associated with BMI and waist circumference via eating behavior scores. In addition, eating knowledge scores and eating attitude scores were mediators of the association between awareness of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and eating behavior scores. These results suggest that promotion of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top would be a useful strategy to encourage healthy eating and prevent obesity in the Japanese population.

  3. Psychological and Behavioral Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-01-01

    Several psychological and behavioral treatment options exist for patients who have been diagnosed with binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy are the most strongly supported interventions for BED, but they do not produce weight loss; behavioral weight loss therapy, a more widely available "generalist" intervention, achieves good outcomes for BED plus produces modest weight loss over the short-term. Relatively little is known about reliable predictors or moderators of treatment outcomes, but research has generally supported 2 significant predictors: (1) the presence of overvaluation of body shape and weight and (2) the occurrence of rapid response to treatment. Clinicians should train to provide patients with evidence-supported psychological and behavioral treatments and follow these intervention protocols faithfully to increase the chances of good outcomes. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Eating behavior, prenatal and postnatal growth in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Line G B; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida; Hertz, Jens M; Østergaard, John R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate eating behavior and growth parameters in Angelman syndrome. We included 39 patients with Angelman syndrome. Twelve cases had a larger Class I deletion, eighteen had a smaller Class II deletion, whereas paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) or a verified UBE3A mutation were present in five and four cases, respectively. Eating behavior was assessed by a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were obtained from medical records and compared to Danish reference data. Children with pUPD had significantly larger birth weight and birth length than children carrying a deletion or a UBE3A mutation. We found no difference in birth weight or length in children with Class I or Class II deletions. When maternal birth weight and/or birth weight of siblings were taken into consideration, children with Class I deletion had a lower weight at birth than expected, and the weight continued to be reduced during the investigated initial five years of life. In contrast, children with pUPD showed hyperphagic behavior and their weight increased significantly after the age of two years. Accordingly, their body mass index was significantly increased as compared to children with a deletion. At birth, one child showed microcephaly. At five years of age, microcephaly was observed in half of the deletion cases, but in none of the cases with a UBE3A mutation or pUPD. The apparently normal cranial growth in the UBE3A and pUPD patients should however be regarded as the result of a generally increased growth. Eating behavior, pre- and postnatal growth in children with Angelman syndrome depends on genotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Problematic eating behavior in childhood: do maternal feeding patterns play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Past research indicates an association in adults and young people of emotional and contextual factors with a higher risk for the development of eating disorders or obesity. Few studies focus on problematic eating patterns in childhood, especially in association with parental feeding strategies. 482 mothers completed a questionnaire about eating behaviors and the weight status of their 1- to 10-year-old child as well as their own feeding strategies. A classification of the child's eating behavior (food responsiveness, emotional eating, external eating, eating time and meal structure) using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a conspicuous eating pattern (10%) showing above-average values in all eating behaviors. Controlling for weight and demographic variables mothers of children with conspicuous eating patterns were characterized by restrictive strategies and were less likely to encourage or facilitate their child to control his or her eating. Similar problematic eating patterns were also identified in early childhood. The association of maternal feeding strategies--beyond weight control issues--with conspicuous eating patterns in children might indicate a possibility of early prevention through parent training.

  6. Pathological eating behaviors, BMI, and facet-level traits: the roles of conscientiousness, neuroticism, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Watson, David

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the bivariate and multivariate associations of personality with Body Mass Index (BMI) and several eating behavior inventories, focusing on facets of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Impulsivity. Simultaneous multiple regressions showed that the facets Traditionalism, Urgency, and low Vulnerability were significant predictors of BMI. A factor analysis of the eating behavior scales revealed two dimensions: (a) Food and Body Preoccupation and (b) Cued Eating; Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and Perfectionism were significant predictors of both eating behavior factors. In addition, the Depression facet predicted Food and Body Preoccupation, and low Temperance predicted Cued Eating. Implications are discussed for the structure of eating pathology and the specificity of facet traits to eating behaviors and obesity.

  7. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pchildren were decreased (P=0.002). From March to June 2010, the frequency of each target behavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pchildren and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  8. Development of eating behavior: the way from infancy to adolescence. Review of foreign studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durneva M.U.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effective strategy is to prevent disordered eating attitudes in early childhood. Restriction and pressure are not effective strategies in developing healthy eating.

  9. Eating and weight control behaviors among middle school girls in relationship to body weight and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M; Mays, Mary Z; Crago, Marjorie; Jirsak, Jan K; Taitano, Keolani; Cagno, Colleen

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the links among body mass index (BMI), weight control practices, binge eating, and eating disorders in 1164 middle school girls. Both the prevalence and frequency of weight control behaviors increased as BMI increased, but binge eating was reported approximately equally by girls across the BMI spectrum.

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  11. Alcohol expectancies and drinking behaviors among college students with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Christina C; Curry, John F; Looney, John G

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent drinkers. Participants anonymously completed a survey as part of a universal alcohol abuse prevention program between September 2007 and April 2008. Co-occurring disordered eating behaviors and binge drinking characterized 17.1% of males and 19.0% of females. Rates of binge drinking were higher in those with disordered eating behaviors. Students with disordered eating behaviors also had more positive and negative alcohol expectancies and engaged in more risky and fewer protective drinking behaviors than their counterparts. Students with disordered eating behaviors have outcome expectancies and behavior patterns associated with problematic drinking. These findings may enhance prevention and intervention programs.

  12. A Naturalistic Examination of Social Comparisons and Disordered Eating Thoughts, Urges, and Behaviors in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the effects of body, eating, and exercise social comparisons on prospective disordered eating thoughts and urges (i.e., restriction thoughts, exercise thoughts, vomiting thoughts, binge eating urges) and behaviors (i.e., restriction attempts, exercising for weight/shape reasons, vomiting, binge eating) among college women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, in which they used their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess body, eating, and exercise comparisons as predictors of disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors at the next report, adjusting for body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and the disordered eating thought/urge/behavior at the prior report, as well as body mass index. Results Body comparisons prospectively predicted more intense levels of certain disordered eating thoughts (i.e., thoughts about restriction and exercise). Eating comparisons prospectively predicted an increased likelihood of subsequent engagement in all disordered eating behaviors examined except vomiting. Exercise comparisons prospectively predicted less intense thoughts about exercise and an increased likelihood of subsequent vomiting. Discussion Social comparisons are associated with later disordered eating thoughts and behaviors in the natural environment and may need to be specifically targeted in eating disorder prevention and intervention efforts. Targeting body comparisons may be helpful in terms of reducing disordered eating thoughts, but eating and exercise comparisons are also important and may need to be addressed in order to decrease engagement in actual disordered eating behaviors. PMID:26610301

  13. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2011-11-15

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as diabulimia, as a form of weight control. It has been clearly shown that ED in type 1 diabetics are associated with impaired metabolic control, more frequent episodes of ketoacidosis and an earlier than expected onset of diabetes-related microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy. The management of these conditions requires a multidisciplinary team formed by an endocrinologist/diabetologist, a nurse educator, a nutritionist, a psychologist and, frequently, a psychiatrist. The treatment of type 1 diabetes patients with DEB and ED should have the following components: diabetes treatment, nutritional management and psychological therapy. A high index of suspicion of the presence of an eating disturbance, particularly among those patients with persistent poor metabolic control, repeated episodes of ketoacidosis and/or weight and shape concerns are recommended in the initial stage of diabetes treatment, especially in young women. Given the extent of the problem and the severe medical risk associated with it, more clinical and technological research aimed to improve its treatment is critical to the future health of this at-risk population.

  14. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.

  15. Personality profiles in young adults with disordered eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Melioli, Tiffany; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Personality traits are closely related to eating disorders (ED) and might be involved in their development and maintenance. Nevertheless little is known regarding the association between personality traits and disordered eating in subclinical populations. College students answered questionnaires assessing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the following personality disorder (PD) traits: schizotypal, autistic, obsessional, borderline and cyclothymic. Participants with DEB (n=101, 87% women) displayed significantly higher scores for several variables including schizotypy, cyclothymic, borderline and obsessional traits compared to other participants (n=378). Cluster analysis in the DEB subsample led to the identification of three groups: 1) a cluster with a high level of traits (HT); 2) a cluster scoring high on schizotypal, borderline and cyclothymic traits (SBC); 3) a cluster with a low level of traits (LT). Symptoms of depression, suicidal ideations, trait anger and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were higher in the HT and the SBC clusters compared to the LT cluster. Given that two thirds of participants suffering from DEB appeared to display a morbid personality profile, it appears of prime importance to take into account PD traits of individuals with DEB.

  16. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.

  17. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers Rachel F; Paxton Susan J; Massey Robin; Campbell Karen J; Wertheim Eleanor H; Skouteris Helen; Gibbons Kay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors ...

  18. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384

  19. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Reicks

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10–14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.

  20. Motivators of and Barriers to Engagement in Healthy Eating Behaviors among non-Hispanic Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p eating behaviors was a significant barrier to healthy eating (p healthy eating were positively associated with motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p healthy foods: p eating healthy foods: p healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.

  1. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  2. Perception of self-physique and eating behavior of high school students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Yoshiko; Kida, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Katsunori; Hashiba, Shizuka; Saito, Kumiko; Mita, Reizo

    2003-04-01

    The authors investigated the condition of self-physique perception and eating behavior, and the relationship between self-physique perception and eating behavior of high school students in Japan. Regarding self-physique perception, subjects were shown six pictures of physiques and asked to choose one physique each for their actual physique and their ideal physique. With respect to eating behavior, the Japanese version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 was used. Groups of underweight girls, normal girls, and normal boys tended to regard their actual physiques as rather broad, demonstrating that many girls are excessively preoccupied with thinness. The rate of eating problems was 11.2% for the girls and 2.4% for the boys. For both boys and girls, those who idealized the thinner physique scored higher in terms of the EAT score and factor I score. Education regarding body perception and diet must be undertaken as soon as possible in Japan.

  3. Addictive personality and maladaptive eating behaviors in adults seeking bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Swencionis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between addictive personality and maladaptive eating behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates. Ninety-seven bariatric surgery candidates completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Addiction Scale, the Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), binge-eating questions from the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP-R), and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire. Participants with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) displayed addictive personality scores comparable to individuals addicted to substances (M=17.5, SD=5.3). Addictive personality was associated with Overeating (r=.45, p<.001), Cravings (r=.31, p=.005), Affective Disturbances (r=.62, p<.001) and Social Isolation (r=.53, p<.001). Addictive personality was associated with maladaptive eating behaviors, suggesting the potential for addictive eating.

  4. Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that exa...

  5. Associations Between Food-Related Parenting Behaviors and Adolescents' Engagement in Unhealthy Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A; Babskie, Elizabeth; Metzger, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Food-related parenting behaviors have the potential to impact youth eating behaviors and nutrition knowledge. The present study examined associations between parental behaviors specific to eating (i.e., rules, solicitation, and the creation of a health-focused home environment) and specific unhealthy eating behaviors prevalent during adolescence. Additional analyses examined whether such associations were explained by adolescent nutrition knowledge. A total of 145 adolescents ( M = 14.48, SD = 1.75 years) and their mothers ( M = 43.52, SD = 6.76 years) completed questionnaires as part of a larger study investigating parent-adolescent communication. Mothers' food-related parenting behaviors were not directly associated with adolescents' engagement in unhealthy eating behaviors. However, more parental rules were associated with greater adolescent nutrition knowledge. In addition, mothers' creation of a health-focused home environment was indirectly associated with less fast food consumption through greater adolescent nutrition knowledge. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  6. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  7. Eating Behaviors of Older African Americans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neal, Catherine Walker; Wickrama, Kandauda (K.A.S.); Ralston, Penny A.; Jasminka Z Ilich; Harris, Cynthia M.; Coccia, Catherine; Young-Clark, Iris; Lemacks, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger inte...

  8. How obesity relates to socio-economic status: identification of eating behavior mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeyre, M; Rousseaux, J; Trouiller, P; Dumont, J; Goumidi, L; Bonte, D; Dumont, M-P; Chmielewski, A; Duhamel, A; Amouyel, P; Dallongeville, J; Romon, M; Meirhaeghe, A

    2016-11-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) is a strong determinant of eating behavior and the obesity risk. To determine which eating and lifestyle behaviors mediate the association between SES and obesity. We performed a case-control study of 318 obese people and 371 non-obese people in northern France. Ten eating behavior traits were assessed using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21-Item and an eating attitude questionnaire (on plate size, the number of servings, reasons for stopping eating and the frequency of eating standing up, eating in front of the television set (TV) and eating at night). The SES score (in three categories) was based on occupation, education and income categories. Mediation analysis was performed using the test of joint significance and the difference of coefficients test. The age- and gender-adjusted obesity risk was higher for individuals in the low-SES groups (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.82 (1.48-2.24), P<0.0001). Additional servings were associated with a higher obesity risk (OR=3.43, P<0.0001). Cognitive restraint (P<0.0001) and emotional eating (P<0.0001) scores were higher in obese participants than in non-obese participants but did not depend on SES. Of the 10 potential factors tested, eating off a large plate (P=0.01), eating at night (P=0.04) and uncontrolled eating (P=0.03) significantly mediated the relationship between SES and obesity. Our results highlighted a number of obesogenic behaviors among socially disadvantaged participants: large plate size, uncontrolled eating and eating at night were significant mediators of the relationship between SES and the obesity risk.

  9. Adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome report increased eating-associated symptoms, changes in dietary composition, and altered eating behaviors: a pilot comparison study to healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Knight, B; Squires, M; Chitkara, D K; van Tilburg, M A L

    2016-12-01

    About half of adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients report symptoms with eating and disordered eating habits. However, little is known about eating in adolescent IBS patients, a common age at which eating disorders develop. The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents with IBS are more likely than healthy controls (HCs) to experience eating-associated symptoms (EAS), report disordered eating patterns, and show differences in diet composition. A total of 99 adolescents between 15 and 21 years-of-age participated (n = 48 IBS; n = 51 HCs). All subjects completed three 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires on EAS and disordered eating. IBS patients were more likely to report EASs than HC (91.7% vs 28%, p Eating-associated symptoms were controlled by avoiding the offending food (97.7%), not eating any food even when hungry (43.2%), or vomiting after eating (13.6%). Compared to HC, IBS patients reported reduced daily intake of overall calories (1828 vs 2139; p eating patterns or BMI, though IBS patients endorsed using potentially unhealthy eating behaviors in an attempt to control symptoms. Eating-associated symptoms are very common in adolescents with IBS and associated with changes in eating behaviors and dietary composition. They do not appear to change BMI and risk for eating disorders. More research is needed to guide adolescents with IBS in making appropriate dietary changes to control EASs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Gender, eating behavior, and personality characteristics in physically active students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsås, Einar; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine associations between personality traits, eating disorder (ED) behavior, exercise, and gender. The participants (n=1482: 905 women and 577 men) were students from four universities in Norway. The subjects filled out a compound questionnaire including demographics, weekly hours of exercise, type of sport, Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Because of the data collection procedure, it is difficult to provide a clear-cut response rate in this study. The results showed that the risk ratio for women who scored 40 or higher on the EDI was three times higher compared with men. ED behavior did not seem to be associated with high weekly hours of physical activity in general. There were significant gender differences in personality traits. However, women and men with high scores on the EDI showed no differences on the KSP scales, except on "detachment" and "indirect aggression". The most important predictors for weekly hours of physical activity were the EDI scales "drive for thinness" and "body dissatisfaction", and the personality variables "extraversion" and "neuroticism". The factors that contributed most to the differences between students who scored 40 or higher on the EDI and those who scored below 40 on the EDI were neuroticism, BMI, gender, and age.

  11. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior in a non-clinical sample of women: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Makeda; Masuda, Akihiko; Hill, Mary L; Goodnight, Bradley L

    2014-12-01

    Body image flexibility, a regulation process of openly and freely experiencing disordered eating thoughts and body dissatisfaction, has been found to be a buffering factor against disordered eating symptomatology. The present cross-sectional study investigates whether body image flexibility accounts for disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility in a sample of nonclinical women, and whether body image flexibility moderates the associations between these correlates and disordered eating behavior. Participants were 421 women, age 21±5.3 years old on average, who completed a web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Results demonstrate the incremental effects of body image flexibility on disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility. Women with greater body image flexibility endorse disordered eating behavior less so than those with lower body image flexibility. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior; for women with greater body image flexibility, disordered eating cognition is not positively associated with disordered eating behavior.

  12. Body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise and eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.

  13. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not made explicit, but become apparent through observing the behavior of group members and through understanding the expectations they have for how others in their social group should behave. The infl...

  14. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  15. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869705

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  16. Dietary Restriction Behaviors and Binge Eating in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Trans-diagnostic Examination of the Restraint Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To compare dietary restriction behaviors among adults with eating disorders involving binge eating, including anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype (AN-BE/P), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), and to examine whether dietary restriction behaviors impact binge eating frequency across diagnoses. Participants included 845 treatment seeking adults (M=30.42+10.76years) who met criteria for DSM-5 AN-BE/P (7.3%;n=62), BN (59.7%;n=504), and BED (33.0%;n=279). All participants self-reported their past and current eating disorder symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN reported significantly more dietary restriction behaviors (e.g. eating fewer meals per day, higher frequency of fasting, consuming small and low calorie meals) in comparison to adults with BED. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN who reported restricting food intake via eating fewer meals per day had more frequent binge eating episodes. However, adults with BN who reported restricting food intake via eating small meals and low calorie meals had less frequent binge eating episodes. This study provides mixed support for the restraint model by suggesting that not all dietary restriction behaviors are associated with higher levels of binge eating. It may be that adults with BN who report a higher frequency of eating small and low calorie meals display more control over their eating in general, and therefore also have lower frequency of binge eating. Clinicians should assess for dietary restriction behaviors at the start of treatment prior to assuming that all forms of strict dieting and weight control behaviors similarly impact binge eating. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  18. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  19. Targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior via the internet. Effects on body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/301024731; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298811790; Aarts, Henk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/127521011; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation

  20. A Study of Investigating Adolescents' Eating out Behavior by Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Lan, Yu-Hua; Chen, Pin-Chang; Lo, Wen-Chi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the factors affecting adolescents' eating out behavior, as well as to develop scientific principles for selection of factors affecting adolescents' eating out behavior. According to literature review and expert questionnaire survey, this study obtained the factors affecting adolescents' choice to eat…

  1. The Impact of Teachers and Families on Young Children's Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    Young children depend on their families and teachers to support their well-being and promote positive development, including eating behaviors. Children's food preferences and willingness to try new foods are influenced by the people around them. The eating behaviors children practice early in life affect their health and nutrition--significant…

  2. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  3. Exploring Familial Themes in Malaysian Students’ Eating Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Car Mun Kok

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food-related attitudes and habits are integral to overall well-being, especially among international college students who often practice poor eating habits and experience high levels of stress from factors like school and sociocultural adjustment. Utilizing in-depth interviews, this study explored how family experiences impact food-related habits, attitudes, and beliefs of Malaysian college students in the U.S. Findings indicate that early experiences with family substantially impact current habits that persist even after coming to the U.S. and that dietary choices and habits are heavily embedded in cultural background and family history. Family influenced current habits through multiple means, including modeling, direct teaching, and indirectly through various family activities. Even though there were some persistent and lasting eating habits and behaviors, students also experienced some dietary changes and conflicting dietary practices after coming to the U.S. These findings are important for universities to consider so that appropriate steps can be taken to ensure the health and well-being of Malaysian and other international students in the U.S.

  4. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  5. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  6. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices : Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ek; Kimmo Sorjonen; Karin Eli; Louise Lindberg; Jonna Nyman; Claude Marcus; Paulina Nowicka

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Ques...

  7. Weight misperception and its association with dieting methods and eating behaviors in South Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-Il; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-04-01

    There is little information on the association between weight misperception and eating behavior in Korean adolescents. Therefore, we investigated the association of food intake habits and dieting method and disturbed eating behavior (DEB) in relation to weight misperception. Data was collected by using a nationwide online panel survey from 6,943 adolescents enrolled in middle/high school. DEB was measured with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and those who scored ≥ 20 on the EAT-26 were considered to have eating disorder. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between weight misperception based on self-reported weight status and dieting method and eating behaviors. The proportion of weight underestimation was 23.5% and that of overestimation was 24.0%. Weight overestimating girls were more likely to engage in various unhealthy dieting practices (OR = 1.69 for fasting; OR = 1.88 for laxative or diuretic use; OR = 2.05 for self-induced vomiting after meals; P eating behaviors, especially among girls, e.g.: having breakfast (OR = 0.85), high consumption of fast foods (OR = 1.28) and regular sodas (OR = 1.39), but not among boys. In both genders, weight overestimation appears to be a major risk factor for DEB (OR = 1.34 for boys and OR = 1.41 for girls; P unhealthy weight control practices and eating behaviors. We particularly found a significant association between weight overestimation and DEB among nationwide Korean adolescents.

  8. Influence of maternal feeding goals and practices on children's eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Debra A; Marx, Jenna M; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-12-01

    Parents are highly influential in shaping their children's dietary habits. This study examined whether negative feeding practices mediated the relationship between feeding goals (health and convenience) and children's eating behaviors. One hundred ninety-two mothers (mean age = 34.2; mean BMI = 27.0) of 7-11 year old children participated via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed that negative feeding practices fully mediated the relationship between convenience feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.08/.09, n.s.; goals to feeding practices: β = 0.27, p unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.57/.48, p eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = 0.66/-0.29, p unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.26/.44, p unhealthy food, above and beyond the use of negative feeding practices. Because parents are on the front lines of shaping children's eating habits, understanding the best point of intervention for parents (e.g., shaping parents' goals, changing parents' feeding practices) might be especially fruitful, considering that childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis and energy intake is one of the key factors contributing to this problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eating and health behaviors in vegans compared to omnivores: Dispelling common myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Sydney; Coffino, Jaime A; Hormes, Julia M

    2017-11-01

    Studies comparing eating behaviors in individuals avoiding meat and other animal products to omnivores have produced largely inconclusive findings, in part due to a failure to obtain sufficiently large samples of vegan participants to make meaningful comparisons. This study examined eating and health behaviors in a large community sample of dietary vegans ("vegans"), compared to omnivores. Participants (n = 578, 80.4% female) completed an online questionnaire assessing a range of eating- and other health-related attitudes and behaviors. Vegans (62.0%, n = 358) and omnivores (38.1%, n = 220) were comparable in terms of demographics. Vegans scored significantly lower than omnivores the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire (multivariate p Vegans more frequently consumed fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans and grains (all p vegans and omnivores on measures of eating styles, body mass index, smoking or exercise behaviors, or problems related to alcohol consumption. Effect sizes for comparisons on eating-related measures were generally small, with ηp(2) ranging from vegans do not differ much from omnivores in their eating attitudes and behaviors, and when they do, differences indicate slightly healthier attitudes and behaviors towards food. Similarly, vegans closely resembled omnivores in non-eating related health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  11. Body dissatisfaction, dieting and risk behaviors for eating disorders among mothers living in Santos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi; Patrícia da Rocha Pereira; Isis de Carvalho Stelmo; Ramiro Fernandez Unsain; Paula Andrea Martins; Priscila de Morais Sato

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body dissatisfaction, dieting and risk behaviors for eating disorders among a sample of mothers living in the city of Santos. METHODS: It was conducted a cross-sectional population-based study with 453 mothers of children aged until 10 years old. The mothers answered to the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Stunkard's Figure Scale and a question about being currently dieting. RESULTS: 29.9% presented a positive score for risk behaviors for eating disorders and 21.8% w...

  12. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alan Watkins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endogenous endocannabinoids (EC and the endocannabinoid system (ECS, as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall.

  13. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Kim, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converted to these endogenous ligands. The binding of the EC to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain stimulates food intake, and the ECS participates in systemic macronutrient metabolism where the gastrointestinal system, liver, muscle, and adipose are involved. The EC are biosynthesized from two distinct families of dietary PUFA, namely the n-6 and n-3. Based on their biochemistry, these PUFA are well known to exert considerable physiological and health-promoting actions. However, little is known about how these different families of PUFA compete as precursor ligands of cannabinoid receptors to stimulate appetite or perhaps down-regulate the ECS to amend food intake and prevent or control obesity. The goal of this review is to assess the current available research on ECS and food intake, suggest research that may improve the complications associated with obesity and diabetes by dietary PUFA intervention, and further reveal mechanisms to elucidate the relationships between substrate for EC synthesis, ligand actions on receptors, and the physiological consequences of the ECS. Dietary PUFA are lifestyle factors that could potentially curb eating behavior, which may translate to changes in macronutrient metabolism, systemically and in muscle, benefiting health overall.

  14. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  15. Maternal feeding practices predict weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Rachel F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal feeding practices have been proposed to play an important role in early child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors. However, to date longitudinal investigations in young children exploring these relationships have been lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore prospective relationships between maternal feeding practices, child weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in 2-year-old children. The competing hypothesis that child eating behaviors predict changes in maternal feeding practices was also examined. Methods A sample of 323 mother (mean age = 35 years, ± 0.37 and child dyads (mean age = 2.03 years, ± 0.37 at recruitment were participants. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors at baseline and again one year later. Child BMI (predominantly objectively measured was obtained at both time points. Results Increases in child BMI z-scores over the follow-up period were predicted by maternal instrumental feeding practices. Furthermore, restriction, emotional feeding, encouragement to eat, weight-based restriction and fat restriction were associated prospectively with the development of obesogenic eating behaviors in children including emotional eating, tendency to overeat and food approach behaviors (such as enjoyment of food and good appetite. Maternal monitoring, however, predicted decreases in food approach eating behaviors. Partial support was also observed for child eating behaviors predicting maternal feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal feeding practices play an important role in the development of weight gain and obesogenic eating behaviors in young children and are potential targets for effective prevention interventions aiming to decrease child obesity.

  16. Cloninger's temperament and character traits in medical students of Korea with problem eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Cloninger, C Robert; Chae, Han

    2015-05-01

    The personality profiles of patients with eating disorder have been extensively investigated, but those of people in the general population with eating behavior problems need to be evaluated to assess the relationship between personality, health behavior and level of overall well-being in non-clinical samples. Temperament and character traits, reasons for over-eating, and the negative influence of functional dyspepsia on quality of life were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and Functional Dyspepsia Quality of Life (FDQOL) inventory, respectively, in 199 Korean medical students. The associations among TCI, FDQOL, DEBQ and body mass index (BMI) were examined by correlational analysis. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to measure how well personality (TCI) accounted for patterns of overeating (DEBQ) and impaired quality of life from functional dyspepsia (FDQOL). Individual differences in personality (especially harm-avoidance, self-transcendence, and self-directedness) were weakly associated with overeating and impaired quality of life from functional dyspepsia. Gender, social desirability and body mass index also played important roles in predicting eating behavior problems in the nonclinical population. We found that the personality traits observed in clinical patients with eating disorders are also found in people with eating behavior problems in the nonclinical population of Korea. The ways that personality traits affect eating behaviors were discussed along with recommendations for future studies in light of the limitations of available data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  18. Development and validation of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Najder, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the development of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire, a self-reported measurement of eating maturity that initiates and gives direction to human eating behaviors. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire was designed to study individuals' biological and psychosocial motives for eating. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire is a 21-item tool with satisfactory psychometric values (Cronbach's α coefficients between 0.83 and 0.88) consisting of two subscales: Rational Eating and Psychosocial Maturity Eating Maturity Questionnaire results may be used to design programs that target eating behaviors and body mass modification.

  19. Exploring eating and activity behaviors with parent-child dyads using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, Cynthia A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in science, the prevalence of childhood obesity persists and outcomes remain inconsistent. An event history calendar (EHC) is a tool to facilitate understanding of family life dynamics influencing eating and activity choices. This tool uses reflection to assess temporally linked behavior in the context of life events so that choices related to eating and activity are more explicit. Fourteen parent-child (6-14 years) dyads completed an EHC and interview 2 months following a healthy eating/activity intervention. Phenomenological analysis revealed themes including "awareness" of activity/eating behaviors, "healthy lessons," "family time," and "barriers" to change. The EHC facilitated participant communication and understanding by making connections between behaviors, habits, and events in family context, so that eating and activity behaviors could be realistically reviewed. This tool has potential to guide development of individualized interventions through barrier identification and goal establishment in research and clinical settings to help counteract childhood obesity over time.

  20. Eating behaviors in Cuban adults: results from an exploratory transcultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris C. Rodríguez-Martín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158 and Italy (n = 125. Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small. On the other hand, Cubans, when compared to Italians reported higher scores for food thought suppression with reward responsiveness and restrained eating emerging as significant predictors of between-country differences. To conclude, eating behaviors in Cubans could be different from those reported in European countries, perhaps as a consequence of Cuba’s recent history.

  1. The relationships between dioxin accumulation in human body and eating habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajihara, H.; Miura, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Sasaki, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ando, N.; Ozawa, T.; Takahashi, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakadaira, H.; Yamamoto, M. [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakamura, S.; Shimada, K. [Niigata Prefectural Kamo Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of human to dioxins was dominated by food. In Japan, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxins is set at 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day. However, important parameters, such as adsorption rate and half-life, which are used in the calculation process to determining the TDI of dioxins, were not intensively clarified. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between dioxin accumulation in the human body and eating habits, in order to obtain information on the accumulation behavior of dioxins ingested by humans.

  2. You are what you eat: a neuroscience perspective on consumers' personality characteristics as determinants of eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for a link between personality characteristics and eating behavior is mounting. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review and meta-analysis we summarize the current knowledge on personality characteristics in relation to food-induced brain responses a

  3. You are what you eat : A neuroscience perspective on consumers' personality characteristics as determinants of eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for a link between personality characteristics and eating behavior is mounting. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review and meta-analysis we summarize the current knowledge on personality characteristics in relation to food-induced brain responses a

  4. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the

  5. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the

  6. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eKoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one’s own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors (assessed via parent questionnaires (Children`s Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one’s body.

  7. Interoceptive sensitivity, body weight and eating behavior in children: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the ability to perceive one's own bodily signals (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) are associated with disordered eating behavior and weight problems. But representative and prospective data in children are lacking and therefore, the exact nature of these observed associations remains unclear. Data on IS measured by heartbeat perception ability in 1657 children between 6 and 11 years of age were collected on the basis of two measurement points with a year distance in time. Stability of the construct and its prospective association with different food approach behaviors [assessed via parent questionnaires (Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire)] as well as with weight status were analyzed via structural equation modeling. Main results were that only in overweight children external and emotional eating behavior were predictive for later IS, whereas no such relation was found in normal weight children. There was no direct relation between IS and body mass index. For the first time, we could show that eating behavior and IS in middle childhood are prospectively related to each other. But surprisingly, our data indicate that altered interoceptive processes rather follow than precede non-adaptive eating behavior patterns in overweight children. This suggests a possible crucial role of faulty learning mechanisms in eating behavior early in life, undermining the later confidence in one's body.

  8. Perceived stress, unhealthy eating behaviors, and severe obesity in low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Arsenault, Joanne E; Cates, Sheryl C; Muth, Mary K

    2015-12-03

    Stress has been associated with poor eating behaviors and diet quality, as well as high body mass index (BMI). Low-income women may be particularly vulnerable to stress and severe obesity. Yet it is unknown how stress increases the risk of severe obesity through disordered eating behaviors and poor diet quality or through mechanisms independent of diet. We examined cross-sectional data from women (n = 101) with a child enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Cumberland County, North Carolina (spring 2012). We collected measured heights and weights to calculate BMI. Using structural equation modeling, we differentiated pathways from stress to weight status: (1) indirectly through eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, emotional eating, and uncontrolled eating) and diet quality, which we examined with the Healthy Eating Index 2010 and 24-h dietary recalls, and (2) directly through possible unmeasured risk factors independent of diet. The analysis controlled for race/ethnicity, income, age, whether the dietary recall day was typical, and whether the respondent completed one or two 24-h dietary recalls. Perceived stress was positively associated with uncontrolled eating (β = 0.38, p eating (β = 0.50, p eating behaviors and diet quality. Independent of eating behaviors and diet quality, stress was positively associated with severe obesity (β = 0.26, p = 0.007). Improving stress coping strategies for low-income women may improve eating behaviors and reduce severe obesity.

  9. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well a

  10. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children’s eating disordered behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment ...

  11. Disordered eating behavior among group fitness instructors: a health-threatening secret?

    OpenAIRE

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Nilsson, Merethe Pauline; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to examine disordered eating behavior (DE) and self-reported eating disorders (ED) among Norwegian group fitness instructors. Methods: Group fitness instructors from Norway (n = 685 females and 152 males, response rate: 57 %) completed an online survey. The survey included the instruments Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS). Results: A total of 22 % of the male and 59 % of the female respondents were cla...

  12. Eating behavior and perception of body shape in Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Kato, Yoshiko; Mase, Tomoki; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Fujita, Yuki; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between eating behavior measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and perception of body shape, examining the current physical status and 'ideal' physical parameters in females and males. The participants, 548 Japanese university students (age 19.2 ± 0.9 years, mean ± SD; 252 males, 296 females), completed a questionnaire which asked for their current physical status (e.g., weight and height), their ideal physical parameters, their perception of their current body shape, their ideal body shape, and their eating behaviors. The ideal weight and ideal body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher than the current weight and BMI in the males, but significantly lower in the females. Among the females, the ideal body shape was smaller than their perception of current body shape. The DEBQ scores for restrained, emotional, and external eating were higher in the females than the males among the normal-weight participants, and among the underweight participants, the restrained eating and external eating scores were higher in the females than the males. Restrained eating was negatively associated with the discrepancy between the current and ideal weight, BMI, and body shape in both the males and females. Emotional eating was negatively associated with the discrepancy in current/ideal BMI and body shape only in the females. At least in Japanese university students, the gender differences in ideal body shape are related to eating behavior.

  13. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  14. Evaluation of a planned behavior theory-based intervention programme to promote healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention program based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, with the addition of attitude strength and role identity. The aim was to alter adolescents' healthy eating attitudes and behaviour. In the sample were 335 high school students, who were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and included posters and lectures promoting healthy eating. The measures included a questionnaire assessing the hypothesis and a food frequency questionnaire which measured eating habits. Analysis showed the intervention was effective in proving attitudes toward healthy eating and attitude strength, intention, perceived behavioral control, and healthy eating behaviour, but not effective in predicting subjective norms and role identity. Results provide evidence that intervention changed attitudes toward a behavior in a school setting.

  15. Relationships of eating competence, sleep behaviors and quality, and overweight status among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; White, Adrienne; Horacek, Tanya; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between eating competence (intra-individual approach to eating and food-related attitudes and behaviors that entrain positive bio-psychosocial outcomes) and sleep behaviors and quality in college students, a high-risk group for poor eating habits, weight gain, and inadequate sleep. Thus, data from full-time college students (N=1035; 82% White; 61% female) aged 18-24 years from 5 U.S. universities were obtained from online questionnaires (eating competence (ecSI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), physical activity, demographics) and physical assessments (measured height, weight), to explore sleep behavior and quality between eating-competent (EC; ecSI score≥32) and non-EC groups (ecSImanagement interventions for young adults.

  16. Eating disorders: Insights from imaging and behavioral approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2017-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies. Finally, potentially fruitful directions for future research are presented. We suggest that it would be useful for experimental therapeutics trials to evaluate the effects of reducing the risk factors on future onset of eating pathology and on reducing maintenance factors on the risk for persistence of eating pathology, and encourage researchers to utilize prospective high-risk studies so that knowledge regarding potential intervention targets for prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders can be advanced. Using the most rigorous research designs should help improve the efficacy of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders.

  17. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  18. How Specific are the Relationships between Eating Disorder Behaviors and Perfectionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jing; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Williamson, J. Austin; Markon, Kristian E.; Pollack, Lauren O.

    2013-01-01

    Perfectionism is associated with several mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. The goal of this study was to test the specificity of the associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, by examining whether neuroticism and conscientiousness mediated or moderated associations between these variables. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, neuroticism, cons...

  19. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  20. Purging behavior in anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René Klinkby; Andries, Alin; Brixen, Kim Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Purging behavior in eating disorders is associated with medical risks. We aimed to compare remission rates in purging and non-purging females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in a large retrospective single center cohort. A total of 339 patients...

  1. Connecting Eating Pathology with Risk for Engaging in Suicidal Behavior: The Mediating Role of Experiential Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kayla D; Rojas, Sasha M; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with eating pathology, particularly those with diagnosed eating disorders, are at high risk for suicide. It is less clear whether undiagnosed eating pathology and subsyndromal eating disorders carry the same risk and, if so, what mechanisms may explain why higher levels of eating pathology yield greater risk for engaging in suicidal behaviors. The indirect relationship between disordered eating and risk for suicidal behaviors via facets of experiential avoidance was tested using a multiple-mediator model. The model was tested using bootstrapping estimates of indirect effects in a sample of 218 noncollege student adults (Mage = 32.33, 66.1% women) with a history of suicidal attempt and/or history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Results revealed that disordered eating indirectly predicted risk for suicidal behaviors, distress aversion (i.e., negative attitudes or dislike of distress), and procrastination (i.e., delaying engagement with distressing activities). Results suggest that targeting experiential avoidance and helping those who have a history of engaging in suicidal behaviors and/or NSSI develop regulation strategies to use during times of distress may be of utmost importance for treatment and prevention of eating pathology.

  2. Influence of eating behaviors on short-term weight loss by orlistat and anorectic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Kon; Suh, Heuy Sun; Hwang, In Cheol; Ko, Ki Dong

    2014-01-01

    Little data exists concerning whether eating behaviors determine the response to orlistat treatment, especially with added anorectic agents. This study was a sub-investigation of a 12-week randomized controlled trial for the additive effect of orlistat on sibutramine treatment. The analysis presented here was restricted to 98 women who had fulfilled the protocol. The Dutch eating behavior questionnaire and three-factor eating questionnaire were used to assess eating behaviors. Scores of emotional eating, external eating, disinhibition and hunger are significantly interrelated. Using multiple logistic analysis with adjustment for potential confounders, such as age, initial BMI and the other 2 eating behavior scores, traits of emotional eating (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13-0.74) and disinhibition (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.82) have a significant influence on prediction for additional 5% weight loss in the treatment with orlistat and sibutramine. Subjects with less vulnerability to emotional cues had significantly more weight loss with orlistat treatment and anorectic agents.

  3. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…

  5. Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.

  6. Characterization of Binge-Eating Behavior in Individuals With Binge-Eating Disorder in an Adult Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Manjiri; Solo, Kirk; Valant, Jason; Schmitt, Emily; Nwankwo, Millicent; Herman, Barry K

    2016-10-27

    Characterize the frequency, duration, and severity of binge-eating behaviors in adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) in a large US community sample. A representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Wellness Survey was recruited from an online panel and asked to respond to an Internet survey (conducted in October 2013) that included questions designed to assess binge-eating behaviors in relation to DSM-5 BED diagnostic criteria. Of 22,397 respondents, 344 self-reported meeting DSM-5 BED criteria (BED respondents). Most BED respondents reported that binge-eating episodes had occurred for the past 7-12 months (61.0%), and 93.6% reported ≥ 2-3 binge-eating episodes/wk. All BED respondents reported that "extreme" (52.6%) or "great" (47.4%) distress levels were associated with binge-eating episodes. Among BED respondents who agreed to provide detailed binge-eating behavior data after being invited to respond to additional survey questions, 40.6% reported binge eating on average > 1 time/d, and 59.2% reported binge eating 2-3 times/d. For 44.5% of BED respondents, binge-eating duration was 31-60 minutes. BED respondents reported that they "very often" (36.6%) or "often" (34.0%) had urges to binge eat between 7-10 pm. "Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or guilty afterward" was the most bothersome symptom of binge eating for BED respondents (extremely bothersome: 41.9%). Binge-eating frequency among BED respondents averaged once daily. Most BED respondents exhibited binge-eating behavior for 7-12 months, often with severe symptoms. These findings highlight the disease burden of BED and have potential implications for diagnosing and treating BED.

  7. Latent class analysis of eating and impulsive behavioral symptoms in Taiwanese women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors remain unclear. This study examined the patterns of eating behaviors and co-morbid impulsive behaviors in individuals with bulimia nervosa n optimally homogeneous classes using latent class analysis (LCA). All participants (n=180) were asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Information regarding the lifetime presence of symptoms of eating disorder was assessed by clinical interviews. LCA was conducted using eating disorder symptoms, impulsive behaviors, and the number of purging methods. Three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging, symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups. This study provides empirical support for the existence of an impulsive subgroup with distinctive features among a non-Western group of BN patients. This study also suggests that mechanisms other than impulse dysregulation may exist for the development of binge-eating and purging behaviors in bulimia nervosa patients, or the mechanisms contributing to binge-eating and impulsive behaviors may be different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the Child and Parent Forms of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns in the Assessment of Children’s Eating-Disordered Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Emily; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Cohen, Marc L.; Elberg, Jane; Freedman, Renee J.; Semega-Janneh, Mariama; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The assessment of eating-disordered behaviors in middle childhood is challenging. Frequently, both child and parents are queried about the child’s eating behavior. However, no direct comparisons between parent and child reports of child eating disturbance have been published. We compared results from the adolescent and parent versions of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP-A and QEWP-P, respectively) in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Method The QEWP-A and QEWP-P were administered to 142 overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th percentile) and 121 normal weight (BMI 15th–84th percentile) children, age 9.7 ± 1.9 years, recruited from the community. Results The QEWP-A and QEWP-P showed good agreement for the absence of eating-disordered behavior but were not concordant in terms of the number or type of binge eating, overeating episodes, or compensatory weight control behaviors in the past 6 months. Children categorized by their own reports (QEWP-A) as engaging in no overeating, simple overeating, or binge eating behaviors did not differ significantly in body composition or in eating and general psychopathology. Children categorized according to their parents’ reports (QEWP-P) as engaging in binge eating had significantly greater body adiposity, eating-disordered cognitions, body dissatisfaction, and parent-reported problems (all ps QEWP-P. Discussion Child and parent reports of eating behaviors are not concordant regarding the presence of binge eating or compensatory behaviors. Further investigation of the utility of these questionnaires is needed before either can serve as a surrogate for a clinical interview. PMID:15282688

  9. Eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors in sexual minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475

  10. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.

  11. Consumer behaviors towards ready-to-eat foods based on food-related lifestyles in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350

  12. Combating obesity through healthy eating behavior: a call for system dynamics optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin

    Full Text Available Poor eating behavior has been identified as one of the core contributory factors of the childhood obesity epidemic. The consequences of obesity on numerous aspects of life are thoroughly explored in the existing literature. For instance, evidence shows that obesity is linked to incidences of diseases such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, and some cancers, as well as psychosocial problems. To respond to the increasing trends in the UK, in 2008 the government set a target to reverse the prevalence of obesity (POB back to 2000 levels by 2020. This paper will outline the application of system dynamics (SD optimization to simulate the effect of changes in the eating behavior of British children (aged 2 to 15 years on weight and obesity. This study also will identify how long it will take to achieve the government's target. This paper proposed a simulation model called Intervention Childhood Obesity Dynamics (ICOD by focusing the interrelations between various strands of knowledge in one complex human weight regulation system. The model offers distinct insights into the dynamics by capturing the complex interdependencies from the causal loop and feedback structure, with the intention to better understand how eating behaviors influence children's weight, body mass index (BMI, and POB measurement. This study proposed a set of equations that are revised from the original (baseline equations. The new functions are constructed using a RAMP function of linear decrement in portion size and number of meal variables from 2013 until 2020 in order to achieve the 2020 desired target. Findings from the optimization analysis revealed that the 2020 target won't be achieved until 2026 at the earliest, six years late. Thus, the model suggested that a longer period may be needed to significantly reduce obesity in this population.

  13. Substance Use, Eating Behaviors, and Social Impairment of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of first-year and second-year medical students found that risk for eating disorders was greater for female students, risk for drug abuse was unrelated to gender, and psychosocial impairment and depression were associated with risk for either eating disorders or substance abuse. (MSE)

  14. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2 who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n=76. Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n=126. Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior.

  15. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-12

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  16. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the past 6 months was reported at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Height was measured at baseline. Results. Prevalence of binge eating at baseline was 19.4% (n = 76). Prevalence of binge eating at any time point was 30.1% (n = 126). Although rate of weight regain did not differ significantly between those who did or did not report binge eating at baseline, binge eating behavior across the study period (additive value of presence or absence at each time point) was significantly associated with different rates of weight regain. Conclusion. Tailoring weight loss maintenance interventions to address binge eating behavior is warranted given the prevalence and the different rates of weight regain experienced by those reporting this behavior. PMID:24891946

  17. Weight perceptions, disordered eating behaviors, and emotional self-efficacy among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Valois, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    Although emotional disorders and disordered eating behaviors are known to be related, the relationship between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and disordered eating is unknown. This study examined the relationship between ESE and disordered eating in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n=2566). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression adjusted for key covariates explored the relationship between low ESE and disordered eating among selected race and gender groups. Self-perceived weight as underweight or overweight; and dieting, vomiting or taking laxatives, taking diet pills, and fasting to lose weight were each associated (p<.05) with lower levels of ESE for certain race/gender groups. Findings provide increased justification for tailoring disordered eating interventions and treatments to accommodate the highest risk groups. Measures of ESE should be considered for adolescent mental health assessments in fieldwork, research, and evaluation efforts.

  18. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  19. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  20. Relationships among the brain, the digestive system, and eating behavior: workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pray, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    "On July 9-10, 2014, the Institute of Medicine's Food Forum hosted a public workshop to explore emerging and rapidly developing research on relationships among the brain, the digestive system, and eating behavior...

  1. Chronic inhibition, self-control and eating behavior: test of a 'resource depletion' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Panetta, Giulia; Leung, Chung-Ming; Wong, Ging Ging; Wang, John C K; Chan, Derwin K C; Keatley, David A; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2013-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint) would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1) aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72) categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2) aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83) classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition) or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition). Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating behavior and

  2. Self-weighing behaviors in young adults: tipping the scale toward unhealthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Hannan, Peter J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-11-01

    This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight-control behaviors (WCBs), unhealthy WCBs, muscle-enhancing behaviors (e.g., steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of young adults. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included young adults (n = 2,287, mean age = 25.3 years) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of young adult women and 12% of young adult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men, more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy WCBs, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight-control practices, muscle-enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in young adults. Young adults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Before recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that young adults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Healthy Eating Behavior in Ecuadorian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Verstraeten, R.; Van Royen, K.; Ochoa-Aviles, A.; Penafiel, D.; Holdsworth, M.; Donoso, S; Maes, L.; Kolsteren, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from\\ud the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents’ eating\\ud behavior.\\ud \\ud Study design: Twenty focus groups (N = 144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11–15 y (n\\ud (focus groups) = 12, N (participants) = 80), parents (n = 4, N = 32) and school staff (n = 4, N = 32) in rural and...

  4. Exercise and Healthy Eating Intentions and Behaviors among Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Psouni, Stavroula; Chasandra, Mary; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that exercise and eating behaviours are strongly linked. Theory of Planned Behaviour is a theoretical framework that has been successfully used to explain and predict both behaviours. The aim of the present study is to explore the constructs of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that better predicts exercise and healthy eating: a) intentions and b) selfreported behaviors among normal weight and overweight/obese adults. Participants were 361 adults in Gree...

  5. Athletic Involvement and Its Effect on the Eating Behaviors of College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Lindsay

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate athletic participation and the development of disordered eating behaviors in women by comparing collegiate varsity athletes and the general university populations on three variables: disordered eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and self-esteem. Possible differences between athletes who participate in sports in which a lean figure is conducive to success and athletes who participate in sports in which a lean figure is not conducive to success wer...

  6. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  7. Eating behaviors and related cultural attitudes of African American men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Oney

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural groups often participate in traditions and activities surrounding food and eating, which contribute to group differences in maladaptive eating-related patterns and outcomes. This study explored the relationships between cultural attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult African American men and women. Endorsing a strong orientation on various dimensions of African American culture were related to less dieting, bulimic, and anorexic behaviors and attitudes. This study extended our knowledge of the ways in which cultural attitudes were related to the physical and mental health of African Americans and recognized the significance of individual differences within this group.

  8. Disordered eating behaviors among Italian men: objectifying media and sexual orientation differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexual men was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexual men. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed.

  9. Eating behaviors and related cultural attitudes of African American men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Oney

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural groups often participate in traditions and activities surrounding food and eating, which contribute to group differences in maladaptive eating-related patterns and outcomes. This study explored the relationships between cultural attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult African American men and women. Endorsing a strong orientation on various dimensions of African American culture were related to less dieting, bulimic, and anorexic behaviors and attitudes. This study extended our knowledge of the ways in which cultural attitudes were related to the physical and mental health of African Americans and recognized the significance of individual differences within this group.

  10. Understanding Customers\\' Healthy Eating Behavior in Restaurants using the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Tak

    2013-01-01

    A large portion of the American public is overweight and many are classified as being obese.  Obesity and unhealthy eating behavior are partially related to the increase in our society""s consumption of foods away from home. Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has suggested new menu labeling regulations to help educate customers on healthy items among menu selections. Few studies have tried to understand customers"" healthy eating behavior in restaurants. Therefore, the purpos...

  11. Eating behaviors and weight over time in a prospective study: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships of combined initial restrained and external/emotional eating with initial BMI and change in weight and these subscales over time. BMI and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire were twicemeasured in 1361 Korean twins and families (482 men, 879 women) over a period of 2.7±0.9 years. Subjects were classified by combination of initial sex-specific restrained and external (or emotional) eating tertiles. Linear mixed models were performed after adjusting for confounders at baseline (household, sibling relations, sex, age, education level, smoking, alcohol use, energy intake, physical activity, and medical history). In adjusted models, initial BMI increased with increasing tertiles of initial restrained eating across initial external/emotional eating tertiles. Weight was less likely to increase over time with increasing tertiles of initial restrained eating in the lowest external eating tertile and middle tertile of emotional eating at baseline. Subscale scores decreased over time with increasing tertiles of corresponding subscales at baseline. These findings suggest that high dietary restraint and external/emotional eating may indicate concurrent high BMI and attenuated weight gain and decreases in corresponding subscales over time.

  12. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael

    2016-10-26

    Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  13. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  14. Communicating about eating behaviors. A qualitative study of Chilean women and their health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara

    2015-01-01

    Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors.

  15. What is eating you? Stress and the drive to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groesz, Lisa M; McCoy, Shannon; Carl, Jenna; Saslow, Laura; Stewart, Judith; Adler, Nancy; Laraia, Barbara; Epel, Elissa

    2012-04-01

    Non-human animal studies demonstrate relationships between stress and selective intake of palatable food. In humans, exposure to laboratory stressors and self-reported stress are associated with greater food intake. Large studies have yet to examine chronic stress exposure and eating behavior. The current study assessed the relationship between stress (perceived and chronic), drive to eat, and reported food frequency intake (nutritious food vs. palatable non-nutritious food) in women ranging from normal weight to obese (N=457). Greater reported stress, both exposure and perception, was associated with indices of greater drive to eat-including feelings of disinhibited eating, binge eating, hunger, and more ineffective attempts to control eating (rigid restraint; r's from .11 to .36, p'seat and may be one factor promoting excessive weight gain. Relationships between stress and eating behavior are of importance to public health given the concurrent increase in reported stress and obesity rates.

  16. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.

  17. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  18. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  19. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  20. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  1. A Sensor-Enabled Smartphone Application to Collect Eating Behavior Data for Population Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramis, Christos; Moulos, Ioannis; Ioakeimidis, Ioannis; Nolstam, Jenny; Lekka, Irini; Bergh, Cecilia; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide extent of obesity and eating disorders (ED) today highlights the necessity for efficient treatment, but also early prevention of eating-related diseases. A promising category of therapeutic and preventive interventions comes from the domain of behavioral informatics (BI), whose purpose is to monitor and modify harmful behaviors - unhealthy eating in the particular case - with the help of information and communication technologies. Smartphones have already shown great promise in delivering such BI interventions in the field of obesity and ED. In fact, plenty of smartphone applications aiming to monitor and support the change of eating behavior with the help of built-in or external sensors have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no smartphone application up to date has been designed to collect eating behavior data for the purpose of population screening against obesity or ED. In this work we describe a novel, sensor-enabled smartphone application that captures in-meal behavioral data from multiple subjects in a brief data collection process, with the end goal of recording, in detail, the user's eating style throughout a cooked meal. These data can later be employed for assessing the subjects' risk for obesity or ED. The proposed application has undergone preliminary evaluation with respect to its usability and technical soundness, yielding promising results.

  2. [Nutrition and behavioral eating disorders: anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miján de la Torre, A; Velasco Vallejo, J L

    1999-05-01

    Behavioral eating disorders (BED's) have shown an intense growth in the last years. They are considered to be caused by multiple factors, showing a bio-psycho-socio-cultural etiology. Although there are clinical signs that could alert the physician and allow an early diagnosis, their final diagnosis must meet certain criteria set in the DSM-IV (1994). Despite the fact that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in their typical forms, are the most known, there are atypical or incomplete forms of both that should be kept in mind when making the diagnosis. Anorexia nervosa is accompanied by somatic-nutritional problems that may condition the patient's life, requiring specific nutritional care. Bulimia nervosa is often accompanied by medical complications that require an exhaustive assessment. As for the nutritional support in anorexia nervosa, this must be proportional to the nutritional status of the patient and there should be no hesitation to resort to artificial nutrition using enteral nutrition through a tube in the case of severe malnutrition. In these cases there must be careful monitoring for the appearance of the re-nutrition syndrome, and this can be avoided by the slow and progressive administration of energetic nutrients, with special precautions in the supply of carbohydrates, and administering an adequate supplement of vitamins and electrolytes. Patients with a BED require a multi-disciplinary care with the simultaneous and coordinated action of a team of professionals. This type of care coupled with the experience of the team with regard to BED's and their treatment, and together with other actions and situations, may favor the final prognosis of a patient with a BED.

  3. [Risk of Eating Behavior Disorder among Medical Students in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Villamil-Vargas, Miryam

    2012-06-01

    An important number of medical students are at Risk of suffering an Eating Behavior Disorder (REBD). However, research has been limited regarding associated variables in Colombian students. To estimate the prevalence and related demographic and psychosocial variables associated to the REBD among medicine students in a university of Bogota, Colombia. Transversal study. Demographic variables, academic performance, level of physical activity, daily cigarette smoking, and abuse of alcohol, personal health and observed stress were quantified. The SCOFF questionnaire was used to quantify REBD. Logistic regression was applied to adjust the associations. 289 students participated with an average age of 21.7 years (SD = 2.8), 63.7% were female students. It was observed that 82 students (28.4%) reported unsuccessful academic performance; 35 of them (12.1%), showed high level of physical activity; 39 (13.5%), reported daily cigarette smoking; 86 (29.8%), abused alcohol; 47 (16.3%), showed poor personal health; 23 (8.0%) high stress level observed; and 59 (20.4% 95% CI 15.8-25.0), REBD. High stress level observed (OR = 5.58; 95% CI 2.08-14.95), female (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.35-5.95) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.18; 95% CI 1.10-4.11) were associated to REBD, after adjusting concerning personal health. Approximately one out of five medical students reports REBD in a private university of Bogota, Colombia reported REBD. High levels of stress observed, female gender and alcohol abuse are associated to REBD. Further research is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of Compensatory Health Beliefs in eating behavior change: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Melanie A; Rackow, Pamela; Inauen, Jennifer; Radtke, Theda; Scholz, Urte

    2017-09-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition. For the quantitative approach, path models were fitted to analyze the role of CHBs within a social-cognitive theory of health behavior change, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). With a content analysis, the qualitative approach investigated the occurrence of CHBs in smartphone chat groups when pursuing an eating goal. Both analyses were conducted for each eating behavior separately. Path models showed that CHBs added predictive value for intention, but not behavior over and above HAPA variables only in the unhealthy snack condition. CHBs were significantly negatively associated with intention and action planning. Content analysis revealed that people generated only a few CHB messages. However, CHBs were more likely to be present and were also more diverse in the unhealthy snack condition compared to the fruit and vegetable condition. Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Crow, Scott J.; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B.; Durkin, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is a modest relation between obesity and depression, mechanisms that contribute to this co-occurrence are unclear. This study examined mood and eating behavior among obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Method Obese adults (N=50) were subtyped according to a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) cutoff of 14, indicating “probable depression.” Participants with (BDI≥14; n=15) and without elevated depression symptoms (BDI<14; n=35) were compared on affect- and eating-related variables measured via questionnaire and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using ANCOVA and mixed model regression. Results After adjusting for group differences in body mass index (BMI; p=.03), participants with elevated depression symptoms reported greater emotional eating via self-report questionnaire [F(1,50)=4.3; p=.04], as well as more frequent binge eating (Wald chi-square=13.8; p<.001) and higher daily negative affect (Wald chi-square=7.7; p=.005) on EMA recordings. Emotional eating mediated the relationship between depression status and BMI (indirect effect estimate=3.79; 95% CI=1.02–7.46). Discussion Emotional eating and binge eating were more commonly reported by obese adults with elevated depression symptoms compared to those without, and may occur against a general backdrop of overall low mood. Intervention and prevention programs for obesity and/or depression should address disordered eating to prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. PMID:24014067

  6. Effect of dose of behavioral treatment for obesity on binge eating severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Aviva H; Perri, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of three doses of a behavioral intervention for obesity (High dose=24 sessions, Moderate=16 sessions, Low=8 sessions) compared with a nutrition education control group (Control) on binge eating. We also examined whether participants with clinically significant improvements in binge eating had better treatment adherence and weight-loss outcomes than those who did not experience clinically significant improvements in binge eating. Finally, we examined the relation of pretreatment binge eating severity to changes at six months. Participants included 572 adults (female=78.7%; baseline mean±SD: age=52.7±11.2years, BMI=36.4±3.9kg/m(2)) who provided binge eating data at baseline. We evaluated binge eating severity (assessed via the Binge Eating Scale) and weight status at baseline and six months, as well as treatment adherence over six months. At six months, participants in the Moderate and High treatment conditions reported greater reductions in binge eating severity than participants in the Low and Control conditions, psadherence and attained larger weight losses than those who did not experience clinically significant reductions, psobesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How specific are the relationships between eating disorder behaviors and perfectionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Forbush, Kelsie T; Williamson, J Austin; Markon, Kristian E; Pollack, Lauren O

    2013-08-01

    Perfectionism is associated with several mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. The goal of this study was to test the specificity of the associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, by examining whether neuroticism and conscientiousness mediated or moderated associations between these variables. Participants from a representative community sample (N = 407; 47% female) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and eating disorder behaviors. Neuroticism partially mediated associations between binge eating, restraint, body dissatisfaction, and maladaptive perfectionism facets. Neuroticism did not mediate associations between restriction and achievement striving perfectionism facets. Conscientiousness did not mediate any associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, yet Doubts about Actions interacted with conscientiousness to predict body dissatisfaction. Results indicate that neuroticism is key for understanding general risk factors that lead to myriad internalizing disorders, whereas maladaptive perfectionism has limited usefulness as a specific risk factor for eating disorder behaviors. Nevertheless, there is a unique association between dietary restraint and achievement striving dimensions of perfectionism that cannot be explained by higher-order personality traits.

  8. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Mindfulness and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p < .05). Conclusions In girls with a family history of T2D, independent of body composition and depressive symptoms, intra-individual differences in mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157

  10. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children’s eating disordered behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Both instruments were administered to 88 overweight (BMI≥85th percentile) and 79 normal weight (BMIQEWP-P were not concordant in terms of the type of eating episodes that occurred in the past month. Using the ChEDE as the criterion method, the QEWP-P had reasonably high specificity, but low sensitivity for the presence of binge episodes (sensitivity 50%, specificity 83%) or objective overeating (sensitivity 30%, specificity 79%) during the past month. ChEDE subscales were, however, significantly related to items assessing eating-related distress on the QEWP-P. While parent report of child eating behaviors may provide some general information regarding eating psychopathology in young nontreatment-seeking children, they do not accurately reflect the results of a structured interview. PMID:15567115

  11. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children's eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment sample of overweight and normal weight children. Both instruments were administered to 88 overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) and 79 normal weight (BMIQEWP-P were not concordant in terms of the type of eating episodes that occurred in the past month. Using the ChEDE as the criterion method, the QEWP-P had reasonably high specificity, but low sensitivity for the presence of binge episodes (sensitivity 50%, specificity 83%) or objective overeating (sensitivity 30%, specificity 79%) during the past month. ChEDE subscales were, however, significantly related to items assessing eating-related distress on the QEWP-P. While parent report of child eating behaviors may provide some general information regarding eating psychopathology in young nontreatment-seeking children, they do not accurately reflect the results of a structured interview.

  12. Alexithymia and its relationships with eating behavior, self esteem, and body esteem in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Keiko; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence rate of alexithymia and eating disorder (ED) as well as to explore the relationships between alexithymia and eating behavior, self esteem, and body esteem in non-clinical college women. A total of 313 Japanese college women were asked to make entries of age, height, and body weight, and to answer the full items in the Japanese version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), and Body Esteem Scale (BES). The frequency of alexithymics who scored 61 points or more of the TAS-20 was 28.7%, and the frequency of students with potential ED who scored 20 points or more of the EAT-26 was 8.7%. The prevalence of potential ED in the alexithymics (14.0%) was significantly higher than that in the non-alexithymics (6.5%). The mean values of the RSES and BES scores were significantly different between the alexithymic and non-alexithymic groups. The TAS-20 scores were unrelated to the age and body mass index, but were significantly correlated to the EAT-26 (total score (r = 0.12, p = 0.04), bulimia and food preoccupation (r = 0.14, p = 0.01)), the RSES (r = -0.44, p women, alexithymia is a common psychological characteristic that is strongly correlated with self esteem and body esteem and that may influence eating behavior.

  13. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  14. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  15. Change in eating and body related behaviors during the first year of university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, C A; Mooney, K; Juarascio, A

    2010-01-01

    Significant changes in BMI, disordered eating, and body image dissatisfaction occur during the first year of university. However, previous research has not yet isolated the key factors that lead to these changes. This study sought to add to the body of research in this area by investigating students' eating attitudes, behaviors, body image, and weight at the beginning and the end of the first year of university. Participants were initially 64 male and female university students from two universities: one rural and one urban. Twenty-eight percent of the participants completed assessments at two time points. These included a series of questionnaires designed to measure disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction and weight. These changes were different for males and females. Substantial changes in eating behaviors, attitudes, body image and BMI occur during the first year of university. Concrete knowledge about these changes might help students adapt to university life.

  16. Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for concurrent Binge Eating Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbasson, Christine M; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Shapira, Leah B

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective binge eating episodes; disordered eating attitudes; alcohol and drug addiction severity; and depression. Taken together, MACBT appears to hold promise in treating individuals with co-existing BED-SUD.

  17. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BettyAnn A. Chodkowski

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of any explicit eating-related stimuli, the developing brain is primed toward food approach and away from food avoidance behavior with increasing adiposity. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity that is associated with non-homeostatic eating develops during childhood, as early as 8–13 years of age. Our results indicate the importance of identifying children at risk for obesity for earlier intervention. In addition to changing eating habits and physical activity, strategies that normalize neural functional connectivity imbalance are needed to maintain healthy weight. Mindfulness may be one such approach as it is associated with increased response inhibition and decreased impulsivity.

  18. A Comparison of Eating Patterns Across Two Obesity Treatments: Behavior Therapy vs. Behavioral Choice Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-06

    International Journal of Eating Disorders , 15...Emotion and eating in obesity: A review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 8, 343-361. Glucksman, M.L., Rand, C.S...R.C. (1983). An analysis of body image distortions in a non-patient population. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 2, 35-41. Kern,

  19. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care.

  20. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls

    OpenAIRE

    Maria D. Teixeira; Pereira, Ana T.; Mariana V. Marques; Jorge M. Saraiva; Macedo, António F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perf...

  1. Sleep and eating behavior in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkus, Jennifer M; Booth, John N; Bromley, Lindsay E; Darukhanavala, Amy P; Imperial, Jacqueline G; Penev, Plamen D

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient quantity and quality of sleep may modulate eating behavior, everyday physical activity, overall energy balance, and individual risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of habitual sleep quantity and quality with the self-reported pattern of eating behavior in 53 healthy urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (30 F/23 M; mean (s.d.) age: 27 (4) years; BMI: 23.9 (2.3) kg/m(2)) while taking into consideration the amount of their everyday physical activity. Participants completed 13 (3) days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Overnight laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Eating behavior was assessed using the original 51-item and the revised 18-item version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire including measures of cognitive restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and uncontrolled and emotional eating. In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, BMI, gender, race/ethnicity, level of education, habitual sleep time measured by wrist actigraphy and physical activity measured by waist accelerometry, lower subjective sleep quality was associated with increased hunger, more disinhibited, uncontrolled and emotional eating, and higher cognitive restraint. There was no significant association between the amount of sleep measured by wrist actigraphy and any of these eating behavior factors. Our findings indicate that small decrements in self-reported sleep quality can be a sensitive indicator for the presence of potentially problematic eating patterns in healthy urban adults with familial risk for type 2 diabetes.

  2. Family dinner and disordered eating behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, Jess; Matthew W. Gillman; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S Bryn

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine longitudinal associations between family dinner and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. We studied 7535 females and 5913 males, 9 to 14 years of age in 1996. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of previous year family dinner with 1-year incidence of each of 3 outcomes: purging, binge eating, and frequent dieting. Compared to those who ate family dinner “never or some days,” female adolescents who ate family dinner at least m...

  3. Superstitious behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K

    1987-05-01

    Twenty undergraduate students were exposed to single response-independent schedules of reinforcer presentation, fixed-time or variable-time, each with values of 30 and 60 s. The reinforcer was a point on a counter accompanied by a red lamp and a brief buzzer. Three color signals were presented, without consistent relation to reinforcer or to the subjects' behavior. Three large levers were available, but the subjects were not asked to perform any particular behavior. Three of the 20 subjects developed persistent superstitious behavior. One engaged in a pattern of lever-pulling responses that consisted of long pulls after a few short pulls; the second touched many things in the experimental booth; the third showed biased responding called sensory superstition. However, most subjects did not show consistent superstitious behavior. Reinforcers can operate effectively on human behavior even in the absence of a response-reinforcer contingency and can, in some cases, shape stable superstitious patterns. However, superstitious behavior is not a consistent outcome of exposure of human subjects to response-independent reinforcer deliveries.

  4. Different moderators of cognitive-behavioral therapy on subjective and objective binge eating in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: a three-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Benni, Laura; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Ravaldi, Claudia; Rotella, Carlo M; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2012-01-01

    Different studies considered the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), suggesting different pathways. The present 3-year follow-up study evaluated the relationships between psychopathological variables, and objective and subjective binge eating episodes in the two syndromes. 85 BN and 133 BED patients were studied. Objective and subjective binge eating, and psychopathological data were collected in a face-to-face interview, and by means of different self-reported questionnaires. The same assessment was repeated at baseline (T0), at the end of an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (T1), and 3 years after the end of treatment (T2). At baseline, BN and BED patients showed different emotions associated with binge eating: anger/frustration for BN and depression for BED patients. Objective binge eating frequency reduction across time was associated with lower impulsivity and shape concern in BN patients, and with lower emotional eating and depressive symptoms in BED patients. Lower subjective binge eating frequency at baseline predicted recovery, in both BN and BED patients. Recovery was associated with lower impulsivity and body shape concern at baseline for BN patients, and lower depression and emotional eating for BED patients. Eating psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity and emotional eating have a different pattern of association with objective and subjective binge eating in BN and BED patients, and they act as different moderators of treatment. A different target of intervention for these two syndromes might be taken into account, and subjective binge eating deserves an accurate assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Eating behavior style predicts craving and anxiety experienced in food-related virtual environments by patients with eating disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sánchez, Isabel; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-10-01

    Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. Method: A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Results: High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339, socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175, self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211, and low self-esteem (r = -0.292 (all p < 0.001. Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusion: In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  7. Time trends in population prevalence of eating disorder behaviors and their relationship to quality of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mitchison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in the burden of eating disorder (ED features, as estimated by the composite of their prevalence and impact upon quality of life (QoL over a period of 10 years. METHODOLOGY: Representative samples of 3010 participants in 1998 and 3034 participants in 2008 from the South Australian adult population were assessed for endorsement of ED features (objective binge eating, extreme dieting, and purging were assessed in both years; subjective binge eating and extreme weight/shape concerns were also assessed in 2008 and QoL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 1998 to 2008 significant increases in the prevalence of objective binge eating (2.7% to 4.9%, p0.05. Multiple linear regressions found that in 1998 only objective binge eating significantly predicted scores on the mental health summary scale of the SF-36; however, in 2008 extreme weight/shape concerns, extreme dieting, and subjective binge eating were also significant predictors. Objective binge eating and extreme dieting were significant predictors of scores on the physical health summary scale of the SF-36 in both 1998 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of ED behaviors increased between 1998 and 2008, while their impact on QoL remained stable. This suggests an overall increase in the burden of disordered eating from 1998 to 2008. Given that binge eating and extreme dieting predict impairment in QoL, the necessity of interventions to prevent both under- and over-eating is reinforced.

  8. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hein A; Postel, Marloes G; van der Palen, Job; VanDerNagel, Joanne EL; DeJong, Cornelis AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention using intensive asynchronous therapeutic support to improve eating disorder psychopathology, and to reduce body dissatisfaction and related health problems among patients with eating disorders. Methods A two-arm open randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based CBT intervention to a waiting list control condition (WL) was carried out among female patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The eating disorder diagnosis was in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and was established based on participants’ self-report. Participants were recruited from an open-access website, and the intervention consisted of a structured two-part program within a secure Web-based application. The aim of the first part was to analyze participant’s eating attitudes and behaviors, while the second part focused on behavioral change. Participants had asynchronous contact with a personal therapist twice a week, solely via the Internet. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (primary outcome), body dissatisfaction, physical health, mental health, self-esteem, quality of life, and social functioning were completed at baseline and posttest. Results A total of 214 participants were randomized to either the Web-based CBT group (n=108) or to the WL group (n=106) stratified by type of eating disorder (BN: n=44; BED: n=85; EDNOS: n=85). Study attrition was low with 94% of the participants completing the posttest assignment. Overall, Web-based CBT showed a significant improvement over time for eating disorder psychopathology (F 97

  9. Parental influence on eating behavior: Conception to adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first years of life mark a time of rapid development and dietary change, as children transition from an exclusive milk diet to a modified adult diet. During these early years, children's learning about food and eating plays a central role in shaping subsequent food choices, diet quality, and wei...

  10. Wanting and liking: Separable components in problematic eating behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Sarah E; Schulte, Erica M; Furman, Celina R; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-11-11

    Some individuals may have an addictive-like response to certain foods, possibly contributing to problematic eating. Highly processed foods, with added fats and/or refined carbohydrates, are suggested to be most associated with addictive-like eating. The incentive sensitization theory suggests that wanting (e.g. craving) may drive compulsive drug use rather than liking (e.g. enjoyment), but it is unknown whether highly processed foods elicit similar wanting and liking patterns as drugs of abuse, or whether individual differences exist. The current study examines the association of highly processed foods with craving and liking, and whether these relationships differ by food addiction symptomology, cognitive restraint, or body mass index (BMI). Participants (n = 216) reported craving and liking for 35 foods and completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Highly processed foods were craved more overall. Craving of highly processed foods was predicted negatively by restraint and positively by YFAS score. Liking of highly processed foods was predicted negatively by restraint and positively by BMI. In conclusion, craving and liking appear distinct with respect to highly processed foods, and may be influenced by addictive-like eating, cognitive restraint, and BMI. This suggests that the incentive sensitization framework may also be relevant for problematic food consumption, especially for individuals reporting food addiction symptoms.

  11. The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating

  12. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Scherer, Emily A; Calzo, Jerel P; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-12-01

    Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youths. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youths in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71 % for females and 12 % for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health.

  13. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  14. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception, which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Subjects were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 17) or LAGB (n = 10). The following have been evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli, sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences, sweetness palatability, eating behavior, and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (-12 ± 10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (-7 ± 5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (-22 ± 5%), influence of emotions (-27 ± 5%), and external food cues (-30 ± 4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P = 0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds nor MSG preferences. LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. Anorexic Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy L.; Hughes, Honore M.; Katz, Barry; Searight, H. Russell

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in eating attitudes and behaviors in undergraduate college students (N=471). Anorexic symptomatology was found for 20% of the females and 10% of the males. In general, students without symptomatic attitudes and behaviors had a more positive self-concept and reported less psychological distress than did those with eating…

  16. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…

  17. THE HIDDEN PICTURE: UNHEALTHY EATING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS IN A NON-CLINICAL POPULATION FROM BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Massaldjieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eating disorders have been intensively researched over recent decades. However, there has been insufficient research into the early assessments for detecting the risk of developing disordered eating. We report preliminary results from a project aiming to assess the prevalence of eating attitudes and behaviors that heighten the risk of eating disorders. The study examines a non-clinical sample of adolescents and adults from two cities of South Bulgaria.METHODS: In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, a total of 1285 volunteers of 828 females and 453 males, aged 14 to 59 years, were surveyed to assess disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. For this purpose, the study used the ‘SCOFF’ questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS, and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (EABQ, which was developed for this study.RESULTS: The proportion of these volunteers underweight (body mass index below 17.5 was 9.8%. Of the total subject, 34.7% provided two or more positive answers for the SCOFF questionnaire (two being the upper threshold for indicating 100% sensitivity to anorexia and bulimia. The results differed between males and females: 21.6% and 42.1%, respectively, in this regard. A factor analysis (oblimin rotation of EABQ items revealed four main factors: body shape and weight concerns, personal control over eating and calorie intake, dieting, and preoccupation with food and binge eating. A Spearman’s correlation analysis showed moderately significant correlations (p < 0.001 between the total scores of the SCOFF questionnaire, EABQ, and the scores for three groups of items in the EDDS for assessing eating attitudes and behaviors.CONCLUSION: We found a greater ED risk in adolescents compared with the older groups and in females compared with males. One fifth of males studied were at high risk of ED and ages between 19 and 39 years also appeared at risk. The EABQ was validated as a sensitive and

  18. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.

  19. Central nervous system regulation of eating: Insights from human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-05-01

    Appetite and body weight regulation are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in a rather complicated manner. The human brain plays a central role in integrating internal and external inputs to modulate energy homeostasis. Although homeostatic control by the hypothalamus is currently considered to be primarily responsible for controlling appetite, most of the available evidence derives from experiments in rodents, and the role of this system in regulating appetite in states of hunger/starvation and in the pathogenesis of overeating/obesity remains to be fully elucidated in humans. Further, cognitive and affective processes have been implicated in the dysregulation of eating behavior in humans, but their exact relative contributions as well as the respective underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We briefly review each of these systems here and present the current state of research in an attempt to update clinicians and clinical researchers alike on the status and future directions of obesity research.

  20. Alteration of eating behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease: possibly overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occasionally show food cravings and/or compulsive eating that result in significant, undesired weight gain. Dopamine replacement therapy may be the cause of this type of eating disorder. We evaluated 60 consecutive patients to see if they had any alteration of eating patterns after starting levodopa. Among them, five (8.3%) patients exhibited characteristic alterations of food preference following the start of dopamine replacement therapy. One patient showed an undesirable weight gain. Of the five patients exhibiting food preference alterations, all showed increased preference to consume sweet snacks, although this alteration was not always associated with hyperphagia (eating too much). This type of dietary alteration was not related to a specific antiparkinsonian drug, and could be observed in patients undergoing dopamine agonist monotherapy. Alteration of eating behavior may not be uncommon in PD patients, and is possibly overlooked. Since dopamine is closely involved in acquisition of food preferences, dietary changes with/without compulsive eating may be a manifestation of an alteration of appetitive behaviors due to excessive dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  1. Eating behaviors of older adults participating in government-sponsored programs with different demographic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Brusca, Joseph; Johnson-Austin, Marti; Bai, Yeon; O' Malley, Michelle

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine the food behaviors of nutritionally high-risk seniors as a function of their racial background, gender, marital status, and education level. A total of 69 seniors were identified to be at high nutritional risk using the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. A supplemental questionnaire (SQ) was created to examine the risk factors in relation to the participant's demographic background. Key results indicated that Asians practiced healthy food behaviors and women were more likely to eat alone (p?0.05). Married participants (90.9%) were most likely to consume 2 meals or more each day. College educated individuals practiced healthier eating, eating 5 servings or more of fruits and vegetables (p?0.01) and 2 or more servings of milk and milk products (p?0.01). These preliminary findings indicate that more studies should be conducted to focus on the demographic characteristics and food behaviors among older populations.

  2. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P'sbody image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  3. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost ...

  4. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  5. Inpatient Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E for eating disorders has been developed and evaluated only in outpatient setting. Aim of the paper is to describe a novel model of inpatient treatment, termed inpatient CBT-E, indicated for patients with an eating disorder of clinical severity not manageable in an outpatient setting or that failed outpatient treatment. Inpatient CBT-E is derived by the outpatients CBT-E with some adaptations to rend the treatments suitable for an inpatient setting. The principal adaptations include: 1 multidisciplinary and non-eclectic team composed of physicians, psychologists, dieticians and nurses all trained in CBT; 2 assisted eating; 3 group sessions; and a CBT family module for patients younger than 18 years. The treatment lasts 20 weeks (13 for inpatients followed by seven weeks of residential day treatment and, as CBT-E, is divided in four stages and can be administered in a focused form (CBT-F or in a broad form (CBT-B. A randomized control trial is evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment.

  6. Predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Rich; Bucchianeri, Michaela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-11-01

    To identify personal and socioenvironmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood and factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Participants (n = 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1,082 females and 820 males). Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors 10 years later. For example, among both males and females, weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared with 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (prevalence difference: 34.3; 95% confidence interval: 10.5-58.1; p adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic inhibition, self-control and eating behavior: test of a 'resource depletion' model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Hagger

    Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1 aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72 categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2 aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83 classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition. Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating

  8. Chronic Inhibition, Self-Control and Eating Behavior: Test of a ‘Resource Depletion’ Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Panetta, Giulia; Leung, Chung-Ming; Wong, Ging Ging; Wang, John C. K.; Chan, Derwin K. C.; Keatley, David A.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2013-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint) would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI) was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1) aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72) categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2) aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83) classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition) or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition). Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating behavior

  9. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  10. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eRazzoli; Valentina eSanghez; Alessandro eBartolomucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  11. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  12. Sleep and eating behavior in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kilkus, J.M.; Booth, J. N.; Bromley, L.E.; Darukhanavala, A.P.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2011-01-01

    Insufficient quantity and quality of sleep may modulate eating behavior, everyday physical activity, overall energy balance, and individual risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of habitual sleep quantity and quality with the self-reported pattern of eating behavior in 53 healthy urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (30F/23M; mean [SD] age: 27 [4] y; BMI: 23.9 [2.3] kg/m2) while taking into consideration the amount of their everyday physical activit...

  13. Eating behaviors, mental health, and food intake are associated with obesity in older congregate meal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting.

  14. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  16. Examining Convergence of Retrospective and Ecological Momentary Assessment Measures of Negative Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932

  17. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  18. Association of children's eating behaviors with parental education, and teachers' health awareness, attitudes and behaviors: a national school-based survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liu; Zhai, Yi; Engelgau, Michael; Li, Weirong; Qian, Hanzhu; Si, Xiang; Gao, Xin; Sereny, Melanie; Liang, Jing; Zhu, Xiaolei; Shi, Xiaoming

    2014-12-01

    In China, childhood obesity is a growing health issue. Eating behaviors among children can be influenced by both the family and school environment. We examine the association between these environments and eating habits among children. A total of 11 270 fourth to sixth grade school children, 11 270 of their fathers or mothers, and 1348 teachers from 48 schools were sampled using a multistage cluster random sampling method. Questionnaires collected information on eating behaviors among children, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD)-related health knowledge and behaviors among teachers, and education levels among parents. Mixed effect logistic regression models were used to describe the key associations between eating behaviors among children and teacher and parental characteristics. Health awareness, positive health attitudes, never-smoking and regular-exercise among teachers was positively associated with healthy eating behaviors among their students (having breakfast, vegetables and dairy products every day; P unhealthy behaviors (daily intake of fried foods and desserts and sugary beverages; P eating behaviors among their children (P eating habits were negative in urban and positive in rural areas (P eating behaviors. Parental education levels may help guide efforts to target children at higher risk of unhealthy eating habits. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  1. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants.

  2. Relationship Between Eating Behavior and Dietary Intake in Rural Mexican-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Trina M; Kuster, James T; Koehler, Ann E

    2017-02-01

    We used Spearman's rho correlations and descriptive statistics (α = 0.05) to explore relationships between maternal eating behaviors (disinhibition, cognitive restraint, and susceptibility to hunger) and frequency of consumption of specific food groups (dairy, fruits, vegetables, meats) in a rural Mexican-American population. Analyses were based on the mothers' responses to the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and Willett's Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cognitive restraint was associated with greater frequency of consumption of vegetables, whereas disinhibition was associated with less frequent consumption of fruit. Susceptibility to hunger may have indirectly influenced the latter by enhancing the level of disinhibition. Mean frequency of consumption of vegetables (1-3 times per month) and fruits (once per week) was less than Healthy People 2020 targets. Additional research is needed to better understand factors contributing to these eating behaviors and patterns. To do so will require developing diet assessment tools that reflect foods typically consumed by this population.

  3. Examining weight and eating behavior by sexual orientation in a sample of male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Richards, Lauren K; Bartlett, Brooke; Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S

    2016-07-01

    Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual. Measures included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and self-reported height and weight. Heterosexual and sexual minority men did not differ significantly in terms of BMI. However, gay and bisexual men (n=24) endorsed significantly greater eating disorder symptoms and food addiction compared to heterosexual men. Our findings that sexual minority male veterans may be more likely to experience eating disorder and food addiction symptoms compared to heterosexual male veterans highlight the importance of prevention, assessment, and treatment efforts targeted to this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Eating Habits and Body Weight Control Behaviors of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek OZMEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teen’s health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they don’t make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students don’t have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 98-105

  5. Eating Habits and Body Weight Control Behaviors of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur CETINKAYA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teen’s health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they don’t have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they don’t make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students don’t have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 98-105

  6. Unhealthy eating behaviors and weight gain: A prospective study in young and middle-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Luz M; García-Esquinas, Esther; Soler-Vila, Hosanna; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for obesity prevention recommend reducing certain unhealthy eating behaviors (UEB). However, the association between UEB and weight gain is uncertain. Prospective cohort with 1,638 individuals aged 18-60 years was recruited in 2008-2010. UEB assessed at baseline were: not planning how much to eat, consuming pre-cooked/canned food, buying snacks, eating in fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-calorie foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV or seating on a sofa. Participants were followed up through 2012 to assess weight change. Compared to reporting 0-2 UEB, the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for gaining ≥3 kg were 0.97 (0.74-1.28) for 3-4 UEB and 1.61 (1.09-2.39) for ≥5 UEB, P-trend = 0.07. Results were similar for gaining ≥5 kg. The three UEB with the strongest associations with weight gain were: 1) not planning the amount of food to eat, 2) eating at fast-food restaurants, and 3) eating while watching TV; compared to having none of these three behaviors, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for gaining ≥3 kg was 1.54 (0.77-3.08) for 1 UEB, 1.70 (0.85-3.37) for 2 UEB, and 2.75 (1.28-5.90) for 3 UEB, P-trend = 0.007. Similar results were obtained for gaining ≥5 kg. Several UEB are associated with weight gain. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  7. Food Insecurity and Eating Behavior Relationships Among Congregate Meal Participants in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, TaMara; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Johnson, Kristen B; Sun Lee, Jung; Fischer, Joan G; Ann Johnson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study explored relationships of food insecurity with cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating behaviors among congregate meal participants in northeast Georgia [n = 118 years, age 60 years and older, mean (SD) age = 75 ( 8 ) years, 75% female, 43% Black, 53% obese (Body Mass Index ≥ 30)]. Food insecurity was assessed with a 6-item questionnaire. Scores ranged from 0 to 6 and were defined as high or marginal food security, FS, 0-1 (70%); low food security, LFS, 2-4 (20%); very low food security, VLFS, 5-6 (10%); and low and very low food security, LVLFS, 2-6 (30%). Eating behavior was assessed with an 18-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire R-18. In bivariate analyses food insecurity was consistently associated with cognitive restraint scores above the median split and to a lesser extent with uncontrolled eating scores (p ≤ 0.05). No association was found between emotional eating and food insecurity. In multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, food insecurity was consistently associated with cognitive restraint (p ≤ 0.05) even when controlled for potential confounders (demographics, Body Mass Index, and chronic diseases). Food insecurity was also associated with uncontrolled eating (p ≤ 0.05), but the relationship was attenuated when controlled for potential confounding variables. Although cognitive restraint is defined as the conscious restriction of food intake to control body weight or promote weight loss, these findings suggest there may be other dimensions of cognitive restraint to consider in nutritional assessment and interventions among food-insecure older adults.

  8. Diferenças na percepção da imagem corporal, no comportamento alimentar e no estado nutricional de universitárias das áreas de saúde e humanas Differences in body image perception, eating behavior and nutritional status of college students of health and human sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2009-12-01

    people concerned about their weight and body image may choose to take these majors because they are personally interested in the topic. The objective of this study was to assess the body image perception, eating behavior, and nutritional status of students of health and human sciences and to compare these data. METHOD: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were administered to 127 first-year students of Nutrition and Physical Education (health sciences and Advertising and Business Administration (human sciences who also provided information on weight and height for calculation of their body mass index. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of body image distortion in all groups, with no difference between areas or majors. The EAT-26 indicated higher scores in students of health than in those who studied human sciences, with the students majoring in Nutrition showing the highest scores, with statistical difference from the scores found in Advertising and Business Administration, but not in Physical Education. In addition, most students were classified as eutrophic and there were not obese individuals in any of the majors, with no significant difference between areas or majors for this variable. DISCUSSION: The high incidence of body image distortion associated with high prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior in students of health shows a possible susceptibility to the development of eating disorders.

  9. Risk behaviors related to eating disorders in adolescents and its association with dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Fagundes SOUTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The overvaluation of thinness as a standard of beauty has contributed to the development of eating disorders and has mainly affected adolescents and young adults. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with dental erosion in adolescents. Material and method This is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study. The sample consisted of 278 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, enrolled in a State School in Campinas - SP. Two questionnaires were used for the data collection on eating disorders: Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Attitudes Test -26. The presence of erosion was evaluated by calibrated examiners. Result The mean age of the sample was 14.8 years. The prevalence of mean risk for bulimia in the sample was 43.2% (95% CI: 37.3%-49.0% and the prevalence of adolescents with a probability of developing bulimia was 53.2% (95% CI: 47.4%-59.1%. Of the total, 11.9% (95% CI: 8.1%-15.7% showed results suggestive of anorexia. Among women, 66.9% were classified as probability developing bulimia, whereas in men the prevalence was 39.0%. As for dental erosion, only 1.1% of the sample presented erosion. Conclusion The study pointed to large number of adolescents with risk behaviors for eating disorders but no association was found with dental erosion due to low prevalence.

  10. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  11. Screening High School Students for Eating Disorders: Validity of Brief Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…

  12. The Relation of Sociocultural Factors to Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Middle School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated young girls' eating behavior, body satisfaction, weight management, and the cues taken from family, peers, and magazines. Found that a majority received a message from fashion magazines and peers or family that being slender is important and attainable through dieting, indicating that some young girls live under intense weight and…

  13. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  14. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood : a prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Hoek, Hans W.; van Hoeken, Daphne; de Barse, Lisanne M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPicky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associations with child ment

  15. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  16. Media-portrayed idealized images, self-objectification, and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona J; Huon, Gail F

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's eating behavior. The study compared the effects for high and low self-objectifiers. 72 female university students participated in this experiment. Six magazine advertisements featuring idealized female models were used as the experimental stimuli, and the same six advertisements with the idealized body digitally removed became the control stimuli. Eating behavior was examined using a classic taste test that involved both sweet and savory food. Participants' restraint status was assessed. We found that total food intake after exposure was the same in the body present and absent conditions. There were also no differences between high and low self-objectifiers' total food intake. However, for the total amount of food consumed and for sweet food there were significant group by condition interaction effects. High self-objectifiers ate more food in the body present than the body absent condition. In contrast, low self-objectifiers ate more food in the body absent than in the body present condition. Restraint status was not found to moderate the relationship between exposure to idealized images the amount of food consumed. Our results indicate that exposure to media-portrayed idealized images can lead to changes in eating behavior and highlight the complexity of the association between idealized image exposure and eating behavior. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention of dieting-related disorders.

  17. Autonomy at Mealtime: Building Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Behaviors in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogharreban, Catherine; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia

    1996-01-01

    Explores family-style meal service as a means to building autonomy and healthy eating behaviors in young children. Discusses the development of food preferences, age-related developmental responses to food, and the importance of socially mediated exposure to food as a way to increased food acceptance. Presents guidelines for implementing…

  18. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  19. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  20. Vegetarianism and Eating Disorder Risk Behavior in Adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla CP Estima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they  were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.

  1. Feeding and Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L.; Robson, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that…

  2. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…

  3. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, ter E.D.; Haan, de H.A.; Postel, M.G.; Palen, van der Job; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; Jong, de Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therap

  4. Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for female patients with eating disorders: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Haan, H.A. de; Postel, M.G.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  5. Family Support Is Associated with Behavioral Strategies for Healthy Eating among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…

  6. The Relation of Sociocultural Factors to Eating Attitudes and Behaviors among Middle School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated young girls' eating behavior, body satisfaction, weight management, and the cues taken from family, peers, and magazines. Found that a majority received a message from fashion magazines and peers or family that being slender is important and attainable through dieting, indicating that some young girls live under intense weight and…

  7. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  8. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.D.; de Haan, H.A.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  9. Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for female patients with eating disorders: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Haan, H.A. de; Postel, M.G.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  10. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  11. Gender differences in disordered eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction among adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araia, E; Hendrieckx, Christel; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and body dissatisfaction in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. While evidence shows that female youth with type 1 diabetes are more prone to DEB compared to their peers without diabetes, little is known about male adoles...

  12. Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.; Antonides, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the current obesity epidemic, individual choices for food and exercise should be understood better. Consideration of the immediate and future consequences of these choices (i.e., time orientation) can be an important predictor of eating and exercising behavior. The objective was to show

  13. Behavioral outcomes of picky eating in childhood: A prospective study in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Cardona Cano; H.W. Hoek (Hans); D. Van Hoeken (Daphne); L.M. de Barse (Lisanne); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Picky eaters in the general population form a heterogeneous group. It is important to differentiate between children with transient picky eating (PE) and persistent PE behavior when adverse outcomes are studied. We analyzed four PE trajectories to determine the associ

  14. Development and validation of the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Collin J; Bryant, Judith B; Darkes, Jack; Menzel, Jessie E; Thompson, J Kevin

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to develop and validate a measure to assess an individual's eating-related behaviors related to alcohol consumption, specifically behaviors intended to compensate for calories so that more alcohol could be consumed or restrict calories to enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol consumption. Two hundred and seventy four undergraduate students (n=51 males; 75.2% Caucasian) completed a newly developed scale, the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS), along with measures of eating restriction, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction. An exploratory factor analysis on the CEBRACS revealed the existence of 4 clear-cut factors: alcohol effects, bulimia, dieting and exercise, and restriction. Internal consistency statistics for all subscales ranged from .79 to .95. Pearson product-moment correlations between the CEBRACS and measures of bulimia, restriction, and body dissatisfaction ranged from .04 to .44. T-tests revealed no gender differences in compensatory eating behaviors. Future research directions and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  15. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Collection and visualization of dietary behavior and reasons for eating using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie; Yoon, Donella; Fowler, Joseph; Kobourov, Stephen; Schneider, Michael Lee; Falk, Daniel; Burd, Randy

    2013-06-24

    Increasing an individual's awareness and understanding of their dietary habits and reasons for eating may help facilitate positive dietary changes. Mobile technologies allow individuals to record diet-related behavior in real time from any location; however, the most popular software applications lack empirical evidence supporting their efficacy as health promotion tools. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a popular social media software application (Twitter) to capture young adults' dietary behavior and reasons for eating. A secondary aim was to visualize data from Twitter using a novel analytic tool designed to help identify relationships among dietary behaviors, reasons for eating, and contextual factors. Participants were trained to record all food and beverages consumed over 3 consecutive days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) using their mobile device's native Twitter application. A list of 24 hashtags (#) representing food groups and reasons for eating were provided to participants to guide reporting (eg, #protein, #mood). Participants were encouraged to annotate hashtags with contextual information using photos, text, and links. User experience was assessed through a combination of email reports of technical challenges and a 9-item exit survey. Participant data were captured from the public Twitter stream, and frequency of hashtag occurrence and co-occurrence were determined. Contextual data were further parsed and qualitatively analyzed. A frequency matrix was constructed to identify food and behavior hashtags that co-occurred. These relationships were visualized using GMap algorithmic mapping software. A total of 50 adults completed the study. In all, 773 tweets including 2862 hashtags (1756 foods and 1106 reasons for eating) were reported. Frequently reported food groups were #grains (n=365 tweets), #dairy (n=221), and #protein (n=307). The most frequently cited reasons for eating were #social (activity) (n=122

  17. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…

  18. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…

  19. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…

  20. Weight stigma and eating behaviors on a college campus: Are students immune to stigma's effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Brewis, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls, among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls. Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of “normal” eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.

  1. Gastroenteric hormone responses to hedonic eating in healthy humans.

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    Monteleone, Palmiero; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Perillo, Donato; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Maj, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Hedonic eating differentiates from homeostatic eating on two main aspects: the first one is that eating occurs when there is no need for calorie ingestion and the second one is that the food is consumed exclusively for its gustatory and rewarding properties. Gastroeneteric hormones such as ghrelin, colecystokinin-33 (CCK) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) are known to play a pivotal role in the homeostatic control of food intake. To the contrary, their role in hedonic eating has been never investigated. Here we report peripheral responses of CCK, PYY3-36 and ghrelin to the consumption of food for pleasure in well-nourished satiated healthy subjects. Plasma levels of CCK, PYY3-36 and ghrelin were measured in 7 satiated healthy subjects before and after ad libitum consumption of both a highly pleasurable food (hedonic eating) and an isoenergetic non-pleasurable food (non-hedonic eating). The consumption of food for pleasure was associated to a significantly increased production of the hunger hormone ghrelin and a significantly decreased secretion of the satiety hormone CCK. No significant changes in plasma PYY3-36 levels occurred in the two eating conditions. These preliminary data demonstrate that in hedonic eating the peripheral hunger signal represented by ghrelin secretion is enhanced while the satiety signal of CCK production is decreased. This could be responsible for the persistence of peripheral cues allowing a continued eating as well as for the activation of endogenous reward mechanisms, which can drive food consumption in spite of no energy need, only for reward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

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    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  3. A conceptual framework for healthy eating behavior in ecuadorian adolescents: a qualitative study.

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    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups=12, N (participants=80, parents (n=4, N=32 and school staff (n=4, N=32 in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. RESULTS: All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.

  4. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (psatiety efficiency (r=0.43, psatiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference.

  5. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident.

  6. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders adapted for a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Stephanie; Byrne, Sue; Allen, Karina

    2017-08-01

    This randomized control trial is an evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT-E) for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. The study aimed to examine the effects of group CBT-E on eating disorder psychopathology and additional maintaining pathology. A transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders with a BMI ≥ 18 kg/m(2) (N = 40) were randomized to an immediate-start or delayed-start condition so as to compare therapeutic effects of group CBT-E with a waitlist control. Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores, BMI, and measures of Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were measured across the 8-week control period, throughout the group treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. Over 70% of those who entered the trial completed treatment. The first eight weeks of group CBT-E were more effective at reducing Global EDE-Q scores than no treatment (waitlist control). By post-treatment, good outcome (a Global EDE-Q within 1 SD of Australian community norms plus BMI ≥ 18.5) was achieved by 67.9% of treatment completers and 66.7% of the total sample. Symptom abstinence within the previous month was reported by 14.3% of treatment completers and 10.3% of the total sample. Significant reductions in Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were also observed. This study demonstrated that a group version of CBT-E can be effective at reducing eating disorder psychopathology in a transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders. Group CBT-E could provide a means of increasing availability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

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    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  8. Family dinner and disordered eating behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine longitudinal associations between family dinner and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. We studied 7535 females and 5913 males, 9 to 14 years of age in 1996. We performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of previous year family dinner with 1-year incidence of each of 3 outcomes: purging, binge eating, and frequent dieting. Compared to those who ate family dinner "never or some days," female adolescents who ate family dinner at least most days were less likely to initiate purging, binge eating, and frequent dieting. Estimates of association among males were similar in direction and magnitude, although lower frequency of the outcomes resulted in less precise estimates and fewer statistically significant results.

  9. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: shared associations with seasonality and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-27

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n = 412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of

  10. Body image and eating behaviors in Orthodox and Secular Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Geliebter, Allan

    2002-01-01

    To explore the impact of religion on the development of disturbances in body image and eating behaviors. 78 Orthodox Jewish women were compared with 48 secular Jewish women. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Version (EDE-Q), and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Despite a similar body mass index of 22.2 +/- 2.8 SDs, the secular women scored significantly higher on the BSQ (P = .005) and the EDE-Q (P = .004) than the Orthodox women. The secular women also had greater eating disorder symptomatology: more laxative use (P = .02) and a trend toward more vomiting (P = .06) and diuretic use (P = .06), although not more binge eating. They were twice as likely to have a fear of becoming fat (P = .05) and were four times as likely to be influenced by their shape and weight (P = .001). Also, despite increased media exposure, the secular group chose an ideal body size on the FRS similar to that of the Orthodox group, suggesting that their greater body dissatisfaction on the BSQ was related, instead, to greater cultural pressure for thinness (P = .007) and more shame about appearance (P = .04). Our findings show that membership in a strict, insulated religious group such as Orthodox Judaism may protect women, to some extent, from developing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology.

  11. Eating disorder risk behavior in Brazilian adolescents from low socio-economic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Julia Elba; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, by gender, age and nutritional status, of eating disorder (ED) risk behavior, using a simplified self-report questionnaire in a probabilistic sample of 561, 12-19-year-old students from public schools in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sex- and age-specific body mass index cut-offs were used to assess nutritional status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 16.2% and of being underweight was 2.5%; 37.3% of the adolescents studied presented symptoms of binge eating (BE) and 24.7% would go on a strict diet at least once a week, both cases more frequent in females (40.8% vs. 25.3%; 31.2% vs. 10.5%, respectively). Older students were shown to be more susceptible to binge eating and younger students more susceptible to strict dieting. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents, regardless of sex and age. The prevalence of binge eating and strict dieting was high in low-income Brazilian adolescents and females are at greater risk of developing eating disorders than males. The greater prevalence of strict dieting in younger students shows they are at nutritional risk.

  12. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings.

  13. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  14. A Practical, Cost-effective Method for Recruiting People Into Healthy Eating Behavior Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. McDonald, PhD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe population impact of programs designed to develop healthy eating behaviors is limited by the number of people who use them. Most public health providers and researchers rely on purchased mass media, which can be expensive, on public service announcements, or clinic-based recruitment, which can have limited reach. Few studies offer assistance for selecting high-outreach and low-cost strategies to promote healthy eating programs. The purpose of this study was 1 to determine whether classified newspaper advertising is an effective and efficient method of recruiting participants into a healthy eating program and 2 to determine whether segmenting messages by transtheoretical stage of change would help engage individuals at all levels of motivation to change their eating behavior. MethodsFor 5 days in 1997, three advertisements corresponding to different stages of change were placed in a Canadian newspaper with a daily circulation of 75,000.ResultsThere were 282 eligible people who responded to newspaper advertisements, and the cost was Can $1.11 (U.S. $0.72 per recruit. This cost compares favorably with the cost efficiency of mass media, direct mail, and other common promotional methods. Message type was correlated with respondent’s stage of change, and this correlation suggested that attempts to send different messages to different audience segments were successful. DiscussionClassified advertisements appear to be a highly cost-efficient method for recruiting a diverse range of participants into healthy eating programs and research about healthy eating.

  15. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  16. Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruwys, T.; Bevelander, K.E.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely)

  17. Impulsive behaviors in female patients with eating disorders in a university hospital in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Yu Liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders (EDs are often associated with various impulsive behaviors. This study investigated the prevalence of impulsive behaviors in ED patients in Taiwan. Three hundred sixteen female outpatients with ED and 142 psychiatric controls were recruited. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing lifetime presence of impulsive behaviors, including suicide, self-injury, stealing, alcohol use, illicit drug use, excessive spending, sexual promiscuity, and general psychopathology. More than 60% of the ED patients had at least one impulsive behavior. The most common impulsive behaviors among ED patients were excessive spending (34.9%, deliberate self-harm (32.7%, and stealing (26.3%. However, there were no significant differences in prevalences of any impulsive behaviors between ED patients and psychiatric controls. Clinicians should routinely assess and treat impulsive behaviors in female psychiatric patients with negative affectivity, regardless of the presence of ED, to help prevent potential adverse outcomes related to impulsive behaviors.

  18. [Pertinence of the addiction concept in eating behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, M; Girardon, N; Nezelof, S; Bizouard, P; Venisse, J L; Loas, G; Lang, F; Halfon, O; Flament, M; Jeammet, P

    2000-10-01

    From a psychodynamic perspective, dependence disorders, irrespective of the object of addiction, can be seen as the expression of the subject's neurobiological, psychopathological, cultural and social vulnerability. Since vulnerability strengthens and reorganizes the personality, it can drive these subjects to perpetuate pathological behaviors. In this light, behavior disorders belong to the field of addiction diseases, especially considering that the underlying psychopathological structures are close to those observed in addiction, that depression plays a central role, and that their development into toxic addictive behavior (drugs, alcohol, psychotrope) is frequent.

  19. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents.

  20. A Cognitive-Behavioral Mindfulness Group Therapy Intervention for the Treatment of Binge Eating in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…

  1. Effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Martie; Korrelboom, Kees; van der Meer, Iris; Deen, Mathijs; Hoek, Hans W.; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background: While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and

  2. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Pathogenic Weight Control Behaviors among NCAA Division I Female Collegiate Gymnasts and Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carlin; Petrie, Trent A.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders and related weight control behaviors, such as excessive exercising and restrictive eating, represent serious health problems for girls and women in the United States and other industrialized nations. Female athletes, in particular, have been identified as a subgroup to study because of the unique weight, performance, and body…

  3. Effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders : Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Korrelboom, C.W.; van der Meer, I.; Deen, M.; Hoek, H.W.; Spinhoven, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and

  4. Effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Martie; Korrelboom, Kees; van der Meer, Iris; Deen, Mathijs; Hoek, Hans W.; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background: While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and

  5. Prevalence of Disordered Eating Behaviors and Bulimia Nervosa in a Sample of Mexican American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Regan; Petrie, Trent A.

    1998-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and bulimia nervosa were examined in a sample of female Mexican Americans. Results showed that 1.45% to 4.3% could be classified with bulimia. Just over 11% indicated regular binge eating. Dieting and exercising were the primary techniques used for weight control. Implications for intervention are briefly discussed.…

  6. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Pathogenic Weight Control Behaviors among NCAA Division I Female Collegiate Gymnasts and Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carlin; Petrie, Trent A.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders and related weight control behaviors, such as excessive exercising and restrictive eating, represent serious health problems for girls and women in the United States and other industrialized nations. Female athletes, in particular, have been identified as a subgroup to study because of the unique weight, performance, and body…

  7. Excessive Time on Social Networking Sites and Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Undergraduate Students: Appearance and Weight Esteem as Mediating Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marisa; Maras, Danijela; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are a popular form of communication among undergraduate students. Body image concerns and disordered eating behaviors are also quite prevalent among this population. Maladaptive use of SNS has been associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined if body image concerns (e.g., appearance and weight esteem) mediate the relationship between excessive time spent on SNS and disordered eating behaviors (restrained and emotional eating). The sample included 383 (70.2 percent female) undergraduate students (mean age = 23.08 years, standard deviation = 3.09) who completed self-report questionnaires related to SNS engagement, body image, disordered eating behaviors, and demographics. Parallel multiple mediation and moderated mediation analyses revealed that lower weight and appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and restrained eating for males and females, whereas appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and emotional eating for females only. The study adds to the literature by highlighting mediational pathways and gender differences. Intervention research is needed to determine if teaching undergraduate students more adaptive ways of using SNS or reducing exposure to SNS reduces body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in this high-risk population.

  8. A Cognitive-Behavioral Mindfulness Group Therapy Intervention for the Treatment of Binge Eating in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…

  9. Co-creating healthful eating behaviors with very young children: The impact of information overload on primary caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Julie L; Raciti, Maria M

    2017-01-01

    Primary caregivers of very young children are subject to excessive and often disparate information regarding the instilling of healthful eating behaviors. Our study focuses on the integration of the operant resources of primary caregivers (i.e., their knowledge and modeling skills) and that of their very young children (i.e., their self-regulation of energy intake and food preferences) to co-create healthful eating behaviors as a measure to curb overweight and obesity in adulthood. Our two-stage qualitative study makes original contributions demonstrating that primary caregivers' efforts to co-create healthful eating behaviors with their very young children are adversely affected by information overload.

  10. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  11. Time orientation and eating behavior: Unhealthy eaters consider immediate consequences, while healthy eaters focus on future health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-08-01

    Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p healthy eating (all p > .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT(2C/2A) receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive α2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs.

  13. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  14. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived...

  15. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived......, thereby implying that interactions between spreading processes are driving forces of attention dynamics. Overall, the thesis contributes to a quantitative understanding of a wide range of different human behaviors by applying mathematical modeling to behavioral data. There can be no doubt......During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...

  16. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  17. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; de Campos, Wagner; Lopes, Adair da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%), and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use) was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  18. Epidemiology of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and unhealthy eating habits among brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed the prevalence of physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents. Searches were conducted in five databases (Lilacs, SciELO, Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and in the references cited in the articles retrieved. The literature search yielded 5,872 potentially relevant titles and a total of 69 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The risk behavior most often evaluated was physical inactivity (48/69; 69.6%, and its prevalence rate ranged from 2.3% to 93.5%. Twenty-eight studies estimated the prevalence of physical inactivity at over 50%. Most studies observed the prevalence of greater physical inactivity among girls. The prevalence of sedentary behaviors (lengthy screen time or TV use was also frequently over 50%. Several variables were used to identify unhealthy eating habits, and some criteria/studies have indicated unhealthy eating habit estimates at close to 100% among adolescents. In conclusion, the estimates of these risk behaviors among Brazilians adolescents were very close to or even greater than those found in developed countries in several studies analyzed in this review.

  19. Simple interventions to improve healthy eating behaviors in the school cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The National School Lunch Program in the United States provides an important opportunity to improve nutrition for the 30 million children who participate every school day. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and evaluate simple, evidence-based strategies to improve healthy eating behaviors at school. Healthy eating behaviors are defined as increased selection/consumption of fruits and/or vegetables, increased selection of nutrient-dense foods, or decreased selection of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods. Data were collected from sales records, 24-hour food recalls, direct observation, and estimation of plate waste. The review is limited to simple, discrete interventions that are easy to implement. Sixteen original, peer-reviewed articles are included. Interventions are divided into 5 categories: modification of choice, behavior modification, marketing strategies, time-efficiency strategies, and fruit slicing. All interventions resulted in improved eating behaviors, but not all interventions are applicable or feasible in all settings. Because these studies were performed prior to the implementation of the new federally mandated school meal standards, it is unknown if these interventions would yield similar results if repeated now. PMID:26874753

  20. Simple interventions to improve healthy eating behaviors in the school cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Holly S

    2016-03-01

    The National School Lunch Program in the United States provides an important opportunity to improve nutrition for the 30 million children who participate every school day. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and evaluate simple, evidence-based strategies to improve healthy eating behaviors at school. Healthy eating behaviors are defined as increased selection/consumption of fruits and/or vegetables, increased selection of nutrient-dense foods, or decreased selection of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods. Data were collected from sales records, 24-hour food recalls, direct observation, and estimation of plate waste. The review is limited to simple, discrete interventions that are easy to implement. Sixteen original, peer-reviewed articles are included. Interventions are divided into 5 categories: modification of choice, behavior modification, marketing strategies, time-efficiency strategies, and fruit slicing. All interventions resulted in improved eating behaviors, but not all interventions are applicable or feasible in all settings. Because these studies were performed prior to the implementation of the new federally mandated school meal standards, it is unknown if these interventions would yield similar results if repeated now.

  1. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component.

  2. Stress and Eating Disorder Behavior in Anorexia Nervosa as a Function of Menstrual Cycle Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappe, Leah M.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fluctuations in ovarian hormones during the menstrual cycle and psychosocial stress contribute to eating disorder (ED) behavior. Methods Using ecological momentary assessment techniques, this study examined relationships between stress and binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and dietary restriction based on menstrual cycle status in anorexia nervosa (AN). 109 females with full and subthreshold AN (17–45 years old) recorded ED behavior and stress ratings over two weeks. Using hierarchical linear modeling, individuals with eumenorrhea and those with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea were compared. Results Following episodes of meal skipping, momentary stress decreased in individuals with normal menstrual cycles and increased in those with irregular menstrual cycles. Discussion Results suggest that changes in stress severity in response to food restriction may differ based on ovarian hormonal status and may be a mechanism by which AN is maintained in individuals without menstrual disturbance. PMID:24222529

  3. A study of dietary habits and eating-out behavior of college students in Cheongju area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (Pdietary habits or eating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs.

  4. Eat or heat? The effects of poverty on children's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, there were 46.2 million people in the US in poverty (15 percent of the population). The rate for children under 18 years of age was 22 percent, the highest of all age groups. Poverty is strongly linked to adverse socio-emotional outcomes and poor health in children, which influence adult socioeconomic advancement. It affects specific neurocognitive processes disproportionately such as working memory, cognitive control, and especially language and memory. Poor children are frequently exposed to household chaos, maternal depression, neighborhood violence, food insecurity and housing instability. They also experience little social support and have parents who are less responsive, more authoritarian and less involved in school activities than those of higher socioeconomic levels. Their diet is rich in sugar, which may contribute to behavioral disturbances. Children from a disadvantaged background have a poor ability to cope with stress and tend to show aggressive, withdrawn and anxious/depressive behaviors as well as poor academic outcomes. Dental professionals who care for poor children must understand they live under stressful physical and emotional conditions, which will impact their behavior in the dental office.

  5. Body Satisfaction and Eating Disorder Behaviors among Immigrant Adolescents in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtoto, Joanne; Cox, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Using a province-wide school-based health survey, this article investigated body satisfaction as a mediator of the association between eating disorder behaviors and immigrant status. Participants were a sample of adolescent girls (n = 15,066) and boys (n = 14,200) who completed the 2008 McCreary Centre Society Adolescent Health Survey IV.…

  6. Modeling Eating Behaviors: the Role of Environment and Positive Food Association Learning via a Ratatouille Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Anarina L.; Safan, Muntaser; CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, CARLOS; Capaldi-Phillips, Elizabeth D.; Wadhera, Devina

    2015-01-01

    Eating behaviors among a large population of children are studied as a dynamic process driven by nonlinear interactions in the sociocultural school environment. The impact of food association learning on diet dynamics, inspired by a pilot study conducted among Arizona children in Pre-Kindergarten to 8th grades, is used to build simple population-level learning models. Qualitatively, mathematical studies are used to highlight the possible ramifications of instruction, learning in nutrition, an...

  7. Evaluating the relationship of eating behaviors of university students with body mass index and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlier, Nevin; Biyikli, Ali Emrah; Biyikli, Ezgi Toptas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-DEBQ), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-RSES), and body mass index (BMI) in university students. A total of 503 students (129 men and 374 women), 18-23 years of age were included in the study. According to BMI, 8.3% of students were underweight; 47.3% were overweight; and 74.4% were of healthy weight. The level of self-esteem of 86.5% of young people was high, 13.5% moderate. The mean score (33.3 ± 11.8) of emotional-eating behavior was higher for women than for men (27.9 ± 10.1) . Recommendations include assessing eating behaviors via longitudinal studies with large samples, and identifying at-risk groups, as useful approaches for informing prevention.

  8. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilbert, Anja

    2013-01-01

    .... The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder - the gold standard treatment for adults...

  9. A Naturalistic Examination of the Temporal Patterns of Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Ellison, Jo; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations. Results Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week. Conclusion The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN. PMID:26282336

  10. Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Crosby, Ross D; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Weight loss maintenance is essential for the reduction of obesity-related health impairments. However, only a minority of individuals successfully maintain reduced weight in the long term. Research has provided initial evidence for associations between weight-related teasing (WRT) and greater non-normative eating behaviors. Further, first evidence was found for associations between non-normative eating behaviors and weight loss maintenance. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the predictive value of WRT for weight loss maintenance and the role of non-normative eating behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. The study was part of the German Weight Control Registry that prospectively followed individuals who had intentionally lost at least 10% of their maximum weight and had maintained this reduced weight for at least one year. In N = 381 participants, retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence, current non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., restrained, external, emotional eating), and change in body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) over two years were examined using self-report assessments. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. As a result, a greater effect of retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence predicted less successful adult weight loss maintenance over two years. Current emotional eating fully mediated this relationship while current restrained and external eating yielded no mediational effects. Hence, a greater effect of WRT predicted greater current emotional eating, which in turn predicted a smaller decrease or a greater increase in BMI. Our findings suggest that suffering from WRT during childhood and adolescence might lead to emotional eating which in turn impairs long-term weight loss maintenance. Thus, our results highlight the need for interventions aiming at reducing weight stigmatization and targeting emotional eating for successful long-term weight loss maintenance.

  11. Ramadan bazaar and Ramadan buffets: The possible influence on eating behavior and health among Malaysian Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

  12. Ramadan Bazaar and Ramadan Buffets: The Possible Influence on Eating Behavior and Health among Malaysian Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

  13. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maria D; Pereira, Ana T; Marques, Mariana V; Saraiva, Jorge M; Macedo, António F de

    2016-02-05

    Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175), self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211), and low self-esteem (r = -0.292) (all p self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  14. The uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine reduces binge-like eating, food-seeking behavior, and compulsive eating: role of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen L; Rao, Rahul R; Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Valenza, Marta; Giuliano, Chiara; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-03-13

    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. The role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in hedonic feeding is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on palatable food-induced behavioral adaptations using a rat model, which mimics the characteristic symptomatology observed in binge-eating disorder. For this purpose, we allowed male Wistar rats to respond to obtain a highly palatable, sugary diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1 h a day, under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Upon stabilization of food responding, we tested the effects of memantine on the Chow and Palatable food groups' intake. Then, we tested the effects of memantine on food-seeking behavior, under a second-order schedule of reinforcement. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of memantine on the intake of food when it was offered in an aversive, bright compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we evaluated the effects of memantine on FR1 responding for food, when microinfused into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell or core. Memantine dose-dependently decreased binge-like eating and fully blocked food-seeking behavior and compulsive eating, selectively in the Palatable food group. The drug treatment did not affect performance of the control Chow food group. Finally, intra-NAcc shell, but not core, microinfusion of memantine decreased binge-like eating. Together, these findings substantiate a role of memantine as a potential pharmacological treatment for binge-eating disorder.

  15. Positron emission tomography studies in eating disorders: multireceptor brain imaging, correlates with behavior and implications for pharmacotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Guido K. [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Center for Eating Disorders Research, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92123 (United States); Kaye, Walter H. [Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Modern imaging techniques that visualize disease-specific organ neurotransmitter or protein receptor sites are increasingly able to define pathological processes on a molecular level. One of those imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET), for the assessment of brain neuroreceptor binding has revolutionized the in vivo assessment of biologic markers that may be related to human behavior. Such studies may help identify chemical targets that may be directly related to psychiatric pathology and, thus, opportunities for pharmacological intervention. In this review, we describe results from PET studies in eating disorders (EDs). Eating disorders are frequently debilitating illnesses that are quite homogeneous in their presentation. Those studies that identified particular serotonin and dopamine receptor alterations can distinguish recovered ED subjects from controls as well as ED subgroups. Furthermore, correlations of receptor binding with behavioral constructs, such as harm avoidance or novelty seeking, could be found. These recognized receptors may now help us to move away from rather nonspecific treatment approaches in psychiatric research and clinic to the possibility of more syndrome- and symptom-specific treatment approaches.

  16. The effects of "thin ideal" media on women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions: the beneficial role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-09-01

    The present study examines the protective role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors (AREB) on the relationship between trait body dissatisfaction and women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions in response to "thin ideal" media. Undergraduate women (n=138) were randomly assigned to view a "thin ideal" video or a neutral video. As hypothesized, trait body dissatisfaction predicted more negative affect and size dissatisfaction following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed less AREB. Conversely, trait body dissatisfaction predicted greater intentions to monitor food intake and limit unhealthy foods following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed more AREB.

  17. Can merely learning about obesity genes affect eating behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Cheung, Benjamin Y; Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Public discourse on genetic predispositions for obesity has flourished in recent decades. In three studies, we investigated behaviorally-relevant correlates and consequences of a perceived genetic etiology for obesity. In Study 1, beliefs about etiological explanations for obesity were assessed. Stronger endorsement of genetic etiology was predictive of a belief that obese people have no control over their weight. In Study 2, beliefs about weight and its causes were assessed following a manipulation of the perceived underlying cause. Compared with a genetic attribution, a non-genetic physiological attribution led to increased perception of control over one's weight. In Study 3, participants read a fictional media report presenting either a genetic explanation, a psychosocial explanation, or no explanation (control) for obesity. Results indicated that participants who read the genetic explanation ate significantly more on a follow-up task. Taken together, these studies demonstrate potential effects of genetic attributions for obesity.

  18. A review of methods to assess parental feeding practices and preschool children's eating behavior: the need for further development of tools

    OpenAIRE

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Oliveira, Andreia; Charles, Marie; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jones, Louise; Rigal, Natalie; Lopes, Carla; Manios, Yannis; Moreira, Pedro; Emmett, Pauline; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles we...

  19. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  20. CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior for weight-loss in a Mediterranean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma López-Guimerà

    Full Text Available The goals of this research was (1 to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss progression during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and (2 to test for interaction between CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and emotional eating behavior on the effectiveness of the weight-loss program.A total of 1,272 overweight and obese participants (BMI: 31±5 kg/m2, aged 20 to 65 years, attending outpatient weight-loss clinics were recruited for this analysis. Emotional eating behavior was assessed by the Emotional Eating Questionnaire (EEQ, a questionnaire validated for overweight and obese Spanish subjects. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake and weight-loss progression were assessed and analyzed throughout the 30-week program. Multivariate analysis and linear regression models were performed to test for gene-environment interaction.Weight-loss progression during the 30-week program differed significantly according to the degree of emotional eating behavior. Participants classified as 'very emotional eaters' experienced more irregular (P = 0.007 weight-loss, with a lower rate of weight decline (-0.002 vs. -0.003, P = 11, lost significantly less weight than those C carriers with a low emotional score (<11 (P = 0.005.Emotional eating behavior associates with weight-loss pattern, progression and total weight-loss. Additionally, CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior to modulate total weight loss. These results suggest that the assessment of this locus and emotional eating behavior could improve the development of effective, long-tern weight-management interventions.

  1. The human rights framework, the school and healthier eating among young people: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Engesveen, Kaia; Afflerbach, Thorsten; Barnekow, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    To give an account of provisions in the framework of international human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements in relation to eating at school and discuss how these provisions could be invoked to ensure healthy eating at school. A review of provisions in the international and European human rights frameworks and policy documents was performed in order to identify evidence and examples of provisions implying responsibilities of the school as a public service provider to ensure healthy eating. The review of the human rights and policy texts showed that there are a large number of provisions that can be invoked in support of measures at school which can contribute to ensuring healthier eating as well as better education supporting such measures. The international frameworks of human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements should be invoked and translated into concrete strategies, policies, regulations and accountability mechanisms at national, regional, local and school levels. Ensuring healthy eating should be a top priority among all stakeholders in and around the school environment since it is a good investment in children's short- and long-term health and educational achievements.

  2. The effect of childrens' eating behaviors and parental feeding style on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Dilek; Bektas, Murat

    2017-03-22

    In is important to determine the factors that affect obesity in childhood, in order to raise generations of healthy children. This study aims to determine the effect of primary school students' eating behaviors and parental feeding styles on obesity in childhood. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 1201 children and their parents between September 2014 and March 2015. The data were collected using the socio-demographic data collection form for children and parents, the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentage calculators, mean, Spearman's correlation analysis, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Of the children, 16.9% were found to be obese. Three models were created considering the relationships between the variables in this study and the occurrence of obesity. In the first model, the factors that affect childhood obesity were found to be enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness and food fussiness. In the second model, the factors were prompting/encouragement and control over eating. Enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, emotional feeding and food fussiness were also found to be the factors in the third model (pfeeding style affect the occurrence of obesity in childhood.

  3. Personality dimensions and treatment drop-outs among eating disorder patients treated with cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Brambilla, Francesca; Marchesini, Giulio

    2008-04-15

    Premature, unilateral interruption of inpatient treatment of eating disorders (ED) is a key factor limiting success. We evaluated the role of personality dimensions (temperament and character) in predicting drop-out in 145 consecutive ED inpatients (133 females) who entered cognitive behavior therapy. Baseline assessment included anthropometry, the Eating Disorder Examination, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Treatment was based on the new transdiagnostic cognitive behavior theory of ED, adapted for an inpatient setting; it was manual-based and lasted 20 weeks (13, inpatients; 7, residential day hospital). Thirty-four patients (23.4%) discontinued treatment. Drop-outs had a lower level of education, a higher prevalence of separation or divorce in the family, and lower scores on the TCI Persistence scale. After correction for age, gender and body-mass index, scores on the Persistence scale continued to be significantly related to drop-out, and the association was confirmed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Eating disorder patients with low Persistence scores are significantly less likely to complete inpatient treatment.

  4. Binge eating in obese adolescents: emotional and behavioral characteristics and impact on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasold, Tracie L; McCracken, Andy; Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L

    2014-04-01

    This study explored binge eating among an adolescent obese population to ascertain the prevalence of bingeing, the relationship between binge eating and body mass index (BMI), and to evaluate significant relationships between binge eating, emotional/behavioral functioning, and health-related quality of life. Participants included 102 overweight adolescents aged 12-17 years presenting to a multidisciplinary outpatient obesity clinic. Data obtained included height, weight, and self-report questionnaire data on emotional and behavioral functioning. Binge eating prevalence included 33% moderate to severe binge eating. Binge eating was significantly positively related to BMI and depression, negative mood, feelings of ineffectiveness, negative self-esteem and significantly negatively related to somatic complaints and all aspects of health-related quality of life. Important demographic differences emerged with regard to the impact of binge eating on health-related quality of life with Caucasians, females, and older groups experiencing more pervasive impact. This research suggests that bingeing behaviors have pervasive and important implications for health-related quality of life for obese adolescents.

  5. The Impact of Family Rules on Children's Eating Habits, Sedentary Behaviors, and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-08-01

    Family rules may be influential in helping children to modify their dietary and sedentary behaviors, which are important modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity. However, data examining family rules in relation to children's health behaviors and weight status are limited. This cross-sectional study examined differences in family rules by demographic characteristics of students enrolled in the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) Initiative, a school-based childhood obesity prevention program. It also investigated the relationship between eating and screen time family rules and six eating and screen time behaviors: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; fruit and vegetable intake; television viewing; computer use; and video game use, in addition to the association between family rules and children's weight status. Measures included self-reported behavioral data and anthropometric data from students in fourth to eighth grade at 16 schools (N=2819) in a tri-state area of the United States in spring 2012. Approximately one-third of students had each of the family rules examined. Whereas the profile of students who had specific rules varied, in general, younger, female, white, and low socioeconomic status students were more likely to have rules than their counterparts. Family rules were associated with healthier outcomes for each of the six behaviors examined (p<0.001), even after controlling for demographics (p<0.001). However, family rules were not associated with children's weight status. This study demonstrates that family rules are an underutilized strategy to promote healthier eating habits and reduce children's screen time hours and may serve as an intermediary mechanism to curb childhood obesity.

  6. Disordered Eating Behavior, Body Image, and Energy Status of Female Student Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbeson, Justine G; Kruger, Herculina Salome; Wright, Hattie H

    2015-08-01

    Modern culture has stereotyped the female body as one that is continually getting thinner. Internalization of the 'thin' ideal is partly attributable to the inner ideal to be successful combined with the external pressure imposed by media and others. Many individuals attempt to achieve these ideals by behavior modification that imposes health risks. To investigate disordered eating (DE) behavior and energy status in female student dancers. Volunteer dancers (n = 26) aged 19.0 (18.0; 21.0) years, matched by controls (n = 26) aged 20.0 (19.0; 21.0) years were recruited. Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) subscales, Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Cognitive Dietary Restraint (CDR) subscale, and EDI-3 Referral Form behavioral questions assessed DE behavior. Energy status was assessed with a food record and Actiheart monitor. Dancers achieved significantly higher scores than controls in all questionnaires, namely: EDI-3 Drive for Thinness [12.0 (3.0; 19.0) vs. 4.5 (2.0; 9.0), p = .023], EDI-3 Body Dissatisfaction [16.0 (10.0; 25.0) vs. 6.5 (3.0; 14.0), p = .004], and TFEQ-CDR [9.0 (2.0; 15.0) vs. 3.0 (3.0; 7.0), p = .032]; dancers used excessive exercise to lose weight (19.2% vs. 0%, c2 = 5.53, p = .019), and had lower energy availability (24% vs. 8%, p Female dancers are at risk for DE behavior and many have suboptimal energy status which may be related to their quest to achieve a more desirable appearance; education on healthy weight management practices is needed.

  7. Social Cognitive Determinants of Healthy Eating Behaviors in Late Adolescents: A Gender Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansukree, Pananda; Rungjindarat, Nitinai

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of social cognitive determinants on healthy eating behaviors among adolescents, with a specific focus on gender differences. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 1,200 undergraduates from public and private universities. Dependent variable: healthy eating behaviors measured by the total score of 11 items adapted from the Australian Dietary Guideline Index. self-efficacy, intentions, outcome expectations, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, situations, social support from parents and guardians, and social support from peers (measured by 54 Likert-type items). Multiple linear regressions (α and P healthy eating behaviors (ß = .17, .16, -.15, and .19, respectively). The predictor variables explained 18.1% of variance. Healthy eating in male adolescents was best predicted by perceived barriers, whereas that in female adolescents was best predicted by situations. These results indicate that relevant agencies should deliver gender-specific approaches to promote healthy eating in adolescents. The findings demonstrate the need for further studies to explore a broader range of factors influencing adolescent eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Lizárraga, Samuel; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ-R18 questionnaire was applied to assess behavioral patterns. Gender differences of UE and EE were observed. Private school children had higher scores of CR and UE. Children with CR were three times more likely to have abdominal obesity (AO) and children with OW or O were more likely to have UE. Children attending the private school and those with AO had higher CR scores; private school children, those with overweight or obesity and with AO had higher UE scores.

  9. A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating…

  10. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications. PMID:23130910

  11. Depression, disturbed eating behavior, and metabolic control in teenage girls with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Patricia A; Olmsted, Marion P; Daneman, Denis; Rodin, Gary M

    2013-08-01

    Depression and disturbed eating behavior (DEB) are more common in girls with type 1 diabetes (T1D) than in the general population, and may negatively affect metabolic control. To examine the relationship among depression, DEB, and metabolic control in teenage girls with T1D. Metabolic control, body mass index and interview-ascertained symptoms of depression, and DEB were assessed twice in 98 girls with T1D, 9-14 y at baseline and 5 yr later at 14-18 yr. At year 5, 12.2% of girls reported current depressive symptoms, 49.0% reported current DEB, and 13.3% had a full or subthreshold eating disorder (ED). Eating Disorder Examination score was higher in girls with depression (1.4 ± 1.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7; p = 0.03), and 75.0% of girls with depression also endorsed DEB vs. 45.3% of girls without depression (p = 0.05). Girls with an ED were at high risk for depressive symptoms; 69.2% reported depressive symptoms vs. 22.0% of girls with no DEB (p = 0.004). Metabolic control was not significantly associated with either depression or DEB in this cohort. A regression model using baseline and year 5 depression and DEB to predict year 5 hemoglobin A1c was not significant overall. Depression and DEB were common and frequently concurrent in this cohort. It was encouraging that poor metabolic control was not yet strongly associated with either depression or DEB. Early detection and treatment may help to prevent the development of entrenched difficulties in this triad of mood, eating behavior, and metabolic control in a vulnerable population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Why We Eat What We Eat: Explanations for Human Food Preferences and Implications for Government Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Torpoco, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    As this paper will demonstrate, however, understanding the reasons behind human food preferences can make a tremendous difference in the well-being of the world's people. To this end, Part II examines two competing theories for the origins of human food preferences: cultural idealism and cultural materialism. The first approach starts from the premise that human food preferences are fundamentally arbitrary--i.e., that food preferences are the results of irrational cultural prejudices--whereas...

  13. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  14. Psychosocial correlates of eating behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroch Amy L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the correlates of dietary intake is necessary in order to effectively promote healthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted on the correlates of the following categories of dietary intake in children and adolescents: Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary Consumption in children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective studies were identified from PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycArticles by using a combination of search terms. Quantitative research examining determinants of dietary intake among children and adolescents aged 3–18 years were included. The selection and review process yielded information on country, study design, population, instrument used for measuring intake, and quality of research study. Results Seventy-seven articles were included. Many potential correlates have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many hypothesized correlates substantial evidence is lacking due to a dearth of research. The correlates best supported by the literature are: perceived modeling, dietary intentions, norms, liking and preferences. Perceived modeling and dietary intentions have the most consistent and positive associations with eating behavior. Norms, liking, and preferences were also consistently and positively related to eating behavior in children and adolescents. Availability, knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and social support did not show consistent relationships across dietary outcomes. Conclusion This review examined the correlates of various dietary intake; Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Consumption, Fat in Diet, Total Energy Intake, Sugar Snacking, Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Fiber, Other Healthy Dietary Consumption, and Other Less Healthy Dietary

  15. Relationship between eating-behavior disorders and psychological parameters in male first-year physical education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Treuvelot, Patrick; Toumi, Hechmi

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the eating attitudes test, the bar-on emotional intelligence questionnaire, the coping inventory stress scale, and the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors' university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The bar-on EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention.

  16. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life.

  17. Irrational Human Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Şener

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.

  18. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  19. Yoga and Pilates: Associations with body image and disordered eating behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between participating in mind-body activities (yoga/Pilates) and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (unhealthy and extreme weight control practices and binge eating) in a population-based sample of young adults. Method The sample included 1030 young men and 1257 young women (mean age: 25.3 years, SD=1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Results Among women, disordered eating was prevalent in yoga/Pilates participants and non-participants, with no differences between the groups. Men participating in yoga/Pilates were more likely to use extreme weight control behaviors (18.6% vs. 6.8%, p=.006) and binge eating (11.6% vs. 4.2%, p=.023), and marginally more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors (49.1% vs. 34.5%; p=.053), than non-participants after adjusting for sociodemographics, weight status, and overall physical activity. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of helping yoga/Pilates instructors recognize that their students may be at risk for disordered eating. PMID:20862694

  20. Dietary intake, eating behaviors, and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome who are trying to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Davidson, Charis R; Billings, Deborah L

    2015-03-01

    The Healthy Eating for Reproductive Health study was conducted among 18 (45% non-white) mostly obese (BMI 39.9 ± 6.1) women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were experiencing infertility and interested in losing weight. A variety of markers were measured at baseline: body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, eating behaviors (using an Eating Behavior Inventory, a questionnaire which assesses both positive and negative eating behaviors associated with weight status, with a higher score indicating adoption of eating behaviors which have been shown in prior weight-loss research to promote a healthy weight (EBI) and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, which assesses cognitive and behavioral components of eating among overweight adults), and a quality of life (PCOS Health-Related Quality of Life (PCOSQ)) index, which assesses satisfaction around five 'domains': emotional health, presence of body hair, infertility, weight, and menstrual problems). A comparison group of overweight women without PCOS (n = 28) was used to examine differences in measured outcomes between women with and without PCOS. Participants' habitual diets were high in fat and saturated fat and low in fiber, folate, and iron and contained significantly lower amounts of carbohydrate, iron, and whole grains compared with women without PCOS who had enrolled in a behavioral weight loss programme. Participants had a low EBI (indicating that most were not adopting eating behaviors associated with achieving a healthy weight), disinhibition (indicating participants had a tendency to overeat in the presence of highly palatable foods or were susceptible to emotional cues for eating, such as stress), and hunger scores (indicating participants did not report being susceptible to hunger, prompting overeating) and moderate dietary restraint (indicating they were not consistently attempting to restrict food intake consciously). PCOSQ scores were lowest for infertility and weight domains (indicating

  1. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  2. Can power and anaerobic capacity reduce according to disordered eating behaviors in cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=3.92; p=0.13. Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=36.43; p=0.01. The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=46.03; p=0.01. It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP.

  3. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental

  4. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ek

    Full Text Available Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ.Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM, adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC. CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators.478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese. A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06 after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30 indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37. Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71.The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children

  5. Oh baby! Motivation for healthy eating during parenthood transitions: a longitudinal examination with a theory of planned behavior perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E.R.; Chris M. Blanchard; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2013-01-01

    Background Transitioning to parenthood is a major life event that may impact parents’ personal lifestyles, yet there is an absence of theory-based research examining the impact of parenthood on motives for dietary behaviour. As a result, we are unaware of the social cognitive variables that predict eating behaviour among those transitioning to parenthood. The purpose of the study was to examine eating behaviour motives across 12 months within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (T...

  6. Psychological characteristics, eating behavior, and quality of life assessment of obese patients undergoing weight loss interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, A D; Al-Najim, W; Jackson, S N; McGirr, J; Cotter, L; Tharakan, G; Vusirikala, A; le Roux, C W; Prechtl, C G; Scholtz, S

    2015-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity. However, not all patients have similar weight loss following surgery and many researchers have attributed this to different pre-operative psychological, eating behavior, or quality-of-life factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any differences in these factors between patients electing to have bariatric surgery compared to less invasive non-surgical weight loss treatments, between patients choosing a particular bariatric surgery procedure, and to identify whether these factors predict weight loss after bariatric surgery. This was a prospective study of 90 patients undergoing gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, or adjustable gastric banding and 36 patients undergoing pharmacotherapy or lifestyle interventions. All patients completed seven multi-factorial psychological, eating behavior, and quality-of-life questionnaires prior to choosing their weight loss treatment. Questionnaire scores, baseline body mass index, and percent weight loss at 1 year after surgical interventions were recorded. Surgical patients were younger, had a higher body mass index, and obesity had a higher impact on their quality of life than on non-surgical patients, but they did not differ in the majority of eating behavior and psychological parameters studied. Patients opting for adjustable gastric banding surgery were more anxious, depressed, and had more problems with energy levels than those choosing vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and more work problems compared to those undergoing gastric bypass. Weight loss after bariatric surgery was predicted by pre-operative scores of dietary restraint, disinhibition, and pre-surgery energy levels. The results of this study generate a number of hypotheses that can be explored in future studies and accelerate the development of personalized weight loss treatments. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.

  7. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption versus dietary fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Andrade de Medeiros Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze whether the stages of change of the Transtheoretical Model are in accordance with the fat consumption of members of the Academia da Cidade of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a simple random sample of users aged ≥20 years frequenting an Academia da Cidade. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption was evaluated by the transtheoretical model and compared with fat intake adequacy, obtained through mean fat intake was investigated by three 24-hour recalls. Anthropometric and sociodemographic data were also collected. Additionally, the stages of change were verified, after reclassification the stages of change agreed with the consumption of fatty foods, fats, and fractions. Results: A total of 131 women with a mean age of 53.9±12.1 had an average fatty acid consumption of 556.0 mL. Some participants consumed high-fat foods, lipids (20.6%, saturated (31.3% and polyunsaturated (38.2% fatty acids, and cholesterol (16.0% in excess. The stages of eating behavior were significantly different after reclassification. The number of women in action and maintenance decreased in a way that in the end, 4.6% were in precontemplation, 19.8% were in contemplation, 26.0% were in preparation, 28.2% were in action, and 21.4% were in maintenance. The consumption of chicken skin; fatty salad dressing; bread, doughnuts or cake with butter/margarine; and fats, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower in the final stages of the transtheoretical model. Conclusion: After reclassification the algorithm is in agreement with the ingestion of high-fat foods, which denotes its applicability for the evaluation of eating behavior and for providing data to food and nutrition education actions.

  8. Effects of MC4R, FTO, and NMB gene variants to obesity, physical activity, and eating behavior phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Deniz; Kasimay Cakir, Ozgur; Avcilar, Tuba; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Kurtel, Hizir; Yazici, Dilek; Kaspar, Elif Cigdem; Celik, Nurgul; Guney, Ahmet Ilter

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major contributory factor of morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that biological systems may be involved in the tendency to be and to remain physically inactive also behaviors such as food and beverage preferences and nutrient intake may at least partially genetically determined. Consequently, besides environment, genetic factors may also contribute to the level of physical activity and eating behaviors thus effect obesity. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various gene mutations on obesity, physical activity levels and eating behavior phenotypes. One hundred patients and 100 controls were enrolled to the study. Physical activity levels were measured with an actical acceloremeter device. Eating behaviors were evaluated using Three-Factor Eating questionnaire (TFEQ). Associations between eating behavior scores and physical characteristics were also evaluated. The information about other obesity risk factors were also collected. Mutations were investigated with PCR, direct sequencing and Real-Time PCR. rs1051168, rs8050146 -2778C > T mutations were found statistically significant in patients, rs1121980 was found statistically significant in controls. 21 mutations were found in MC4R and near MC4R of which 18 of them are novel and 8 of them cause amino acid change. In addition, it was found that, some obesity related factors and questions of TFEQ are associated with various investigated gene mutations. Any relation between gene mutations and physical activity levels were not detected. It is thought that, due to the genotype data and eating behaviors, it may be possible to recommend patients for proper eating patterns to prevent obesity. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):806-816, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Predictors of Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery among U.S. and Colombian College Women: The Roles of Eating Behaviors and Demographic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Carrion, Carmen; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies on eating behaviors and related constructs can identify cultural and social factors that contribute to eating disorder symptomatology. Eating disorders (EDs) are a major cause for concern in the U.S., and recent studies in Colombia have shown growing rates among their female population. In addition, cosmetic surgery procedures have been increasing rapidly in both the U.S. and Colombia, and preliminary research suggests a positive relation between disordered eating and e...

  10. Survey on eating disorder-related thoughts, behaviors, and their relationship with food intake and nutritional status in female high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Jhen; Lin, Wei; Wong, Yueching

    2011-02-01

    Eating disorders are now a global health problem for adolescents and young female adults. The level of eating disorders among young female adults is growing in Asian countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate body image, weight concerns, eating attitudes, dietary intake, and nutritional status related to eating disorders of female high school students in Taiwan. A total of 1605 female high school students participated in this study. The written questionnaire included respondents' demographics and weight concerns, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and 24-hour dietary recall. Blood chemistry data were also collected. The data were analyzed using a Student t test, χ(2) analysis, and logistic regression. Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors were found in 17.11% of participants (measured by an EAT-26 score ≥20). Logistic regression analyses showed that disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors were significantly associated with overestimation of body weight, unrealistic body weight goal, dissatisfaction with body weight, and weight loss experiences. The reported intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12 were significantly lower in participants with disturbed eating patterns than in participants without disturbance issues. Conversely, participants with disturbed eating patterns had higher dietary and crude fiber intake than participants without disturbed eating issues. The percentage of participants with abnormal values of total iron-binding capacity and serum iron was significantly higher in those with disturbed eating patterns than in those without disturbed eating patterns. Disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors exist among female adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviors jeopardize their nutritional status. The possibility of using the EAT-26 as a reference to predict the quality and quantity of food intake among female adolescents is worthy of further study.

  11. BEACHES: an observational system for assessing children's eating and physical activity behaviors and associated events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Patterson, T L; Elder, J P; Berry, C C; Rupp, J W; Atkins, C J; Buono, M J; Nelson, J A

    1991-01-01

    An integrated system for coding direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors was developed. Associated environmental events were also coded, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. To assess the instrument's reliability and validity, 42 children, aged 4 to 8 years, were observed for 8 consecutive weeks at home and at school. Results indicated that four 60-min observations at home produced relatively stable estimates for most of the 10 dimensions. Interobserver reliabilities during live and videotaped observations were high, with the exception of "consequences" categories that occurred in less than 1% of observed intervals. Evidence of validity was provided by findings that antecedents were associated with respective dietary and physical activity behaviors. The five physical activity categories were validated by heartrate monitoring in a second study. The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System is appropriate for studying influences on diet and physical activity in children in a variety of settings.

  12. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  13. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SLLake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SLphysical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  14. Sensitivity to reward and adolescents' unhealthy snacking and drinking behavior: the role of hedonic eating styles and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Goossens, Lien; De Clercq, Bart; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Huybregts, Lieven; Vervoort, Leentje; Eggermont, Steven; Maes, Lea; Braet, Caroline; Deforche, Benedicte; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-02-09

    Although previous research found a positive association between sensitivity to reward (SR) and adolescents' unhealthy snacking and drinking behavior, mechanisms explaining these associations remain to be explored. The present study will therefore examine whether the associations between SR and unhealthy snack and/or sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake are mediated by external and/or emotional eating and if this mediation is moderated by availability at home or at school. Cross-sectional data on snacking, availability of snacks at home and at school, SR (BAS drive scale) and external and emotional eating (Dutch eating behavior questionnaire) of Flemish adolescents (n = 1104, mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 51 % boys; 18.0% overweight) in 20 schools spread across Flanders were collected. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted using generalized structural equation modeling in three steps: (1) direct association between SR and unhealthy snack or SSB intake, (2) mediation of either external or emotional eating and (3) interaction of home or school availability and emotional or external eating. Partial mediation of external eating (a*b = 0.69, p eating (a*b = 0.92, p unhealthy snacks was found (step 2). The relation between SR and SSB intake was not mediated by external or emotional eating (step 2). No moderation effects of home or school availability were found (step 3). Our findings indicate that the association between SR and the consumption of unhealthy snacks is partially explained by external and emotional eating in a population-based sample of adolescents irrespective of the home or school availability of these foods.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Birgit; Nagl, Michaela; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Hilbert, Anja; Kersting, Anette

    2016-07-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70). Binge-eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology were measured with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination administered over the telephone. Additionally, body weight and body mass index, depression, and anxiety were assessed before and immediately after treatment. Three-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data were recorded in the treatment group. Immediately after the treatment the number of binge-eating episodes showed significant improvement (d=1.02, between group) in the treatment group relative to the wait-list condition. The treatment group had also significantly reduced symptoms of all eating psychopathology outcomes relative to the wait-list condition (0.82≤d≤1.11). In the treatment group significant improvement was still observed for all measures 1year after the intervention relative to pretreatment levels. The Internet-based intervention proved to be efficacious, significantly reducing the number of binge-eating episodes and eating disorder pathology long term. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated to improve treatment access for patients suffering from BED.

  16. Association of fatigue with emotional-eating behavior and the response to mental stress in food intake in a young adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among young adults. We investigated whether eating behaviors are associated with fatigue in this population. The participants consisted of 117 healthy students attending Osaka City University. They completed questionnaires assessing fatigue and eating behaviors. To identify the factors associated with the prevalence of fatigue, multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender was performed. The Emotional Eating subscale score of the Japanese version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21-item and stress response in food intake (large decrease vs. no change) were positively associated with the prevalence of fatigue assessed by the Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale. The finding suggests that emotional eating and decrease in amount of food intake under mental stress were associated with fatigue in healthy young adults. Our findings may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying fatigue-eating coupling as well as the etiology of diseases related to abnormal eating behavior.

  17. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here, we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol we tested the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair-feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall, these results support the validity of our CSS to model BED allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

  18. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  19. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  20. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  1. The incidental influence of memories of past eating occasions on consumers' emotional responses to food and food-related behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that

  2. The incidental influence of memories of past eating occasions on consumers' emotional responses to food and food-related behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that food-relat

  3. Weight Perception, Substance Use, and Disordered Eating Behaviors: Comparing Normal Weight and Overweight High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M.; Conner, Bradley T.; Daly, Brian P.; Fauber, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and substance use are two risk factors for the development of serious psychopathology and health concerns in adulthood. Despite the negative outcomes associated with these risky behaviors, few studies have examined potential associations between these risk factors as they occur during adolescence. The importance of…

  4. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  5. Association of perceived racial discrimination with eating behaviors and obesity among participants of the SisterTalk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kirtania, Usree; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, telephone and in-person surveys were used to assess perceived discrimination, emotional eating behaviors, and stress. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI in order to assess weight status. ANOVA models were constructed to assess the association of discrimination with demographics. Correlations were calculated for discrimination, stress, emotional eating, and weight variables. ANOVA models were also constructed to assess discrimination with emotional eating, after adjusting for appropriate demographic variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with education and stress levels but was not associated with weight status (BMI). The frequency of eating when depressed or sad, and eating to manage stress, were both significantly higher among women who reported higher perceived discrimination and higher stress levels. Discrimination may contribute to stress that leads to eating for reasons other than hunger among African-American women, although the causal direction of associations cannot be determined with cross sectional data. Associations of discrimination with weight status were not found, although it is likely that emotional eating behaviors related to perceived discrimination are unhealthy. Future research should examine these relationships more closely in longitudinal studies.

  6. Internalized weight stigma moderates eating behavior outcomes in women with high BMI participating in a healthy living program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a significant socio-structural barrier to reducing health disparities and improving quality of life for higher weight individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of internalized weight stigma on eating behaviors after participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing the health benefits of a weight-neutral program to a conventional weight-management program for 80 community women with high body mass index (BMI > 30, age range: 30-45). Programs involved 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals. Assessments occurred at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and 24-months post-randomization. Eating behavior outcome measurements included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Intuitive Eating Scale. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to test for higher-order interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time. Findings revealed significant 3-way and 2-way interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time for disordered and adaptive eating behaviors, respectively. Only weight-neutral program participants with low internalized weight stigma improved global disordered eating scores. Participants from both programs with low internalized weight stigma improved adaptive eating at 6 months, but only weight-neutral program participants maintained changes at follow-up. Participants with high internalized weight stigma demonstrated no changes in disordered and adaptive eating, regardless of program. In order to enhance the overall benefit from weight-neutral approaches, these findings underscore the need to incorporate more innovative and direct methods to reduce internalized weight stigma for women with high BMI.

  7. A core eating network and its modulations underlie diverse eating phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Papies, Esther K; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2016-12-01

    We propose that a core eating network and its modulations account for much of what is currently known about the neural activity underlying a wide range of eating phenomena in humans (excluding homeostasis and related phenomena). The core eating network is closely adapted from a network that Kaye, Fudge, and Paulus (2009) proposed to explain the neurocircuitry of eating, including a ventral reward pathway and a dorsal control pathway. In a review across multiple literatures that focuses on experiments using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we first show that neural responses to food cues, such as food pictures, utilize the same core eating network as eating. Consistent with the theoretical perspective of grounded cognition, food cues activate eating simulations that produce reward predictions about a perceived food and potentially motivate its consumption. Reviewing additional literatures, we then illustrate how various factors modulate the core eating network, increasing and/or decreasing activity in subsets of its neural areas. These modulating factors include food significance (palatability, hunger), body mass index (BMI, overweight/obesity), eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating), and various eating goals (losing weight, hedonic pleasure, healthy living). By viewing all these phenomena as modulating a core eating network, it becomes possible to understand how they are related to one another within this common theoretical framework. Finally, we discuss future directions for better establishing the core eating network, its modulations, and their implications for behavior.

  8. Nutrition knowledge and eating behavior in schoolchildren and their parents in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nićiforović-Šurković Olja T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Unbalanced diet, as a risk factor, has an important influence on health, not only of adults but even more of children and adolescents. Therefore, it is very important to assess knowledge, habits and behavior considering nutrition among youth. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and behavior regarding nutrition among schoolchildren and their parents, as well as to establish how much knowledge and behavior are related to age and other socio-demographic characteristics, and how they are connected with knowledge and behavior of parents. Material and methods The study was performed in a random sample of 210 children in 4 elementary schools and their parents in Vojvodina using specially designed questionnaires. Results and discussion Results showed that knowledge about healthy food, as an important factor of healthy behavior, is quite good, and increases with age. There is a significant discrepancy between knowledge and behavior. Although children know which food is healthier, they often consume less healthy food. This discrepancy is present in all offered pairs of food, but particularly expressed when it is about consuming bread: about 80% of pupils know that dark breads are healthier than white breads, but only 13.5% among them actually eat dark breads. Conclusion This study showed that children's and parents' level of knowledge about healthy food is satisfactory, but it is not enough for healthy behavior, so there is a need for additional effort in health education and health promotion in youth population.

  9. Comportamento de restrição alimentar e obesidade Restrained eating behavior and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bernardi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é uma doença de alta prevalência no mundo e é responsável por sérias repercussões orgânicas e psicossociais, desde a infância até a vida adulta. O comportamento alimentar tem bases biológicas e sociais e, associado, à obesidade, torna-se um processo ainda mais complexo pelos aspectos psicológicos envolvidos, os quais se expressam por meio de humor depressivo, ansiedade, sentimento de culpa e, também, por mecanismos fisiológicos, como a resistência ao jejum na vigência de dietas restritivas. Há evidências de que, em indivíduos obesos, comportamentos de compulsão alimentar e ou restrição são mais freqüentes e parecem ser, em parte, responsáveis pelos fracassos observados no tratamento da obesidade. As restrições e auto-imposições das pessoas que fazem dieta, parecem ter um efeito rebote, resultando em compulsão alimentar, a qual pode associar-se a conseqüências psicológicas, como a perda da auto-estima, mudanças de humor e distração. As reflexões desta revisão sugerem que os programas para redução de peso corporal devem enfocar as bases do comportamento alimentar e desenvolver, efetivamente, ações interdisciplinares que permitam obter resultados eficazes no tratamento da obesidade.Obesity is a widespread disease in the world, responsible for serious organic and psychosocial repercussions, from infancy to adulthood. Eating behavior has biological as well as social bases. Associated to obesity, it becomes an even more complex process, since it is accompanied by psychological aspects showing symptoms such as depressive moods, anxiety, feelings of guilt, and physiological mechanisms as, for instance, the resistance to fast during restrictive diets. Obese individuals prevalently present behaviors such as binge or restrained eating, both leading to failure in the treatment of obesity. Restrained eating refers to the tendency to restrict food intake consciously, in order to prevent weight gain or to

  10. Self-reported Perceptions of Weight and Eating Behavior of School Children in Sunderland, England.

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    McInnes, Alison; Blackwell, David

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the self-reported perceptions of weight and eating behaviors of school-age children in Sunderland in the North East of England. The results presented are derived from data collected by a Health-Related Behaviour Survey developed by Schools and Students Health Education Unit at Exeter University, and this study is based on analysis of the data set collected for Sunderland. A total of 12,213 pupils from nine secondary schools completed the questionnaire biennially from 1996 to 2012. The sample included 12 and 13 year olds and 14 and 15 year olds. Various health and social issues related to perceptions of weight and eating behaviors were determined. Trends related to these issues were identified according to age and gender of respondents, and differences between the groups were highlighted. From the analysis, some interesting findings relating to eating patterns and weight perception amongst young people were ascertained. Females of both age groups reported a greater desire to lose weight than their male counterparts. The percentage of school children who reported having breakfast at home has increased progressively, as have those having lunch at school. The percentage of school children purchasing lunch from takeaway outlets has dramatically decreased. This is pleasing since health policy of limiting take out provision is high on government agenda and these trends can be used by policy makers to focus on continuing to improve school meals. The findings partly support other national data but also contradict the widely held beliefs around food and obesity in the North East of England.

  11. Epigenetic and Proteomic Expression Changes Promoted by Eating Addictive-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior.

  12. An Investigation of the Overlap Among Disinhibited Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the rise as well. While the lifetime prevalence of eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder) among youth...is estimated to be 3%, and subclinical eating disorders (i.e., subthreshold binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise...and bulimia nervosa report more impaired satiety responsiveness than healthy controls (Heilbrun & Worobow, 1990, 1991 ). Additionally, one study found

  13. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

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    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.

  14. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  15. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors.

  16. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.

  17. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Why Eating Breakfast Is Important for Optimising Human Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Farshchi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption appears to have declined in the last decades and eating breakfast, especially cereal, is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Serum cholesterol concentration is reported to be lower in adults eating breakfast (EB and higher among those not. No study, to our knowledge, has investigated the effect of skipping breakfast (SB on various aspect of energy metabolism. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of EB or SB on adult energy, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. 10 healthy women (BMI: 23.2, SD: 1.4 were recruited after giving informed consent. Each subject participated in a randomised crossover trial which encompassed two 14-day intervention periods; EB in one of them and SB in the other with a 2-wk wash out period between. In EB, subjects were asked to consume a pack of whole grain cereal (Kellogg’s, UK, 45 g with 200 ml semi-skimmed milk between 07:00-08:00 and eat a chocolate bar (Nestle, 48g. at 10.30-11.00. Then, they consumed 4 further meals of similar content to usual in the rest of the day at predetermined times every day for 2 wk. In SB, subjects consumed the chocolate at 10.30-11.00, and then had the cereal and semi-skimmed milk at 12.00-12.30. Then, they consumed 4 further meals of similar content to usual as for EB. Subjects consumed their normal diet for a 2-wk washout period between the two intervention periods. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 days during each intervention, and came to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each intervention period and their weight and anthropometric variables were measured. Blood samples were taken for glucose, lipids and insulin before and for 3 hr after a test meal (milk shake containing 30 kJ/kg, 50% CHO. Resting metabolic rate (RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry before and after the test meal. Repeated-measures ANOVA, and paired t.test were used for the statistical comparisons. SB was associated with higher fasting total (3.4±0

  19. A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image, and eating behavior in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Stephen, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Although self-compassion is associated with healthier body image and eating behavior, these findings have generally emerged at the between-persons level only. The present study investigated the unique contributions of within-person variability in self-compassion, and between-persons differences in self-compassion, to body image and eating behavior. Over seven days, 92 female college students completed nightly measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, dietary restraint, intuitive eating, body appreciation, body satisfaction, and state body image. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-persons, day-to-day fluctuations in self-compassion contributed to day-to-day fluctuations in body image and eating. Between-persons, participants' average levels of self-compassion across days contributed to their average levels of body image and eating over the week. Results generally held when controlling for within- and between-persons self-esteem. Evidently, the eating and body image benefits of self-compassion may come not only from being a generally self-compassionate person, but also from treating oneself more self-compassionately than usual on a given day.

  20. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings.

  1. Eating Behaviors and Weight Development in Obesity-Prone Children and the Importance of the Research of Albert J. Stunkard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E

    2016-03-01

    Albert J. Stunkard, MD, was an internationally recognized leader and pioneer in the field of obesity and eating disorders research. He was also among the first scientists to study eating phenotypes and early life risk factors for childhood obesity at a time when childhood obesity prevalence rates were still comparatively low. The aim of this review is to highlight select findings from the work of Albert J. Stunkard which significantly advanced our understanding of eating traits of children with a different familial predisposition to obesity and genetic and environmental influences on weight outcomes. Collectively, Stunkard's early work on childhood obesity had a significant impact on the field of ingestive behavior and obesity research in that he was one of the first investigators who pointed to genetic influences underlying behavioral eating traits and child weight status. His work also inspired numerous subsequent investigations on the relative contributions of specific genes (e.g., polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene) on individual differences in child eating traits (e.g., satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger) and body weight.

  2. Comer bien, comer mal: la medicalización del comportamiento alimentario Eating well, eating poorly and the medicalization of eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Gracia-Arnaiz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el progresivo proceso de medicalización del comportamiento alimentario por el cual una buena parte de los motivos pragmáticos o simbólicos que articulan la selección y el consumo humano de alimentos se ha sustituido por otros de orden nutricional. La normalización dietética se ha concretado, en particular en los contextos de relativa abundancia de alimentos, en torno de la dieta equilibrada, un patrón alimentario basado en la restricción y promoción del consumo de ciertos alimentos y nutrientes -qué y cuánto comer- y en la prescripción de un conjunto de pautas relativas a cómo, cuándo y con quién hacerlo, y cuyos objetivos han sido no sólo regular los cuidados del cuerpo y la salud, sino promover, a su vez, un cierto orden social y ético.This article describes how the progressive process of medicalization of food is inscribed within a biomedical logic that attempts to substitute many of the economic, adaptative and symbolic reasons that have ethnographically and historically conditioned eating habits in all cultures, exclusively for reasons of a dietetic nature. According to this logic, most of the population of modern societies does not know how to eat because they are victims of or have been made ill by the current profusion of food. They must, therefore, learn how to eat well, which in terms of eating practices means eating a little of everything, in moderation and in a balanced way. The main aim of current nutritional education is to (reestablish a supposed dietetic normality as far as food consumed, quantities, number of intakes and meal structures are concerned.

  3. Relationship between adolescents' and their friends' eating behaviors: breakfast, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, and dairy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla; MacLehose, Richard; Nanney, Marilyn S; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-10-01

    We examined associations between adolescents' and their friends' healthy eating behaviors, specifically breakfast, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, and dairy food intake as reported by both adolescents and their friends. Data for this study were drawn from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity among Teens), a population-based study examining multilevel factors of eating, physical activity, and weight-related outcomes among adolescents (80% racial/ethnic minority) in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, during the 2009-2010 academic year. In-class surveys were completed by 2,043 adolescents in 20 schools. Adolescents identified friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Generalized estimating equation linear regression models were used to examine associations between adolescents' healthy eating behaviors and these behaviors from their friends (friend group and best friends), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Significant positive associations were found for breakfast eating between adolescents and their friend groups and best friends (friend groups β=.26, Pfriends β=.19, P=0.004), as well was for whole-grain intake (friend groups β=.14, Pfriends β=.13, P=0.003) and dairy food intake (friend groups β=.08, P=0.014; best friends β=.09, P=0.002). Adolescents' and their best friends' vegetable intake were also significantly related (β=.09, P=0.038). No associations were seen among friends for fruit intake. Findings from our study suggest that adolescent friends exhibit similarities in healthy eating patterns. Registered dietitians and health professionals may consider developing strategies to engage friends to promote adolescents' healthy dietary behaviors.

  4. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Sadeka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications.

  5. Determinants of Dieting Behavior and Eating Disorders in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Lillian Miller

    This study examines the prevalence and intensity of dieting behavior and the development of eating disorders in a sample of 1269 high school students from ten schools in the Greater Cleveland area. The sample includes four race-sex groups: black and white male and female students. Differences in dieting behavior between these groups are examined and, within each race-sex group, dieters and non-dieters are compared to see whether they differ in such factors as current weight and personal weight history, parental weights, socioeconomic class, religion, birth order, exercise and personality factors such as self-esteem and eating disorder measures. Data were collected using both self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews with a subsample of students. The study documents a higher prevalence of dieting and purging behavior than has been reported in other research. Forty-one percent of both black and white males, 61 percent of black females, and 77 percent of white females dieted and many purged, particularly black females who tended to use laxatives and diuretics and white females and males who tended to use vomiting. Dieters and non -dieters differed significantly in past experience with being overweight and in their current weights. At the time of the study 20 to 30 percent of the dieters were classifiable as overweight. While black and white male dieters and non-dieters were in agreement about ideal body weight, white female dieters and non-dieters wanted considerably lower weights than black female dieters and non-dieters. Ethnicity, as determined by socioeconomic class and religion, was not significantly related to dieting behavior, nor was birth order, a familial factor. It appeared that pervasive cultural pressures to attain an ideal figure affected all race-sex groups and led large percentages of the students to diet, even many who were already underweight.

  6. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Ubadah; Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  7. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubadah Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES. A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  8. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  11. Group cognitive behavioral treatment in female soldiers diagnosed with binge/purge eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rinat; Yanykulovitch-Levy, Dana; Wertheim, Hadas; Gordon-Erez, Shirley; Shahimov, Meital; Weizman, Abraham; Stein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) is the recommended intervention in bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified with binge/purge (EDNOS-B/P) symptoms. There are fewer data on its application in a group format. We sought to investigate the effect of group CBT in female soldiers with B/P symptomatology in an open trial design. For this purpose we assessed 64 female soldiers serving in the Israeli Defense Force diagnosed with BN and EDNOS-B/P who participated in a group CBT format of 16 weekly sessions and one follow-up session. In this study, 42 participants (65.6%) completed treatment and 22 participants (34.4%) did not. A total of 39 treatment completers (92.8% of treatment completers) and 19 non-completers (86.4% of treatment non-completers) were assessed around 12 months after treatment. Participants completed at baseline and following treatment questionnaires assessing eating-related symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At follow-up they were assessed for eating-related symptoms. Our findings show only minimal baseline differences between treatment completers and non-completers. Significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment was shown for B/P and restrictive symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At that time, more than a third of treatment completers were abstinent from binging and more than a half from vomiting. The improvement in B/P and restricting symptoms was maintained at 1 year follow-up for treatment completers. At that time around 60% were abstinent from binging and more than 70% from vomiting. Participants not completing treatment were also improved at follow-up but to a lesser extent. The findings of the present study suggest that group CBT may be effective for the treatment of female soldiers with BN and EDNOS-B/P.

  12. The impact of food branding on children's eating behavior and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-06-06

    Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Eating habits, sedentary behaviors and overweight and obesity among adolescents in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Continente, X; Allué, N; Pérez-Giménez, A; Ariza, C; Sánchez-Martínez, F; López, M J; Nebot, M

    2015-07-01

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day in an equilibrated diet. Skipping breakfast has been associated with overweight. This study aimed to describe overweight and obesity among high school students in Barcelona and to analyze their association with eating habits and sedentary behaviors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2008 on a representative sample of high-school students in Barcelona (Spain). Overweight and obesity were defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), which was calculated from objective measurements. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were determined, and their association with eating habits, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity was analyzed using logistic regression models. A total of 3,089 students were analyzed (52% girls). The prevalence of overweight was 26.1% in boys (6.2% obese) and 20.6% in girls (3.7% obese). In both sexes, overweight was associated with being younger, having breakfast less often, being on a diet, and with a lower frequency of unhealthy food intake. Being on a diet and a lower unhealthy food intake were related to obesity in both sexes. Among boys, obesity was also associated with sedentary behaviors. The results show that overweight and obesity are a serious public health problem and confirm the importance of breakfast to prevent overweight. Moreover, these results allow us to expand our knowledge on the factors associated with overweight and obesity in order to improve current school preventive programs. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL, attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  15. The impact of exposure to images of ideally thin models in TV commercials on eating behavior: an experimental study with women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, Ilka; Legenbauer, Tanja; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates whether eating behavior in women with diagnosed bulimia nervosa is influenced by prior exposure to images of ideally thin models. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 30 normal controls (NC) were exposed to body-related and neutral TV commercials; then food that typically triggers binge eating was provided, and the amount of food eaten was measured. No significant difference for food intake between NC and BN could be found, but food intake for BN was predicted by the degree of thoughts related to eating behaviors during exposure to the thin ideal. No impact of general body image or eating pathology on food intake could be found. The results emphasize the importance of action-relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for the maintenance of eating-disordered behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa, when exposed to eating-disorder-specific triggers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent and Convergent Validity of the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire and Behavioral Paradigm in Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madowitz, Jennifer; Liang, June; Peterson, Carol B.; Rydell, Sarah; Zucker, Nancy L.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Harnack, Lisa; Boutelle, Kerri N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) questionnaire parent report of child (EAH-PC) and child self-report (EAH-C) with the EAH behavioral paradigm (EAH%) and usual dietary intake. Method Data were obtained at baseline assessment for 117 treatment-seeking overweight and obese (BMI > 85th percentile) 8- to 12-year old children (53% female, 54% white) and their parents. Children participated in the EAH free access paradigm after a standardized ad libitum meal. Parents and children completed EAH questionnaires, and the children completed three 24 h recalls. EAH External Eating subscale and total scores were assessed. Results EAH% was inversely associated with the EAH-PC total score (p < .04), however, it was not associated with the EAH-PC External Eating scale, EAH-C total score or EAH-C External Eating scale. Daily caloric intake was positively related to both the EAH-C total score (p < .02) and External Eating subscale (p < .007). Daily caloric intake was inversely related to EAH-PC total score (p < .05), but was not related to EAH-PC External Eating subscale or EAH%. Discussion Concurrent validity was not supported for EAH questionnaires, but convergent validity was supported for EAH-C and child daily caloric intake. Further research is warranted to assess whether EAH questionnaires and paradigm are measuring different aspects of EAH in treatment-seeking children. PMID:24186043

  17. The importance of sleep as a direct and indirect factor in eating behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on different psychological factors that contribute to either facilitating healthy eating or decreasing unhealthy eating, such as inhibitory control (Bartholdy, Dalton, O'Daly, Campbell, & Schmidt, 2016), emotion (Cardi, Esposito, Clarke, Schifano, & Treasure, 2015) a

  18. Effect of Number of Eating Responses at Reinforcement on Fixed-Ratio Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinginna, Paul R

    1978-04-01

    Fixed-ratio (FR) size was increased for pigeons (N = 6), while the number of eating responses at reinforcement was either held constant or increased. Also, FR size was held constant while the number of eating responses at reinforcement was increased. Major findings were as follows: (a) when eating responses were held constant, higher FR requirements led to stable key rates and postreinforcement pauses; (b) allowing more eating responses at successively higher FR requirements led to stable key rates and postreinforcement pauses;

  19. Behavioral risk factors for overweight in early childhood; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifestyle-related behaviors having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, playing outside and watching TV have been indicated to have an association with childhood overweight, but research among young children (below 6 years old is limited. The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between these four behaviors and overweight among young children. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data on 5-year-old children (n = 7505 collected for the study ‘Be active, eat right’. Age and sex-specific cut-off points for body mass index of the International Obesity Task Force were used to assess overweight/obesity. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results For children whom had breakfast 2 hours/day, the odds ratio (OR for having overweight (obesity included was, respectively, 1.49 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.13-1.95, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03-1.51. There was a positive association between the number of risk behaviors present and the risk for having overweight. For children with 3 or all of the risk behaviors having breakfast 2 glasses/day, playing outside 2 hs/day, the OR for overweight was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.71 (all models adjusted for children’s sex and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Given the positive association between the number of behavioral risk factors and overweight, further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral counseling of parents of toddlers in preventing childhood overweight. In the meantime we recommend physicians to target all four behaviors for counseling during well-child visits.

  20. Limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and reward-related circuitry integrity affects eating behavior: A longitudinal DTI study in adolescents with restrictive eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Gaia; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Swenne, Ingemar; Zhukowsky, Christina; Salonen-Ros, Helena; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Gaudio, Santino; Brooks, Samantha J.; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the micro-structural alterations of WM in patients with restrictive eating disorders (rED), and longitudinal data are lacking. Twelve patients with rED were scanned at diagnosis and after one year of family-based treatment, and compared to twenty-four healthy controls (HCs) through DTI analysis. A tract-based spatial statistics procedure was used to investigate diffusivity parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (MD, RD and AD, respectively). Reduced FA and increased RD were found in patients at baseline in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation compared with controls. However, no differences were found between follow-up patients and controls, suggesting a partial normalization of the diffusivity parameters. In patients, trends for a negative correlation were found between the baseline FA of the right anterior corona radiata and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire total score, while a positive trend was found between the baseline FA in the splenium of corpus callosum and the weight loss occurred between maximal documented weight and time of admission. A positive trend for correlation was also found between baseline FA in the right anterior corona radiata and the decrease in the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory Revised total score over time. Our results suggest that the integrity of the limbic–thalamo–cortical projections and the reward-related circuitry are important for cognitive control processes and reward responsiveness in regulating eating behavior. PMID:28248991

  1. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  2. Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…

  3. Enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Single Treatment for All Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…

  4. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.

  5. Adolescent and young adult vegetarianism: better dietary intake and weight outcomes but increased risk of disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Perry, Cheryl L; Wall, Melanie M; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-04-01

    Examine characteristics of current and former adolescent and young adult vegetarians and investigate the relationships between vegetarianism, weight, dietary intake, and weight-control behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT-II: Eating Among Teens). Participants completed a mailed survey and food frequency questionnaire in 2004. Males and females (n=2,516), ages 15-23 years. Weight status, dietary intake (fruit, vegetables, fat, calories), unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Multiple regression models controlling for socioeconomic status and sex were used to test for significant differences between current, former, and never vegetarians within the younger and older cohort. Participants were identified as current (4.3%), former (10.8%), and never (84.9%) vegetarians. Current vegetarians in the younger and older cohorts had healthier dietary intakes than nonvegetarians with regard to fruits, vegetables, and fat. Among young adults, current vegetarians were less likely than never vegetarians to be overweight or obese. Adolescent and young adult current vegetarians were more likely to report binge eating with loss of control when compared to nonvegetarians. Among adolescents, former vegetarians were more likely than never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Among young adults, former vegetarians were more likely than current and never vegetarians to engage in extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. Adolescent and young adult vegetarians may experience the health benefits associated with increased fruit and vegetable intake and young adults may experience the added benefit of decreased risk for overweight and obesity. However, current vegetarians may be at increased risk for binge eating with loss of control, while former vegetarians may be at increased risk for extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. It would be beneficial for clinicians to inquire about

  6. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  7. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: Tailoring Interventions to Patient Readiness for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Josie; Dunn, Erin C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of eating disorders. Although CBT is regarded as the treatment of choice in this population, it nevertheless has limitations: some patients fail to engage, drop out from treatment prematurely, or simply do not improve.…

  8. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet Office in…

  9. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  10. Predictors and Moderators of Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medication for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…

  11. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  12. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  13. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children : The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban

  14. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  15. Association of Enjoyable Childhood Mealtimes with Adult Eating Behaviors and Subjective Diet-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…

  16. Predictors and Moderators of Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medication for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…

  17. [Factors Associated With Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behaviors in Patients With Eating Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Guarín, Maritza; Rodríguez Malagón, Nelcy; Gempeler Rueda, Juanita; Garzón, Daniel Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors (NSSI) have been described in patients with eating disorders (ED), and they have been associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis. To explore the presence of SA and NSSI in patients attending an outpatient ED program, as well as to evaluate the associated variables and the correlation between both types of behaviors. A total of 908 patients of both sexes attending the Equilibrio outpatient program in Bogotá were studied. The histories of SA and NSSI were systematically examined in the development of medical history by direct and structured questions to the patient, and then validated during interviews with the family. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, as well as history of traumatic experiences, were also studied. Simple frequencies were calculated, and a bivariate analysis was performed between SA, NSSI, and the other variables of the study. Finally, two models of association were designed for the multivariate analysis, using variables of clinical importance and statistical significance. SA sometime in their lives was reported by 13% of the patients, and 26% of them reported NSSI. The variables associated with SA were bipolar disorder (OR: 3.86, 95% CI; 2.4-6.1), borderline personality, purgative subtype of ED, and self-injury. Sexual abuse was associated with NSSI (OR: 3.48, 95%CI; 2.2-5.4), as well as bipolar disorder, trichotillomania, and suicide attempt. SA and NSSI are frequent in patients with eating disorders with multiple comorbidities, increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation, and they should be explored and treated. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide association analysis of eating disorder-related symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver S P; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Liao, Thomas Pei-Chi; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P < 10(-5) . Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits.

  19. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.