de Krom, Mariken; Bauer, Florianne; Collier, David; Adan, R. A. H.; la Fleur, Susanne E.
Feeding is a physiological process, influenced by genetic factors and the environment. In recent years, many studies have been performed to unravel the involvement of genetics in both eating behavior and its pathological forms: eating disorders and obesity. In this review, we provide a condensed
Robinson, E.; Bevelander, K.E.; Field, M.; Jones, A.
The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.
Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura
Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...
Kaczmarek, Jennifer L; Musaad, Salma Ma; Holscher, Hannah D
Background: Preclinical research has shown that the gastrointestinal microbiota exhibits circadian rhythms and that the timing of food consumption can affect the composition and function of gut microbes. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on these relations in humans. Objective: We aimed to determine whether human gastrointestinal microbes and bacterial metabolites were associated with time of day or behavioral factors, including eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed early in the day, and overnight-fast duration. Design: We analyzed 77 fecal samples collected from 28 healthy men and women. Fecal DNA was extracted and sequenced to determine the relative abundances of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to assess short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Eating frequency, percentage of energy consumed before 1400, and overnight-fast duration were determined from dietary records. Data were analyzed by linear mixed models or generalized linear mixed models, which controlled for fiber intake, sex, age, body mass index, and repeated sampling within each participant. Each OTU and metabolite were tested as the outcome in a separate model. Results: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations decreased throughout the day ( P = 0.006, 0.04, and 0.002, respectively). Thirty-five percent of bacterial OTUs were associated with time. In addition, relations were observed between gut microbes and eating behaviors, including eating frequency, early energy consumption, and overnight-fast duration. Conclusions: These results indicate that the human gastrointestinal microbiota composition and function vary throughout the day, which may be related to the circadian biology of the human body, the microbial community itself, or human eating behaviors. Behavioral factors, including timing of eating and overnight-fast duration, were also predictive of bacterial abundances. Longitudinal intervention studies are needed to
Domínguez-Vásquez, P; Olivares, S; Santos, J L
Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also assumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Maggio, C A; Presta, E; Bracco, E F; Vasselli, J R; Kissileff, H R; Pfohl, D N; Hashim, S A
To investigate the effects of the long-acting opiate antagonist naltrexone on spontaneous human eating behavior, eight moderately obese male paid volunteers were housed in a hospital metabolic unit for 28 days and offered palatable foods ad lib by a platter service method. Under double-blind conditions, equally divided doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg naltrexone, or an acetaminophen placebo, were administered twice daily in tablet form for 3-day periods each, according to a Latin Square design. The doses of naltrexone resulted in decreases of daily caloric intake from placebo level, but these reductions were neither statistically significant nor dose-related. When the averaged effects of the doses were compared to placebo, five subjects showed intake reductions but the overall intake reduction of 301.5 +/- 198.1 kcal/day (mean +/- SEM) was not statistically significant. Naltrexone administration failed to selectively alter intakes of individual meals and snacks or macronutrient consumption patterns. During active drug periods, subjects lost 0.62 +/- 0.22 lb over 3 days, while during the placebo period, subjects gained 0.46 +/- 0.68 lb. However, there was no reliable change of basal metabolic rate as a function of naltrexone administration. The present results, which indicate that naltrexone administration is relatively ineffective in reducing food intake and inducing body weight loss in obese humans, are thus in contrast with reports that administration of opiate antagonist agents promote significant reductions of food intake and attenuations of body weight gain in experimental animals.
... your chance of success. Keep healthy snacks at work. Pack healthy lunches that you make at home. Pay attention to your feelings of hunger. Learn the difference between physical hunger and habitual eating or eating as a response to stress or boredom.
Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina
Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life.
The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...
Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V
Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Westerterp-Plantenga, M S
Cumulative food intake curves have been obtained by monitoring eating from a plate, placed on a scale built into a table, and connected to a digital computer. They describe and integrate parameters of consumption of an ad lib single course meal, i.e. meal size, meal duration, eating rate, change in eating rate, bite size and bite frequency. It is concluded that they are an adequate tool for analyzing dietary and clinical interventions on meal size, because the cumulative food intake curve parameters: are stable and consistent within subjects; show a clear relationship with the subject characteristics dietary restraint and obesity; show a clear relationship with the physiological parameters satiation, diet-induced thermogenesis and body-temperature near the liver, and with the cognitive parameter: estimating forthcoming ingestion; are sensitive to instructions, clinical and dietary interventions (preloads, palatability, energy density, macronutrient composition), and to a state of negative energy balance. Because of possible compensatory post-prandial effects, it is suggested that assessment of meal size should be part of a 24 h appetite profile and food intake observation.
Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce
To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of inappropriate eating behaviors in the multivariate covariance model either for females or males. Moreover, the level of physical activity had no significant influence on the inappropriate eating behaviors of these adolescents. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, inappropriate eating behaviors in both genders were similar regardless of the habitual level of physical activity.
Fortes,Leonardo de Sousa; Morgado,Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Almeida,Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira,Maria Elisa Caputo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences w...
Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer
Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…
Jiang, Peihua; Josue-Almqvist, Jesusa; Jin, Xuelin; Li, Xia; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K
A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3) we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals that consume
Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new ?enhanced? version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the ?transdiagnostic? theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...
Eating is necessary for survival, gives great pleasure and can be perturbed leading to undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders. The development of feeding in humans relies on complex interplay between homeostatic mechanisms; neural reward systems; and child motor, sensory and socio-emotional capability. Furthermore, parenting, social influences and the food environment influence the development of eating behavior. The rapid expansion of new knowledge in this field, from basic science to clinical and community-based research, is expected to lead to urgently needed research in support of effective, evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for undernutrition, overnutrition and eating disorders in early childhood. Using a biopsychosocial approach, this review covers current knowledge of the development of eating behavior from the brain to the individual child, taking into account important contextual influences. PMID:22472944
Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy
Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Boyland, E.J.; Kelly, B.; Buijzen, M.A.
Systematic research reviews have repeatedly shown that food advertising affects children's eating behavior. Given that most food advertising promotes unhealthy, palatable, and rewarding food products, it is considered to be a significant contributor to the current obesity epidemic. This review
Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...
Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L
"Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589
Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Brodin, U; Zandian, M
We examine the science and evidence supporting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Recent trials focusing on the abnormal cognitive and emotional aspects of bulimia have reported a remission rate of about 45%, and a relapse rate of about 30% within one year. However, an early CBT trial that emphasized the normalization of eating behavior had a better outcome than treatment that focused on cognitive intervention. In support of this finding, another treatment, that restores a normal eating behavior using mealtime feedback, has an estimated remission rate of about 75% and a relapse rate of about 10% over five years. Moreover, when eating behavior was normalized, cognitive and emotional abnormalities were resolved at remission without cognitive therapy. The critical aspect of the CBT treatment of bulimia nervosa therefore may actually have been the normalization of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A growing body of behavioral and genetic information indicates that taste perception and food sources are highly coordinated across many animal species. For example, sweet taste perception is thought to serve to detect and motivate consumption of simple sugars in plants that provide calories. Supporting this is the observation that most plant-eating mammals examined exhibit functional sweet perception, whereas many obligate carnivores have independently lost function of their sweet taste receptors and exhibit no avidity for simple sugars that humans describe as tasting sweet. As part of a larger effort to compare taste structure/function among species, we examined both the behavioral and the molecular nature of sweet taste in a plant-eating animal that does not consume plants with abundant simple sugars, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: as plant-eating mammals, they should have a well-developed sweet taste system; however, as animals that do not normally consume plants with simple sugars, they may have lost sweet taste function, as has occurred in strict carnivores. In behavioral tests, giant pandas avidly consumed most natural sugars and some but not all artificial sweeteners. Cell-based assays revealed similar patterns of sweet receptor responses toward many of the sweeteners. Using mixed pairs of human and giant panda sweet taste receptor units (hT1R2+gpT1R3 and gpT1R2+hT1R3 we identified regions of the sweet receptor that may account for behavioral differences in giant pandas versus humans toward various sugars and artificial sweeteners. Thus, despite the fact that the giant panda's main food, bamboo, is very low in simple sugars, the species has a marked preference for several compounds that taste sweet to humans. We consider possible explanations for retained sweet perception in this species, including the potential extra-oral functions of sweet taste receptors that may be required for animals
Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph
The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Birch, Leann L
Because infants are totally dependent upon parents (or other caregivers) for care and sustenance, parents' feeding practices are a key feature of the family environments in which infants and young children learn about food and eating. Feeding practices include not only what the child is fed, but also the how, when, why and how much of feeding. Extensive evidence indicates that parenting behavior influences a variety of child outcomes, including cognitive and socioemotional development, as well as the development of self-regulatory skills. The focus of this chapter is on what is known about how parenting, particularly feeding practices, influences the early development of several aspects of children's eating behavior, including the acquisition of food preferences, self-regulatory skills, children's reactivity to food cues, satiety responsiveness and 'picky eating'. It is argued that traditional feeding practices, which evolved to protect children from environmental threats and ensure adequate intake in the context of food scarcity, can be maladaptive in current environments. An evidence base is needed to inform public policy to reduce early obesity risk in current environments, where too much palatable food is a major threat to child health. Results of recent research provides evidence that promoting responsive feeding practices can alter the development of eating behavior, sleep patterns and early self-regulatory skills, as well as reduce early obesity risk. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hernández Ruiz de Eguilaz, María; Martínez de Morentin Aldabe, Blanca; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Pérez-Diez, Salomé; San Cristóbal Blanco, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Martínez, J Alfredo
Research in obesity has traditionally focused on prevention strategies and treatments aimed at changing lifestyle habits. However, recent research suggests that eating behavior is a habit regulated not only by homeostatic mechanisms, but also by the hedonic pathway that controls appetite and satiety processes. Cognitive, emotional, social, economic, and cultural factors, as well as organoleptic properties of food, are basic aspects to consider in order to understand eating behavior and its impact on health. This review presents a multisensory integrative view of food at both the homeostatic and non-homeostatic levels. This information will be of scientific interest to determine behavior drivers leading to overeating and, thus, to propose effective measures, at both the individual and population levels, for the prevention of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The brain occupies a special hierarchical position in human energy metabolism. If cerebral homeostasis is threatened, the brain behaves in a "selfish" manner by competing for energy resources with the body. Here we present a logistic approach, which is based on the principles of supply and demand known from economics. In this "cerebral supply chain" model, the brain constitutes the final consumer. In order to illustrate the operating mode of the cerebral supply chain, we take experimental data which allow to assess the supply, demand and need of the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress. The experimental results show that the brain under conditions of psychosocial stress actively demands energy from the body, in order to cover its increased energy needs. The data demonstrate that the stressed brain uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" to limit glucose fluxes into peripheral tissue (muscle, fat and to enhance cerebral glucose supply. Furthermore psychosocial stress elicits a marked increase in eating behavior in the post-stress phase. Subjects ingested more carbohydrates without any preference for sweet ingredients. These experimentally observed changes of cerebral demand, supply and need are integrated into a logistic framework describing the supply chain of the selfish brain.
Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo
Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147
Mann, Linda; Blotnicky, Karen
Problem: There is evidence that university students have poor eating behaviors that can lead to short and long term negative health effects. Understanding the influences on eating behaviors will aid universities and health agencies in developing effective healthy eating promotion strategies. Purpose and Method: To determine the impact of a range…
Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.
Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…
Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Objective A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. Methods The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Results Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child’s weight, and more monitoring of their child’s eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child’s diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. PMID:27302549
Valladares, Macarena; Durán, Elizabeth; Matheus, Alexis; Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Obregón, Ana María; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo
To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used. Academic performance was measured by the grade point average (GPA) and was associated with eating behavior. Women had significantly higher scores in the "emotional eating" dimension than men (p = 0.002). The eating behavior analysis showed that female students with higher GPAs (above 5.5) had statistically significantly lower uncontrolled eating scores (p = 0.03) and higher cognitive restriction scores (p = 0.05) than women with lower academic performance (below 5.5). There were no significant associations between eating behavior and academic performance in men. A positive association between eating behavior and academic performance was observed in female university students in Chile. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of this association and determine how to improve the nutritional habits of this population.
Schneider, Jill E; Wise, Justina D; Benton, Noah A; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin
The neuroendocrinology of ingestive behavior is a topic central to human health, particularly in light of the prevalence of obesity, eating disorders, and diabetes. The study of food intake in laboratory rats and mice has yielded some useful hypotheses, but there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Ingestive behavior is more complex than the consummatory act of eating, and decisions about when and how much to eat usually take place in the context of potential mating partners, competitors, predators, and environmental fluctuations that are not present in the laboratory. We emphasize appetitive behaviors, actions that bring animals in contact with a goal object, precede consummatory behaviors, and provide a window into motivation. Appetitive ingestive behaviors are under the control of neural circuits and neuropeptide systems that control appetitive sex behaviors and differ from those that control consummatory ingestive behaviors. Decreases in the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels enhance the stimulatory effects of peripheral hormones on appetitive ingestive behavior and the inhibitory effects on appetitive sex behavior, putting a new twist on the notion of leptin, insulin, and ghrelin "resistance." The ratio of hormone concentrations to the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels may generate a critical signal that schedules conflicting behaviors, e.g., mate searching vs. foraging, food hoarding vs. courtship, and fat accumulation vs. parental care. In species representing every vertebrate taxa and even in some invertebrates, many putative "satiety" or "hunger" hormones function to schedule ingestive behavior in order to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne
The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.
Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala
Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.
Zhou, Shuo; Shapiro, Michael A; Wansink, Brian
Media's presentation of eating is an important source of influence on viewers' eating goals and behaviors. Drawing on recent research indicating that whether a story character continues to pursue a goal or completes a goal can unconsciously influence an audience member's goals, a scene from a popular movie comedy was manipulated to end with a character continuing to eat (goal ongoing) or completed eating (goal completed). Participants (N = 147) were randomly assigned to a goal status condition. As a reward, after viewing the movie clip viewers were offered two types of snacks: ChexMix and M&M's, in various size portions. Viewers ate more food after watching the characters continue to eat compared to watching the characters complete eating, but only among those manipulated to identify with a character. Viewers were more likely to choose savory food after viewing the ongoing eating scenes, but sweet dessert-like food after viewing the completed eating scenes. The results extend the notion of media influence on unconscious goal contagion and satiation to movie eating, and raise the possibility that completing a goal can activate a logically subsequent goal. Implications for understanding media influence on eating and other health behaviors are discussed. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja
Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.
Van Strien, T; Schippers, G.M.; Cox, W M
Although there is a strong relationship between emotional and external eating, separate subscales for these behaviors have been constructed in the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. This study tries to establish whether this distinction is justified. We studied relationships among self-reported (
Although many people want to change their unhealthy eating behavior, only few actually succeed in the long run. One reason for such frequent failure is that people are remarkably inept in dealing with the obstacles that accompany the road to healthier eating behavior and weight. Such obstacles
Cipriani, Gabriele; Carlesi, Cecilia; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Nuti, Angelo
Eating problems and dietary changes have been reported in patients with dementia. The aim of this article is to explore the generalized problems with nutrition, diet, feeding, and eating reported among patients with dementia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2016. Search terms used included behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, dementia, dietary changes, eating behavior. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Abnormal eating behaviors, eating problems, and dietary changes are present in most people with dementia, especially in the later stages of the condition. Individuals with dementia frequently develop serious feeding difficulties and changes in eating and dietary habits. The changes may be secondary to cognitive impairment or apraxia, or the result of insufficient caregiving, or the consequence of metabolic or neurochemical abnormalities occurring as part of the dementing process.
Verri, A P; Verticale, M S; Vallero, E; Bellone, S; Nespoli, L
The media, mainly TV, play a significant social and cultural role and may affect the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa. Their influence acts mainly by favoring a tall and thin body as the only fashionable for female adolescents: your social success depends primarily and totally by your physical appearance and you can, (and must), shape your body as you like better. Our research aims t analyze the attitude of adolescent people toward the TV and to investigate on: 1) time spent watching TV programs; 2) the influence of TV on the personal choices of goods to buy; 3) the ideal body images; 4) choice of TV programs. Sixty-seven healthy adolescents (36 F-31 M) were included in our study as controls together with 24 female adolescents with eating disorders (DCA) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV and EAT/26 criteria. Our results show a psychological dependence of DCA adolescents from the TV (longer period of time spent watching TV programs, buying attitudes more influenced by TV advertising). The thin and tall body image is preferred by the DCA girls as well as by the controls; however the body appearance and proportions have a predominant and utmost importance only for the eating disorder females. The masculine subjects instead have a preference for a female and masculine opulent body appearance. To prevent the observed increase in prevalence and incidence of eating disorders among adolescents, it is appropriate to control the messages, myths and false hood propagated by media, TV in particular.
Santos, José L; Ho-Urriola, Judith A; González, Andrea; Smalley, Susan V; Domínguez-Vásquez, Patricia; Cataldo, Rodrigo; Obregón, Ana M; Amador, Paola; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Hodgson, M Isabel
Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P food responsiveness" (P Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.
Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage
), average duration of each visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit (FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available for 1130 boars. All boars were genotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in the R program. Sixteen SNPs were...... found to have moderate genome-wide significance (passociation with feeding behavior traits. MSI2 gene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD. Thirty-six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs have previously been reported......1, PTPN4, MTMR4 and RNGTT) and positive regulation of peptide secretion genes (GHRH, NNAT and TCF7L2) were highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biological mechanisms for eating behavior in pigs and these results...
Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A
Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz
Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.
Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at
Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of
Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of
Widome, Rachel; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Haines, Jess; Story, Mary
We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, perceptions, and dietary intakes by food security status. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 primarily urban schools in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998-1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression analysis to characterize associations between behaviors, perceptions, nutritional intake, and food security status. Compared with food-secure youths, food-insecure youths were more likely to perceive that eating healthfully was inconvenient and that healthy food did not taste good. Additionally, food-insecure youths reported eating more fast food but fewer family meals and breakfasts per week than did youths who were food secure. Food-insecure and food-secure youths perceived similar benefits from eating healthfully (P = .75). Compared with those who were food secure, food-insecure youths had higher fat intakes (P Food-insecure youths were more likely to have a body mass index above the 95th percentile. The eating patterns of food-insecure adolescents differ in important ways from the eating patterns of those who are food secure. Policies and interventions focusing on improving the foods that these youths eat deserve further examination.
Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María
Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.
Williams, Gail A; Hawkins, Misty A W; Duncan, Jennifer; Rummell, Christina M; Perkins, Shannon; Crowther, Janis H
Eating pathology among bariatric surgery candidates is common and associated with adverse outcomes. However, its assessment is complicated by the inconsistent use of standardized measures. We addressed this by examining the use of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a large bariatric sample (N = 343). To evaluate the EDDS among bariatric surgery candidates via examination of: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and fifth edition (DSM-5) rates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and maladaptive eating behaviors, and (2) the relationship between response biases and self-reported eating disorder symptoms. Participants were bariatric surgery candidates at a large public hospital in the Midwest. As part of a larger preoperative evaluation, 343 patients seeking bariatric surgery completed the EDDS and measures of problematic response bias. Approximately 16% of the sample met full threshold criteria for binge eating disorder using DSM-5 criteria. Using the DSM-IV-TR, rates were lower but still substantial at 13%. Rates for bulimia nervosa were 8% (DSM-5) and 6% (DSM-IV-TR). The majority (66.1%) of participants reported at least one binge-eating episode per week. The most commonly used compensatory behavior was fasting (20.4%), followed by excessive exercise (11.7%), laxative use (5.6%), and vomiting (1.8%). An inverse relationship between severity of the eating symptomatology and problematic response bias emerged. The EDDS shows promise as a screening tool that uses diagnostic criteria to provide rates of binge eating and eating psychopathology among surgical candidates. Our findings suggest that subsequent validation studies of this measure are needed, should address potential response bias concerns, and should employ clear definitions of binge eating to promote standardization of eating pathology assessment in the bariatric population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric
Mateos-Agut, Manuel; García-Alonso, Isabel; De la Gándara-Martín, Jesús J; Vegas-Miguel, María I; Sebastián-Vega, Carlota; Sanz-Cid, Beatriz; Martínez-Villares, Ana; Martín-Martínez, Esther
The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs.
Gan, Wan Ying; Mohamad, Normasliana; Law, Leh Shii
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R ² = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents' negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs.
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, family meal environments, family cohesion, perception of body size, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, perfectionistic self-presentation, and binge eating behavior. Furthermore, their weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. It was found that 14.0% of the participants engaged in binge eating behavior (15.2% in females and 12.5% in males). Additionally, it was identified that high levels of depressive symptoms, high levels of body dissatisfaction, poor family cohesion, and low self-esteem were significantly contributed to binge eating behavior after controlling for sex (adjusted R2 = 0.165, F = 15.056, p < 0.001). The findings may suggest that improving the relationships between family members, along with eliminating adolescents’ negative emotions could help in the prevention of binge eating behavior among adolescents. The identified modifiable risk factors should be incorporated into binge eating preventive programs to increase the effectiveness of the programs. PMID:29320461
Lee, Jung Su; Mishra, Gita; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi
Various eating behaviors have been linked with body weight management. However, combined effects of major eating behaviors are not fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the association of the combination of eating quickly (EQ), late evening meals (LEM), and skipping breakfast (SB) with being overweight. A cross-sectional study with standardized questions for EQ, LEM, and SB was conducted. Stratified random sampling of 5% of residents aged 20 to 80years was surveyed in a city in northeast Japan in 2011, and 4249 (84.9%) residents were analyzed. Association of combinations of eating behaviors on being overweight (BMI (kg/m(2)≥25.0)) was estimated by using logistic analysis, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidential interval were calculated after adjustment for potential covariates. LEM, SB, or a combination of LEM and SB was not significantly associated with being overweight. However, the combination of EQ or only EQ was significantly associated with being overweight. As the number of eating behavior practices increased, there was a linear increase in OR for being overweight. The OR of all three combined eating behaviors was higher than that of any combined two behaviors or of each behavior. This study result supports the evidence that EQ increases the risk of being overweight whether by itself or in combinations with LEM and/or SB. However, only LEM or only SB did not increase the risk of being overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gan, Wan Ying; Mohamad, Normasliana; Law, Leh Shii
Although there are numerous studies on binge eating behavior in the Western countries, studies on this behavior in Malaysia are still limited. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with binge eating behavior among adolescents in Malaysia. The study included 356 adolescents (42.7% males and 57.3% females), aged 13 to 16 years. They completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds, frequency of family meals, ...
Stone, Jay M
.... The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence that retrospective self-reports are prone to errors arising from autobiographical memory...
Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie
Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…
Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence
Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…
Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B
New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.
Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone
Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).
Roach, Elizabeth; Viechnicki, Gail B; Retzloff, Lauren B; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L
Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior
Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita
This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...
Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando
The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.
Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias
Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior.
Hildebrandt, Britny A; Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Sisk, Cheryl L
Binge eating is a significantly heritable phenotype, but efforts to detect specific risk genes have fallen short. Identification of animal strain differences in risk for binge eating could highlight genetic differences across individuals of the same species that can be exploited in future animal and molecular genetic research. The current study aimed to explore strain differences in risk for binge eating in Sprague-Dawley versus Wistar female rats using the Binge Eating Resistant/Binge Eating Prone model. A sample of male Sprague-Dawley rats, a known low-risk group for binge eating, was included as a comparison group. A total of 83 rats (23 Wistar females, 30 Sprague-Dawley females, 30 Sprague-Dawley males) completed a protocol of intermittently administered, palatable food. Binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats were identified using a tertile approach. Sprague-Dawley female rats consumed the highest amount of palatable food and were more likely to be classified as BEP compared to Wistar female and Sprague-Dawley male rats. Wistar female rats were not significantly different from Sprague-Dawley male rats in their palatable food intake and tendency to be classified as BER rather than BEP. Sprague-Dawley female rats appear to be a particularly vulnerable genotype for binge eating. Comparisons between this group and others could help identify specific genetic/biological factors that differentiate it from lower risk groups. The reward system, linked to binge eating in humans, is a possible candidate to explore. Strain differences in the reward system could help increase understanding of individual differences in risk for binge eating in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G
To examine whether parental incarceration is significantly associated with a number of sleep and eating behaviors among offspring during early childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, an at-risk sample of parents and their offspring, were employed to test this possibility. Both maternal and paternal incarceration history were examined as predictors of whether children manifested high levels of the following 7 health behaviors: sleep problems, short sleep duration, salty snack consumption, starch consumption, sweets consumption, soda consumption, and fast food consumption. Logistic regression techniques were used to carry out the analyses. Both maternal and paternal incarceration significantly increased the odds of a number of risky sleep and eating behaviors during childhood. Ancillary analysis also revealed that the predicted probability of exhibiting multiple risky behaviors across the sleep and eating domains was twice as large among children whose parents had both been incarcerated, relative to children whose parents had not been incarcerated. Parental incarceration may have important implications for the sleep and eating behaviors of offspring. Both scholars and practitioners may, therefore, want to consider the possible negative repercussions of parental incarceration for the sleep and eating behaviors of children, and the potential for these high-risk health behaviors to compromise the health and well-being of children as they age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J
People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people's perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D
Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18-24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors.
People seem to have a basic drive to assess the correctness of their opinions, abilities, and emotions. Without absolute indicators of these qualities, people rely on a comparison of themselves with others. Social comparison theory can be applied to eating behavior. For example, restrained eaters presented with a standard slice of pizza ate more of a subsequent food if they thought that they had gotten a bigger slice of pizza than others (i.e., had broken their diets), whereas unrestrained eaters ate less. Social influences on eating such as modeling and impression formation also rely on comparison of one's own eating to others. Comparing one's food to others' meals generally influences eating, affect, and satisfaction.
Martin, Katharine; Woo, Julia; Timmins, Vanessa; Collins, Jordan; Islam, Alvi; Newton, Dwight; Goldstein, Benjamin I
This study investigates nutritional behavior among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder (BP) in comparison to those without history of major psychiatric disorder. 131 participants (82 BP, 49 controls) with a mean age of 16.11 ± 1.61 years were included. The self-reported Quick Weight, Activity, Variety & Excess (WAVE) Screener was used to assess dietary habits, yielding a total nutritional score as well as Excess, Variety, and Household Food Insecurity subscale scores. Specifically, the Variety subscale was used to measure daily consumption of essential nutrients; the Excess subscale measured unhealthy eating behaviors such as binge eating and excessive intake of fat and sugar; and the Household Food Insecurity subscale was used to detect food insecurity. Within-group analysis was conducted on participants with BP to identify correlates of unhealthy diet. BP participants scored significantly lower than controls on the WAVE (t=2.62, p=0.010), specifically the Excess subscale (t=3.26, p=0.001). This was related to higher prevalence of binge eating and emotional eating behaviors among participants with BP compared to controls. Within-group analyses showed that self-reported emotional dysregulation/impulsivity was associated with maladaptive nutritional behaviors (t=3.38, p=0.035). Cross-sectional design. Within-group analyses were underpowered. Diet quality was measured using a brief self-report screener. Adolescents and young adults with BP have poorer nutritional behaviors compared to controls, and this difference is related to stress-induced eating. This demonstrates the need to screen for stress-induced eating and to intervene when needed in order to optimize nutritional behaviors among adolescents and young adults with BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin
To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.
Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor
This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…
Scheinfeld, Emily; Shim, Minsun
Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States. Participants were recruited and data collection occurred spring 2012. Participants responded to measures to assess perceived parental communication, eating behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control over healthful eating. SEM and mediation analyses were used to address the hypotheses posited. Data demonstrated that perceived parent-child communication - specifically, its quality and target-specific content - significantly predicted emerging adults' eating behaviors, mediated through subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. This study sets the stage for further exploration and understanding of different ways parental communication influences emerging adults' healthy behavior enactment.
Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.
Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206
Gempeler Rueda, Juanita
Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Resumen El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía actualizada disponible sobre el tema del trastorno por atracones de la alimentación, que hasta ...
O’Neal, Catherine Walker
Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919
Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.
Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.
Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this
Davis, Ron; And Others
Investigated parameters of eating behavior in subjects with bulimia nervosa (BN). BN and female comparison (FC) subjects monitored hourly over several days their food intake, mood, hunger, social circumstances, and experiences of unpleasant events. BN subjects reported more positive moods prior to consuming a meal, and more negative moods prior to…
Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.
BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of
Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.
Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…
Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta
This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI...
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...
Hart, K E; Chiovari, P
This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...
de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Berbert; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
The Tripartite Influence Model posits that parents, peers and media influences mediated by internalization and appearance social comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, the Tripartite Influence Model has not been tested in Brazil where the people are known to have high levels of body image and appearance concerns. This study aimed to test an adapted Tripartite Influence Model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women. A sample of 741 undergraduate students (M age = 23.55 years, SD = 4.09) completed measures of sociocultural influences, internalization of body ideal, social appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, muscularity dissatisfaction, disordered eating and body change behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women has good fit indexes (χ 2 (2064) = 6793.232; p = 0.0001; χ 2 /gl = 3.29; CFI = 0.82; PCFI = 0.79; RMSEA = 0.056 [IC90% = 0.053-0.057]). Parent and media influences were related with both internalization and social comparison, while peer influence with social comparison. A full mediation model was found, with both internalization and social comparison contributing to body dissatisfaction. Finally, body dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating behaviors. The findings inform the importance of considering cultural aspects that influence body image and eating behaviors, and highlight the validity of the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women, that can be used for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P eating only what he or she likes (P dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408
Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun; Kim, Kyung Won
Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using χ(2)-test or t-test. The group that had more frequent family dinners (≥ 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (≤ 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P eating only what he or she likes (P healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals.
Matilde Cesiana da Silva
Full Text Available Many studies have pointed out the importance of mother-child interaction in the early months of life. A few decades ago, a method called kangaroo care was developed and its main goal was to keep underweight or premature newborns in direct contact with the mother. This method has reduced the morbidity and mortality of these newborns, increasing their growth rate, breastfeeding time and mother-child contact. In rodents, the dam's presence is crucial for avoiding aggression factors that may trigger phenotypic adaptations in the pups with irreversible morphological, functional and behavioral consequences. Eating behavior is an adaptive response stemming from the external environment demand and modulated by opportunities and limitations imposed by the external environment. This behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of peripheral and central mechanisms that control hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is a brain structure that integrates central and peripheral signals to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight. The hypothalamic nucleus have orexigenic peptides, such as neuropeptide Y and the Agouti-related peptide, and anorexigenic peptides, such as cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript and proopiomelanocortin. An innovative study of eating behavior in experimental models of neonatal stress separates the mother from the offspring during lactation. This review describes the effects of stress during the neonatal period on general physiological factors, particularly on the control of eating behavior.
A. Janet eTomiyama
Full Text Available Behavioral treatments for obesity are not evaluated by the same criteria as pharmaceutical drugs, even though treatments such as low-calorie dieting are widely prescribed, require the patients’ time and investment, and may have risks. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA has a procedure for evaluating drugs, in which drugmakers must answer the following questions: (1 Is the treatment safe? (2 How dangerous is the condition the intervention is treating? (3 Is the treatment effective? (4 Is the treatment safe and effective for large numbers of people? We argue that using this framework to evaluate behavioral interventions could help identify unanswered research questions on their efficacy and effectiveness, and we use the example of low-calorie dieting to illustrate how FDA criteria might be applied in the context of behavioral medicine.
Full Text Available Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB, obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.
Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based s...
Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria C. Quattropani
Full Text Available In the occidental world, feeding is not only a physiological need but it may become a compulsive behavior. In fact, the tendency to instant gratification may represent a way to escape from unpleasant moods and may lead to addictive behaviors. In this process, Metacognitions, defined as internal cognitive factors that control, monitor and evaluate thinking processes, have a central role. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between eating behavior, psychological needs and metacognitive processes. We evaluated 44 adults using the following instruments: Eating Disorders Inventory III (EDI-III, Metacognition Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30 and Frontal Lobe Score. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows applying correlational analysis (Spearman’s Rho. We found that negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger were positive correlated with general psychological maladjustment composite (0.61 p<.01. In particular negative beliefs were positive correlated with specific subscales, such as personal alienation (0.57 p<.01 and emotional dysregulation (0.51 p<.01. Results confirmed the importance to explore metacognitive processes and to understand their role in emotional regulation, especially in overweight/obese subjects. Furthermore, we aim to examine the role of cognitive functions in eating behavior.
König, Laura M; Giese, Helge; Stok, F Marijn; Renner, Britta
One factor that determines what we eat and why we eat is our social environment. In the present research, two online studies examined the relationship between food intake and social images. Specifically, the present research assessed the relationship between the food intake university students ascribed to peers who varied in popularity and own self-reported food intake, and whether this relationship was moderated by identification with the peer group. Participants (N = 97 in Study 1; N = 402 in Study 2) were randomly presented with one of four (Study 1) or two of eight (Study 2) vignettes describing a popular or unpopular student (male or female) from their university without receiving any information about the peer's eating behavior. Subsequently, healthy and unhealthy eating ascribed to the peers and own self-reported eating behavior were assessed. Results indicated that popular peers were perceived to eat more healthily than unpopular peers. Moreover, eating behavior ascribed to popular peers were associated with own healthy and unhealthy eating. Importantly, the relationship between healthy eating behavior ascribed to popular peers and own healthy eating behavior was moderated by identification with the student group - the more participants identified with their peers, the more their own eating was aligned with the healthy eating ascribed to a popular peer. Hence, the popularity of others seems to shape perceptions of the food they eat and may facilitate healthy eating via social influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin
Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109
Mertz, Line Granild Bie; Christensen, Rikke; Vogel, Ida
to children with a deletion. At birth, one child showed microcephaly. At five years of age, microcephaly was observed in half of the deletion cases, but in none Of the cases with a UBE3A mutation or pUPD. The apparently normal cranial growth in the UBE3A and pUPD patients should however be regarded......The objectives of the present study were to investigate eating behavior and growth parameters in Angelman syndrome. We included 39 patients with Angelman syndrome. Twelve cases had a larger Class I deletion, eighteen had a smaller Class II deletion, whereas paternal uniparental disomy (p......UPD) or a verified UBE3A mutation were present in five and four cases, respectively. Eating behavior was assessed by a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were obtained from medical records and compared to Danish reference data. Children with pUPD had significantly larger birth weight and birth length than...
Sominsky, Luba; Spencer, Sarah J.
Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hou...
The article presented peculiarities of applying the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating disorders. Described stages of correction work with desadaptive eating behavior. Author makes accent on the rules self-assembly formula intentions.
Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)
Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)
Lai Yeung, Wai-ling Theresa
Objective: This research aimed to investigate the eating attitudes and behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on possible gender differences. Design: A survey was conducted in 2005 to solicit data about participants' food knowledge, eating attitudes and behavior, perceptions of cooking skills and body weight,…
Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio
Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N = 5129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sutin, Angelina; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio
Individuals with obesity often experience unfair treatment because of their body weight. Such experiences are associated with binge eating, but less is known about its association with other eating-related behaviors and whether these relations are specific to discrimination based on weight or extend to other attributions for discrimination. The present research uses a large national sample (N=5,129) to examine whether weight discrimination is associated with diet and meal rhythmicity, in addition to overeating, and whether these associations generalize to nine other attributions for discrimination. We found that in addition to overeating, weight discrimination was associated with more frequent consumption of convenience foods and less regular meal timing. These associations were generally similar across sex, age, and race. Discrimination based on ancestry, gender, age, religion, and physical disability were also associated with overeating, which suggests that overeating may be a general coping response to discrimination. Unfair treatment because of body weight is associated with unhealthy eating-related behaviors, which may be one pathway through which weight discrimination increases risk for weight gain and obesity. PMID:26877216
Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul
One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( N = 325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters ( N = 81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility
Black, Maureen M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M
Interventions to prevent malnutrition or overweight in children focus on the diet, and give little attention to the behaviors of their caretakers. In their first two years of life, children adopt practices that are embedded in their environment and the behaviors of their caretakers, thus turning into nutrition patterns that will persist during their lifetimes. Therefore, children and caretakers establish a relationship in which they recognize, construe and respond to verbal and non verbal communication signs. Feeding a child by adopting a "responsive" behavior in which caretakers provide guidance and structure, and respond to children's signs of hunger and satiety promotes self-regulation and children's awareness of healthy nutrition. In this article, we give recommendations to include responsive nutrition and model healthy eating behaviors in nutritional interventions.
Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés Valle, Ana
this research aimed to characterize the daily eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. 657 participants (437 women and 220 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean BMI was 25.50 kg/m2 (women 24.96 kg/m2, men 26.58 kg/m2), being significantly higher the mean of BMI in the men group, being the BMI mean of the total sample and that of the male group in the overweight range. participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), in contrast with normal-weight group, tended to do more frequently the following behaviors: skip meals, follow a diet, eat less homemade food, eat faster and in greater quantities, in addition to do a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds and to rate significantly higher in clinical scales that evaluated eating restraint and overeating. Men showed significantly more eating behaviors linked with overeating, and women performed more behaviors related with eating restraint and emotional eating. the results suggest that, besides "what" people eat, "how" people eat, in terms of specific behaviors, may contribute to the rapid increase of overweight in Chilean population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage
per visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit(FPV) and mean feed intake rate (FR) were available on 1130 boars. All boars weregenotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The association analyseswere performed using the GenABEL package in R. Sixteen SNPs had moderategenome-wide significant (p...... association with feeding behavior traits. Locus M1GA0016584 located close to theMSI2 gene on chromosome (SSC) 14 was very strongly associated with NVD (p =9.6E-07). Thirty six SNPs were located in genome regions where QTLs havepreviously been reported......, dephosphorylation and positive regulation of peptide secretiongenes were found highly significantly associated with feeding behavior traits byfunctional annotation. This is the first GWAS to identify genetic variants and biologicalmechanisms for feeding behavior in pigs and these results are important...
Courtney, Elizabeth A; Gamboz, Julie; Johnson, Jeffrey G
Previous research has indicated that low self-esteem may be an important risk factor for the development of eating disorders. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationships between low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and eating disorders in adolescents. The present study investigated whether low self-esteem was associated with depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors. Measures of low self-esteem and problematic eating behaviors were administered to a sample of 197 adolescent primary-care patients. Depressive symptoms and problematic eating behaviors were assessed ten months later. Youths with low self-esteem were at greater risk for high levels of depressive symptoms and eating disorder symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms mediated the association of low self-esteem with problematic eating behaviors.
Volevach, L V; Khismatullina, G Ia; Uliamaeva, V V; Gur'ev, R D; Kamalova, A A
The goal of the present research was to study the types of nutritional behavior disturbances in overweight patients with the pathology biliary tract. 132 patients with chronic noncalculous cholecystitis aged from 18 to 35 were examined. The comprehensive clinical examination was conducted and types of eating behavior disturbances with the help DEBQ test (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) were examined. It was discovered that disturbances of eating behavior are observed in 82,9 percent of normal weight patients, in 100 percent of overweight and in 93,3 percent of patients with obesity. Restraint and emotional eating are more often observed in obesity. External eating is more often observed in overweight and normal weight persons than that emotional eating. Rational eating is rarely observed in all groups of examined persons.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001 and T3 (p=0.001. The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04. The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year.
Cebolla, A.; Barrada, J.R.; van Strien, T.; Oliver, E.; Banos, R.M.
The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure
Cebolla, A.; Barrada, J.R.; Strien, T. van; Oliver, E.; Baños, R.M.
The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure
Shouse, Sarah H.; Nilsson, Johanna
Self-silencing (or the suppression of expressing one's thoughts, feelings, and needs) can have a negative impact on the mental health of women, from depression to disordered eating behaviors. The authors examined the relationship between self-silencing and disordered eating as well as intuitive eating. The authors also explored whether emotional…
Zickgraf, Hana F.; Franklin, Martin E.; Rozin, Paul
Background One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individ...
Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Gebhardt, Ursel; Müller, Hermann L
As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the HIT-Endo multicenter study, and in 85 body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls using the Inventory for Eating Behavior and Weight Problems (IEG) and the Inventory for Eating Disorders (ESI). Severely obese patients (BMI>8 SD; n=9) presented with pathological eating behavior, more weight problems, and eating disorders, as compared to obese (BMI 3-8 SD; n=44) and normal or overweight patients (BMICraniopharyngioma patients with different degrees of obesity showed similar or even less pathological findings as compared to BMI-matched normal controls. Severe obesity is associated with pathological eating behavior/disorders in craniopharyngioma patients. As these disorders are not disease-specific, risk factors for hypothalamic obesity should be the focus of further craniopharyngioma research.
Achananuparp, Palakorn; Lim, Ee-Peng; Abhishek, Vibhanshu
Past research has shown the benefits of food journaling in promoting mindful eating and healthier food choices. However, the links between journaling and healthy eating have not been thoroughly examined. Beyond caloric restriction, do journalers consistently and sufficiently consume healthful diets? How different are their eating habits compared to those of average consumers who tend to be less conscious about health? In this study, we analyze the healthy eating behaviors of active food journ...
Studies examining development of eating behavior in different age groups are reviewed. Determinants of disordered eating attitudes from infancy to adolescent are particularly examined. Family environment and social context are general factors. Knowledge, attitudes and food preferences are individual factors. Eating habits in infancy, early childhood and preschool period related to parent’s eating attitudes; peers and social context are dominant in school period and adolescents. The most effec...
Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' ...
Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together
Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together
Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10–14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.
Heiss, Sydney; Coffino, Jaime A; Hormes, Julia M
Studies comparing eating behaviors in individuals avoiding meat and other animal products to omnivores have produced largely inconclusive findings, in part due to a failure to obtain sufficiently large samples of vegan participants to make meaningful comparisons. This study examined eating and health behaviors in a large community sample of dietary vegans ("vegans"), compared to omnivores. Participants (n = 578, 80.4% female) completed an online questionnaire assessing a range of eating- and other health-related attitudes and behaviors. Vegans (62.0%, n = 358) and omnivores (38.1%, n = 220) were comparable in terms of demographics. Vegans scored significantly lower than omnivores the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire (multivariate p eating behavior. They also were more likely to consider themselves "healthy" (p eating styles, body mass index, smoking or exercise behaviors, or problems related to alcohol consumption. Effect sizes for comparisons on eating-related measures were generally small, with η p 2 ranging from eating attitudes and behaviors, and when they do, differences indicate slightly healthier attitudes and behaviors towards food. Similarly, vegans closely resembled omnivores in non-eating related health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Youn Joo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul
Recent studies suggest that chewing and spitting out food may be associated with severe eating-related pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing and spitting, and other symptoms of eating disorders. We hypothesized that patients who chew and spit as a compensatory behavior have more severe eating-related pathology than patients who have never engaged in chewing and spitting behavior. We divided 359 patients with eating disorders into two groups according to whether they engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior to lose weight or not. After comparing eating-related pathology between the two groups, we examined factors associated with pathologic eating behaviors using logistic regression analysis. Among our 359 participants, 24.5% reported having engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior. The chewing and spitting (CHSP+) group showed more severe eating disorder symptoms and suicidal behaviors. This group also had significantly higher scores on subscales that measured drive for thinness, bulimia, and impulse regulation on the EDI-2, Food Craving Questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Chewing and spitting is a common compensatory behavior among patients with eating disorders and is associated with more-pathologic eating behaviors and higher scores on psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross
Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.
Sudo, Noriko; Degeneffe, Dennis; Vue, Houa; Ghosh, Koel; Reicks, Marla
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relationship between type of eating occasion based on need state segments experienced by 200 midlife women (46 ± 6 years) and food group, nutrient, and energy intake. Women completed an Eating Occasion Questionnaire for 3 eating occasions over a 3-day period for which they maintained diet records. Cluster analysis segmented 559 eating occasions into six need states. Energy, total fat, and cholesterol consumption per occasion were ...
Obregón, Ana M; Valladares, Macarena; Goldfield, Gary
Studies have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497) has previously been associated with obesity and eating behavior. Additionally, this polymorphism has been associated with diminished dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) density, higher body mass, and food reinforcement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism and eating behavior in Chilean children. This was a cross-sectional study in which we selected 258 children (44% girls, 56% boys; ages 8-14 y) with a wide variation in body mass index. Anthropometric measurements were performed by standard procedures. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire (EAHQ), Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire. Genotype of the rs1800497 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of the TaqI A1 variant (T allele) with eating behavior was assessed using nonparametric tests. Compared with normal-weight children, the obese group demonstrated higher scores on the External Eating and Fatigue/Boredom subscales of the EAHQ. Higher scores were assessed in Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment to Food and Desire to Drink subscales (P Food subscale in boys. The TaqI A1 polymorphism may be a risk factor for eating behavior traits that may predispose children to greater energy intake and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bachman, Jessica L; Raynor, Hollie A
Eating frequency has been inversely related to BMI but the impact of eating frequency on weight loss is unclear. This randomized controlled trial pilot study examined the effect of eating frequency on hunger, energy intake, and weight loss during a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants (age: 51.0 ± 9.9 years, BMI: 35.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), 57.8% female, 94.1% white) were randomized to one of two eating frequency prescriptions: Three meal (n = 25): three eating bouts/day; or grazing (n = 26): eat at least 100 kcals every 2-3 h. Both groups attended 20 sessions and had identical dietary (1,200-1,500 kcals/day, frequency than three meal at 6 months (5.8 ± 1.1 eating bouts/day vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 eating bouts/day, P weight loss intervention.
Martin, Rachel; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene
This study examined the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and body awareness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior. Female exercisers (N = 159) recruited from fitness centers, yoga centers, and the community completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of exercise behavior, body awareness, trait mindfulness, mindful eating, dietary intake, and disordered eating symptoms. Participation in yoga was associated with significantly lower disordered eating (mediated by body awareness), whereas the amount of time spent participating in cardio-based exercise was associated with greater eating disturbance. The relationships between amount of exercise and actual food intake were not mediated by trait mindfulness or body awareness. The differential findings for dietary intake and disordered eating indicate that the body awareness cultivated in different forms of exercise may be more beneficial for clinical populations or those at risk for eating disorders than for modifying actual dietary intake in the general population.
Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha
The isoprenoid pathway produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in eating disorders. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The serum HMG CoA reductase activity, RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, serum digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine, and nicotine), and tyrosine catabolites (morphine, dopamine, and noradrenaline) were measured in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism and downregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism and upregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. The membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased in anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance while they were increased in bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance play a central role in the regulation of eating behavior. Anorexia nervosa represents the right hemispheric chemically dominant/hyperdigoxinemic state and bulimia nervosa the left hemispheric chemically dominant/hypodigoxinemic state.
Car Mun Kok
Full Text Available Food-related attitudes and habits are integral to overall well-being, especially among international college students who often practice poor eating habits and experience high levels of stress from factors like school and sociocultural adjustment. Utilizing in-depth interviews, this study explored how family experiences impact food-related habits, attitudes, and beliefs of Malaysian college students in the U.S. Findings indicate that early experiences with family substantially impact current habits that persist even after coming to the U.S. and that dietary choices and habits are heavily embedded in cultural background and family history. Family influenced current habits through multiple means, including modeling, direct teaching, and indirectly through various family activities. Even though there were some persistent and lasting eating habits and behaviors, students also experienced some dietary changes and conflicting dietary practices after coming to the U.S. These findings are important for universities to consider so that appropriate steps can be taken to ensure the health and well-being of Malaysian and other international students in the U.S.
Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel
To compare dietary restriction behaviors among adults with eating disorders involving binge eating, including anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype (AN-BE/P), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), and to examine whether dietary restriction behaviors impact binge eating frequency across diagnoses. Participants included 845 treatment seeking adults (M=30.42+10.76years) who met criteria for DSM-5 AN-BE/P (7.3%;n=62), BN (59.7%;n=504), and BED (33.0%;n=279). All participants self-reported their past and current eating disorder symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN reported significantly more dietary restriction behaviors (e.g. eating fewer meals per day, higher frequency of fasting, consuming small and low calorie meals) in comparison to adults with BED. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN who reported restricting food intake via eating fewer meals per day had more frequent binge eating episodes. However, adults with BN who reported restricting food intake via eating small meals and low calorie meals had less frequent binge eating episodes. This study provides mixed support for the restraint model by suggesting that not all dietary restriction behaviors are associated with higher levels of binge eating. It may be that adults with BN who report a higher frequency of eating small and low calorie meals display more control over their eating in general, and therefore also have lower frequency of binge eating. Clinicians should assess for dietary restriction behaviors at the start of treatment prior to assuming that all forms of strict dieting and weight control behaviors similarly impact binge eating. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise
The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…
Lan, Tian-Syung; Lan, Yu-Hua; Chen, Pin-Chang; Lo, Wen-Chi
The main purpose of this study is to understand the factors affecting adolescents' eating out behavior, as well as to develop scientific principles for selection of factors affecting adolescents' eating out behavior. According to literature review and expert questionnaire survey, this study obtained the factors affecting adolescents' choice to eat…
Kajihara, H; Miura, A [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Sasaki, S; Hasegawa, Y; Ando, N; Ozawa, T; Takahashi, Y [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakadaira, H; Yamamoto, M [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakamura, S; Shimada, K [Niigata Prefectural Kamo Hospital, Niigata (Japan)
Exposure of human to dioxins was dominated by food. In Japan, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxins is set at 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day. However, important parameters, such as adsorption rate and half-life, which are used in the calculation process to determining the TDI of dioxins, were not intensively clarified. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between dioxin accumulation in the human body and eating habits, in order to obtain information on the accumulation behavior of dioxins ingested by humans.
Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.
To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)
Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael
Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata
The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. © The Author(s) 2014.
Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Caroleo, Mariarita; Rania, Marianna; Barbuto, Elvira; Sinopoli, Flora; Aloi, Matteo; Arturi, Franco; De Fazio, Pasquale
Obesity is not a mental disorder, yet DSM-5 recognizes a strong association between obesity and psychiatric syndromes. Disorders within the Bipolar Spectrum (BSD) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are the most frequent psychiatric disorders among obese patients. The aim of this research is to investigate the psychopathological differences and the distinctive eating behaviors that accompany these comorbidities in obese patients. One hundred and nineteen obese patients (40 males; 79 females) underwent psychological evaluation and psychiatric interview, and a dietitian evaluated their eating habits. Patients were divided into four groups according to comorbidities, and comparisons were run accordingly. Forty-one percent of participants presented BED+BSD comorbidity (Group 1), 21% BED (Group 2) and 8% BSD (Group 3); only 29% obese participants had no comorbidity (Group 4). Female gender was overrepresented among Groups 1 and 2. BSD diagnosis varied according to comorbidities: Type II Bipolar Disorder and Other Specified and Related Bipolar Disorder (OSR BD) were more frequent in Group 1 and Type I Bipolar Disorder in Group 3. A trend of decreasing severity in eating behaviors and psychopathology was evident according to comorbidities (Group 1=Group2>Group3>Group 4). Limitations include the small sample size and the cross-sectional design of the study. BED and BSD are frequent comorbidities in obesity. Type II Bipolar Disorder and OSR BD are more frequent in the group with double comorbidity. The double comorbidity seems associated to more severe eating behaviors and psychopathology. Distinctive pathological eating behaviors could be considered as warning signals, symptomatic of psychiatric comorbidities in Obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.
Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E
Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.
Comstock, George; And Others
To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…
Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Gebhardt, Ursel; Mueller, Hermann L.
Background: As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Methods: Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the
Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J
To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
French, Simone A; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W; Blundell, John E; Wardle, Jane
The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual's food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane
The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186
Full Text Available In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively. As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.
Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong
In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana
The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.
Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R; Pickworth, Courtney K; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M; Shank, Lisa M; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B; Chen, Kong Y; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A; Shomaker, Lauren B
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other nonsnack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaewpradub, Natthakarn; Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Pavasuthipaisit, Chosita
Presently, the internet plays a big role in daily life, especially for adolescents. In this age group, they are more concerned about their face and body shape. Despite the numerous studies on the effect traditional media has on body image, very few have focused on the effect of newer forms of media (e.g. online media). And almost none have looked at the relationship between time spent online and body image. To study the associations between time spent on the internet, body image satisfaction and eating behaviors of students grades 7 to 12 in the Thai educational system. The sample group included 620 students, who were selected using simple random sampling from 6 secondary schools in Bangkok. Data were collected using the Media and Internet use behavior questionnaires, The Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults: Thai version (BESAA), Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS: males only), The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Thai version, Eating Attitude Test-26: Thai version (EAT-26) and the eating behaviors at risk of obesity questionnaire. Mean (sd) age of the sample was 15.7 (1.9) years, 246 participants (39.7%) were male and 374 (60.3%) were female. Using the internet and social networks for content related to body image and eating behaviors, was negatively associated with body image satisfaction but positively associated with inappropriate eating attitudes/behaviors, binging, purging, use of laxatives/diuretics and drive for muscularity with respect to behaviors and attitudes, and was associated with eating behaviors that carried a risk for obesity. Time spent on internet, especially engaged in activities related to self-image, and eating attitudes and behaviors, were associated with a decrease in body image satisfaction and problematic eating behaviors.
Sudo, Noriko; Degeneffe, Dennis; Vue, Houa; Ghosh, Koel; Reicks, Marla
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relationship between type of eating occasion based on need state segments experienced by 200 midlife women (46+/-6 years) and food group, nutrient, and energy intake. Women completed an Eating Occasion Questionnaire for 3 eating occasions over a 3-day period for which they maintained diet records. Cluster analysis segmented 559 eating occasions into six need states. Energy, total fat, and cholesterol consumption per occasion were highest in "routine family meal" occasions of which more than 60% were dinner and eaten at home with their children. The percentage of eating occasions in which fruits/vegetables were eaten was also highest in "routine family meal," followed by "healthy regimen." More than half of "indulgent escape" eating occasions occurred away from home and about one-third were experienced as a snack. Saturated fat and sweets intakes were the highest in the "indulgent escapes" occasions. Eating occasions experienced by women according to needs surrounding the occasion should be considered when developing tailored interventions to improve intake.
A. De Montis
Full Text Available Constant presence of at least one operator in livestock buildings for broilers would allow a perfect control of animal behaviour and, especially, deviations in feeding and drinking patterns, in the perspective of a high welfare status. However, as nowadays it is impossible for a farmer to be present in the farm all day long, automatic monitoring systems are required. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a system (eYeNamic for automatic monitoring and analyzing broilers’ behavior in a farm. eYeNamic is a camera system introduced and produced by Fancom BV, a company operating in the field of automation of livestock facilities. It includes three cameras located on the ridge of the broiler house and able to monitor chickens’ behaviour twenty-four hours a day. Through eYeNamic it is possible to process the images and to obtain a measure of animals’ distribution and activity, which can be conceived as valuable indicators of animal welfare. The study presented in this paper was divided into several phases: data collection, images visualization, observation of the distribution and activity of the chickens, and statistical analysis of the observations. The analysis of correlation between the number of 14 days old broilers near the feeding line (manual counted and the average occupation density measured with eYenamic indicates that the best conditions have occurred with a 50 cm by 75 cm area around each feeding pan. With reference to the drinking line, the best response was found in an area 50 cm wide and the whole drinking line long. For the activity behavior, there was no significant correlation between activity and number of chickens eating from all the pans: this confirms that broilers while eating reduce their activity. It was concluded from this study that eYeNamic is a good system to observe animal behavior and, especially, to take care of their drinking and eating behaviour. A satisfactory correspondence between eYeNamic remote and
Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather
Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies. Finally, potentially fruitful directions for future research are presented. We suggest that it would be useful for experimental therapeutics trials to evaluate the effects of reducing the risk factors on future onset of eating pathology and on reducing maintenance factors on the risk for persistence of eating pathology, and encourage researchers to utilize prospective high-risk studies so that knowledge regarding potential intervention targets for prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders can be advanced. Using the most rigorous research designs should help improve the efficacy of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders.
McNaughton Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.
Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco
Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…
Støving, René Klinkby; Andries, Alin; Brixen, Kim Torsten
Purging behavior in eating disorders is associated with medical risks. We aimed to compare remission rates in purging and non-purging females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in a large retrospective single center cohort. A total of 339 patients...
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…
Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed
Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…
Choate, Laura H.
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Hu, Fu-Chang
The implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors remain unclear. This study examined the patterns of eating behaviors and co-morbid impulsive behaviors in individuals with bulimia nervosa n optimally homogeneous classes using latent class analysis (LCA). All participants (n=180) were asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Information regarding the lifetime presence of symptoms of eating disorder was assessed by clinical interviews. LCA was conducted using eating disorder symptoms, impulsive behaviors, and the number of purging methods. Three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging, symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups. This study provides empirical support for the existence of an impulsive subgroup with distinctive features among a non-Western group of BN patients. This study also suggests that mechanisms other than impulse dysregulation may exist for the development of binge-eating and purging behaviors in bulimia nervosa patients, or the mechanisms contributing to binge-eating and impulsive behaviors may be different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Emotional eating is an attempt to avoid, control, or cope with negative emotions through eating a large amount of calorie dense sweet and/or high fat foods. Several factors, including various attentional mechanisms, negative affect, and stress, impact emotional eating behavior. For example, attentional narrowing on negative events may increase attentional stickiness and thereby prevent the processing of more peripheral events, such as eating behavior. This study contributes to the extant literature by examining the neural correlates underlying the attentional conflict between processing negative events and regulating behavior within a task that emulates how negative life experiences might contribute to unrestrained eating behavior. We explore this question within a normative sample that varies in their self-reported anxiety symptoms. Dense-array EEG was collected while participants played the attentional blink game—a task in which excessive attentional resource allocated to one event (e.g., negative picture interferes with the adequate attentional processing of a second event that requires action. To assess the attentional conflict, we measured N2 activation, an event-related potentials (ERPs; averaged EEG associated with conflict processing. Results revealed that N2 activation moderates the association between anxiety and emotional-eating behavior. Thus, increased anxiety combined with more negative N2 activation can contribute to emotional-eating behavior. These results are discussed in the context of ineffective conflict processing contributing to poor emotion regulation.
Persky, Susan; Bouhlal, Sofia; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M
The development of precision approaches for customized health interventions is a promising application of genomic discovery. To optimize such weight management interventions, target audiences will need to be engaged in research and implementation efforts. Investigation into approaches that engage these audiences will be required to ensure that genomic information, particularly with respect to genomic influences on endophenotypes like eating behavior, is understood and accepted, and not associated with unintended adverse outcomes. We took steps to characterize healthy individuals' beliefs about genetic influences on eating behavior. Data were collected via online survey from 261 participants selected at random from a database. Respondents infrequently spontaneously identified eating behavior-related factors as running in families. However, those who perceived themselves as overweight and perceived a family history of overweight were more likely to attribute eating behavior to genetics on closed-ended assessments, β=0.252, p=0.039. Genetic attributions for eating behaviors were associated with lower confidence in ability to control eating and weight, β=-0.119, p=0.035. These exploratory findings shed light on beliefs about genetic influences on eating, a behavioral trait (rather than a disease). This investigation can inform future health intervention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Levinson, Cheri A; Sala, Margarita; Fewell, Laura; Brosof, Leigh C; Fournier, Lauren; Lenze, Eric J
Individuals with eating disorders experience high anxiety when eating, which may contribute to the high relapse rates seen in the eating disorders. However, it is unknown if specific cognitions associated with such anxiety (e.g., fears of gaining weight) may lead to engagement in eating disorder behaviors (e.g., weighing oneself). Participants (N = 66) recently treated at a residential eating disorder facility and diagnosed with an eating disorder (primarily anorexia nervosa; n = 40; 60.6%) utilized a mobile application to answer questions about mealtime cognitions, anxiety, and eating disorder behaviors four times a day for one week. Hierarchical linear models using cross-lag analyses identified that there were quasi-causal (and sometimes reciprocal) within-person relationships between specific eating disorder cognitions and subsequent eating disorder behaviors. These cognitions predicted higher anxiety during the next meal and eating disorder pathology at one-month follow-up. Interventions personalized to target these specific cognitions in real time might reduce eating disorder relapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hill, Deborah C; Moss, Rachael H; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Conner, Mark; O'Connor, Daryl B
It is well established that stress is linked to changes in eating behaviors. Research using adult populations has shown that stress is associated with both increases and decreases in the amount and type of food consumed. However, due to a lack of research reviews, the relationship between stress and eating behaviors in children is unclear. This systematic research review and meta-analysis aimed to identify whether stress is associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in children aged 8-18 years. Studies were included in the review if they measured stress and included a measure of food consumption. All unique studies retrieved (N = 28,070) were assessed for their eligibility at title, abstract and full text levels. A total of 13 studies were included in the final review and data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Using random-effects modelling, overall stress was not associated with a change in overall eating behaviors. However, additional analyses indicated stress was associated with unhealthy eating behaviors in both younger (Hedge's g = 0.283, p stress was not associated with healthy eating behaviors in younger children (Hedge's g = 0.093, p = 0.156), but was negatively associated with healthy eating behaviors in older children (Hedge's g = -0.384, p stress on unhealthy eating may begin as early as 8 or 9 years old. Future research ought to investigate further the role of psychological, behavioral and endocrine factors in the development of stress-related eating in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Higgins, M. K.; St George, Sara M.; Rosenzweig, Ilyssa; Schaefer, Lauren M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Henning, Taylor M.; Preston, Brittany F.
This study examined the relationship between behavioral and psychological aspects of exercise and eating disorder recovery. Participants were categorized as having an eating disorder (n = 53), partially recovered (n = 15), fully recovered (n = 20), or non-eating disorder controls (n = 67). Groups did not differ significantly in time spent exercising, but did differ in exercise intensity, guilt related exercise, obsessive exercise cognitions, and appearance/weight management and stress/mood management motivations for exercise. Results support the importance of measuring psychological aspects of exercise in particular across the course of an eating disorder. PMID:27463591
嶋田, さおり; 若林, 良和; 西村, 栄恵; 逸見, 幾代
We conducted a survey of the eating habits of children in elementary schools that work actively in food education and take advantage of local products, and analyzed the trends in eating behavior and the attitude toward school lunches in each grade. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. 88.1% of children eat breakfast every day: second graders represent the highest percentage at 97.1% and sixth graders the lowest at 83.7%. The most common reason for not eating breakfast was "...
Pawaskar, Manjiri; Solo, Kirk; Valant, Jason; Schmitt, Emily; Nwankwo, Millicent; Herman, Barry K
Characterize the frequency, duration, and severity of binge-eating behaviors in adults meeting DSM-5 criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) in a large US community sample. A representative sample of US adults from the National Health and Wellness Survey was recruited from an online panel and asked to respond to an Internet survey (conducted in October 2013) that included questions designed to assess binge-eating behaviors in relation to DSM-5 BED diagnostic criteria. Of 22,397 respondents, 344 self-reported meeting DSM-5 BED criteria (BED respondents). Most BED respondents reported that binge-eating episodes had occurred for the past 7-12 months (61.0%), and 93.6% reported ≥ 2-3 binge-eating episodes/wk. All BED respondents reported that "extreme" (52.6%) or "great" (47.4%) distress levels were associated with binge-eating episodes. Among BED respondents who agreed to provide detailed binge-eating behavior data after being invited to respond to additional survey questions, 40.6% reported binge eating on average > 1 time/d, and 59.2% reported binge eating 2-3 times/d. For 44.5% of BED respondents, binge-eating duration was 31-60 minutes. BED respondents reported that they "very often" (36.6%) or "often" (34.0%) had urges to binge eat between 7-10 pm. "Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or guilty afterward" was the most bothersome symptom of binge eating for BED respondents (extremely bothersome: 41.9%). Binge-eating frequency among BED respondents averaged once daily. Most BED respondents exhibited binge-eating behavior for 7-12 months, often with severe symptoms. These findings highlight the disease burden of BED and have potential implications for diagnosing and treating BED. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Eating disorders develop through a combination of genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, however the genetic basis of this risk is unknown.To understand the genetic basis of this risk, we performed whole exome sequencing on 93 unrelated individuals with eating disorders (38 restricted-eating and 55 binge-eating to identify novel damaging variants. Candidate genes with an excessive burden of predicted damaging variants were then prioritized based upon an unbiased, data-driven bioinformatic analysis. One top candidate pathway was empirically tested for therapeutic potential in a mouse model of binge-like eating.An excessive burden of novel damaging variants was identified in 186 genes in the restricted-eating group and 245 genes in the binge-eating group. This list is significantly enriched (OR = 4.6, p<0.0001 for genes involved in neuropeptide/neurotrophic pathways implicated in appetite regulation, including neurotensin-, glucagon-like peptide 1- and BDNF-signaling. Administration of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin-4 significantly reduced food intake in a mouse model of 'binge-like' eating.These findings implicate ultra-rare and novel damaging variants in neuropeptide/neurotropic factor signaling pathways in the development of eating disorder behaviors and identify glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonists as a potential treatment for binge eating.
Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin; Ryu, Kisang
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies.
Bae, Hyun-Joo; Chae, Mi-Jin
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers' behaviors toward ready-to-eat foods and to develop ready-to-eat food market segmentation in Korea. The food-related lifestyle and purchase behaviors of ready-to-eat foods were evaluated using 410 ready-to-eat food consumers in the Republic of Korea. Four factors were extracted by exploratory factor analysis (health-orientation, taste-orientation, convenience-orientation, and tradition-orientation) to explain the ready-to eat food consumers' food-related lifestyles. The results of cluster analysis indicated that "tradition seekers" and "convenience seekers" should be regarded as the target segments. Chi-square tests and t-tests of the subdivided groups showed there were significant differences across marital status, education level, family type, eating-out expenditure, place of purchase, and reason for purchase. In conclusion, the tradition seekers consumed more ready-to-eat foods from discount marts or specialty stores and ate them between meals more often than the convenience seekers. In contrast, the convenience seekers purchased more ready-to-eat foods at convenience stores and ate them as meals more often than the tradition seekers. These findings suggest that ready-to-eat food market segmentation based on food-related lifestyles can be applied to develop proper marketing strategies. PMID:20827350
Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.
Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475
Elliston, Katherine G; Ferguson, Stuart G; Schüz, Natalie; Schüz, Benjamin
Individual eating behavior is a risk factor for obesity and highly dependent on internal and external cues. Many studies also suggest that the food environment (i.e., food outlets) influences eating behavior. This study therefore examines the momentary food environment (at the time of eating) and the role of cues simultaneously in predicting everyday eating behavior in adults with overweight and obesity. Intensive longitudinal study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 14 days in 51 adults with overweight and obesity (average body mass index = 30.77; SD = 4.85) with a total of 745 participant days of data. Multiple daily assessments of eating (meals, high- or low-energy snacks) and randomly timed assessments. Cues and the momentary food environment were assessed during both assessment types. Random effects multinomial logistic regression shows that both internal (affect) and external (food availability, social situation, observing others eat) cues were associated with increased likelihood of eating. The momentary food environment predicted meals and snacking on top of cues, with a higher likelihood of high-energy snacks when fast food restaurants were close by (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.93) and a higher likelihood of low-energy snacks in proximity to supermarkets (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.38, 3.82). Real-time eating behavior, both in terms of main meals and snacks, is associated with internal and external cues in adults with overweight and obesity. In addition, perceptions of the momentary food environment influence eating choices, emphasizing the importance of an integrated perspective on eating behavior and obesity prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.
Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263
Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A; Brownell, Kelly D
Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.
Full Text Available Objective: Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV on adolescents’ body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19 from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y. Results: The main factors contributing to females’ eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends’ desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Conclusion: Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents’ eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.
Barcaccia, Barbara; Balestrini, Viviana; Saliani, Angelo M; Baiocco, Roberto; Mancini, Francesco; Schneider, Barry H
Extensive research has implicated identification with characters in mass media in the emergence of disordered eating behavior in adolescents. We explored the possible influence of the models offered by television (TV) on adolescents' body image, body uneasiness, eating-disordered behavior, depression, and anxiety. Three hundred and one adolescents (aged 14-19) from southern Italy participated. They completed a questionnaire on media exposure and body dissatisfaction, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Body Uneasiness Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Form Y. The main factors contributing to females' eating-disordered behaviors were their own desires to be similar to TV characters, the amount of reality and entertainment TV they watched, and the discrepancy between their perceptions of their bodies and those of TV characters. Friends' desire to be similar to TV characters contributed most to depression, anxiety, body uneasiness, and eating disorders for both males and females. Our data confirm that extensive watching of reality and entertainment TV correlates with eating-disordered behavior among females. Moreover, the well-known negative effects of the media on adolescents' eating-disordered behaviors may also be indirectly transmitted by friends who share identification with TV characters.
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Pesch, Megan H; Lumeng, Julie C
Behavioral coding of videotaped eating and feeding interactions can provide researchers with rich observational data and unique insights into eating behaviors, food intake, food selection as well as interpersonal and mealtime dynamics of children and their families. Unlike self-report measures of eating and feeding practices, the coding of videotaped eating and feeding behaviors can allow for the quantitative and qualitative examinations of behaviors and practices that participants may not self-report. While this methodology is increasingly more common, behavioral coding protocols and methodology are not widely shared in the literature. This has important implications for validity and reliability of coding schemes across settings. Additional guidance on how to design, implement, code and analyze videotaped eating and feeding behaviors could contribute to advancing the science of behavioral nutrition. The objectives of this narrative review are to review methodology for the design, operationalization, and coding of videotaped behavioral eating and feeding data in children and their families, and to highlight best practices. When capturing eating and feeding behaviors through analysis of videotapes, it is important for the study and coding to be hypothesis driven. Study design considerations include how to best capture the target behaviors through selection of a controlled experimental laboratory environment versus home mealtime, duration of video recording, number of observations to achieve reliability across eating episodes, as well as technical issues in video recording and sound quality. Study design must also take into account plans for coding the target behaviors, which may include behavior frequency, duration, categorization or qualitative descriptors. Coding scheme creation and refinement occur through an iterative process. Reliability between coders can be challenging to achieve but is paramount to the scientific rigor of the methodology. Analysis approach
Nevanperä, Nina; Keränen, Anna-Maria; Ukkola, Olavi; Laitinen, Jaana
To compare the effects of constructivism-based dietary group counseling transmitted through videoconferencing (VC) and face-to-face (FF) counseling on changes in eating behaviors. Altogether, 74 participants with high risk of type 2 diabetes were divided into FF and VC groups based on their place of residence in northern Finland. Constructivism-based dietary group counseling, a nonrandomized intervention, was performed (evaluations at 0, 6, and 21 months). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-18 was used to evaluate cognitive restraint eating (CR), emotional eating (EE), and uncontrolled eating (UE). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and ANCOVA (significance level of 0.05). Cognitive restraint eating increased and UE decreased between baseline and 6 months in both groups, but between baseline and 21 months only in the FF group (P = .005 and P = .021, respectively). Emotional eating decreased only in the VC group (P = .016). There were no differences between groups at 6 or 21 months. Constructivism-based counseling delivered through videoconferencing was effective at improving eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hrabosky, Joshua I; Grilo, Carlos M
The current study examined body image concerns and eating disordered behaviors in a community sample of Black and Hispanic women. In addition, this study explored whether there are ethnic differences in the correlates or in the prediction of body image concerns. Participants were 120 (67 Black and 53 Hispanic) women who responded to advertisements to participate in a study of women and health. Participants completed a battery of established self-report measures to assess body image, eating disordered behaviors, and associated psychological domains. Black and Hispanic women did not differ significantly in their self-reports of body image, eating disordered behaviors, or associated psychological measures. Comparisons performed separately within both ethnic groups revealed significant differences by weight status, with a general graded patterning of greater concerns in obese than overweight than average weight groups. In terms of predicting body image, multiple regression analyses testing a number of variables, including BMI, performed separately for Black and Hispanic women revealed that eating concern and depressive affect were significant predictors of body image concern for both groups. Overall, Black and Hispanic women differed little in their self-reports of body image, eating-disordered features, and depressive affect. Higher weight was associated with a general pattern of increased body image concerns and features of eating disorders in both groups and with binge eating in Black women. Eating concerns and depressive affect emerged as significant independent predictors of body image for both ethnic groups.
Lundahl, Alyssa; Wahlstrom, Laura C; Christ, Christa C; Stoltenberg, Scott F
We investigated relationships among gender, impulsivity and disordered eating in healthy college students. Participants (N=1223) were healthy, undergraduate men (28.5%) and women (71.5%), who completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Version 11 (BIS-11) and a four-factor version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-16). As predicted, mean scores on all four EAT-16 factors were significantly higher for women than for men. Attentional impulsivity was related to poorer self-perception of body shape, more dieting, and a greater preoccupation with food for the sample as a whole. Moreover, motor impulsivity was related to poorer self-perceptions of body shape and a greater preoccupation with food. However, no gender differences emerged in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating attitudes. This study elucidates the role of impulsivity in disordered eating behaviors among non-clinical college students. For both women and men, attentional and motor impulsivity were related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these findings suggest that different facets of impulsivity are related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a non-clinical college population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.
Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different
Cristiane P. Lázaro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the eating behavior of individuals with autism through their mothers’ narratives. Methods The study of narratives was used to report on the narrators’ experiences. Data on the eating habits of individuals with autism were collected using semi-structured interviews held individually with the mothers. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and codified using the NVivo software program. Results Eighteen mothers of boys/young men with autism participated in the study. Analysis yielded three major categories: eating patterns, the family's attitudes to the child's eating habits, and food-related behavior. Conclusion Results show that autism-related factors may affect the child's food choices. Environmental factors, particularly the parents’ behavior, may also play a decisive role, both in reinforcing the child's food choices and in encouraging a healthier and more diversified diet. Professionals should instruct parents regarding their decisive role in reinforcing or discouraging inappropriate mealtime behavior in children with autism.
Birch, Leann Lipps
The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)
Lee, Sang Tak
A large portion of the American public is overweight and many are classified as being obese. Obesity and unhealthy eating behavior are partially related to the increase in our society""s consumption of foods away from home. Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has suggested new menu labeling regulations to help educate customers on healthy items among menu selections. Few studies have tried to understand customers"" healthy eating behavior in restaurants. Therefore, the purpos...
Bocca, Gianni; Kuitert, Mirije W B; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva
The effects of multidisciplinary treatment programs on eating behavior in overweight preschool-aged children are largely unknown. We evaluated a multidisciplinary intervention program on eating behavior in 3- to 5-year-old overweight children, comparing them with children given standard treatment. We also assessed the parental eating behavior changes and investigated associations between parents and children. We randomized 75 children to a multidisciplinary intervention or to a standard care program. During a 16-week period, children and parents in the multidisciplinary group were given dietary advice, physical activity sessions and, for parents only, psychological counseling. Children and parents in the standard group visited a pediatrician 3 times and were given information on a healthy lifestyle. At baseline, after 16 weeks, and after 12 months, children were measured and parents completed the Dutch Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ-C) for their children and the DEBQ for themselves. At the three time points, 70 (93.3%), 57 (91.9%), and 42 (73.7%) DEBQ-Cs were analyzed. We found no differences in the changes in eating behavior between the two groups over time. In both groups, there was a significant increase in restrained eating behavior present at 16 weeks, however, this was no longer present at 12 months. We found no associations between changes in eating behavior between the children and their parents. A multidisciplinary obesity intervention program in preschool-aged children induced more restrained eating behavior between baseline and 16 weeks. However, there was no difference with the children in the standard care group.
Ashmore, Jamile A; Friedman, Kelli E; Reichmann, Simona K; Musante, Gerard J
To evaluate the associations between weight-based stigmatization, psychological distress, and binge eating behavior in a treatment-seeking obese sample. Ninety-three obese adults completed three questionnaires: 1) Stigmatizing Situations Inventory, 2) Brief Symptoms Inventory, and 3) Binge Eating Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were used to evaluate the association between stigmatizing experiences, psychological distress and binge eating behavior. Stigmatizing experiences predicted both binge eating behavior (R(2)=.20, p<.001) and overall psychological distress (R(2)=.18, p<.001). A substantial amount of the variance in binge eating predicted by weight-based stigmatization was due to the effect of psychological distress. Specifically, of the 20% of the variance in binge eating accounted for by stigmatizing experiences, between 7% and 34% (p<.01) was due to the effects of various indicators of psychological distress. These data suggest that weight-based stigmatization predicts binge eating behavior and that psychological distress associated with stigmatizing experiences may be an important mediating factor.
Conclusions: Present results suggest that self-compassionate actions hold a protective effect on eating behavior through higher levels of respect and appreciation toward body image, despite body weight, shape, and imperfections. The ability to act following self-compassionate motivations seems to contribute to higher levels of body image appreciation, which reflects in a lower susceptibility to adopt disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The present study seems to represent an important contribution to research and clinical practice and underlines the importance of including strategies to develop self-compassionate and body appreciation competencies in programs to prevent and intervene in the area of eating psychopathology.
Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M
The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p motivators and barriers. Intervention programs to increase healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students ( n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Lydecker, Janet A; Riley, Kristen E; Grilo, Carlos M
Fat talk, negative communication about weight, is common in the media, peer groups, and families. Little is known about parental fat talk directed at oneself or others. This study examined associations between different forms of parental fat talk and child disordered eating behaviors and weight, and differences by child sex and age. Parents of preadolescents or adolescents (n = 581) reported fat talk about themselves (self-fat talk), others (obesity-fat talk), and their child (child-fat talk). 76.0% of parents reported regular self-fat talk in front of children, 51.5% reported obesity-fat talk, and 43.6% reported child-fat talk. Fat talk did not differ significantly between parents of preadolescents and adolescents but was more common with sons than daughters. Of the three forms of fat talk, only child-fat talk was associated with all child eating and weight variables (binge eating, overeating, secretive eating, and overweight/obesity); associations were strongest for adolescent girls. Child sex was associated with secretive eating and overweight/obesity. Parents reported using different forms of fat talk frequently. Parent self- and obesity-fat talk were reported more frequently, but child-fat talk was the most strongly associated with children's eating and weight. Because of associations with disordered eating behaviors, intervening to reduce fat talk might contribute to improving pediatric disordered eating and weight-related interventions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students. PMID:27792162
Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Gálvez, Patricia; Valencia, Alejandra; Palomino, Ana M; Cataldo, Marjorie; Schwingel, Andiara
Good communication between health care providers (HCPs) and patients is critical in achieving positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article was to compare the perceptions of Chilean woman and their HCPs with respect to determinants of eating behaviors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women (n=15) visiting a public health care center in Chile and with their HCPs (n=8) who were in charge of promoting healthy eating behaviors among women. Data from the interviews indicated similarities and inconsistencies in determinants of eating behaviors between the groups. Both mentioned many important factors that influence women's eating behaviors, including food preferences, dietary knowledge, self-control and self-efficacy, family, food cost, and food availability. HCPs appeared to be less aware of the role that personality traits and past experiences play as potential determinants which women mentioned. In contrast, women were less aware of the influence of anxiety and low self-esteem on eating choices, which HCPs noted as key factors. Although it was encouraging to see agreement between women and their HCPs in some areas, it is important to work on increasing understanding among the groups with respect to the important role psychological factors play in influencing eating behavior. We suggest that HCPs should focus on the importance of women's personality traits and past eating behaviors, as well as work on improving women's self-esteem and helping to decrease their anxiety levels. HCPs should be encouraged to develop good communication with each person in order to help them understand the roles that external and internal factors play in eating behaviors.
Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L
Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.
Gianini, Loren; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Attia, Evelyn; Walsh, B Timothy; Steinglass, Joanna
Eating behavior during meals in anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been noted to be abnormal, but little research has been done carefully characterizing these behaviors. These eating behaviors have been considered pathological, but are not well understood. The current study sought to quantify ingestive and non-ingestive behaviors during a laboratory lunch meal, compare them to the behaviors of healthy controls (HC), and examine their relationships with caloric intake and anxiety during the meal. A standardized lunch meal was video-recorded for 26 individuals with AN and 10 HC. Duration, frequency, and latency of 16 mealtime behaviors were coded using computer software. Caloric intake, dietary energy density (DEDS), and anxiety were also measured. Nine mealtime behaviors were identified that distinguished AN from HC: staring at food, tearing food, nibbling/picking, dissecting food, napkin use, inappropriate utensil use, hand fidgeting, eating latency, and nibbling/picking latency. Among AN, a subset of these behaviors was related to caloric intake and anxiety. These data demonstrate that the mealtime behaviors of patients with AN and HC differ significantly, and some of these behaviors may be associated with food intake and anxiety. These mealtime behaviors may be important treatment targets to improve eating behavior in individuals with AN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…
Leistedt, S J
Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior
Phillipa J Hay
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.
de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clifton, Emma Ad; Day, Felix R; Clément, Karine; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Koudou, Yves Akoli; Pelloux, Véronique; Wareham, Nicholas J; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Ong, Ken K
Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity. Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors-emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint-were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI. Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P- Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P -Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association ( P -Sobel > 0.10), except among EDEN women ( P -Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P -interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P -interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women ( P -interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile. Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint
Hardus, Madeleine E.; Lameira, Adriano R.; Zulfa, Astri; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; de Vries, Han; Wich, Serge A.
Meat-eating is an important aspect of human evolution, but how meat became a substantial component of the human diet is still poorly understood. Meat-eating in our closest relatives, the great apes, may provide insight into the emergence of this trait, but most existing data are for chimpanzees. We report 3 rare cases of meat-eating of slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang, by 1 Sumatran orangutan mother–infant dyad in Ketambe, Indonesia, to examine how orangutans find slow lorises and share meat....
Amrein, Melanie A; Rackow, Pamela; Inauen, Jennifer; Radtke, Theda; Scholz, Urte
Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs), defined as beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated for by engaging in another healthy behavior, are assumed to hinder health behavior change. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CHBs for two distinct eating behaviors (increased fruit and vegetable consumption and eating fewer unhealthy snacks) with a mixed method approach. Participants (N = 232, mean age = 27.3 years, 76.3% women) were randomly assigned to a fruit and vegetable or an unhealthy snack condition. For the quantitative approach, path models were fitted to analyze the role of CHBs within a social-cognitive theory of health behavior change, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). With a content analysis, the qualitative approach investigated the occurrence of CHBs in smartphone chat groups when pursuing an eating goal. Both analyses were conducted for each eating behavior separately. Path models showed that CHBs added predictive value for intention, but not behavior over and above HAPA variables only in the unhealthy snack condition. CHBs were significantly negatively associated with intention and action planning. Content analysis revealed that people generated only a few CHB messages. However, CHBs were more likely to be present and were also more diverse in the unhealthy snack condition compared to the fruit and vegetable condition. Based on a mixed method approach, this study suggests that CHBs play a more important role for eating unhealthy snacks than for fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandt, Lorenna Mendes Temóteo; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Aragão, Amanda Silva; Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; Auad, Sheyla Márcia; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Sérgio D'Ávila Lins Bezerra; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between risk behavior for eating disorders (EDs) and dental erosion and caries. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil, involving 850 randomly selected female adolescents. After evaluating risk behavior for eating disorders through the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, 12 adolescents were identified with severe risk behavior for EDs and matched to 48 adolescents without such risk. Dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, and eating habits and oral hygiene were performed. Adolescents with high severity eating disorder condition were not more likely to show dental caries ( p = 0.329; OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 0.35-13.72) or dental erosion ( p = 0.590; OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 0.56-9.70). Adolescents with high body mass index (BMI) were five times more likely to have high severity eating disorder condition ( p = 0.031; OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.61-23.07). Therefore, high severity risk behavior for EDs was not significantly associated with dental caries and dental erosion. However, high BMI was a risk factor for developing eating disorders and should be an alert for individuals with this condition.
Vanesa Carina Góngora
Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches.
Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.
Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.
Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T; Ahluwalia, N
aspects of health of adolescents world wide since 1983. As the diet is one of the corner stones of the treatment of diabetes, the Hvidoere study group has investigated whether eating habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) differ from their healthy peers, in using the same questions as developed......Objective: Comparison between eating habits of 11 and 15 years healthy adolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in 18 countries worldwide. The Health Behaviour in School-age children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, (www.HBSC.org) has started to evaluate different...... by the HBSC study. Methodology: Questionnaires were obtained in 18 countries by both HBSC and HSG. Details on data collection for both groups have been reported previously (1, 2). Results are given in age standardized prevalences (percentages) by study and by sex as well as age adjusted odds ratios between...
Paganini, Chiara; Peterson, Gregory; Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Krug, Isabel
Studies indicate that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) features (e.g. insulin instability, food cravings, overproduction of androgens and menstrual irregularities) associate with increased appetite, impaired impulse control and feelings of body dissatisfaction. Counter intuitively, binge eating behaviors have been shown to reinforce PCOS symptomatology, precipitating concurrently body dissatisfaction, weight gain, insulin instability and overproduction of androgens. The present systematic literature review aspires to investigate the relationship between binge eating, in the broader context of eating disorder behaviors, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), taking into account shared characteristics between EDs (Eating Disorders) and PCOS. To address this aim the PRISMA guidelines are adopted. A total of 21 studies, which investigated the presence of binge eating in PCOS population and the presence of PCOS in EDs population, were synthesized. Findings suggested that an increased prevalence of binge eating has been reported in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS); and that women suffering from BN (Bulimia Nervosa) and BED (Binge Eating Disorder) are more likely to display polycystic ovaries. Further research on their shared liability is required in order to inform more efficient prevention and treatment initiatives for populations presenting with comorbid features. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda
To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B
The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BettyAnn A. Chodkowski
Conclusions: In the absence of any explicit eating-related stimuli, the developing brain is primed toward food approach and away from food avoidance behavior with increasing adiposity. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity that is associated with non-homeostatic eating develops during childhood, as early as 8–13 years of age. Our results indicate the importance of identifying children at risk for obesity for earlier intervention. In addition to changing eating habits and physical activity, strategies that normalize neural functional connectivity imbalance are needed to maintain healthy weight. Mindfulness may be one such approach as it is associated with increased response inhibition and decreased impulsivity.
Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
This study examined the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and explored behavioral eating- and weight-related correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-three treatment-seeking obese BED patients (22 men and 71 women) with and without the MetSyn were compared on demographic features and a number of current and historical eating and weight variables. Sixty percent of the obese patients with BED met criteria for the MetSyn, with men and whites having signifi...
Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John
This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…
Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I
Understanding changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the US population. Yet little is known about whether or not characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. To examine time trends in the distribution of day's intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the US adult population. The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971-1974 to 2009-2010 (N=62,298 participants aged 20-74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters, relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake, the clock time of report, and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Over the 40-year span examined reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after-dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (eg, report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Several meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults changed over time, with a greater change in snack behaviors of women relative to men
Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan
Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laura L Wilkinson
Full Text Available Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300 ml or 500 ml x 2 (amount eaten; 300 ml or 500 ml between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition. In two 'congruent' conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300 ml or 500 ml. To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional 'incongruent' conditions, in which 300 ml was seen but 500 ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300 ml or 500 ml. By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300 ml but actually consumed 500 ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500 ml but actually consumed 300 ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation.
Wilkinson, Laura L; Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M
Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300 ml or 500 ml) x 2 (amount eaten; 300 ml or 500 ml) between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition). In two 'congruent' conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300 ml or 500 ml). To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional 'incongruent' conditions, in which 300 ml was seen but 500 ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second) was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300 ml or 500 ml). By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300 ml but actually consumed 500 ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500 ml but actually consumed 300 ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation.
Felipe de Jesús Díaz-Reséndiz
Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to show the effects of environmental variableson the eating behavior in rats. The eating behavior and its relatedvariables have been analyzed since a variety of perspectives. The presentreview included studies in which rats were used as subjects and the totalfood intake or any operant response related to obtaining food was registered.Two variables, inter access-to-food interval and access-to-food duration, aresuggested as possible integrating variables given that both are common tomany experimental procedures. These variables set the occasion for developingan animal experimental model that includes cases related to eatinghuman behavior such as anorexia or bulimia.
Maria D. Teixeira
Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. Method: A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Results: High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339, socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175, self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211, and low self-esteem (r = -0.292 (all p < 0.001. Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusion: In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.
Schmidt, Ricarda; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Hilbert, Anja
Although restrictive eating behaviors are very common during early childhood, their precise nature and clinical correlates remain unclear. Especially, there is little evidence on restrictive eating behaviors in older children and their associations with children's shape concern. The present population-based study sought to delineate subgroups of restrictive eating patterns in N = 799 7-14 year old children. Using Latent Class Analysis, children were classified based on six restrictive eating behaviors (for example, picky eating, food neophobia, and eating-related anxiety) and shape concern, separately in three age groups. For cluster validation, sociodemographic and objective anthropometric data, parental feeding practices, and general and eating disorder psychopathology were used. The results showed a 3-cluster solution across all age groups: an asymptomatic class (Cluster 1), a class with restrictive eating behaviors without shape concern (Cluster 2), and a class showing restrictive eating behaviors with prominent shape concern (Cluster 3). The clusters differed in all variables used for validation. Particularly, the proportion of children with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder was greater in Cluster 2 than Clusters 1 and 3. The study underlined the importance of considering shape concern to distinguish between different phenotypes of children's restrictive eating patterns. Longitudinal data are needed to evaluate the clusters' predictive effects on children's growth and development of clinical eating disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder ? the ...
Cook, Brian J; Hausenblas, Heather A
Our study examined the potential mediating or moderating effect of exercise dependence on the exercise-eating pathology relationship. Female university students (N = 330) completed Internet-based self-report measures of exercise behavior, exercise dependence, and eating pathology. Exercise dependence served as a mediator for the relationship between exercise and eating pathology. This unidirectional causal model suggests that an individual's pathological motivation or compulsion to exercise is the critical mediating component in the exercise-eating pathology relationship. The best target for removing the link between exercise behavior and eating pathology may be reformulating exercise dependence symptoms.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn
Background Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. Purpose To examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youth. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youth in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Results Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71% for females and 12% for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Conclusions Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health. PMID:26156678
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Koenings, Mallory; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra K
Little is known about the relationship between weight-related behaviors and cognitive load (working memory available to complete mental activities like those required for planning meals, selecting foods, and other health-related decisions). Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore associations between cognitive load and eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference of college students. College students (n=1018) from 13 institutions completed an online survey assessing eating behaviors (e.g., routine and compensatory restraint, emotional eating, and fruit/vegetable intake), stress level, and physical activity level. BMI and waist circumference were measured by trained researchers. A cognitive load score was derived from stress level, time pressure/income needs, race and nationality. High cognitive load participants (n=425) were significantly (Pcognitive loads (n=593). Compared to low cognitive load participants, high cognitive load participants were significantly more likely to eat cognitive load scores had a non-significant trend toward higher BMIs, waist circumferences, and drinking more alcohol than low cognitive load counterparts. In conclusion, cognitive load may be an important contributor to health behaviors. Understanding how cognitive load may affect eating and other weight-related behaviors could potentially lead to improvements in the effectiveness of obesity prevention and intervention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in the burden of eating disorder (ED features, as estimated by the composite of their prevalence and impact upon quality of life (QoL over a period of 10 years. METHODOLOGY: Representative samples of 3010 participants in 1998 and 3034 participants in 2008 from the South Australian adult population were assessed for endorsement of ED features (objective binge eating, extreme dieting, and purging were assessed in both years; subjective binge eating and extreme weight/shape concerns were also assessed in 2008 and QoL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 1998 to 2008 significant increases in the prevalence of objective binge eating (2.7% to 4.9%, p0.05. Multiple linear regressions found that in 1998 only objective binge eating significantly predicted scores on the mental health summary scale of the SF-36; however, in 2008 extreme weight/shape concerns, extreme dieting, and subjective binge eating were also significant predictors. Objective binge eating and extreme dieting were significant predictors of scores on the physical health summary scale of the SF-36 in both 1998 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of ED behaviors increased between 1998 and 2008, while their impact on QoL remained stable. This suggests an overall increase in the burden of disordered eating from 1998 to 2008. Given that binge eating and extreme dieting predict impairment in QoL, the necessity of interventions to prevent both under- and over-eating is reinforced.
Wyon, Matthew A; Hutchings, Kate M; Wells, Abigail; Nevill, Alan M
It is recognized that there is a high esthetic demand in ballet, and this has implications on dancers' body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between BMI, eating attitudes, and nutritional knowledge of elite student and professional ballet dancers. Observational design. Institutional. One hundred eighty-nine participants from an elite full-time dance school (M = 53, F = 86) and from an elite ballet company (M = 16, F = 25) volunteered for the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data (height and mass), General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were collected from each participant. Univariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences in gender and group for BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Regression analyses were applied to examine interactions between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Professional dancers had significantly greater BMI than student dancers (P < 0.001), and males had significantly higher BMI scores than females (P < 0.05). Food knowledge increased with age (P < 0.001) with no gender difference. Student dancers had a significant interaction between year group and gender because of significantly higher EAT-26 scores for females in years 10 and 12. Regression analysis of the subcategories (gender and group) reported a number of significant relationships between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. The findings suggest that dancers with disordered eating also display lower levels of nutritional knowledge, and this may have an impact on BMI. Female students' eating attitudes and BMI should especially be monitored during periods of adolescent development.
Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Dakanalis, Antonios; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sánchez, Isabel; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virginia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José
Eating behavior style (emotional, restrictive, or external) has been proposed as an explanation for the differences in response to food-related cues between people who overeat and those who do not, and has been also considered a target for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) characterized by lack of control over eating and weight-related (overweight/obesity) conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between eating behavior style and psychophysiological responses (self-reported food craving and anxiety) to food-related virtual reality (VR) environments in outpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) and to compare them with healthy participants. Fifty-eight outpatients and 135 healthy participants were exposed to palatable foods in four experimental everyday real-life VR environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom and café). During exposure, cue-elicited food craving and anxiety were assessed. Participants also completed standardized instruments for the study purposes. ED patients reported significantly higher levels of craving and anxiety when exposed to the virtual food than healthy controls. Eating behavior styles showed strong associations with cue-elicited food craving and anxiety. In the healthy group, external eating was the only predictor of cue-elicited craving and anxiety. In participants with BN and BED, external and emotional eating were the best predictors of cue-elicited craving and anxiety, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ter Huurne, Elke D; de Haan, Hein A; Postel, Marloes G; van der Palen, Job; VanDerNagel, Joanne E L; DeJong, Cornelis A J
Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention using intensive asynchronous therapeutic support to improve eating disorder psychopathology, and to reduce body dissatisfaction and related health problems among patients with eating disorders. A two-arm open randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based CBT intervention to a waiting list control condition (WL) was carried out among female patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The eating disorder diagnosis was in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and was established based on participants' self-report. Participants were recruited from an open-access website, and the intervention consisted of a structured two-part program within a secure Web-based application. The aim of the first part was to analyze participant's eating attitudes and behaviors, while the second part focused on behavioral change. Participants had asynchronous contact with a personal therapist twice a week, solely via the Internet. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (primary outcome), body dissatisfaction, physical health, mental health, self-esteem, quality of life, and social functioning were completed at baseline and posttest. A total of 214 participants were randomized to either the Web-based CBT group (n=108) or to the WL group (n=106) stratified by type of eating disorder (BN: n=44; BED: n=85; EDNOS: n=85). Study attrition was low with 94% of the participants completing the posttest assignment. Overall, Web-based CBT showed a significant improvement over time for eating disorder psychopathology (F97=63.07, PWeb-based CBT participants in all three
Castellini, Giovanni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Benni, Laura; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Ravaldi, Claudia; Rotella, Carlo M; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Different studies considered the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), suggesting different pathways. The present 3-year follow-up study evaluated the relationships between psychopathological variables, and objective and subjective binge eating episodes in the two syndromes. 85 BN and 133 BED patients were studied. Objective and subjective binge eating, and psychopathological data were collected in a face-to-face interview, and by means of different self-reported questionnaires. The same assessment was repeated at baseline (T0), at the end of an individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (T1), and 3 years after the end of treatment (T2). At baseline, BN and BED patients showed different emotions associated with binge eating: anger/frustration for BN and depression for BED patients. Objective binge eating frequency reduction across time was associated with lower impulsivity and shape concern in BN patients, and with lower emotional eating and depressive symptoms in BED patients. Lower subjective binge eating frequency at baseline predicted recovery, in both BN and BED patients. Recovery was associated with lower impulsivity and body shape concern at baseline for BN patients, and lower depression and emotional eating for BED patients. Eating psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity and emotional eating have a different pattern of association with objective and subjective binge eating in BN and BED patients, and they act as different moderators of treatment. A different target of intervention for these two syndromes might be taken into account, and subjective binge eating deserves an accurate assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chen, E Y; Cacioppo, J; Fettich, K; Gallop, R; McCloskey, M S; Olino, T; Zeffiro, T A
Early weak treatment response is one of the few trans-diagnostic, treatment-agnostic predictors of poor outcome following a full treatment course. We sought to improve the outcome of clients with weak initial response to guided self-help cognitive behavior therapy (GSH). One hundred and nine women with binge-eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (DSM-IV-TR) received 4 weeks of GSH. Based on their response, they were grouped into: (1) early strong responders who continued GSH (cGSH), and early weak responders randomized to (2) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), or (3) individual and additional group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+). Baseline objective binge-eating-day (OBD) frequency was similar between DBT, CBT+ and cGSH. During treatment, OBD frequency reduction was significantly slower in DBT and CBT+ relative to cGSH. Relative to cGSH, OBD frequency was significantly greater at the end of DBT (d = 0.27) and CBT+ (d = 0.31) although these effects were small and within-treatment effects from baseline were large (d = 1.41, 0.95, 1.11, respectively). OBD improvements significantly diminished in all groups during 12 months follow-up but were significantly better sustained in DBT relative to cGSH (d = -0.43). At 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, DBT, CBT and cGSH did not differ in OBD. Early weak response to GSH may be overcome by additional intensive treatment. Evidence was insufficient to support superiority of either DBT or CBT+ for early weak responders relative to early strong responders in cGSH; both were helpful. Future studies using adaptive designs are needed to assess the use of early response to efficiently deliver care to large heterogeneous client groups.
Reichenberger, Julia; Kuppens, Peter; Liedlgruber, Michael; Wilhelm, Frank H; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Ginzinger, Simon; Blechert, Jens
Stress and emotions alter eating behavior in several ways: While experiencing negative or positive emotions typically leads to increased food intake, stress may result in either over- or undereating. Several participant characteristics, like gender, BMI and restrained, emotional, or external eating styles seem to influence these relationships. Thus far, most research relied on experimental laboratory studies, thereby reducing the complexity of real-life eating episodes. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of stress, negative and positive emotions on two key facets of eating behavior, namely taste- and hunger-based eating, in daily life using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Furthermore, the already mentioned individual differences as well as time pressure during eating, an important but unstudied construct in EMA studies, were examined. Fifty-nine participants completed 10days of signal-contingent sampling and data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results revealed that higher stress led to decreased taste-eating which is in line with physiological stress-models. Time pressure during eating resulted in less taste- and more hunger-eating. In line with previous research, stronger positive emotions went along with increased taste-eating. Emotional eating style moderated the relationship between negative emotions and taste-eating as well as hunger-eating. BMI moderated the relationship between negative as well as positive emotions and hunger-eating. These findings emphasize the importance of individual differences for understanding eating behavior in daily life. Experienced time pressure may be an important aspect for future EMA eating studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Car Mun Kok
Food-related attitudes and habits are integral to overall well-being, especially among international college students who often practice poor eating habits and experience high levels of stress from factors like school and sociocultural adjustment. Utilizing in-depth interviews, this study explored how family experiences impact food-related habits, attitudes, and beliefs of Malaysian college students in the U.S. Findings indicate that early experiences with family substantially impact current ...
Riccardo Dalle Grave
Full Text Available Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E for eating disorders has been developed and evaluated only in outpatient setting. Aim of the paper is to describe a novel model of inpatient treatment, termed inpatient CBT-E, indicated for patients with an eating disorder of clinical severity not manageable in an outpatient setting or that failed outpatient treatment. Inpatient CBT-E is derived by the outpatients CBT-E with some adaptations to rend the treatments suitable for an inpatient setting. The principal adaptations include: 1 multidisciplinary and non-eclectic team composed of physicians, psychologists, dieticians and nurses all trained in CBT; 2 assisted eating; 3 group sessions; and a CBT family module for patients younger than 18 years. The treatment lasts 20 weeks (13 for inpatients followed by seven weeks of residential day treatment and, as CBT-E, is divided in four stages and can be administered in a focused form (CBT-F or in a broad form (CBT-B. A randomized control trial is evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment.
Tomori, M; Rus-Makovec, M
In a representative sample of 4700 Slovene high school students, we examined their eating behavior and its correlations with some psychosocial and psychological characteristics with the aim of identifying the main risk factors for disordered eating. Using a questionnaire which also included Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, we compared girls (n = 2507) and boys (n = 2193) with regard to their satisfaction with their body weight, weight-reducing activities, and frequency of binge eating. We assessed their family relationships, abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs, suicidal ideation, and suicidal tendences, as well as their level of depression and self-esteem. The results showed significant differences between girls and boys, between groups of those who were satisfied and those who were dissatisfied with their body weight, and also between groups which indulged in frequent binge eating and those which did not. Within a general population of adolescents, there is a substantial number of subjects with disordered eating behavior, some part of whom are at high risk for eating disorders.
McDonald, Paul W
The population impact of programs designed to develop healthy eating behaviors is limited by the number of people who use them. Most public health providers and researchers rely on purchased mass media, which can be expensive, on public service announcements, or clinic-based recruitment, which can have limited reach. Few studies offer assistance for selecting high-outreach and low-cost strategies to promote healthy eating programs. The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether classified newspaper advertising is an effective and efficient method of recruiting participants into a healthy eating program and 2) to determine whether segmenting messages by transtheoretical stage of change would help engage individuals at all levels of motivation to change their eating behavior. For 5 days in 1997, three advertisements corresponding to different stages of change were placed in a Canadian newspaper with a daily circulation of 75,000. There were 282 eligible people who responded to newspaper advertisements, and the cost was Can $1.11 (U.S. $0.72) per recruit. This cost compares favorably with the cost efficiency of mass media, direct mail, and other common promotional methods. Message type was correlated with respondent's stage of change, and this correlation suggested that attempts to send different messages to different audience segments were successful. Classified advertisements appear to be a highly cost-efficient method for recruiting a diverse range of participants into healthy eating programs and research about healthy eating.
Behar, Rosa; Molinari, Daniela
Muscle dysmorphia or vigorexia is a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with the idea that he or she is not muscular enough. To assess physical exercise, eating behaviors and the presence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters and medical students. Cross sectional evaluation of 88 male weightlifters aged 27 ± 7 years and 84 male medical students aged 22 ± 1 year was made. Eating behaviors were evaluated using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). The perception of body image was assessed using the Graduate Hannover Scale (GHS). Prevalence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters was 13.6%. Both groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. Interest in appearance among weightlifters was significantly higher than in students and ranged significantly higher in EAT-40 and EDI (p < 0.001). Other sports were practiced with the same frequency by weightlifters and students. Weightlifters expended more time than students exercising to improve their appearance (p < 0.005). Forty two percent of weightlifters with muscle dysmorphia displayed abuse of anabolics and 67% used other substances to improve their performance (p < 0.005). The presence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters was confirmed. They were dissatisfied with their body image and more concerned with their physical appearance than those without muscle dysmorphia and/or students. Their anabolic abuse rate was high. Our findings were similar to those reported in the international literature.
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly, was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.94 among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38–2.94 among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.
Mache, Stefanie; Jensen, Sarah; Jahn, Reimo; Steudtner, Mirko; Ochsmann, Elke; Preuß, Geraldine
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite multicomponent health promotion intervention on eating behavior and attitudes, changes in body weight, and readiness to make eating behavior changes among workers over a 12-month intervention period. A total of 3,095 workers of a logistic company participated in a quasi-experimental comparison group study design. The intervention group received a multicomponent health training. Two of the main elements of the multicomponent intervention were physical exercise training and nutrition counseling/training. During the pilot year, participants completed a survey at baseline and again after 12 months to assess physical activity-, health-, and diet-related factors. Results showed that participants' body weight did not significantly decrease in the intervention group. Mean weight loss in the intervention groups was 0.5 kg (body mass index = 0.1 kg/m(2)). Eating behaviors in the intervention group improved more than in the comparison group. Some positive intervention effects were observed for the cognitive factors (e.g., changes in eating attitudes). Baseline readiness to change eating behavior was significantly improved over time. We demonstrated initial results of a long-term multicomponent worksite health promotion program with regard to changes in body weight, eating behavior, and attitudes. This evaluation of a 12-month pilot study suggests that a worksite health promotion program may lead to improvements in nutritional health behaviors for a number of workers. An investigation of long-term effects of this multicomponent intervention is strongly recommended. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Delaney, Charlotte B; Eddy, Kamryn T; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Anne E; Murray, Helen B; Thomas, Jennifer J
Pica and rumination disorder (RD)-formerly classified within DSM-IV Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood-are now classified within DSM-5 Feeding and Eating Disorders. Though pica and RD have been studied in select populations (e.g., pregnant women, intellectually disabled persons), their typical features and overall prevalence remain unknown. This study examined the clinical characteristics and frequency of DSM-5 pica and RD among individuals seeking treatment for eating disorders and obesity. We conducted structured interviews with adolescent and young adult females from a residential eating disorder center (N = 149), and adult males and females with overweight or obesity from an outpatient weight-loss clinic (N = 100). Several participants reported ingesting non-nutritive substances (e.g., ice) for weight-control purposes. However, only 1.3% (n = 2; 95% CI: .06% to 5.1%) at the residential eating disorder center and 0% at the weight-loss clinic met DSM-5 criteria for pica, consuming gum and plastic. Although no eating disorder participants were eligible for an RD diagnosis due to DSM-5 trumping rules, 7.4% (n = 11; 95% CI: 4.0% to 12.9%) endorsed rumination behavior under varying degrees of volitional control. At the weight-loss clinic, 2.0% (n = 2; 95% CI: 0.1% to 7.4%) had RD. DSM-5 pica and RD were rare in our sample of individuals seeking treatment for eating disorders and obesity, but related behaviors were more common. The wide range of pica and rumination presentations highlights the challenges of differential diagnosis with other forms of disordered eating. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Martin S Hagger
Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1 aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72 categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2 aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83 classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition. Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating
Diferenças na percepção da imagem corporal, no comportamento alimentar e no estado nutricional de universitárias das áreas de saúde e humanas Differences in body image perception, eating behavior and nutritional status of college students of health and human sciences
Maria Fernanda Laus
people concerned about their weight and body image may choose to take these majors because they are personally interested in the topic. The objective of this study was to assess the body image perception, eating behavior, and nutritional status of students of health and human sciences and to compare these data. METHOD: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ were administered to 127 first-year students of Nutrition and Physical Education (health sciences and Advertising and Business Administration (human sciences who also provided information on weight and height for calculation of their body mass index. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of body image distortion in all groups, with no difference between areas or majors. The EAT-26 indicated higher scores in students of health than in those who studied human sciences, with the students majoring in Nutrition showing the highest scores, with statistical difference from the scores found in Advertising and Business Administration, but not in Physical Education. In addition, most students were classified as eutrophic and there were not obese individuals in any of the majors, with no significant difference between areas or majors for this variable. DISCUSSION: The high incidence of body image distortion associated with high prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior in students of health shows a possible susceptibility to the development of eating disorders.
Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L
Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.
Sonia Tucunduva Philippi
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorder (ED in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and their association with gender, nutritional status, variables related to T1D, and body satisfaction. Method: 189 individuals with T1D (12-56 years old answered the Bulimic Investigation Test (BITE, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT, the Binge Eating Scale (BES, Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale, and questions regarding control of T1D. Association between ED risk behaviors and the selected variables was assessed with the chi-square test and Student's t-test; factors that influenced the risk of ED were identified by means of logistic regression. Results: Of the patients with T1D, 58.7% were at risk of ED (45, 40, and 16% according to the EAT, BITE and BES, respectively. There were significant differences between groups with and without risk for ED related to BMI (p = 0.009, gender (p = 0.001, insulin omission (p = 0.003, use of the carbohydrate counting method (p = 0.019, and body dissatisfaction (p = 0.001. The risk of ED was nine times higher in patients who reduced or omitted insulin (p = 0.036. Conclusions: Patients with T1D demonstrated a high frequency of body dissatisfaction and ED risk behaviors; the omission or reduction of insulin was an important risk factor.
Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759
Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann
The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting.
Park, Soojin; Shin, Weon-Sun
This study aimed to determine whether there might be differences in masticatory performance and eating behaviors by gender and obesity status. Forty eight (24 males; 24 females) non-obese and pre-obese young adults were matched for age, gender, and dental health. Eating behaviors were assessed using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and chewing performance while eating 152g of boiled rice was measured using electromyography (EMG). Compared with non-obese participants, pre-obese participants had significantly higher levels of disinhibition according to the TFEQ (Pdifferent by gender but not by obesity status. Males had a greater bite size (Pobese) and chewing power (r=-0.581, Pobese and r=-0.446, Pobese) were negatively associated with disinhibition score. Results suggest that the effects of gender and, in part, obesity on eating responses may be explained as chewing performance. Therefore, gender-specific interventions and counseling aimed at slowing the rate of ingestion could be promising behavioral treatments for obese persons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D
The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.
Obeso Torices, E.
The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.
Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from
Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M
People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos
The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.
Grzelak, Teresa; Dutkiewicz, Agata; Paszynska, Elzbieta; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Slopien, Agnieszka; Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Marta
The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic features which contribute to inappropriate eating attitudes in people suffering from anorexia nervosa, based on an analysis of recent data. Factors influencing these attitudes have a genetic, neurobiological, biochemical, affective-motivational, cognitive, and behavioral background. Another important issue addressed in the paper is a description of the mechanism leading to continuous dietary restrictions. The altered activity of neurotransmitters modulating patients' moods after the consumption of food and a disturbed responsiveness to enterohormones enhance affective-motivational and cognitive aspects which, in turn, impede the improvement of eating behaviors. An understanding of the mechanisms behind the factors affecting the maintenance of inappropriate eating attitudes may contribute to greater effectiveness in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.
Bankoff, Sarah M; Richards, Lauren K; Bartlett, Brooke; Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S
Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual. Measures included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and self-reported height and weight. Heterosexual and sexual minority men did not differ significantly in terms of BMI. However, gay and bisexual men (n=24) endorsed significantly greater eating disorder symptoms and food addiction compared to heterosexual men. Our findings that sexual minority male veterans may be more likely to experience eating disorder and food addiction symptoms compared to heterosexual male veterans highlight the importance of prevention, assessment, and treatment efforts targeted to this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Racine, Sarah E; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L
Theoretical models of binge eating and eating disorders include both transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk factors. Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when distressed) is a critical transdiagnostic risk factor for binge eating, but limited research has examined interactions between negative urgency and disorder-specific variables. Investigating these interactions can help identify the circumstances under which negative urgency is most strongly associated with binge eating. We examined whether prominent risk factors (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint) specified in well-established etiologic models of eating disorders moderate negative urgency-binge eating associations. Further, we investigated whether phenotypic moderation effects were due to genetic and/or environmental associations between negative urgency and binge eating. Participants were 988 female twins aged 11-25 years from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction, but not dietary restraint, significantly moderated negative urgency-binge eating associations, with high levels of these risk factors and high negative urgency associated with the greatest binge eating. Twin moderation models revealed that genetic, but not environmental, sharing between negative urgency and binge eating was enhanced at higher levels of these eating disorder-specific variables. Future longitudinal research should investigate whether eating disorder risk factors shape genetic influences on negative urgency into manifesting as binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Klump, Kelly L
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klump, Kelly L.
Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.
Objective Despite proven efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a Health Maintenance Organization setting over a 12-week period by masters level interventionists, is more effective than treatment as usual (TAU). Method In all, 123 individuals (mean age = 37.2, 91.9% female, 96.7% non-Hispanic White) were randomized, including 10.6% with bulimia nervosa (BN), 48% with Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and 41.4% with recurrent binge eating in the absence of BN or BED. Baseline, post-treatment, and 6- and 12 month follow-up data were used in intent-to-treat analyses. At 12-month follow-up, CBT-GSH resulted in greater abstinence from binge eating (64.2%) than TAU (44.6%, Number Needed to Treat = 5), as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Fairburn & Cooper, 1993). Secondary outcomes reflected greater improvements in the CBT-GSH group in dietary restraint (d = .30), eating-, shape-, and weight concern (d’s = .54, 1.01, .49) (measured by the EDE-Questionnaire, respectively, Fairburn & Beglin, 2008), depression (d = .56) (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck, Steer, & Garbin, 1988), and social adjustment (d = .58) (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Mundt, Marks, Shear, & Greist, 2002), but not weight change. Conclusions CBT-GSH is a viable first-line treatment option for the majority of patients with recurrent binge eating who do not meet diagnostic criteria for BN or anorexia nervosa. PMID:20515207
Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teens health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they dont have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they dont have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they dont have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they dont make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students dont have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 98-105
Full Text Available The nutritional needs increase in puberty due to rapid growth and changes in body composition. Because of that healthy eating is vital for teens health. The aim of this study was to determine eating habits and weight control behaviors of high school students. A cross-sectional study was performed involving all (6 public and 3 private tenth-grade high schools in Manisa city. Two thousand one hundred forty six students completed a questionnaire which consists of 26 items and was designed by researchers. Among all students surveyed, 34.0% reported that they dont have a habit to eat breakfast regularly, 38.3% reported that they dont have a habit to eat lunch regularly, 6.5% reported that they dont have a habit to eat dinner regularly, 36.7% reported that they were afraid getting fat, 6.5% reported that they were dieting, 39.4% reported that they dont make sport regularly and 59.1% reported that they were snacking frequently. In this study it has seen that skipping meals is a common eating habit in high school students and many of them fail to eat three regular meals per day. On the other hand it has seen that students dont have regular exercise habits. The results of this study have suggested that there is a need to encourage teens a healthy lifestyle that incorporates eating habits and regular exercise. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 98-105
Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A; McGregor, Bonnie A; White, Emily
Stress has been associated with eating patterns in human studies with differences due to the type and duration of stressor, type of food, and individual susceptibility factors. Laboratory and smaller epidemiological studies have reported stress-associated preferences for foods high in sugar and fat; associations have been found more consistently among women and people who are obese. Larger studies are needed to sufficiently test these relationships. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between self-reported amount of stress and dietary nutrient intakes (percentage energy from fat, carbohydrates, added sugar) and dietary behaviors (number of eating occasions and servings of fruits and vegetables, high-fat snacks, fast-food items, and sweetened drinks) by sex, obesity status, and stress vulnerability. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of perceived stress with eating patterns among 65,235 older adults while adjusting for demographic factors, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, number of comorbidities, and other relevant covariates. Higher perceived stress was associated with greater intake of energy from fat, high-fat snacks, and fast-food items as well as lower intake of energy from carbohydrates (all P for trend ≤0.002). Among those with high perceived stress vulnerability, perceived stress was associated with fewer eating occasions (P for interaction stress arising from everyday experiences among an older, mostly white population. These findings have public health implications and suggest that stress may be important to consider in programs promoting healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burt, Julia; Dube, Laurette; Thibault, Louise; Gruber, Reut
The goal of our study was to examine the associations between sleep and eating behaviors. Specifically, we examined associations between sleep duration and continuity with behaviors that promote eating regardless of true physiologic hunger state including emotional (food intake in response to emotional distress) external (eating in response to the sight or smell of food), and restrained eating (a paradoxical behavior; food intake is initially reduced to lose or maintain body weight, but followed by increased consumption and binge eating). Fifty-six children (29 boys; 27 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated in the study. Mean age was 7.7±1.9 years, and average body mass index (BMI) was within the healthy range (17.8±4.3 kg/m(2)). Sleep duration, continuity and schedule were assessed using actigraphy and self-reports. The Child Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-modified version (DEBQ-M) was used to examine levels of emotional, external and restrained eating in the children. Associations between the sleep and eating behaviors were examined using partial correlations and multiple regression analyses. External eating score was negatively associated with sleep duration; emotional eating score was associated with lower levels of sleep continuity; and restrained eating score were associated with a later sleep start and later bedtime. Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity were associated with higher levels of eating behaviors shown to be associated with increased food intake. Therefore, sleep loss may be associated with diminished self-regulation of appetite in children, increasing the risk for overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daniella Fagundes SOUTO
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The overvaluation of thinness as a standard of beauty has contributed to the development of eating disorders and has mainly affected adolescents and young adults. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with dental erosion in adolescents. Material and method This is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study. The sample consisted of 278 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, enrolled in a State School in Campinas - SP. Two questionnaires were used for the data collection on eating disorders: Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Attitudes Test -26. The presence of erosion was evaluated by calibrated examiners. Result The mean age of the sample was 14.8 years. The prevalence of mean risk for bulimia in the sample was 43.2% (95% CI: 37.3%-49.0% and the prevalence of adolescents with a probability of developing bulimia was 53.2% (95% CI: 47.4%-59.1%. Of the total, 11.9% (95% CI: 8.1%-15.7% showed results suggestive of anorexia. Among women, 66.9% were classified as probability developing bulimia, whereas in men the prevalence was 39.0%. As for dental erosion, only 1.1% of the sample presented erosion. Conclusion The study pointed to large number of adolescents with risk behaviors for eating disorders but no association was found with dental erosion due to low prevalence.
Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Haycraft, Emma; Haines, Jess; Hooley, Merrilyn
Controlling feeding practices are linked to children's self-regulatory eating practices and weight status. Maternal reports of controlling feeding practices are not always significantly related to independently rated mealtime observations. However, prior studies only assessed 1 mealtime observation, which may not be representative of typical mealtime settings or routines. The first aim was to examine associations between reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices at baseline (T1) and after ∼ 12 mo (T2). The second aim was to evaluate relations between maternal and child factors [e.g., concern about child weight, child temperament, child body mass index (BMI)-for-age z scores (BMIz)] at T1 and reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices (T1 and T2). The third aim was to assess prospective associations between maternal feeding practices (T1) and child eating behaviors (T2) and child BMIz (T2). A sample of 79 mother-child dyads in Victoria, Australia, participated in 2 lunchtime home observations (T1 and T2). BMI measures were collected during the visits. Child temperament, child eating behaviors, maternal parenting styles, and maternal feeding practices were evaluated at T1 and T2 via questionnaires. Associations were assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and hierarchical regressions. Reported restriction (T1) was inversely associated with observed restriction at T1 (r = -0.24, P controlling strategies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline
Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…
Camilla CP Estima
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.
Monro, Fiona J; Huon, Gail F
This study examined the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's eating behavior. The study compared the effects for high and low self-objectifiers. 72 female university students participated in this experiment. Six magazine advertisements featuring idealized female models were used as the experimental stimuli, and the same six advertisements with the idealized body digitally removed became the control stimuli. Eating behavior was examined using a classic taste test that involved both sweet and savory food. Participants' restraint status was assessed. We found that total food intake after exposure was the same in the body present and absent conditions. There were also no differences between high and low self-objectifiers' total food intake. However, for the total amount of food consumed and for sweet food there were significant group by condition interaction effects. High self-objectifiers ate more food in the body present than the body absent condition. In contrast, low self-objectifiers ate more food in the body absent than in the body present condition. Restraint status was not found to moderate the relationship between exposure to idealized images the amount of food consumed. Our results indicate that exposure to media-portrayed idealized images can lead to changes in eating behavior and highlight the complexity of the association between idealized image exposure and eating behavior. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention of dieting-related disorders.
Beek, van J.; Antonides, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.
In light of the current obesity epidemic, individual choices for food and exercise should be understood better. Consideration of the immediate and future consequences of these choices (i.e., time orientation) can be an important predictor of eating and exercising behavior. The objective was to show
Araia, E; Hendrieckx, Christel; Skinner, Timothy
OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and body dissatisfaction in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. While evidence shows that female youth with type 1 diabetes are more prone to DEB compared to their peers without diabetes, little is known about male adoles...
Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn
Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…
Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.
Assessed several behavioral and personality characteristics that have been implicated in studying the onset of bulimia in female college students (N=80) classified into bulimia, binge eating, and control groups. Results indicated that bulimics and binge eaters differed significantly on all but a few variables. (LLL)
Humphrey, Laura Lynn
Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…
ter Huurne, E.D.; de Haan, H.A.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; de Jong, Cor A.J.
Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy
Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse
The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…
Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.
Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…
Schmied, Emily A.; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy A.; Madanat, Hala; Ayala, Guadalupe X.
Background: Healthy eating is important for obesity control. Dietary interventions target the adoption of behavioral strategies to increase fiber and decrease fat consumption. However, little is known about the contributions of psychosocial factors to the use of these strategies. Purpose: This study examined psychosocial correlates of behavioral…
Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.
Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…
ter Huurne, E.D.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; de Jong, C.A.
Treatment dropout is an important concern in eating disorder treatments as it has negative implications for patients’ outcome, clinicians’ motivation, and research studies. Our main objective was to conduct an exploratory study on treatment dropout in a two-part web-based cognitive behavioral
Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.
Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…
Chardon, Marie L; Janicke, David M; Carmody, Julia K; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C
Internalizing symptoms increase the risk for disordered eating; however, the mechanism through which this relationship occurs remains unclear. Sleep-related problems may be a potential link as they are associated with both emotional functioning and disordered eating. The present study aims to evaluate the mediating roles of two sleep-related problems (sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness) in the relationship between youth internalizing symptoms and disordered eating, and to explore if age moderates these relations. Participants were 225 youth (8-17years) attending a primary care appointment. Youth and legal guardians completed questionnaires about youth disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, internalizing symptoms, sleep disturbance, and daytime sleepiness. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were utilized. The mediation model revealed both youth sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness independently mediated the association between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and explained 18% of the variance in disordered eating. The moderated mediation model including youth age accounted for 21% of the variance in disordered eating; youth age significantly interacted with sleep disturbance, but not with daytime sleepiness, to predict disordered eating. Sleep disturbance only mediated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating in youth 12years old and younger, while daytime sleepiness was a significant mediator regardless of age. As sleep-related problems are frequently improved with the adoption of health behaviors conducive to good sleep, these results may suggest a relatively modifiable and cost-effective target to reduce youth risk for disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mulvaney-Day, Norah E; Womack, Catherine A; Oddo, Vanessa M
Understanding the relationship between obesity and fast food consumption encompasses a broad range of individual level and environmental factors. One theoretical approach, the health capability framework, focuses on the complex set of conditions allowing individuals to be healthy. This qualitative study aimed to identify factors that influence individual level health agency with respect to healthy eating choices in uniformly constrained environments (e.g., fast food restaurants). We used an inductive qualitative research design to develop an interview guide, conduct open-ended interviews with a purposive sample of 14 student fast food workers (aged 18-25), and analyze the data. Data analysis was conducted iteratively during the study with multiple coders to identify themes. Emergent themes included environmental influences on eating behaviors (time, cost, restaurant policies, social networks) and internal psychological factors (feelings associated with hunger, food knowledge versus food preparation know-how, reaction to physical experiences, perceptions of food options, delayed gratification, and radical subjectivity). A localized, embedded approach to analyzing the factors driving the obesity epidemic is needed. Addressing contextual interactions between internal psychological and external environmental factors responds to social justice and public health concerns, and may yield more relevant and effective interventions for vulnerable communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guagnano, M T; Blasioli, A; Del Ponte, A; Sensi, S
In these recent few years the study of the pathogenesis of obesity include the observation of the difference in eating behaviour between obese and non obese subjects. Therefore, current therapies now take into account, among others, also a program of behavioural therapy. On the other hand, recent studies have revealed the role of different body fat distribution on the obesity prognosis, especially considering cardiovascular risk factors. To this purpose much attention has been focused on the measurement of waist and hips circumferences and their ratio (WHR) considered important predictors of risk associated with obesity. Aim of this study was the observation of some differences in eating habits and psychological status during a 24-hr period in relationship with the android or gynecoid type of obesity. 102 outpatients were divided in two groups: 1) with WHR less than 0.85; 2) with WHR greater than or equal to 0.85. All subjects were given a questionnaire in which by a scale from 0 to 3 they expressed their appetite sensation during different hours of the day. In addition, they indicated their motivation to loose body weight. Our results demonstrated that subjects with WHR greater than or equal to 0.85 showed higher appetite sensation, during the whole day, with a peak at lunch, in comparison with subjects with WHR less than 0.85. Subjects with gynecoid type of obesity seemed to pay much attention to their body image than subjects with android type of obesity and complained less physical disorders than subjects of the second group. These preliminary data seem to suggest a non-secondary role of behavioural pattern in obesity also by affecting the different regional fat distribution.
Alexandra Brewis, PhD
Full Text Available College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls, among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls. Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of “normal” eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior.Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups=12, N (participants=80, parents (n=4, N=32 and school staff (n=4, N=32 in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8.All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups.Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.
Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Van Royen, Kathleen; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Penafiel, Daniela; Holdsworth, Michelle; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick
The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups)=12, N (participants)=80), parents (n=4, N=32) and school staff (n=4, N=32) in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.
Margaret C. Campbell; Gina S. Mohr
This research investigates the effect of activation of a negative stereotype on behaviors that are perceived to increase the chance of becoming a member of the stereotyped group. Activation of a negative stereotype (the overweight stereotype) is shown to lead to stereotype-consistent goal commitment (low health goal commitment), which partially explains increases in stereotype-conducive behavior (eating indulgent foods). Two theoretically relevant moderators are proposed and supported. Increa...
Full Text Available Neo Classical economists used to posit that, since consumers are rational, they make decisions to maximize their pleasure (utility. Opposing to Neo Classical understanding, Behavioral Economists argue that, consumers are infect not rational, but prone to all sort of biases and habits that pull them being rational. For instance, there are too many irrational choices made by the Turkish consumers like; expensive wedding parties given by low income families; although riding bicycle is healthy and cheap, but people buy expensive cars; it is cheaper staying at a hotel or a timeshare, however people buy expensive summer houses, where they stayed only few weeks a year. These type of irrational behaviors adversely affect the decisions on savings, investments and economic growth. On the consumers irrationality, Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, wrote Prospect Theory. They developed a cognitive psychological model to explain divergences from neoclassical economics. They claimed that people take decisions under psychological, social, emotional and economic factors that affect market prices and resource allocation. In order to explain the irrational behaviors of Turkish consumers, I utilized some concepts such as conspicuous consumption (or keeping up with Johns, Veblen Effect, Bandwagon Effect, bounded rationality, 20 to 80 Law and ethical considerations developed by Behavioral Economists and Heterodox Economics. Thus, I came to conclusion that why the free market economic understanding fails in Turkey by giving some examples and economic reasons stated in the last section of this paper.
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E
To examine the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) beliefs and eating behavior, explore which beliefs have the greatest association with eating behavior, and explore differences between adults without children and first-time parents. Longitudinal evaluation via questionnaires and food records at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Couples without children (n = 72) and first-time parents (n = 100). fruit and vegetable consumption and fat consumption. TPB beliefs. Pearson correlations between TPB beliefs and eating behavior; exploratory data reduction via linear regression. Control beliefs were associated with eating behavior (r = .26-.46; P controlling for past behavior, control beliefs were associated with eating behavior for first-time parents only. Control beliefs regarding preparation and time had the strongest associations with fruit and vegetable consumption for mothers (β = .26; P control beliefs suggests room for improvement via intervention. Interventions guided by TPB should target control beliefs to enhance healthy eating among new parents. Strategies (eg, individual, environmental, policy) to enhance control beliefs regarding healthy eating despite limited time and opportunity for preparation may be particularly valuable. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riesco, Eléonor; Rossel, Nadia; Rusques, Coralie; Mirepoix, Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Sanguignol, Frédéric; Mauriège, Pascale
To examine the effects of a short-term weight reducing program on body composition, eating behaviors, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of sedentary obese women characterized by different obesity degrees. 44 women with a BMI under 34.9 kg/m(2) and 39 women with a BMI above 35 kg/m(2) were studied. Fat mass and lean mass (electrical bioimpedance), eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire), and HRQL (36-item short form, SF-36, questionnaire) were determined before and after weight loss. Disinhibition and hunger scores and their subscales decreased after weight loss in both groups (0.0001 < p < 0.04). Restriction increased after weight reduction in all women (p = 0.02). Among the five restriction subscales, flexible restriction increased in women with a BMI above 35 kg/m(2) (p = 0.008), whereas rigid restraint and avoidance of fattening foods increased in both groups (0.006 < p < 0.02). SF-36 Mental Component Score increased after weight loss in all women (p < 0.0001). A 3week weight reducing program changes selected eating behaviors and components of HRQL, irrespective of women's obesity degree. Data suggest that women with a BMI above 35 kg/m(2) could have a better weight control in the long term because of their higher flexible restriction after weight loss when compared to those whose BMI was under 34.9 kg/m(2). 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Anemia due to iron deficiency was the most common problem suffered by women. Around 41,4% - 66,7% young womens in Indonesia suffered from anemia. A preliminary study Â at STIKES â€˜Asyiyah Yogyakarta showed that 7 out of 10 respondents have anemia with 9 of them have good eating habits. One of the reason of iron deficiency caused by their eating behavior. Instead of choosing foods based on the taste rather than nutritional consideration. This condition would affected on the studentâ€™s concentration ability. The research aim was to find the eating behavior and the anemia cases among adolescents at STIKES â€˜Asyiyah Yogyakarta. . This was a quantitative descriptive research with cross sectional approach. The cluster sampling was used by simple random sampling. The analysis results showed 29 of 30 respondents have good eating behavior but 26 of them have anemia. Based on the finding, the adolescent suggested to put their concern more about the quality and quantity of food that will consume and take blood booster tablets especially during menstruation.
Jensterle, Mojca; Kocjan, Tomaz; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Pfeifer, Marija; Janez, Andrej
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) stimulate satiety leading to reductions in food intake and body weight. The effects of long- acting GLP-1 RA liraglutide on eating behavior of women with PCOS have not been investigated yet. Thirty-six obese women with PCOS (mean ± SD, aged 31.2 ± 7.8 years, with BMI 38.7 ± 0.1 kg/m(2)), pretreated with metformin (1000 mg BID) were switched to liraglutide 1.2 mg QD sc for 12 weeks. Adiposity parameters and eating behavior as assessed by Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18) were examined at baseline and after 12 weeks. Subjects treated with liraglutide lost on average 3.8 ± 0.1 kg (p weight loss and significantly improved eating behavior in obese women with PCOS.
Novelli, Isabelle Romero; Fonseca, Laís Gomes; Gomes, Daniela Lopes; Dutra, Eliane Said; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kênia Mara
Successful weight loss and maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may be related to eating behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the eating behavior domains that prevail in women during the RYGB postoperative period and their associations with surgery outcome. This cross-sectional study investigated eating behavior in 95 women (47.3 ± 9.8 y old) ≥ 2 y after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Patients were grouped according to surgery outcome: successful group (SG; n = 67), defined as having lost ≥ 50% of the preoperative excess weight loss (EWL), and an unsuccessful group (UG; n = 28). Mean postoperative time was 59.5 ± 21.2 mo (55.7 ± 19.9 in the SG and 68.6 ± 21.9 in the UG). The short version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to assess cognitive restraint, emotional eating, and uncontrolled eating behaviors. Multivariate analysis was used to investigate associations between eating behavior scores and EWL. The highest score in both groups was for the cognitive restraint domain, followed by emotional and uncontrolled eating. Emotional eating was negatively associated with percentage of EWL (β = -0.286; P = 0.033), regardless of age, educational attainment, and postoperative time. The cognitive restraint domain was the main type of eating behavior observed, and patients with higher emotional eating score were at a higher risk for having insufficient weight loss after RYGB. These results indicate the relevance of monitoring emotional components during the long-term nutritional follow-up of bariatric patients to achieve better surgery outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wade, Stephanie; Byrne, Sue; Allen, Karina
This randomized control trial is an evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT-E) for eating disorders adapted for a group setting. The study aimed to examine the effects of group CBT-E on eating disorder psychopathology and additional maintaining pathology. A transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders with a BMI ≥ 18 kg/m 2 (N = 40) were randomized to an immediate-start or delayed-start condition so as to compare therapeutic effects of group CBT-E with a waitlist control. Global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores, BMI, and measures of Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were measured across the 8-week control period, throughout the group treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. Over 70% of those who entered the trial completed treatment. The first eight weeks of group CBT-E were more effective at reducing Global EDE-Q scores than no treatment (waitlist control). By post-treatment, good outcome (a Global EDE-Q within 1 SD of Australian community norms plus BMI ≥ 18.5) was achieved by 67.9% of treatment completers and 66.7% of the total sample. Symptom abstinence within the previous month was reported by 14.3% of treatment completers and 10.3% of the total sample. Significant reductions in Clinical Perfectionism, Self-Esteem, Interpersonal Difficulties, and Mood Intolerance were also observed. This study demonstrated that a group version of CBT-E can be effective at reducing eating disorder psychopathology in a transdiagnostic sample of individuals with eating disorders. Group CBT-E could provide a means of increasing availability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Raquel Guimarães Nobre
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256
Lorig, Fabian; Kießl, Gundula Rebecca Raphaela; Laessle, Reinhold Gustav
Stress-related cortisol secretion has been linked to increased appetite and subsequent food intake in overweight individuals. The present study addresses this relationship in a repeated-measures randomized controlled laboratory experiment. Nineteen obese women were compared to 36 normal weight controls with respect to stress-induced salivary cortisol and laboratory eating behavior, measured by a universal eating monitor. The trier social stress test served as stressor. Stress-induced cortisol levels were significantly higher in the obese compared to the normal weight controls. Unexpectedly, a corresponding increase in laboratory food intake was not detected. The results are interpreted and discussed with regard to restrained eating, which was found to be present to a significant degree in the obese women.
Chia, Jia Li Pauline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Buck, Kimberly; Chamari, Karim; Richardson, Ben; Krug, Isabel
Dietary restriction contributes to disordered eating (DE) behaviors and associated cognitions. However, it is unclear how these outcomes are impacted by dietary restriction for religious purposes, such as fasting observed by Muslims during Ramadan. Using ecological momentary assessment, this study assessed the impact of Ramadan fasting on DE behaviors and correlates. Muslim participants fasting during Ramadan (n = 28) and a control group of non-fasting participants (n = 74) completed baseline measures assessing demographic characteristics and eating pathology. A mobile phone application then prompted participants six times per day for seven days to self-report on dietary restriction efforts, body satisfaction, temptation to eat unhealthily, feelings of guilt or shame following food, and DE behaviors including bingeing, vomiting, and other purging behaviors (use of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills). After controlling for eating pathology, multilevel modeling indicated that, as expected, the Ramadan fasting group spent significantly more time restricting food intake than the non-fasting group. The Ramadan fasting group also experienced significantly greater temptation to eat unhealthily than their non-fasting counterparts. However, this difference disappeared once models were adjusted for differences in time spent restricting food intake. There were no other significant differences between the groups on any DE variables. These findings suggest that while dietary restriction for health or appearance-related reasons is a known contributor to DE, dietary restriction for religious purposes, such as that observed during the practice of Ramadan, may not confer increased risk of DE symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K
Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT(2C/2A) receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive α2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Full Text Available Human behavior is founded on a complex interaction of influences that derive from sources both extraneous and intrinsic to the brain. It is the ways these various influences worked together in the past to fashion modern human cognition that can help elucidate the probable course of future human endeavor. A particular concern of this chapter is the way cognition has been shaped and continues to depend on prevailing environmental and ecological conditions. Whether the human predicament can be regarded simply as another response to such conditions similar to that of other organisms or something special will also be addressed. More specifically, it will be shown that, although the highly artificial niche in which most humans now live has had profound effects on ways of thinking, constraints deriving from a shared evolutionary heritage continue to have substantial effects on behavior. The way these exigencies interact will be explored in order to understand the implications for the future wellbeing of humanity.
Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won
Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ(2)-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P eating dairy foods for snacks' (P eating dairy foods every day' (P eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P foods (P foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address practical benefits, reduce negative expectations of calcium-rich foods, increase self-efficacy, and modify eating behaviors contributing to calcium intake.
Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E
Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.
Full Text Available Eating disorders (EDs are often associated with various impulsive behaviors. This study investigated the prevalence of impulsive behaviors in ED patients in Taiwan. Three hundred sixteen female outpatients with ED and 142 psychiatric controls were recruited. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing lifetime presence of impulsive behaviors, including suicide, self-injury, stealing, alcohol use, illicit drug use, excessive spending, sexual promiscuity, and general psychopathology. More than 60% of the ED patients had at least one impulsive behavior. The most common impulsive behaviors among ED patients were excessive spending (34.9%, deliberate self-harm (32.7%, and stealing (26.3%. However, there were no significant differences in prevalences of any impulsive behaviors between ED patients and psychiatric controls. Clinicians should routinely assess and treat impulsive behaviors in female psychiatric patients with negative affectivity, regardless of the presence of ED, to help prevent potential adverse outcomes related to impulsive behaviors.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian
Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia
Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.
Lederer, Alyssa M; King, Mindy H; Sovinski, Danielle; Kim, Nayoung
Family rules may be influential in helping children to modify their dietary and sedentary behaviors, which are important modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity. However, data examining family rules in relation to children's health behaviors and weight status are limited. This cross-sectional study examined differences in family rules by demographic characteristics of students enrolled in the HEROES (Healthy, Energetic, Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic Schools) Initiative, a school-based childhood obesity prevention program. It also investigated the relationship between eating and screen time family rules and six eating and screen time behaviors: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; fruit and vegetable intake; television viewing; computer use; and video game use, in addition to the association between family rules and children's weight status. Measures included self-reported behavioral data and anthropometric data from students in fourth to eighth grade at 16 schools (N=2819) in a tri-state area of the United States in spring 2012. Approximately one-third of students had each of the family rules examined. Whereas the profile of students who had specific rules varied, in general, younger, female, white, and low socioeconomic status students were more likely to have rules than their counterparts. Family rules were associated with healthier outcomes for each of the six behaviors examined (pchildren's weight status. This study demonstrates that family rules are an underutilized strategy to promote healthier eating habits and reduce children's screen time hours and may serve as an intermediary mechanism to curb childhood obesity.
Dalen, Jeanne; Smith, Bruce W; Shelley, Brian M; Sloan, Anita Lee; Leahigh, Lisa; Begay, Debbie
The purpose of this study was to pilot a brief (6-week) group curriculum for providing mindfulness training to obese individuals, called Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL). Participants were recruited through a local Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in spring 2006. Data was collected at three time points: baseline, completion of intervention (6 weeks), and 3-month follow-up (12 weeks). Six weekly two-hour group classes (with two monthly follow-up classes). Content included training in mindfulness meditation, mindful eating, and group discussion, with emphasis on awareness of body sensations, emotions, and triggers to overeat. Key variables assessed included changes in weight, body-mass index (BMI), eating behavior, and psychological distress. In addition, physiological markers of cardiovascular risk were evaluated including C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Ten obese patients enrolled with a mean BMI of 36.9 kg/m² [SD±6.2]. The mean weight was 101 kg/m² and the mean age was 44 years (SD=8.7; range=31-62). Compared to baseline data, participants showed statistically significant increases in measures of mindfulness and cognitive restraint around eating, and statistically significant decreases in weight, eating disinhibition, binge eating, depression, perceived stress, physical symptoms, negative affect, and C-reactive protein. This study provides preliminary evidence that a eating focused mindfulness-based intervention can result in significant changes in weight, eating behavior, and psychological distress in obese individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reyes, M; Hoyos, V; Martinez, S M; Lozoff, B; Castillo, M; Burrows, R; Blanco, E; Gahagan, S
To determine patterns of satiety responsiveness and its relationship to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), in a cohort of adolescents. We also assessed whether sex, body mass index and duration of breastfeeding, during infancy, predicted satiety responsiveness and eating behavior at 16 years. Adolescents (n=576) from a longitudinal cohort, which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial, participated in an unlimited breakfast after an overnight fast, and reported satiety response on a visual analog scale after the meal, followed by an EAH procedure. Height, weight and body composition were measured before breakfast. Latent profile analysis generated profiles that captured individual differences in satiety responsiveness. Multivariable regressions, adjusted for potential confounders, evaluated the association between: (1) satiety responsiveness and EAH, and (2) breastfeeding in infancy, satiety responsiveness and EAH in adolescence. Participants were on average 16.7-year old, 48% female, 37% overweight/obese and 76% were breastfed as the sole source of milk for eat during the EAH procedure (odds ratio (OR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-3.6). Being breastfed for meal, we found varied satiety responses, which related to EAH. Furthermore, shorter breastfeeding duration was associated with poorer satiety response and higher consumption during an EAH procedure. Understanding if breastfeeding influences the development of satiety responsiveness and eating behavior may be important in an era characterized by abundant calorie-dense foods and a plethora of environmental cues promoting consumption.
Kasparian, Michelle; Mann, Georgianna; Serrano, Elena L; Farris, Alisha R
Parenting style influences a child's overall diet quality and establishes food preferences. Parenting style and "food rules" for children differ by eating at home or away from home. Eating meals away from home is increasing despite associations with consumption of unhealthy foods and higher weight status. The objective of the current study was to compare parenting practices and decision-making at restaurants versus at home. A mixed methods approach was utilized: facilitated, individual interviews to explore decision-making and parenting practices; written questionnaires for socio-demographic information; and body mass index. Summaries and emergent themes were generated based on examination of tapes and transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed for questionnaire data. Twenty-five mothers of children of five to eight years who ate at restaurants at least two times per week participated. Mothers reported more permissive food rules at restaurants yet maintained higher behavioral expectations. Mothers were also more likely to make decisions about whether they eat out, where to eat, and children's meal selections than their children. The findings suggest that parenting practices toward overall behavior and food choices may differ at restaurants than at home, highlighting the importance of healthy menu options, further research, and educational strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quick, Virginia; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; White, Adrienne; Horacek, Tanya; Greene, Geoffrey
Little is known about the relationships between eating competence (intra-individual approach to eating and food-related attitudes and behaviors that entrain positive bio-psychosocial outcomes) and sleep behaviors and quality in college students, a high-risk group for poor eating habits, weight gain, and inadequate sleep. Thus, data from full-time college students (N=1035; 82% White; 61% female) aged 18-24 years from 5 U.S. universities were obtained from online questionnaires (eating competence (ecSI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), physical activity, demographics) and physical assessments (measured height, weight), to explore sleep behavior and quality between eating-competent (EC; ecSI score≥32) and non-EC groups (ecSIsleep quality (67% vs. 57% in non-EC, p=0.001), sleep duration of ≥7 h nightly (58% vs. 50% in non-EC, p=0.007), and infrequent daytime dysfunction (72% vs. 65% in non-EC, p=0.02). When ecSI scores were grouped as tertiles, those in the highest tertile reported a higher prevalence of no sleep disturbances (7% vs. 2% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.006) and lower prevalence of sleep medication use (10% vs. 15% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.04). Results suggest that competent eaters are more likely to have better overall sleep quality and fewer sleep-related issuescompared to less competent eaters. These findings may inform future longitudinal studies, and health promotion and weight management interventions for young adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carmassi, Claudia; Antonio Bertelloni, Carlo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Miniati, Mario; Stratta, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell Osso, Liliana
Considerable comorbidity rates between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders have been recently reported, as well as increased obesity and underweight conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between DSM-5 PTSD, gender and impaired eating habits in a sample of 512 Italian earthquake survivors evaluated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR). Alterations in eating behaviors were assessed by means of four MOODS-SR items: n=150 (…there was no food that appealed to you or tasted good to you?), n=151 (…you constantly craved sweets or carbohydrates?), n=152 (…your appetite or weight decreased?), n=153 (…your appetite or weight increased?). In a Decision Tree procedure subjects with PTSD with respect to those without and, in the No-PTSD subgroup, females with respect to males, had a significantly higher ratio of at least one MOODS-SR eating behavior item (MOODS-SR EB). In the No-PTSD subgroup only, subjects with at least one MOODS-SR EB presented a significantly higher mean TALS-SR symptomatological domains total score with respect to those without MOODS-SR EB. In conclusion, alterations in eating behaviors were associated with PTSD after the L׳Aquila earthquake; among survivors without PTSD significant a correlation emerged between MOODS-SR EB and PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagl, Michaela; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina; Braehler, Elmar; Kersting, Anette
The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire is an internationally widely used instrument assessing different eating styles that may contribute to weight gain and overweight: emotional eating, external eating, and restraint. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 30-item German version of the DEBQ including its measurement invariance across gender, age, and BMI-status in a representative German population sample. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of eating styles in the general population and provide population-based norms for DEBQ scales. A representative sample of the German general population (N = 2513, age ≥ 14 years) was assessed with the German version of the DEBQ along with information on sociodemographic characteristics and body weight and height. The German version of the DEQB demonstrates good item characteristics and reliability (restraint: α = .92, emotional eating: α = .94, external eating: α = .89). The 3-factor structure of the DEBQ could be replicated in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses supported its metric and scalar measurement invariance across gender, age, and BMI-status. External eating was the most prevalent eating style in the German general population. Women scored higher on emotional and restrained eating scales than men, and overweight individuals scored higher in all three eating styles compared to normal weight individuals. Small differences across age were found for external eating. Norms were provided according to gender, age, and BMI-status. Our findings suggest that the German version of the DEBQ has good reliability and construct validity, and is suitable to reliably measure eating styles across age, gender, and BMI-status. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a considerable variation of eating styles across gender and BMI-status.
Norton, Julie L; Raciti, Maria M
Primary caregivers of very young children are subject to excessive and often disparate information regarding the instilling of healthful eating behaviors. Our study focuses on the integration of the operant resources of primary caregivers (i.e., their knowledge and modeling skills) and that of their very young children (i.e., their self-regulation of energy intake and food preferences) to co-create healthful eating behaviors as a measure to curb overweight and obesity in adulthood. Our two-stage qualitative study makes original contributions demonstrating that primary caregivers' efforts to co-create healthful eating behaviors with their very young children are adversely affected by information overload.
Murray, Marisa; Maras, Danijela; Goldfield, Gary S
Social networking sites (SNS) are a popular form of communication among undergraduate students. Body image concerns and disordered eating behaviors are also quite prevalent among this population. Maladaptive use of SNS has been associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined if body image concerns (e.g., appearance and weight esteem) mediate the relationship between excessive time spent on SNS and disordered eating behaviors (restrained and emotional eating). The sample included 383 (70.2 percent female) undergraduate students (mean age = 23.08 years, standard deviation = 3.09) who completed self-report questionnaires related to SNS engagement, body image, disordered eating behaviors, and demographics. Parallel multiple mediation and moderated mediation analyses revealed that lower weight and appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and restrained eating for males and females, whereas appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and emotional eating for females only. The study adds to the literature by highlighting mediational pathways and gender differences. Intervention research is needed to determine if teaching undergraduate students more adaptive ways of using SNS or reducing exposure to SNS reduces body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in this high-risk population.
de Jong, M.; Korrelboom, C.W.; van der Meer, I.; Deen, M.; Hoek, H.W.; Spinhoven, P.
Background While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and
de Jong, Martie; Korrelboom, Kees; van der Meer, Iris; Deen, Mathijs; Hoek, Hans W.; Spinhoven, Philip
Background: While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and
Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino
Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…
Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.
Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…
Cruwys, T.; Bevelander, K.E.; Hermans, R.C.J.
A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely)
Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja
Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.
August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.
Berner, Laura A; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Lavender, Jason M; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A
Prior research suggests that the construct of emotional instability may be salient to bulimia nervosa (BN), but no study to date has used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine its temporal association with binge eating and purging. In the current study, 133 women with DSM-IV BN used portable digital devices to provide multiple daily negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) ratings and record eating disorder behaviors over 2 weeks. Two state-of-the art indices quantified affective instability: probability of acute change (PAC), which represents the likelihood of extreme affective increases, and mean squared successive difference (MSSD), which represents average change over successive recordings. For extreme affective change, results revealed that on bulimic behavior days, extreme NA increases were less likely after bulimic behaviors than before them, and extreme increases in PA were more likely after bulimic behaviors than during the same time period on non-bulimic behavior days. However, average NA instability (i.e., MSSD) was (a) greater on bulimic behavior days than non-bulimic behavior days, (b) greater after bulimic behaviors than during the same time period on non-bulimic behavior days, and (c) greater after bulimic behaviors than before them. Results lend support to the notion that bulimic behaviors are negatively reinforcing (i.e., via post-behavior acute affective changes), but also indicate that these behaviors may exacerbate overall affective dysregulation. These findings may improve understanding of BN maintenance and inform the development of novel interventions or refinement of existing treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E
The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magtoto, Joanne; Cox, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth
Using a province-wide school-based health survey, this article investigated body satisfaction as a mediator of the association between eating disorder behaviors and immigrant status. Participants were a sample of adolescent girls (n = 15,066) and boys (n = 14,200) who completed the 2008 McCreary Centre Society Adolescent Health Survey IV.…
Brauhardt, Anne; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan; Zipfel, Stephan; Svaldi, Jennifer; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hilbert, Anja
While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most well-established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED), little is known about process factors influencing its outcome. The present study sought to explore the assessment of therapist adherence, its course over treatment, and its associations with patient and therapist characteristics, and the therapeutic alliance. In a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled trial comparing CBT to internet-based guided self-help (INTERBED-study...
Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M
A limited literature suggests an association between parental eating disorders and child eating-disorder behaviors although this research has focused primarily on restrictive-type eating disorders and very little is known about families with binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study focused on parents (N = 331; 103 fathers and 226 mothers), comparing parents with core features of BED (n = 63) to parents with obesity and no eating disorder (OB; n = 85) and parents with healthy-weight and no eating disorder (HW; n = 183). Parents with BED were significantly more likely than OB and HW parents to report child binge eating, and more likely than HW parents to report child overeating. Parents with BED felt greater responsibility for child feeding than OB parents, and felt more concern about their child's weight than OB and HW parents. Dietary restriction of the child by the parents was related to child binge eating, overeating, and child overweight, and parental group was related to child binge eating (parental BED), overeating (parental BED), and child weight (parental OB). Parents with BED report greater disturbance in their children's eating than OB and HW parents, and OB parents report higher child weight than HW parents. This suggests that it is important to consider both eating-disorder psychopathology and obesity in clinical interventions and research. Our cross-sectional findings, which require experimental and prospective confirmations, provide preliminary evidence suggesting potential factors in families with parental BED and obesity to address in treatment and prevention efforts for pediatric eating disorders and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:648-656). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M
This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.
Teixeira, Maria D; Pereira, Ana T; Marques, Mariana V; Saraiva, Jorge M; Macedo, António F de
Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175), self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211), and low self-esteem (r = -0.292) (all p self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.
Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.
Johnson, Alexander W
Animals use current, past, and projected future states of the organism and the world in a finely tuned system to control ingestion. They must not only deal effectively with current nutrient deficiencies, but also manage energy resources to meet future needs, all within the constraints of the mechanisms of metabolism. Many recent approaches to understanding the control of ingestive behavior distinguish between homeostatic mechanisms concerned with energy balance, and hedonic and incentive processes based on palatability and reward characteristics of food. In this review, I consider how learning about environmental cues influences homeostatic and hedonic brain signals, which may lead to increases in the affective taste properties of food and desire to over consume. Understanding these mechanisms may be critical for elucidating the etiology of the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frank, Guido K. [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Center for Eating Disorders Research, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92123 (United States); Kaye, Walter H. [Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)
Modern imaging techniques that visualize disease-specific organ neurotransmitter or protein receptor sites are increasingly able to define pathological processes on a molecular level. One of those imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET), for the assessment of brain neuroreceptor binding has revolutionized the in vivo assessment of biologic markers that may be related to human behavior. Such studies may help identify chemical targets that may be directly related to psychiatric pathology and, thus, opportunities for pharmacological intervention. In this review, we describe results from PET studies in eating disorders (EDs). Eating disorders are frequently debilitating illnesses that are quite homogeneous in their presentation. Those studies that identified particular serotonin and dopamine receptor alterations can distinguish recovered ED subjects from controls as well as ED subgroups. Furthermore, correlations of receptor binding with behavioral constructs, such as harm avoidance or novelty seeking, could be found. These recognized receptors may now help us to move away from rather nonspecific treatment approaches in psychiatric research and clinic to the possibility of more syndrome- and symptom-specific treatment approaches.
Frank, Guido K.; Kaye, Walter H.
Modern imaging techniques that visualize disease-specific organ neurotransmitter or protein receptor sites are increasingly able to define pathological processes on a molecular level. One of those imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET), for the assessment of brain neuroreceptor binding has revolutionized the in vivo assessment of biologic markers that may be related to human behavior. Such studies may help identify chemical targets that may be directly related to psychiatric pathology and, thus, opportunities for pharmacological intervention. In this review, we describe results from PET studies in eating disorders (EDs). Eating disorders are frequently debilitating illnesses that are quite homogeneous in their presentation. Those studies that identified particular serotonin and dopamine receptor alterations can distinguish recovered ED subjects from controls as well as ED subgroups. Furthermore, correlations of receptor binding with behavioral constructs, such as harm avoidance or novelty seeking, could be found. These recognized receptors may now help us to move away from rather nonspecific treatment approaches in psychiatric research and clinic to the possibility of more syndrome- and symptom-specific treatment approaches
Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie
Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (pwork. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita
Time orientation could play an important role in eating behavior. The current study investigated whether eating behavior is associated with the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC). Specifically, it was examined whether unhealthy eaters consider the future less and are more concerned with immediate gratification. A related measure of time orientation is delay discounting, a process by which a reinforcer becomes less valuable when considered later in time. Recent research argues that the relation between time orientation and health behaviors is measured best at a behavior-specific level. In the current study, we explored the relationships between CFC and discount rate - both general and food-specific - and their influence on healthy eating. Participants with ages 18 to 60 (N = 152; final sample N = 146) filled in an online questionnaire consisting of the CFC, a food-specific version of the CFC (CFC-food), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and an adapted MCQ version with snack food as a reinforcer. Self-reported healthy eating was positively related to the future subscale (r = .48, p .05). In order to predict behavior, measurements of time orientation should thus be tailored to the behavior of interest. Based on current results, shifting one's concern from the immediate consequences of eating to a more future-oriented perspective may present an interesting target for future interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating and reducing overweight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Eric E.; Bongiorno, Diana M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian
Background Pediatric loss-of-control eating is a robust behavioral precursor to binge-type eating disorders. Elucidating precursors to loss-of-control eating and binge-type eating disorders may refine developmental risk models of eating disorders and inform interventions. Method We review evidence within constructs of the Negative Valence Systems (NVS)-domain, as specified by the Research Domain Criteria framework. Based on published studies, we propose an integrated NVS model of binge-type eating disorder risk. Results Data implicate altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk-factors. However, neuroimaging and physiological data in children and adolescents are sparse, and most prospective studies are limited to self-report measures. Conclusions We discuss a broad NVS framework for conceptualizing early risk for binge-type eating disorders. Future neural and behavioral research on the developmental trajectory of loss-of-control and binge-type eating disorders is required. PMID:26040923
Farmer, S.; Jones, K.
Dixon School of the Arts students have partnered with From the Ground Up Community Garden to learn more about gardening and to start a school garden in Pensacola, Florida. There are many soils options to learn about and test. Just this year ECUA, Emerald Coast Utilities Authority developed a new compost using biosolids. While they advertise that it is safe to grow food in, there are many discrepancies within the local organic garden communities. This project will be designed to determine if local food can be grown in the soil, if it grows bigger and better than alternative soils and finally if it is safe to eat.
Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja
Body-related avoidance behavior, e.g., not looking in the mirror, is a common feature of eating disorders. It is assumed that it leads to insufficient feedback concerning one's own real body form and might thus contribute to distorted mental representation of one's own body. However, this assumption still lacks empirical foundation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between misperception of one's own body and body-related avoidance behavior in N = 78 female patients with Bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Body-size misperception was assessed using a digital photo distortion technique based on an individual picture of each participant which was taken in a standardized suit. In a regression analysis with body-related avoidance behavior, body mass index and weight and shape concerns as predictors, only body-related avoidance behavior significantly contributed to the explanation of body-size overestimation. This result supports the theoretical assumption that body-related avoidance behavior makes body-size overestimation more likely.
Forman, Evan M; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Flack, Daniel; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Dochat, Cara
One potential reason for the suboptimal outcomes of treatments targeting appetitive behavior, such as eating and alcohol consumption, is that they do not target the implicit cognitive processes that may be driving these behaviors. Two groups of related neurocognitive processes that are robustly associated with dysregulated eating and drinking are attention bias (AB; selective attention to specific stimuli) and executive function (EF; a set of cognitive control processes such as inhibitory control, working memory, set shifting, that govern goal-directed behaviors). An increasing body of work suggests that EF and AB training programs improve regulation of appetitive behaviors, especially if trainings are frequent and sustained. However, several key challenges, such as adherence to the trainings in the long term, and overall potency of the training, remain. The current manuscript describes five technological innovations that have the potential to address difficulties related to the effectiveness and feasibility of EF and AB trainings: (1) deployment of training in the home, (2) training via smartphone, (3) gamification, (4) virtual reality, and (5) personalization. The drawbacks of these innovations, as well as areas for future research, are also discussed. The above-mentioned innovations are likely to be instrumental in the future empirical work to develop and evaluate effective EF and AB trainings for appetitive behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Current feeding advice to prevent pediatric obesity focuses on caregiver feeding behaviors. This review integrates newer data showing that child appetitive traits also have a genetic component. Caregiver feeding behaviors robustly correlate with child eating behaviors; however, there is also a stron...
Demir, Dilek; Bektas, Murat
In is important to determine the factors that affect obesity in childhood, in order to raise generations of healthy children. This study aims to determine the effect of primary school students' eating behaviors and parental feeding styles on obesity in childhood. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 1201 children and their parents between September 2014 and March 2015. The data were collected using the socio-demographic data collection form for children and parents, the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentage calculators, mean, Spearman's correlation analysis, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Of the children, 16.9% were found to be obese. Three models were created considering the relationships between the variables in this study and the occurrence of obesity. In the first model, the factors that affect childhood obesity were found to be enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness and food fussiness. In the second model, the factors were prompting/encouragement and control over eating. Enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, emotional feeding and food fussiness were also found to be the factors in the third model (pobesity in childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: There were few studies to investigate the related factors of depression among Korean students. Therefore, this study examined disturbed eating tendencies, health-related behaviors, and depressive symptoms among university students in Korea. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey on a total of 637 students (279 men and 358 women, and the Korean version of the Beck depression rating scale (K-BDI was used to evaluate the students' depression status. Results: Of the 637 students, 419 (65.8% had no depressive symptoms (normal: K-BDI<10, whereas 136 (21.4%: K-BDI 10–16, 69 (10.8%: K-BDI 17–29, and 13 (2.0%: K-BDI≥30 had mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that depressive symptoms (K-BDI≥10 were associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26 to 2.76; p = .002, high level of life stress (OR = 4.37, 95% CI = 2.23 to 8.55; p < .001, and disturbed eating behaviors (Korean version of Eating Attitude Test-26 ≥ 20; OR = 5.14, 95% CI = 2.52 to 10.5; p < .001. In contrast, depressive symptoms were inversely associated with a high body image satisfaction (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.68; p = .001 and self-esteem (self-esteem score≥30 (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.43; p < .001. Conclusions: This study confirmed that students with depressive symptoms tended to have disturbed eating behaviors, low body image satisfaction, low self-esteem, and high levels of stress. Keywords: Depression, Disturbed eating attitude, Health behavior, Depressive symptoms, Korean students
Kaye, Lillian B; Tucker, Carolyn M; Bragg, Marie A; Estampador, Angela C
Despite national attention to the childhood obesity epidemic, there are few US-based studies that directly ask children--especially children from low-income families and from multiple racial/ethnic groups--why they do or do not engage in healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors, as reported by black, Hispanic, and white children from low-income families. Six gender- and race/ethnicity-concordant focus groups were conducted with 37 children who were aged 9 to 12 years and from families with an annual household income of $40000 or less. Multiple strategies were used to employ a culturally sensitive approach to both data collection and data analysis (eg, a team of culturally diverse researchers utilized inductive qualitative analysis to analyze focus group transcripts). The motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors most commonly reported across the 6 focus groups included social influence, taste, issues of availability, weight concerns, and the desire to be healthy. A variety of less commonly reported motivators and barriers were also discussed. Findings were generally similar across gender and race/ethnicity. Children in this age range can indeed identify a variety of motivators and barriers that influence their engagement in healthy eating behaviors. Interventions targeting obesity and eating behaviors should include an assessment of children's own perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating.
Linardon, Jake; Wade, Tracey D; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Brennan, Leah
This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for eating disorders. Randomized controlled trials of CBT were searched. Seventy-nine trials were included. Therapist-led CBT was more efficacious than inactive (wait-lists) and active (any psychotherapy) comparisons in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Therapist-led CBT was most efficacious when manualized CBT-BN or its enhanced version was delivered. No significant differences were observed between therapist-led CBT for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and antidepressants at posttreatment. CBT was also directly compared to other specific psychological interventions, and therapist-led CBT resulted in greater reductions in behavioral and cognitive symptoms than interpersonal psychotherapy at posttreatment. At follow-up, CBT outperformed interpersonal psychotherapy only on cognitive symptoms. CBT for binge eating disorder also resulted in greater reductions in behavioral symptoms than behavioral weight loss interventions. There was no evidence that CBT was more efficacious than behavior therapy or nonspecific supportive therapies. CBT is efficacious for eating disorders. Although CBT was equally efficacious to certain psychological treatments, the fact that CBT outperformed all active psychological comparisons and interpersonal psychotherapy specifically, offers some support for the specificity of psychological treatments for eating disorders. Conclusions from this study are hampered by the fact that many trials were of poor quality. Higher quality RCTs are essential. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Thurston, Idia B; Milliren, Carly E; Gooding, Holly C; Richmond, Tracy K
The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity and disordered eating behaviors. In a subsample of young adults with overweight or obesity participating in Wave III (2001-2002) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 5,184), we examined the cross-sectional association between weight under-perception (i.e., perceiving oneself to be at a healthy body weight or underweight) and disordered eating (fasting/meal skipping for weight control, purging/pills for weight control, overeating/loss of control eating, and use of performance-enhancing products/substances). About 20% of young adult females under-perceived their weight compared to 48% of males. Individuals who misperceived their weight as healthy were significantly less likely to report fasting/meal skipping (Females: OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.43; Males: OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.20-0.48) and vomiting or taking diet pills/laxatives/diuretics (Females: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25; Males: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) for weight control. Among females, those who misperceived their weight status as healthy were also less likely to report overeating or loss of control eating (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.71). Greater use of performance-enhancing products/substances was seen among males who under-perceived their weight as healthy (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.57-2.72) and among both females (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40-20.0) and males (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.55) who perceived themselves to be underweight. Weight under-perception among young adults with overweight/obesity may convey some benefit related to disordered eating behaviors, but could be a risk factor for the use of performance-enhancing products/substances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord ; 49:937-946). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Watts, Allison W; Rydell, Sarah A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
A regular yoga practice may have benefits for young adult health, however, there is limited evidence available to guide yoga interventions targeting weight-related health. The present study explored the relationship between participation in yoga, healthy eating behaviors and physical activity among young adults. The present mixed-methods study used data collected as part of wave 4 of Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), a population-based cohort study in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Young adults (n = 1820) completed the Project EAT survey and a food frequency questionnaire, and a subset who reported practicing yoga additionally participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 46). Analyses of survey data were used to examine cross-sectional associations between the frequency of yoga practice, dietary behaviors (servings of fruits and vegetables (FV), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and snack foods and frequency of fast food consumption), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thematic analysis of interview discussions further explored yoga's perceived influence on eating and activity behaviors among interview participants. Regular yoga practice was associated with more servings of FV, fewer servings of SSBs and snack foods, less frequent fast food consumption, and more hours of MVPA. Interviews revealed that yoga supported healthy eating through motivation to eat healthfully, greater mindfulness, management of emotional eating, more healthy food cravings, and the influence of the yoga community. Yoga supported physical activity through activity as part of yoga practice, motivation to do other forms of activity, increased capacity to be active, and by complementing an active lifestyle. Young adult yoga practitioners reported healthier eating behaviors and higher levels of physical activity than non-practitioners. Yoga should be investigated as an intervention for young adult health promotion and healthy weight management.
Claes, Laurence; Vandereycken, Walter; Vertommen, Hans
Understanding an individual's self-harming behaviors should be the basis for selecting person-specific therapeutic interventions. For that purpose, the assessment is aimed at identifying the self-harming behaviors and related symptoms as well as analyzing the external (situational) and internal (cognitive and emotional) conditions that contribute directly to the instigation of the self-harming behaviors. In this article, we demonstrate the use of a new assessment procedure that may guide the selection of therapeutic interventions. Data collection and processing are illustrated by an individual case study of an eating-disordered patient showing different types of self-harming behavior such as vomiting, alcohol abuse, cutting, and suicide attempts.
Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg
at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...... data set, along with work on other behavioral data. The overall goal is to contribute to a quantitative understanding of human behavior using big data and mathematical models. Central to the thesis is the determination of the predictability of different human activities. Upper limits are derived....... Evidence is provided, which implies that the asymmetry is caused by a self-enhancement in the initiation dynamics. These results have implications for the formation of social networks and the dynamics of the links. It is shown that the Big Five Inventory (BFI) representing a psychological profile only...
Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.
The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...
Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H.
Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating
Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Davidson, Charis R; Billings, Deborah L
The Healthy Eating for Reproductive Health study was conducted among 18 (45% non-white) mostly obese (BMI 39.9 ± 6.1) women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were experiencing infertility and interested in losing weight. A variety of markers were measured at baseline: body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, eating behaviors (using an Eating Behavior Inventory, a questionnaire which assesses both positive and negative eating behaviors associated with weight status, with a higher score indicating adoption of eating behaviors which have been shown in prior weight-loss research to promote a healthy weight (EBI) and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, which assesses cognitive and behavioral components of eating among overweight adults), and a quality of life (PCOS Health-Related Quality of Life (PCOSQ)) index, which assesses satisfaction around five 'domains': emotional health, presence of body hair, infertility, weight, and menstrual problems). A comparison group of overweight women without PCOS (n = 28) was used to examine differences in measured outcomes between women with and without PCOS. Participants' habitual diets were high in fat and saturated fat and low in fiber, folate, and iron and contained significantly lower amounts of carbohydrate, iron, and whole grains compared with women without PCOS who had enrolled in a behavioral weight loss programme. Participants had a low EBI (indicating that most were not adopting eating behaviors associated with achieving a healthy weight), disinhibition (indicating participants had a tendency to overeat in the presence of highly palatable foods or were susceptible to emotional cues for eating, such as stress), and hunger scores (indicating participants did not report being susceptible to hunger, prompting overeating) and moderate dietary restraint (indicating they were not consistently attempting to restrict food intake consciously). PCOSQ scores were lowest for infertility and weight domains (indicating
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of insomnia on eating behavior, anxiety, depression, metabolic and hormonal parameters in obese patients. Materials and Methods. The study involved 104 patients with primary obesity from 20 to 55 years old: 47 men and 57 women, mean age 39 years, mean body weight 118 kg, BMI 39.6. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the first group consisted of patients with complaints of insomnia (n=45, the second (control group (n=59 were patients without sleep disorders. Results. Mean levels of anxiety and depression were significantly higher in the first group. The results of research showed a statistically significant association emotional eating and insomnia. Patients with chronic insomnia without obstructive sleep apnea had low levels of free cortisol in 24-hour urinary compared with patients without sleep disorders (169 [145, 194] vs. 324 [244, 330], respectively, p=0.001, positive correlation with total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and negative with wake time during sleep period time. Conclusions. Sleep disorders in obese patients are one of the factors contributing to the increase in food intake in response to changes in emotional state on the background of "hidden" anxiety and depressive disorders. It is possible that the data eating disorders and psychological status may have a negative impact on the dynamics of weight during the treatment of obesity.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=3.92; p=0.13. Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=36.43; p=0.01. The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=46.03; p=0.01. It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP.
Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food
Veling, Harm; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang
Because eating behavior can take on an impulsive nature many people experience difficulty with dieting to lose weight. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of two interventions targeting impulsive processes of eating behavior to facilitate weight loss: Implementation intentions to remind people about dieting versus a go/no-go task to change impulses toward palatable foods. Dieters performed an online training program (four times in 4 weeks) in which they were randomly assigned to a 2 (implementation intention condition: dieting versus control) × 2 (go/no-go task condition: food versus control) design. They formed either dieting implementation intentions (e.g., If I open the fridge I will think of dieting!) or control implementation intentions. Furthermore, they received either a go/no-go task in which behavioral stop signals were presented upon presentation of palatable foods (food go/no-go task), or upon control stimuli. Participants' weight was measured in the laboratory before and after the intervention. Strength of participants' dieting goal and their Body Mass Index (BMI; as a proxy for impulsiveness toward food) were examined as moderators. Results showed that both dieting implementation intentions and the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss. Moreover, dieting implementation intentions facilitated weight loss particularly among people with a strong current dieting goal, whereas the food go/no-go task facilitated weight loss independent of this factor. Instead, the food go/no-go task, but not formation of dieting implementation intentions, was primarily effective among dieters with a relatively high BMI. These results provide the first preliminary evidence that interventions aimed at targeting impulsive eating-related processes via the internet can facilitate weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei
A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group
Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.
Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina
Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food
Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist
Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina
Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental
Huys, Raoul [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Jirsa, Viktor K. (eds.) [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences
Humans engage in a seemingly endless variety of different behaviors, of which some are found across species, while others are conceived of as typically human. Most generally, behavior comes about through the interplay of various constraints - informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, and so on - operating at multiple scales in space and time. Over the years, consensus has grown in the research community that, rather than investigating behavior only from bottom up, it may be also well understood in terms of concepts and laws on the phenomenological level. Such top down approach is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization using tools from nonlinear dynamics. The present compendium brings together scientists from all over the world that have contributed to the development of their respective fields departing from this background. It provides an introduction to deterministic as well as stochastic dynamical systems and contains applications to motor control and coordination, visual perception and illusion, as well as auditory perception in the context of speech and music. (orig.)
Full Text Available A study on eating behavior of Ongole Crossbred (OC and Limousin Crossbred (LC steers (aged 9 months fed fermented rice straw and concentrate has been carried out. Rice straw and concentrate were given in 60:40 ratio. Rice straw was fermented by commercial starter (BioP 2000 Z, while concentrate was composed of commercial concentrate and soybean pulp (by-product of soy-sauce industry. The diet was set to meet the dry matter (DM requirement at 3.0% of liveweight. Eating behaviour was measured from 3 days continuously observation. Chewing number was accounted by halter equipped with tape-switch in jaw side and was recorded every 1/10 second in connected PC. The results showed that DMI of both OC (3.21 kg and LC (4.18 kg was similar, being 2.8% LW. However, chewing number of OC (133808 chews/d was higher than that of LC (106353 chews/d. Chewing for eating and for rumination in OC (86995 and 46813 chews was higher than of LC (67628 and 38725 chews. Chewing efficiency for eating in OC (0.041 g DMI/chew was lower than that of LC (0.066 g DMI/chew. Similar tendency was observed in chewing efficiency for rumination that OC (0.080 g DMI/chew was lower than that of LC (0.109 g DMI/chew. The conclusion is LC has a better chewing efficiency than of OC and it was pointed to different jaw size between OC and LC.
Murillo, Anarina L; Safan, Muntaser; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Phillips, Elizabeth D Capaldi; Wadhera, Devina
Eating behaviors among a large population of children are studied as a dynamic process driven by nonlinear interactions in the sociocultural school environment. The impact of food association learning on diet dynamics, inspired by a pilot study conducted among Arizona children in Pre-Kindergarten to 8th grades, is used to build simple population-level learning models. Qualitatively, mathematical studies are used to highlight the possible ramifications of instruction, learning in nutrition, and health at the community level. Model results suggest that nutrition education programs at the population-level have minimal impact on improving eating behaviors, findings that agree with prior field studies. Hence, the incorporation of food association learning may be a better strategy for creating resilient communities of healthy and non-healthy eaters. A Ratatouille effect can be observed when food association learners become food preference learners, a potential sustainable behavioral change, which in turn, may impact the overall distribution of healthy eaters. In short, this work evaluates the effectiveness of population-level intervention strategies and the importance of institutionalizing nutrition programs that factor in economical, social, cultural, and environmental elements that mesh well with the norms and values in the community.
Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Leonard, Kelly; Veroneau, Margaret
To investigate binge eating (BE) and weight-related behaviors in overweight and obese college students. This was a secondary analysis of data from 487 overweight and obese college-age students from a private university in the northeastern United States. BE was reported by 34.9% of students. Only 6.2% of participants reported the use of compensatory behaviors (i.e., self-induced vomiting, laxative, or diuretic use) to prevent weight gain. BE was associated with smoking and exercising to lose weight. Gender differences emerged from the data as women were more likely to report being obese, the use of compensatory behaviors, and to perceive themselves as moderately or extremely overweight. BE is a significant problem on college campuses and is associated with the development of obesity and eating disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an excellent position to effect change in this population through their frequent contact with young adults in community and school-based venues. NPs are well-prepared to identify at-risk college students and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Albert, Stephanie L.
Adolescents spend almost nine hours a day engaging with media. As a result, they are confronted with large amounts of obesogenic content that shapes their understanding of what are normal and acceptable eating behaviors. Utilizing primary data collected from a sample of 4,838 low-income, racially and ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles County, I studied the effects of different types of media use (i.e., social media, TV/movies/videos, gaming, music, Internet) on dietary p...
Kirac, Deniz; Kasimay Cakir, Ozgur; Avcilar, Tuba; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Kurtel, Hizir; Yazici, Dilek; Kaspar, Elif Cigdem; Celik, Nurgul; Guney, Ahmet Ilter
Obesity is a major contributory factor of morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that biological systems may be involved in the tendency to be and to remain physically inactive also behaviors such as food and beverage preferences and nutrient intake may at least partially genetically determined. Consequently, besides environment, genetic factors may also contribute to the level of physical activity and eating behaviors thus effect obesity. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various gene mutations on obesity, physical activity levels and eating behavior phenotypes. One hundred patients and 100 controls were enrolled to the study. Physical activity levels were measured with an actical acceloremeter device. Eating behaviors were evaluated using Three-Factor Eating questionnaire (TFEQ). Associations between eating behavior scores and physical characteristics were also evaluated. The information about other obesity risk factors were also collected. Mutations were investigated with PCR, direct sequencing and Real-Time PCR. rs1051168, rs8050146 -2778C > T mutations were found statistically significant in patients, rs1121980 was found statistically significant in controls. 21 mutations were found in MC4R and near MC4R of which 18 of them are novel and 8 of them cause amino acid change. In addition, it was found that, some obesity related factors and questions of TFEQ are associated with various investigated gene mutations. Any relation between gene mutations and physical activity levels were not detected. It is thought that, due to the genotype data and eating behaviors, it may be possible to recommend patients for proper eating patterns to prevent obesity. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):806-816, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder - the gold standard treatment for adults with binge eating disorder. In a single-center efficacy trial, 60 12- to 20-year-old adolescents meeting diagnostic criteria of binge eating disorder (full-syndrome or subthreshold) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th or 5th Edition, will be centrally randomized to 4 months of cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 30) or a waiting-list control condition (n = 30). Using an observer-blind design, patients are assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups after the end of treatment. In 20 individual outpatient sessions, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents focuses on eating behavior, body image, and stress; parents receive psychoeducation on these topics. Primary endpoint is the number of episodes with binge eating over the previous 28 days at post-treatment using a state-of-the art clinical interview. Secondary outcome measures address the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, mental comorbidity, self-esteem, quality of life, and body weight. This trial will allow us to determine the short- and long-term efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent binge eating disorder, to determine cost-effectiveness, and to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Evidence will be gathered regarding whether this treatment will help to prevent excessive weight gain. If efficacy can be demonstrated, the results from this trial will enhance
Burhoe, Ralph Wendell
Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)
Maras, Danijela; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Gick, Mary; Goldfield, Gary S
Obesity and overweight are associated with many negative health outcomes. Attachment style has been implicated in the development of obesity in youth. The present study examined if disordered eating behaviors mediate the relationship between attachment style and body mass index (BMI) in a large community sample of Canadian youth. A total of 3,043 participants (1,254 males and 1,789 females, Mage = 14.20 years) completed self-report questionnaires including the Relationship Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and BMI was objectively measured. Disordered eating behaviors (restrained, emotional, and external) were examined as possible mediating mechanisms in the relationship between attachment style and BMI z-score, using a multiple mediation model using bootstrapping while controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Insecure attachment was significantly associated with higher BMI, and disordered eating mediated this relationship. Restrained eating was the strongest mediator of this pathway. Results suggest that it may be important to take attachment history and restrained eating into account when designing treatment and prevention strategies for obesity in youth.
Wagner, Birgit; Nagl, Michaela; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Hilbert, Anja; Kersting, Anette
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70). Binge-eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology were measured with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination administered over the telephone. Additionally, body weight and body mass index, depression, and anxiety were assessed before and immediately after treatment. Three-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data were recorded in the treatment group. Immediately after the treatment the number of binge-eating episodes showed significant improvement (d=1.02, between group) in the treatment group relative to the wait-list condition. The treatment group had also significantly reduced symptoms of all eating psychopathology outcomes relative to the wait-list condition (0.82≤d≤1.11). In the treatment group significant improvement was still observed for all measures 1year after the intervention relative to pretreatment levels. The Internet-based intervention proved to be efficacious, significantly reducing the number of binge-eating episodes and eating disorder pathology long term. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated to improve treatment access for patients suffering from BED. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Jaeger, Sara R.
Our memories of past eating experiences are influential in shaping food preferences and consumption behavior, and the emotions that people associate to these memories are linked to their attitudes toward foods and their everyday food-related behaviors. This work studies the impact that
Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David
Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…
Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan
Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...
Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among young adults. We investigated whether eating behaviors are associated with fatigue in this population. The participants consisted of 117 healthy students attending Osaka City University. They completed questionnaires assessing fatigue and eating behaviors. To identify the factors associated with the prevalence of fatigue, multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender was performed. The Emotional Eating subscale score of the Japanese version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21-item and stress response in food intake (large decrease vs. no change) were positively associated with the prevalence of fatigue assessed by the Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale. The finding suggests that emotional eating and decrease in amount of food intake under mental stress were associated with fatigue in healthy young adults. Our findings may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying fatigue-eating coupling as well as the etiology of diseases related to abnormal eating behavior.
Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body
Full Text Available A obesidade é uma doença de alta prevalência no mundo e é responsável por sérias repercussões orgânicas e psicossociais, desde a infância até a vida adulta. O comportamento alimentar tem bases biológicas e sociais e, associado, à obesidade, torna-se um processo ainda mais complexo pelos aspectos psicológicos envolvidos, os quais se expressam por meio de humor depressivo, ansiedade, sentimento de culpa e, também, por mecanismos fisiológicos, como a resistência ao jejum na vigência de dietas restritivas. Há evidências de que, em indivíduos obesos, comportamentos de compulsão alimentar e ou restrição são mais freqüentes e parecem ser, em parte, responsáveis pelos fracassos observados no tratamento da obesidade. As restrições e auto-imposições das pessoas que fazem dieta, parecem ter um efeito rebote, resultando em compulsão alimentar, a qual pode associar-se a conseqüências psicológicas, como a perda da auto-estima, mudanças de humor e distração. As reflexões desta revisão sugerem que os programas para redução de peso corporal devem enfocar as bases do comportamento alimentar e desenvolver, efetivamente, ações interdisciplinares que permitam obter resultados eficazes no tratamento da obesidade.Obesity is a widespread disease in the world, responsible for serious organic and psychosocial repercussions, from infancy to adulthood. Eating behavior has biological as well as social bases. Associated to obesity, it becomes an even more complex process, since it is accompanied by psychological aspects showing symptoms such as depressive moods, anxiety, feelings of guilt, and physiological mechanisms as, for instance, the resistance to fast during restrictive diets. Obese individuals prevalently present behaviors such as binge or restrained eating, both leading to failure in the treatment of obesity. Restrained eating refers to the tendency to restrict food intake consciously, in order to prevent weight gain or to
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES. A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.
Sabbagh, Ubadah; Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J
The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.
Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.
Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.
Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955
Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda
The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M
The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carruth, B R; Skinner, J; Houck, K; Moran, J; Coletta, F; Ott, D
To determine if toddlers who were considered "picky eaters" had lower dietary scores than non-picky eaters, and if family environment and socioeconomic status were significantly related to picky eater status and dietary scores. An incomplete block design provided two interviews at randomly assigned times (24, 28, 32, or 36 months) of Caucasian mothers from upper socioeconomic (n=74) and lower socioeconomic status (n=44). Using trained interviewers, 6 days of food intake, two administrations of a questionnaire about toddler's eating behavior, and one administration of the Family Environment Scales were collected in the home. MANOVA, discriminant function analysis, and logistic regression procedures were used to determine significant differences between picky and non-picky eater groups. Picky eaters had lower dietary variety (p=.03) and diversity scores (p=.009) than non-picky eaters. Mothers of picky eaters compared to those of non-picky eaters used persuasion (p=.0001) and ranked their child's eating behaviors as more problematic (p=.0001). Toddlers perceived by their mothers as picky eaters had significantly lower dietary variety and diversity scores. Parents need information and strategies to increase the number of foods acceptable to their toddlers and to develop a sound feeding plan.
Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.
Davis, Caroline; Mackew, Laura; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Kennedy, James L
While there is good evidence that binge eating disorder (BED) is linked to higher-than-expected use of a broad range of addictive behaviors, mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups - overweight/obese adults with ( n = 42) and without ( n = 104) BED, and normal-weight control participants ( n = 73) - we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. We also anticipated that the relationship between BED and addictive behaviors would be mediated by a high-risk personality profile. The predicted mediation effect was strongly supported. Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. However, both overweight/obese groups did have significantly higher scores than the normal-weight group. The relationships among personality risk, elevated body mass index (BMI), and addictive behaviors have important clinical implications, especially for treatments that target psycho-behavioral intervention for compulsive overeating and substance-use disorders.
Full Text Available While there is good evidence that binge eating disorder (BED is linked to higher-than-expected use of a broad range of addictive behaviors, mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups – overweight/obese adults with (n = 42 and without (n = 104 BED, and normal-weight control participants (n = 73 – we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. We also anticipated that the relationship between BED and addictive behaviors would be mediated by a high-risk personality profile. The predicted mediation effect was strongly supported. Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. However, both overweight/obese groups did have significantly higher scores than the normal-weight group. The relationships among personality risk, elevated body mass index (BMI, and addictive behaviors have important clinical implications, especially for treatments that target psycho-behavioral intervention for compulsive overeating and substance-use disorders.
Lee, Joo-Eun; Yoon, Wan-Young
To find out the effects of the general characteristic on dietary habits and eating out behavior of college students in Cheongju area. The ratios of major were 50.3% (80/159) for food and nutrition and 49.7% (79/159) for the others. The most of respondents missed breakfast and the most reason for skipping meal was no time. Older and younger group were different significantly in skipping meal, reason of meal skip, place of lunch, cost of lunch, and preferred lunch menu (Peating-out behaviors in the results of this study through education, and by seeking for alternatives from different angles such as various nutrition education and nutrition improvement programs.
Kelly, Allison C; Stephen, Elizabeth
Although self-compassion is associated with healthier body image and eating behavior, these findings have generally emerged at the between-persons level only. The present study investigated the unique contributions of within-person variability in self-compassion, and between-persons differences in self-compassion, to body image and eating behavior. Over seven days, 92 female college students completed nightly measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, dietary restraint, intuitive eating, body appreciation, body satisfaction, and state body image. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-persons, day-to-day fluctuations in self-compassion contributed to day-to-day fluctuations in body image and eating. Between-persons, participants' average levels of self-compassion across days contributed to their average levels of body image and eating over the week. Results generally held when controlling for within- and between-persons self-esteem. Evidently, the eating and body image benefits of self-compassion may come not only from being a generally self-compassionate person, but also from treating oneself more self-compassionately than usual on a given day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M
This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emmons, Lillian Miller
This study examines the prevalence and intensity of dieting behavior and the development of eating disorders in a sample of 1269 high school students from ten schools in the Greater Cleveland area. The sample includes four race-sex groups: black and white male and female students. Differences in dieting behavior between these groups are examined and, within each race-sex group, dieters and non-dieters are compared to see whether they differ in such factors as current weight and personal weight history, parental weights, socioeconomic class, religion, birth order, exercise and personality factors such as self-esteem and eating disorder measures. Data were collected using both self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews with a subsample of students. The study documents a higher prevalence of dieting and purging behavior than has been reported in other research. Forty-one percent of both black and white males, 61 percent of black females, and 77 percent of white females dieted and many purged, particularly black females who tended to use laxatives and diuretics and white females and males who tended to use vomiting. Dieters and non -dieters differed significantly in past experience with being overweight and in their current weights. At the time of the study 20 to 30 percent of the dieters were classifiable as overweight. While black and white male dieters and non-dieters were in agreement about ideal body weight, white female dieters and non-dieters wanted considerably lower weights than black female dieters and non-dieters. Ethnicity, as determined by socioeconomic class and religion, was not significantly related to dieting behavior, nor was birth order, a familial factor. It appeared that pervasive cultural pressures to attain an ideal figure affected all race-sex groups and led large percentages of the students to diet, even many who were already underweight.
Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el progresivo proceso de medicalización del comportamiento alimentario por el cual una buena parte de los motivos pragmáticos o simbólicos que articulan la selección y el consumo humano de alimentos se ha sustituido por otros de orden nutricional. La normalización dietética se ha concretado, en particular en los contextos de relativa abundancia de alimentos, en torno de la dieta equilibrada, un patrón alimentario basado en la restricción y promoción del consumo de ciertos alimentos y nutrientes -qué y cuánto comer- y en la prescripción de un conjunto de pautas relativas a cómo, cuándo y con quién hacerlo, y cuyos objetivos han sido no sólo regular los cuidados del cuerpo y la salud, sino promover, a su vez, un cierto orden social y ético.This article describes how the progressive process of medicalization of food is inscribed within a biomedical logic that attempts to substitute many of the economic, adaptative and symbolic reasons that have ethnographically and historically conditioned eating habits in all cultures, exclusively for reasons of a dietetic nature. According to this logic, most of the population of modern societies does not know how to eat because they are victims of or have been made ill by the current profusion of food. They must, therefore, learn how to eat well, which in terms of eating practices means eating a little of everything, in moderation and in a balanced way. The main aim of current nutritional education is to (reestablish a supposed dietetic normality as far as food consumed, quantities, number of intakes and meal structures are concerned.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications.
Patricia, Galvez E; Vizcarra, Marcela; Palomino, Ana María; Valencia, Alejandra; Iglesias, Lorena; Schwingel, Andiara
Traditional methods for studying eating behaviors include quantitative methods such as 24-h dietary recalls or food frequency questionnaires. Recently, visual methods such as photo-elicitation (PE) have been recognized as useful for studying and understanding eating behaviors. PE has been defined as the use of images during an interview. The goals of this study are to demonstrate the potential of PE for exploring the eating behaviors of Chilean women of low socioeconomic status and to show the advantages and disadvantages of PE from the participants' points of view. The study included 31 participants who were asked to take pictures that represented what they considered important to them in their "food world". The pictures were developed and participants were invited to participate in an individual interview. Participants were able to talk about their eating behaviors and those of their families, the factors influencing those behaviors, their dietary knowledge and skills, and their reflections on their diet using the photographs. PE proved to be a feasible research technique for the studied population, and was well received and enjoyed by the participants. The participants perceived a few barriers with PE, such as forgetting to take pictures or not having ideas for new pictures. Nevertheless, PE allowed researchers to obtain rich information about eating behaviors, and can therefore be a useful method for working with populations of underserved areas. The PE data that this study collected could be used to create or improve interventions promoting healthy eating within the studied population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hardus, Madeleine E; Lameira, Adriano R; Zulfa, Astri; Atmoko, S Suci Utami; de Vries, Han; Wich, Serge A
Meat-eating is an important aspect of human evolution, but how meat became a substantial component of the human diet is still poorly understood. Meat-eating in our closest relatives, the great apes, may provide insight into the emergence of this trait, but most existing data are for chimpanzees. We report 3 rare cases of meat-eating of slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang, by 1 Sumatran orangutan mother-infant dyad in Ketambe, Indonesia, to examine how orangutans find slow lorises and share meat. We combine these 3 cases with 2 previous ones to test the hypothesis that slow loris captures by orangutans are seasonal and dependent on fruit availability. We also provide the first (to our knowledge) quantitative data and high-definition video recordings of meat chewing rates by great apes, which we use to estimate the minimum time necessary for a female Australopithecus africanus to reach its daily energy requirements when feeding partially on raw meat. Captures seemed to be opportunistic but orangutans may have used olfactory cues to detect the prey. The mother often rejected meat sharing requests and only the infant initiated meat sharing. Slow loris captures occurred only during low ripe fruit availability, suggesting that meat may represent a filler fallback food for orangutans. Orangutans ate meat more than twice as slowly as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggesting that group living may function as a meat intake accelerator in hominoids. Using orangutan data as a model, time spent chewing per day would not require an excessive amount of time for our social ancestors (australopithecines and hominids), as long as meat represented no more than a quarter of their diet. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-011-9574-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Time and time again managers have tried to eliminate hierarchies, politics, and interorganizational rivalry--but to no avail. Why? Evolutionary psychologists would say that they are working against nature--emotional and behavioral "hardwiring" that is the legacy of our Stone Age ancestors. In this evolutionary psychology primer for executives, Nigel Nicholson explores many of the Science's central tenets. Of course, evolutionary psychology is still an emerging discipline, and its strong connection with the theory of natural selection has sparked significant controversy. But, as Nicholson suggests, evolutionary psychology is now well established enough that its insights into human instinct will prove illuminating to anyone seeking to understand why people act the way they do in organizational settings. Take gossip. According to evolutionary psychology, our Stone Age ancestors needed this skill to survive the socially unpredictable conditions of the Savannah Plain. Thus, over time, the propensity to gossip became part of our mental programming. Executives trying to eradicate gossip at work might as well try to change their employees' musical tastes. Better to put one's energy into making sure the "rumor mill" avoids dishonesty or unkindness as much as possible. Evolutionary psychology also explores the dynamics of the human group. Clans on the Savannah Plain, for example, appear to have had no more than 150 members. The message for managers? People will likely be most effective in small organizational units. As every executive knows, it pays to be an insightful student of human nature. Evolutionary psychology adds another important chapter to consider.
Di Lodovico, Laura; Dubertret, Caroline; Ameller, Aurely
Excessive exercise is frequently associated with eating disorders and may degenerate into exercise addiction. We still don't know whether runners at risk for eating disorders are at risk for exercise addiction. Our aim is to assess: 1) risk for exercise addiction in runners at risk for eating disorders and 2) socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing runners at-risk from not-at-risk for eating disorders. We assessed risk for eating disorders and exercise addiction using the SCOFF questionnaire and the Exercise Addiction Inventory personality traits with the Big-Five Inventory Test, socio-demographic data, eating and training habits in a sample of 154 healthy runners. Twenty five subjects had a score of ≥2 at the SCOFF and were included in the group "at risk for eating disorders". In this group, we found a higher percentage of subjects at risk for exercise addiction (p=0.01) and higher average scores at the Exercise Addiction Inventory (p=0.01) than runners not at risk (N=136). Runners at risk were statistically younger (p=0.03), women (p=0.001), started running to lose weight more often (p=0.03), lost more kilos since affiliation in their running club (p=0.04), and were characterized by neurotic traits using the Big-Five-Inventory Test (p=3.10 -6 ). Screening for exercise addiction and mood disorders could lead to a more accurate management of runners at risk for eating disorders. Identifying vulnerable individuals will facilitate the prevention of eating disorders and preserve the benefits of sport practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Albuquerque, Gabriela; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia
To assess early life characteristics associated with appetite-related eating behaviors in 7-year-old children. The participants are children from the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on sociodemographics, health, and lifestyles and anthropometrics were collected at birth, and 4- and 7-year-old evaluations. A Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire was completed by mothers (n = 3562 children) with children aged 7 years old. A 2-factor solution was identified: factor 1-appetite restraint and factor 2-appetite disinhibition. Associations were estimated through generalized linear models adjusted for maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI) before birth, family structure, number of siblings, and child's sex (β regression coefficients and 95% CIs). Higher appetite restraint at 7 years old was associated with higher maternal age and educational level, families with both parents (1- vs 2-parent: β = -0.074, 95% CI -0.140, -0.007) and no siblings (≥2 vs 0: β = -0.152, 95% CI -0.224, -0.081), and more sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old. It was also associated with lower child and maternal BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. In contrast, higher appetite disinhibition was associated with lower maternal educational background, having a 1-parent family, more sedentary behaviors (≥120 vs <120 min/d of media: β = 0.055, 95% CI 0.018, 0.093), and higher BMI and waist circumference at 4 years old. Higher maternal age and education, and a family with both parents at 4 years old seem to influence higher appetite restraint, but less appetite disinhibition at 7 years old. More sedentary lifestyles at 4 years old were associated with higher appetite restraint and appetite disinhibition scores later in childhood. These results can be useful for the development of prevention guidelines and educational strategies aimed at improving healthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.
Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…
Coesens, Carolien; De Mol, Jan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buysse, Ann
This study investigates children's eating behavior in a context of bidirectional parent-child influences. Parents and children were asked about their sense of influence and of being influenced concerning food rules. For parents, these feelings seemed to be partly correlated with children's eating behavior. Additionally, Social Relations Model analysis revealed that parents' and children's feelings of influence and being influenced were not only dependent on characteristics of the rater or actor, but also characteristics of the partner and of the unique relationship were found to be important. Furthermore, evidence was found for bidirectional influences, but only for the mother-older sibling dyad.
Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M
The present study examines the protective role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors (AREB) on the relationship between trait body dissatisfaction and women's body image concerns and eating-related intentions in response to "thin ideal" media. Undergraduate women (n=138) were randomly assigned to view a "thin ideal" video or a neutral video. As hypothesized, trait body dissatisfaction predicted more negative affect and size dissatisfaction following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed less AREB. Conversely, trait body dissatisfaction predicted greater intentions to monitor food intake and limit unhealthy foods following exposure to the "thin ideal" video among women who displayed more AREB. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keller, Kathleen L; Kuilema, Laura G; Lee, Norman; Yoon, Joyce; Mascaro, Brittany; Combes, Anne-Laure; Deutsch, Bryan; Sorte, Kathryn; Halford, Jason C G
Branding is a technique used by the food industry to create a recognizable image to attract consumers and hopefully boost sales of the product. Children recognize food brands from a young age, but their impact on the development of eating behaviors and obesity is unclear. In addition, the notion that some branding techniques may be used to increase intake of healthful foods, like fruits and vegetables, has not been rigorously investigated. Three laboratory-based intake studies designed to test the impact of common food brands on children's eating habits are presented. In the first study, four to six year-old children (n=43) were exposed to ad libitum test-meals where foods were presented either with or without their associated branding. In the second study, a novel food brand based Stroop task was developed and tested to assess children's cognitive response to food brands, and following this procedure, seven to nine year-old children (n=41) ate ad libitum test-meals consisting of foods packaged with or without a logo from a popular fast food restaurant. Finally, a pilot intervention was conducted with four to five year-old children (n=16) to demonstrate the efficacy of using licensed (spokes) characters to package and promote intake of fruits and vegetables. These studies demonstrate that branding is an important influence on what and how much children eat, but some children may be more susceptible to these influences than others. Future studies are needed to better understand the influence that child age, sex, and obesity has on response to food branding and marketing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of growth pattern and dietary protein level during rearing on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period
Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth patterns (GP) and dietary crude protein levels (CP) during rearing (2–22 weeks of age) on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing
Darlise Rodrigues dos Passos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR, Enjoyment of Food (EF, Desire to Drink (DD, Emotional Overeating (EOE, Emotional Undereating (EUE, Satiety Responsiveness (SR, Food Fussiness (FF and Slowness in Eating (SE. Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163, 26% were overweight (n=86, 15% were obese (n=50 and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32. Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001 and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found.
Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather
Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.
Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B
Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure.
Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R
The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, M; Schneider, M; Pegler, C; Napolitano, B
In order to determine whether adolescent females with abnormal eating attitudes display lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety than their peers, and whether these adolescents participate in health-risk behaviors to a greater or lesser degree than their peers, we administered a series of questionnaires to the females attending a suburban high school in New York State. The questionnaires, completed by 268 students (mean age, 16.2 years), included data on health-risk behaviors and weight attitudes, an Eating Attitudes Test, a self-esteem scale, and an anxiety inventory. Results indicated that almost two-thirds of the students described themselves as overweight, almost three-quarters felt they were above the healthiest weight for their age and height, and almost four-fifths were above the weight at which they would be most happy; 18% of the students scored 30 or more on the Eating Attitudes Test, a score suggestive of an eating disorder. Use of Spearman-rank correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis revealed that those with more unhappiness with their weight and higher scores on the eating attitudes test were more likely to have lower self-esteem and higher anxiety and to participate more in health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and sexual activity with more total partners. The data from this study further corroborate the growing belief that health-risk behaviors tend to cluster together in vulnerable adolescents and demonstrate that abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors may be part of this cluster, especially in females with low self-esteem and high levels of anxiety.
Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Hata, Kikuko; Matsushita, Munehiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi
Socioeconomic inequalities as social determinants of health are important issues in public health and health promotion. However, the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors has been investigated poorly in Japanese adults. To fill this gap, the present study examines the association of eating behaviors with household income and education. The sample comprised 3,137 Japanese adults (1,580 men and 1,557 women) aged 30 to 59 years who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in 2014. Data on the following eating behaviors were collected via self-report: "taking care of one's diet for health," "eating vegetables," "frequency of eating breakfast," "frequency of family breakfasts," "frequency of family dinners," "using the information on nutrition labels," and "conversations with family or friends during meals." Self-reported data on socioeconomic status (household income and education) and demographic variables (gender, age, district of residence, marital status, residence status, and employment status) were also collected. The associations between eating behaviors and household income or education were tested using binomial logistic regression analysis with eating behaviors as dependent variables and household income and education as independent variables. A trend P -value was calculated for three categories of household income (less than 3,000,000 JPY, 3,000,000-7,000,000 JPY, and over 7,000,000 JPY) and education (junior high/high school, 2-year college, and 4-year college/graduate school). Higher household income and education were significantly associated with higher rates of eating vegetables, using the information on nutrition labels, and conversation with family or friends during meals in Japanese men and women. Higher household incomes were significantly associated with lower rates of frequency of family breakfasts in Japanese men and lower rates of frequency of family dinners in Japanese men and women. Higher socioeconomic
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents pay more attention to their appearance and body.Irregular nutritional patterns, eating certain types of food, and consuming more protein-containing food are more common in this age group. Considering the importance of this issue and lack of adequate studies in Iran, especially in Fars province, we aimed to assess the relationship between weight-controlling attitudes and eating disorders with dietary intake in female adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 600 female students aged 14-17 years from the four educational districts of Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2011-2012 using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using three questionnaires as follows: demographic data questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess eating attitude disorders in students, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13 and the NUT 4 software. Results: Six (1% EAT-26 questionnaire were omitted from analysis for being incomplete. Also, 556, 446, and 491 questionnaires were evaluated in meat, bread, and fat groups, respectively; and the rest were omitted because of not being complete. The mean±SD age of the students was 15.8±0.9 years. According to the EAT-26, we found that 80.1% of the students were at risk of eating attitude disorders (CI=95%, 76.9-83.3. By comparing the results of the FFQ and the EAT-26 and weight controlling behaviors, we found that consumption of meat and fat was significantly higher in students with eating attitude disorder (P=0.027 and P=0.003 respectively. Bread intake was significantly higher in the groups with no disorder (P=0.08. (This P value is not significant. Moreover, the mean consumption of sandwiches was higher in students with eating attitude disorders (P=0.002. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of eating attitude disorders in our study, assessing the underlying reasons and implementing preventive
Mohammad Reza Khodabakhsh
Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Emotion regulation difficulties predicts disordered eating, but how emotion regulation difficulties lead to disordered eating remains an unanswered question. In this research, the role of alexithymia and emotion regulation difficulties was investigated in the prediction of disordered eating behaviors among students. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 264 students of Allameh Tabataba’i University, who were selected by multiple cluster sampling. Data were collected using Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eating Attitudes Test, and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Analysis of data was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. The significance level was considered to be p<0.01. Results: Results showed that there was a significant correlation among emotion regulation difficulties, alexithymia, and disordered eating behaviors (p<0.01. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicated that alexithymia and emotion regulation difficulties significantly predicted disoredered eating behaviors (p<0.01 and emotion regulation difficulties has a mediator role in the relationship between alexithymia and disordered eating behaviors (p<0.01. Conclusion: The results of this study is indicative of the importance of emotion regulation difficulties and alexithymia in the prediction of disordered eating behaviors, and these factors can explain the high rate of disordered eating behaviors variance.
Full Text Available The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL, attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.
Ter Huurne, Elke D; Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; DeJong, Cor A J
Treatment dropout is an important concern in eating disorder treatments as it has negative implications for patients' outcome, clinicians' motivation, and research studies. Our main objective was to conduct an exploratory study on treatment dropout in a two-part web-based cognitive behavioral therapy with asynchronous therapeutic support. The analysis included 205 female patients with eating disorders. Reasons for dropout, treatment experiences, and predictors of dropout were analyzed. Overall treatment dropout was 37.6%, with 18.5% early dropout (before or during treatment part 1) and 19.0% late dropout (after part 1 or during part 2). Almost half of the participants identified personal circumstances as reason for dropout. The other participants mostly reported reasons related to the online delivery or treatment protocol. Predictors of early dropout included reporting less vigor and smoking at baseline and a longer average duration per completed treatment module of part 1. Late dropout was predicted by reporting less vigor at baseline and uncertainty about recommendation of the treatment to others after completion of treatment part 1. Generally, the web-based treatment and online therapeutic support were evaluated positively, although dropouts rated the treatment as significantly less helpful and effective than completers did. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hutter, Scanlan, Rand, Lutwak , and Simko, 1972).22.30,60,145,152 In addition, such "snacking" increases the body’s ability to maintain normal blood sugar...Young, C. M., Hutter, L. F., Scanlon, S. S., Rand, C. E., Lutwak , L., and Simko, V. Metabolic effects of meal frequency on normal young men. Journal
Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)
Gallo, Juliana Maria Altavista Sagretti
This study evaluated the rheological behavior of 11 salad dressings ready to eat, processed by gamma irradiation, at doses: 3 kGy and 5 kGy. This assessment was made by rheograms traced by measurements of viscosity and shear stress by shear rate. Mathematical parameters obtained from these measures also contributed to the conclusion of the behavior exhibited and for choosing the best mathematical model applicable to them. The measurements were performed on a Brookfield viscometer Model LVDV - III. The Neslab thermal bath was used to maintain ambient temperature during the whole analysis. This study protocol was done in two stages. In step 1, the evaluation was performed soon after the samples have been irradiated when these were close to their dates of manufacture. In phase 2 the samples were reassessed after a period of storage, near the expiration date of their validity. Simultaneously pH measurement was performed to evaluate their stability in the face of treatment and sensory analyzes of two salad dressings were studied, in order to verify the acceptance of these when submitted to irradiation. The shear-thinning behavior was confirmed for all dressings through the mathematical model, the power law, that best model apply to this, in both phases. The irradiation at the absorbed doses studied did not influence this behavior. The results of sensory evaluation indicated good acceptance of irradiated sauces for the tasters. (author)
Rühl, Ilka; Legenbauer, Tanja; Hiller, Wolfgang
This study investigates whether eating behavior in women with diagnosed bulimia nervosa is influenced by prior exposure to images of ideally thin models. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 30 normal controls (NC) were exposed to body-related and neutral TV commercials; then food that typically triggers binge eating was provided, and the amount of food eaten was measured. No significant difference for food intake between NC and BN could be found, but food intake for BN was predicted by the degree of thoughts related to eating behaviors during exposure to the thin ideal. No impact of general body image or eating pathology on food intake could be found. The results emphasize the importance of action-relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for the maintenance of eating-disordered behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa, when exposed to eating-disorder-specific triggers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; White, Adrienne A; Brown, Onikia; Colby, Sarah; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Kidd, Tanda; Greene, Geoffrey
To examine relationships of sleep, eating, and exercise behaviors; work time pressures; and sociodemographic characteristics by weight status (healthy weight [body mass index or BMI universities. Enrolled college students (N = 1252; 18-24 years; 80% white; 59% female). Survey included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI), National Cancer Institute Fruit/Vegetable Screener, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Work Time Pressure items, and sociodemographic characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests determined significant bivariate associations of sociodemographics, sleep behaviors, eating behaviors, physical activity behavior, and work time pressures with weight status (i.e., healthy vs. overweight/obese). Statistically significant bivariate associations with weight status were then entered into a multivariate logistic regression model that estimated associations with being overweight/obese. Sex (female), race (nonwhite), older age, higher Global PSQI score, lower ecSI total score, and higher TFEQ Emotional Eating Scale score were significantly (p obesity in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sex (female; odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-2.74), older age (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.21-1.50), higher Global PSQI score (OR = 1.07, CI = 1.01-1.13), and lower ecSI score (OR = .96, CI = .94-.98), were significantly (p obesity. Findings suggest that obesity prevention interventions for college students should include an education component to emphasize the importance of overall sleep quality and improving eating competence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Being overweight is an increasing problem among young people, among whom disordered eating behavior is linked with weight problems as well as unhealthy weight control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether health factors and motives to exercise differ in young men by the type of disordered eating behavior. Methods The population-based, cross-sectional MOPO study consisted of 2,096 young Finnish men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.7 attending compulsory call-ups for military service in the Oulu area in 2010, 2011, and 2013. They responded to a questionnaire that included two subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 indicating drive for thinness and bulimic behavior and questions on health, physical activity, and motives to exercise. The association between disordered eating behavior and related factors was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Results Altogether, 6.9 % (n = 145 of the men had symptoms of disordered eating, i.e., 5.4 % had a drive for thinness (n = 114 and 3.7 % had bulimic behavior (n = 77. Drive for thinness was associated with a perception of being overweight (OR 3.7; 95 % CI 2.2–6.1, poor self-rated health (2.3; 1.2–4.4, more leisure sitting time (1.1; 1.0–1.2, and body-related exercise motives (body acceptance: 3.0; 1.7–5.2; weight loss: 2.5; 1.4–4.4. Bulimic behavior was positively associated with poor self-rated health (2.6; 1.1–5.8 and several motives to exercise, i.e., due to another person’s suggestion (2.8; 1.6–4.8, competitive sports (2.1; 1.2–3.7, body acceptance (2.1; 1.1–3.9, and weight loss (1.9; 1.1–3.3, but inversely associated with health/fitness-related exercise motives (health promotion: 0.3; 0.1–0.5; muscular strength or physical performance: 0.5; 0.2–0.9. Conclusions In young men, disordered eating behavior was associated with being overweight, having poor self-rated health, and having a greater amount of leisure sitting time as well
Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento alimentar tem despertado grande interesse por se tratar de um elemento importante para o sucesso de intervenções nutricionais. Considerando-se a complexidade do tema e as inúmeras influências a que está submetido, sugere-se que o aprofundamento de pesquisas sobre os determinantes do comportamento alimentar possibilite maior impacto nas ações de promoção de práticas alimentares saudáveis. A adoção cada vez mais freqüente de uma alimentação inadequada no Brasil e no mundo leva a um questionamento sobre o impacto das intervenções nutricionais tradicionalmente utilizadas em âmbito populacional. Diversas estratégias de educação nutricional são atualmente descritas na literatura; contudo, alcançar a motivação da população para uma mudança efetiva do padrão alimentar ainda é um dos grandes desafios para a saúde pública. A aplicação do modelo transteórico parece ter um papel promissor em relação à melhor compreensão da mudança de comportamento alimentar, almejada nas intervenções nutricionais. Estratégias que envolvam o direcionamento para cada estágio de mudança de comportamento, identificado segundo essa teoria, podem ser mais eficazes quanto à motivação dos indivíduos a adotar práticas alimentares mais saudáveis.The study of eating behavior has been much interest, as this is an essential element for the success of dietary interventions. In view of the complexity of the subject and the countless influences to which it is subject, it is suggested that an in-depth exploration of eating behavior determinants enhances the impact of programs promoting healthy dietary practices. Increasingly more frequent, the adoption of inadequate diets in Brazil and elsewhere in the world leads to questions about the impact of dietary interventions traditionally applied to population groups. Many nutritional education strategies are currently described in the literature; however, motivating
Denise Siqueira Péres
in Southeastern Brazil in January 2003. A semi-structured interview was applied for data collection. The theoretical reference was the theory of social representations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and then their thematic content was analyzed. RESULTS: The study results showed women's difficulty in following the prescribed diet due to several associated meanings, such as loss of eating and drinking pleasure and loss of eating autonomy and free choice. Following the diet elicits an extremely aversive and restrictive attitude, and complying with it is associated to damage to health. The frequent absence of symptoms was mentioned as one reason that prevents compliance to the diet. Other difficulties reported were touching, looking at, and handling food during their preparation but not being allowed to eat them. Sweet foods revealed to be extremely desired. Transgression and food desire are equally present in their life. Following the recommended diet brings sadness and the act of eating is frequently accompanied by fear, guilt and anger. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes women's eating behavior is very complex and needs to be understood from its psychological, biological, social, cultural and economic aspects for promoting more effective educational interventions.
Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Sharon; Watson, Hunna; La Puma, Michelle; Allen, Karina; Byrne, Susan
Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses affecting a significant proportion of women and a smaller number of men. Approximately half of those with an eating disorder (ED) will not meet the criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa, and will be diagnosed with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Until recently, there were no…
Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Radin, Rachel M; Thompson, Katherine A; Cassidy, Omni L; Brady, Sheila; Mehari, Rim; Courville, Amber B; Chen, Kong Y; Galescu, Ovidiu A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A
Short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness have been associated with an increased risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults. There has been far less attention to the characterization of sleep in adolescents at-risk for diabetes or to the possible behavioral mechanisms, such as disinhibited eating, through which sleep may affect metabolic functioning. We evaluated the associations of sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with a multi-modal assessment of disinhibited eating in 119 adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes based upon being overweight/obese and having a family history of diabetes. Girls also endorsed mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms. Adolescents reported sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with the Sleep Habits Survey and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. They were administered a series of successive test meals to measure total energy intake and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescent binge eating was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Accounting for age, race, puberty, body composition, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress, reported sleep duration was positively related to test meal total energy intake (p=0.04), but not to EAH. Adjusting for the same covariates, daytime sleepiness was associated with a greater odds of objective binge eating in the previous month (p=0.009). In adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes, reported sleep characteristics are associated with disinhibited eating behaviors that have been linked to excessive weight and adverse metabolic outcomes. Future studies are called for to evaluate these links using objective measures of sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Few studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the micro-structural alterations of WM in patients with restrictive eating disorders (rED, and longitudinal data are lacking. Twelve patients with rED were scanned at diagnosis and after one year of family-based treatment, and compared to twenty-four healthy controls (HCs through DTI analysis. A tract-based spatial statistics procedure was used to investigate diffusivity parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA and mean, radial and axial diffusivities (MD, RD and AD, respectively. Reduced FA and increased RD were found in patients at baseline in the corpus callosum, corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation compared with controls. However, no differences were found between follow-up patients and controls, suggesting a partial normalization of the diffusivity parameters. In patients, trends for a negative correlation were found between the baseline FA of the right anterior corona radiata and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire total score, while a positive trend was found between the baseline FA in the splenium of corpus callosum and the weight loss occurred between maximal documented weight and time of admission. A positive trend for correlation was also found between baseline FA in the right anterior corona radiata and the decrease in the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory Revised total score over time. Our results suggest that the integrity of the limbic-thalamo-cortical projections and the reward-related circuitry are important for cognitive control processes and reward responsiveness in regulating eating behavior.
Rodríguez Guarín, Maritza; Rodríguez Malagón, Nelcy; Gempeler Rueda, Juanita; Garzón, Daniel Felipe
Suicide attempt (SA) and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors (NSSI) have been described in patients with eating disorders (ED), and they have been associated with increased morbidity and poor prognosis. To explore the presence of SA and NSSI in patients attending an outpatient ED program, as well as to evaluate the associated variables and the correlation between both types of behaviors. A total of 908 patients of both sexes attending the Equilibrio outpatient program in Bogotá were studied. The histories of SA and NSSI were systematically examined in the development of medical history by direct and structured questions to the patient, and then validated during interviews with the family. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, as well as history of traumatic experiences, were also studied. Simple frequencies were calculated, and a bivariate analysis was performed between SA, NSSI, and the other variables of the study. Finally, two models of association were designed for the multivariate analysis, using variables of clinical importance and statistical significance. SA sometime in their lives was reported by 13% of the patients, and 26% of them reported NSSI. The variables associated with SA were bipolar disorder (OR: 3.86, 95% CI; 2.4-6.1), borderline personality, purgative subtype of ED, and self-injury. Sexual abuse was associated with NSSI (OR: 3.48, 95%CI; 2.2-5.4), as well as bipolar disorder, trichotillomania, and suicide attempt. SA and NSSI are frequent in patients with eating disorders with multiple comorbidities, increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation, and they should be explored and treated. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James
Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory
The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.
Full Text Available This commentary is an attempt to begin to identify and think through some of the ways in which sociocultural theory may contribute to understandings of the relationship between humans and digital data. I develop an argument that rests largely on the work of two scholars in the field of science and technology studies: Donna Haraway and Annemarie Mol. Both authors emphasised materiality and multiple ontologies in their writing. I argue that these concepts have much to offer critical data studies. I employ the tropes of companion species, drawn from Haraway, and eating data, from Mol, and demonstrate how these may be employed to theorise digital data–human assemblages.
Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa
Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban
Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.
Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…
Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie; Hayashi, Fumi; Takemi, Yukari
Objective: This study examined whether the experience of enjoyable mealtimes at home during childhood was related to eating behaviors and subjective diet-related quality of life in adulthood. Methods: The study used data (n = 2,936) obtained from a research program about "Shokuiku" (food and nutrition education) conducted by the Cabinet…
Agras, W. Stewart; And Others
Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)
Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence
Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…
Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.
The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…
Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…
Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S
Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Annameier, Shelly K; Kelly, Nichole R; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A; Shomaker, Lauren B
Mindfulness-based intervention has become increasingly popular to address disinhibited eating in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, present-moment attention promotes the ability to recognize and respond to internal hunger cues and to differentiate physiological hunger from other stimuli. Yet, there is limited research describing the relationship of mindfulness with disinhibited eating patterns in adolescents. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to laboratory eating in 107 adolescent (12-17 years) girls at risk for T2D. Adolescents reported dispositional mindfulness, were evaluated for recent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) by interview, and participated in two successive, standardized laboratory test meals to assess eating when hungry as well as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescents rated state appetite throughout the test meal paradigms. In analyses adjusting for body composition and other possible confounds, mindfulness was inversely related to caloric intake during the EAH paradigm. Mindfulness did not relate to energy intake when hungry. Instead, there was a significant interaction of reported LOC-eating by state hunger, such that girls with recent, reported LOC-eating and high state hunger consumed more calories when hungry, regardless of mindfulness. Findings suggest that in girls at risk for T2D, mindfulness may play a role in disinhibited eating. A propensity for LOC-eating may be most salient for overeating in a high hunger state. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
F. Marijn Stok
Full Text Available Introduction: Eating behavior often becomes unhealthier during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, but not much is known about the factors that drive this change. We assess the available evidence on this topic through a literature review and pay special attention to the research designs employed in the studies available as well as the modifiability of the factors investigated in previous research. Method: We systematically conducted a scoping review by searching literature published in or after 2000 in three databases that described one or more factors associated with eating behavior or changes in eating behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood in the general population. Our search identified eighteen articles meeting these inclusion criteria. The socio-ecological DONE (Determinants of Nutrition and Eating framework, a recently developed dynamic framework of factors shaping dietary behavior, was used to structure and categorize the factors identified. Results: Most factors identified in the literature were individual-level factors (67% such as food beliefs, time constraints, and taste preferences; on the other hand, interpersonal-level factors (e.g., social support, environmental-level factors (e.g., product characteristics and policy-level factors (e.g., market regulations have been reported on less extensively. Furthermore, most factors discussed in the literature have been classified in the DONE framework as not easily modifiable. Moreover, previous studies largely used static research designs and focused primarily on one specific population (US freshmen. Discussion: This systematic scoping review identified several gaps in the available literature that hinder insight into the drivers of eating behavior (change during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. There is an urgent need for research on broader populations, employing dynamic repeated-measures designs, and taking modifiability of
Cássia Roberta Benko
Full Text Available Objective: The Nutrition-Behavior Inventory (NBI is a self-administered instrument that allows eating habits to be correlated with psychopathological symptoms. The objective was to translate and adapt the NBI to Portuguese, and test the Portuguese NBI’s reliability. The second aim was to verify its sensitivity for identification of risk factors in terms of behavior/eating habits in children and adolescents. Methods: The NBI was translated, adapted, and back-translated. The Portuguese version of the NBI was then applied (N = 96; 9-12 years. In order to verify the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was used. The psychopathological indicators of the participants were accessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. The mean CBCL scores were analyzed in relation to the NBI data (cutoff point: ≥ 30 with indicators, and 30 on the following: anxiety and depression (p = 0.041, social difficulties (p = 0.028, attention problems (p = 0.001, aggressive behavior (p = 0.015; ADHD (p < 0.001, and conduct problems (p = 0.032. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the NBI is a reliable instrument. The NBI can be useful for evaluating psychopathological symptoms related to the eating habits and behaviors of children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Background: Caring for oneself through mindfulness and compassion to improve or enhance health behaviors, and specifically eating behaviors has come to the forefront of scientific inquiry. The experiences and challenges for people in decision making around food within the context of self-kindness for body and mind care have not been previously explored.Aims: This study explored the experiences of eating behaviors in a community sample and examined the understanding of self-kindness and its relationship to eating behaviors and wellbeing of body and mind.Methods: A phenomenological theoretical position was taken; data were collected using individual semi-structured interviews. The sample was twenty-five members of the wider community in the West Midlands in England. The data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006 procedural steps for thematic analysis.Results: Two overarching themes were inductively formulated: ‘Thinking about eating’ and ‘Caring for body and mind’. Five themes were constructed: (a Treat food is exceptional eating, (b The proof of the pudding is in the planning, (c Dieting is a dirty word, which are subsumed under Thinking about eating, and (d Self-kindness is a disavowed abstract noun, and (e Self-kindness: A rose by any other name; under Caring for body and mind. Participants described a number of ways of treating themselves both with food and with other activities and pleasure in eating was discussed in terms of social aspects of eating rather than food. Two clear contradictions within narratives around eating and health behaviors were shown. Participants largely eschewed the concept of dieting, but described engaging in highly regulated and restrained eating. There was a lack of connection with the notion of self-kindness; although positive eating and exercise health behaviors were undertaken, they were described as necessary self-regulation, not construed as acts of self-kindness.Conclusion: The results
Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui
In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.
This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…
Hill, Larry K.
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Gerage, Aline Mendes; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira; de Souza, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho; Almeida, Fábio Araujo
This study aimed to analyze the effect of a behavior change program, called Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde (VAMOS), on physical activity, eating habits, and quality of life in patients with hypertension. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 90 patients with hypertension (57.8 ± 9.9 y). They were randomly assigned to 2 groups: VAMOS group (n = 45) and control group (n = 45). The VAMOS group participated in a behavioral change program aimed at motivating changes in physical activity and nutrition behavior for 12 weeks. Physical activity, eating habits, quality of life, self-efficacy, and social support were evaluated at preintervention and postintervention. The control group increased sedentary time (407 ± 87 vs 303 ± 100 min/d; P healthy eating habits score (36.9 ± 6.6 vs 43.4 ± 5.8; P eating habits and quality of life in patients with hypertension.
Dalen, Jeanne; Brody, Janet L; Staples, Julie K; Sedillo, Donna
Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth.
Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A
This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742
Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina
Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions.
Haleama Al Sabbah
Results: The participants' mean age and standard deviation (Mean ± SD was 19 ± 1.3 years. 31.4% of the participants showed disordered eating attitudes. The percentage of participants engaged in at least one concerning behavior in the past six months was 43.8%. A membership in a health club was significantly related to disordered eating attitudes (p< 0.01. A high level of physical activity was correlated with laxative use, over the counter supplements, and exercising for more than 60 minutes to control weight (p < 0.05. Conclusion: There is a great need for intervention programs and policies to contain the level of abnormal eating attitudes and promote healthy level of physical activity among college students.
Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Jung, Molly; Patel, Sanjay R; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Arens, Raanan; Ramos, Alberto; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Van Horn, Linda
Sleep is an important pillar of health and a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, stroke and obesity. Little is known of diet and sleep patterns of Hispanics/Latinos in the US. Here we examine eating behavior as a function of sleep duration in a sub-sample of 11,888 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of Hispanics aged 18-74 years in four US cities. Using a cross-sectional probability sample with self-report data on habitual sleep duration and up to two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) score, a measure of diet quality, and intake of selected nutrients related to cardiovascular health. Linear regression models were fit to estimate least-square means of usual nutrient intake of saturated fats, potassium density, fiber, calcium, caffeine and the AHEI-2010 score by sleep duration adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic/Latino background, income, employment status, education, depressive symptomology, and years lived in the US. Distribution of calories over the day and association with sleep duration and BMI were also examined. Short sleepers (≤6 h) had significantly lower intake of potassium, fiber and calcium and long sleepers (≥9 h) had significantly lower intake of caffeine compared to others sleepers after adjusting for covariates. However no difference in the AHEI-2010 score was seen by sleep duration. Significantly more long sleepers, compared to intermediate and short sleepers, reported having ≥30% total daily calories before bedtime. Not consuming a snack or meal within 3 h before bedtime was associated with higher AHEI-2010 scores. These findings identify novel differences in dietary patterns by sleep duration in a Hispanic/Latino cohort in the U.S. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02060344. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.
Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (-10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint ( p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition ( p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger ( p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001 and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02 and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01. Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.
Wang, Lulu; Shoemaker, Ashley H
Children with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. These children have decreased resting energy expenditure but it is unknown if hyperphagia contributes to their obesity. We conducted a survey assessment of patients 2 to 12 years old with PHP-1a and matched controls using the Hyperphagia Questionnaire (HQ) and Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Results of the PHP-1a group were also compared with an obese control group and normal weight sibling group. We enrolled 10 patients with PHP-1a and 9 matched controls. There was not a significant difference between the PHP-1a group and matched controls for total HQ score (p = 0.72), Behavior (p = 0.91), Drive (p = 0.48) or Severity (p = 0.73) subset scores. There was also no difference between the PHP-1a group and matched controls on the CEBQ. In a secondary analysis, the PHP-1a group was compared with obese controls (n = 30) and normal weight siblings (n = 6). Caregivers reported an increased interest in food before age 2 years in 6 of 10 PHP-1a patients (60%), 9 of 30 obese controls (30%) and none of the siblings (p = 0.04). The sibling group had a significantly lower Positive Eating Behavior score than the PHP-1a group (2.6 [2.4, 2.9] vs. 3.5 [3.1, 4.0], p PHP-1a and obese controls (p = 0.35). The sibling group had a lower Desire to Drink score than both the PHP-1a group (1.8 [1.6, 2.7] vs. 4.3 [3.3, 5.0], p PHP-1a and obese control Desire to Drink scores (p = 0.11). Patients with PHP-1a demonstrate hyperphagic symptoms similar to matched obese controls.
Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T
A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa
Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban China. Data were collected in 2015 from 1648 students in 16 primary and middle schools in four mega-cities in China (4 schools/city): Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an. Cluster robust negative binomial regression models were fit to assess family correlates of pocket money, associations of pocket money with child eating behaviors and weight outcomes, and possible modifying effects of schools' unhealthy food restrictions. Sixty-nine percent of students received pocket money weekly. Students received more pocket money if mothers frequently ate out of home (IRR=2.28 [1.76, 2.94]) and/or family rarely had dinner together (IRR=1.42, 95%=[1.01, 1.99]). Students got less pocket money if parents were concerned about child's future health due to unhealthy eating (IRR=0.56 [0.32,0.98]). Students with more pocket money more frequently consumed (by 25-89%) sugary beverages, snacks, fast food, or at street food stalls, and were 45-90% more likely to be overweight/obese. Associations of pocket money with unhealthy eating and overweight/obesity were weaker in schools with unhealthy food restrictions. Pocket money is a risk factor for unhealthy eating and obesity in urban China. School policies may buffer pocket money's negative influence on students' eating and weight status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Legenbauer, Tanja; Martin, Franziska; Blaschke, Ariane; Schwenzfeier, Anne; Blechert, Jens; Schnicker, Katja
Body checking (BC) and avoidance behaviors (BA) are the dominant behavioral features of body image disturbances (BID) that characterize most individuals with eating disorders (EDs). Whereas BC can be reliably assessed, a valid assessment tool for BA is lacking, preventing an adequate assessment of BID differences across different EDs (anorexia nervosa, AN; bulimia nervosa, BN; binge eating disorder, BED). A total of 310 women with EDs and 112 nonclinical controls completed measures of BC-, BA- and ED-related symptoms. BA did not differentiate between EDs, whereas BC did: it was highest in AN and BN, and lowest in BED. Multivariate analyses also discriminated AN from BN based on BC. Given that results are of preliminary nature, evidence is promising that EDs can be discriminated from healthy controls and that differential BID profiles for the behavioral component among ED subgroups exist. However, replication of the factor structure remains open within ED subsamples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Obregón, A M; Oyarce, K; Santos, J L; Valladares, M; Goldfield, G
Studies conducted in monozygotic and dizygotic twins have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. Rare mutations and common variants of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene have been linked to obesity and eating behavior scores. However, few studies have assessed common variants in MC4R gene with the rewarding value of food in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism with homeostatic and non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chileans children. This is a cross-sectional study in 258 Chilean children (44 % female, 8-14 years old) showing a wide variation in BMI. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Z-score of BMI and waist circumference) were performed by standard procedures. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire (EAHQ), the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire (FRVQ). Genotype of the rs17782313 nearby MC4R was determined by a Taqman assay. Association of the rs17782313 C allele with eating behavior was assessed using non-parametric tests. We found that children carrying the CC genotype have higher scores of food responsiveness (p value = 0.02). In obese girls, carriers of the C allele showed lower scores of satiety responsiveness (p value = 0.02) and higher scores of uncontrolled eating (p value = 0.01). Obese boys carrying the C allele showed lower rewarding value of food in relation to non-carriers. The rs17782313 C allele is associated with eating behavior traits that may predispose obese children to increased energy intake and obesity.