WorldWideScience

Sample records for human dwellings microclimate

  1. Green-Roof Effects on Neighborhood Microclimate and Human Thermal Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Jim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have been recognized as an effective sustainable design tool to mitigate urban heat island (UHI effects. Previous studies have identified green-roof benefits in cooling and energy-conservation at the building scale, with limited exploration of the wider influence on neighborhood microclimate and human thermal comfort (HTC. This paper investigated the impacts of community-scale green-roof installation on air temperature and HTC in five typical residential neighborhoods of subtropical Hong Kong. The microclimate models ENVI-met and RayMan permitted studies of two main green-roof scenarios, namely extensive (EGR and intensive (IGR. Microclimatic monitoring data from a local experimental green-roof site validated the modeling methods. The results verified that green-roof cooling effects were not restricted to rooftops, but extended to the ground to improve neighborhood microclimate. EGR reduced pedestrian-level air temperature by 0.4–0.7 °C, and IGR by 0.5–1.7 °C, with maximum effect in open-set low rise sites. Coverage by building footprints and building height dampened lateral and vertical advection of cool air generated by green roofs. Roof greening also improved notably the rooftop-podium level HTC. Diurnal duration of high heat stress was reduced by 6–9 h for EGR scenarios, and 9–11 h for IGR. The findings indicated that large-scale green-roof installation could bring neighborhood-wide cooling, mitigate urban heat island effect, and furnish more comfortable thermal environment for urban residents.

  2. Are Industrial Towns Safe for Human Dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, C.; Garg, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources in the developing countries are under severe stress with multiple stakeholders claiming rights to it. Regional industries, in absence to strict regulations, are responsible for dumping toxic wastes to rivers, ponds and other waterway which have devastating effects on water habitat as well as population that derives water for its daily needs. Key methodological challenges remain in connecting environment to levels of pollution and its relationship with diseases that affect humans. We present a case study from one of the highly industrialized town of South Asia. Ludhiana is the largest city and the largest urban settlement in Punjab, India. With the development of industry, agriculture and the growth of urban population, its water pollution has become a serious problem. Here, we will show how the distribution of heavy metals for groundwater affects its quality and role of regional hydrology on it. We will start with one of the major waterways in the Ludhiana district. Groundwater water samples including sewage water sample were collected within its vicinity of 2.0 km along the waterway (Buddha Nala). The concentration of nickel(Ni) and iron(Fe) in sewage water as well as in groundwater samples was much higher than the maximum permissible limits at a distance of 1.0 Km away from Buddha Nala. In general, all the groundwater samples collected beyond 1.0 Km away from Buddha Nala were found to be having normal concentrations of arsenic and Fe. We will also demonstrate regional health problems resulting from poor groundwater quality. Role of regional hydrology in modulating water quality will be discussed.

  3. Optimization of the Odor Microclimate

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    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The odor microclimate is formed by gaseous airborne components perceived either as an unpleasant smell or as a pleasant smell. Smells enter the building interior partly from outdoors (exhaust fumes - flower fragrance and partly from indoors (building materials, smoking cigarettes - cosmetics, dishes. They affect the human organism through the olfactory center which is connected to the part of brain that is responsible for controlling people's emotions and sexual feelings: smells therefore participate to a high level in mood formation. Sweet smells have a positive impact on human feelings and on human performance. Criteria for odor microclimate appraisal are presented together with ways of improving the odor microclimate (by stopping odors from spreading within a building, ventilation, air filtration, odor removal by plants, deodorization, etc., including so-called AIR DESIGN.

  4. Microclimate and human factors in the divergent ecology of Aedes aegypti along the Arizona, U.S./Sonora, MX border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Mary H; Uejio, Christopher K; Walker, Kathleen; Ramberg, Frank; Moreno, Rafael; Rosales, Cecilia; Gameros, Mercedes; Mearns, Linda O; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Janes, Craig R

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association of human and environmental factors with the presence of Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, in a desert region in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Sixty-eight sites were longitudinally surveyed along the United States-Mexico border in Tucson, AZ, Nogales, AZ, and Nogales, Sonora during a 3-year period. Aedes aegypti presence or absence at each site was measured three times per year using standard oviposition traps. Maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity were measured hourly at each site. Field inventories were conducted to measure human housing factors potentially affecting mosquito presence, such as the use of air-conditioning and evaporative coolers, outdoor vegetation cover, and access to piped water. The results showed that Ae. aegypti presence was highly variable across space and time. Aedes aegypti presence was positively associated with highly vegetated areas. Other significant variables included microclimatic differences and access to piped water. This study demonstrates the importance of microclimate and human factors in predicting Ae. aegypti distribution in an arid environment.

  5. Meta-analysis of the effects of microclimate cooling systems on human performance under thermal stressful environments: potential applications to occupational workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert P C; Song, Wenfang; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the appropriate microclimate cooling systems (MCSs) to reduce heat stress and improve human performance of occupational workers and their practicality in the occupational field. Meta-analysis was employed to summarize, analyze, and compare the effects of various MCSs on human performance with corresponding physiological and psychological responses, thereby providing solid suggestions for selecting suitable MCSs for occupational workers. Wearing MCSs significantly attenuated the increases in core temperature (-0.34 °C/h) and sweating rate (-0.30 L/h), and significantly improved human performance (+29.9%, effect size [EFS] = 1.1) compared with no cooling condition (CON). Cold air-cooled garments (ACG-Cs; +106.2%, EFS = 2.32) exhibited greater effects on improving human performance among various microclimate cooling garments (MCGs), followed by liquid cooling garments (LCGs; +68.1%, EFS = 1.86) and hybrid cooling garment combining air and liquid cooling (HBCG-AL; +59.1%, EFS=3.38), natural air-cooled garments (ACG-Ns; +39.9%, EFS = 1.12), and phase change material cooling garments (PCMCGs; +19.5%, EFS = 1.2). Performance improvement was observed to be positively and linearly correlated to the differences of core temperature increase rate (r = 0.65, p workers do not move frequently, whereas ACG-Ns and PCMCGs are more applicable for the majority of occupational workers. Further enhancement of the cooling efficiency of these two cooling strategies should be initiated.

  6. Risk factors for reinvasion of human dwellings by sylvatic triatomines in northern Bahia State, Brazil

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    Annie Walter

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study in Curaça, Bahia, Northeast Brazil was to explore possible factors associated with the infestation of human dwellings by Triatoma brasiliensis or Triatoma pseudomaculata, two sylvatic triatomine species. We use multiple logistic regression analysis to show how structural features of the peridomiciliary area combine with the number of animals and sociological factors to allow infestation of some dwellings. It is suggested that T. brasiliensis is associated with human activities, while T. pseudomaculata is associated with vegetation and animals. Peridomiciliary farm animals are a strong risk factor for triatomine infestation.

  7. Underground microclimates; La microclimatologia sotterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badino, G. [Turin Univ., Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Generale

    2000-07-01

    Cave's atmosphere is generally connected to the processes taking place in the external one, though showing some particular features. Such features mainly depend upon the fact that fluids flow inside caves in a bound regimen, and that the binding material, that is the rock, is highly insulating and presents an extremely strong thermal capacity. The present report describes the features of these microclimates: mean temperatures, humidity, air flows and thermal gradients. Specifically, the report underlines the fact that as regards to the mountain in which they are formed, caves represent a privileged line concerning not only the flow of fluids, but above all the flow of energy. The consequent consideration cycles seem to represent a major role in speleogenesis and in eliminating the suspended dust particles. Though, processes are determined by such small variations of environmental parameters that direct measurements are often impossible. Nevertheless, theoretical models may allow interpretation of macroscopic effects due to minimum imbalances prolonged through geological times, and may also be used to evaluate the environmental consequences of human works in caves. [Italian] Il lavoro passa in rassegna le caratteristiche dei microclimi che si formano nelle grotte: temperature medie, umidita', correnti d'aria e gradienti termici. Viene sottolienato come una grotta rappresenti per la montagna in cui essa e' scavata una sorta di linea privilegiata non solo per lo scorrimento di fluidi, ma soprattutto per lo scorrimento di flussi di energia. I cicli di condensazione che ne conseguono paiono avere un ruolo determinante nella speleogenesi e bell'abbattimento delle polveri in sospensione. I processi sono pero' determinati da variazioni cosi' piccole dei parametri ambientali che, spesso, le misure dirette sono impossibili. I modelli teorici possono pero' permettere l'interpretazione di effetti macroscopici dovuti a disequilibri

  8. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  9. System for monitoring microclimate conditions in greenhouse

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    Marković Dušan B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring microclimate parameters in different kind of environments has significant contribution to many areas of human activity and production processes. One of them is vegetable production in greenhouses where measurement of its microclimate parameters may influence the decision on taking appropriate action and protect crops. It is also important to preserve optimal condition in greenhouses to facilitate the process of transpiration, plant mineral nutrition and prevent of a variety physiological damage caused by a deficit of some specific nutrients. Systems for monitoring have wide application in the last years thanks to development of modern computer technology. In this paper model of the monitoring system based on smart transducer concept was introduced. Within the system components are based on MSP430 ultra low power micro controllers. They are using wireless communication to exchange data within the system that was structured according to smart transducer concept. User applications from the network could access to system interface using HTTP protocol where web server could be running on the computer or it could be an embedded web server running on micro controller based device.

  10. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  11. Dwelling on Courtyards. Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

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    Mohammad Taleghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and the dependency of buildings on
fossil fuels were the two main issues that formed this dissertation. UHI results in higher air temperatures in dense urban areas compared with their suburbs and rural surroundings. This phenomenon affects human health through thermal discomfort. Furthermore, in the Netherlands, it is estimated that by 2050 the air temperature could be up to 2.3°C warmer as compared to the period of 1981-2010. Besides, the energy consumption of buildings is responsible for 30 to 45% of CO2 emissions. 31% of this consumption belongs to residential buildings. Residential buildings can play a major role in reducing the CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel consumption.One of the passive architectural design solutions is the courtyard building form. Courtyards have been used for thousands of years in different climates in the world. In hot climates they provide shading, in humid climates they cause a stack effect helping ventilation, in cold climates they break cold winds and protect their microclimate. In temperate climates (such as of the Netherlands, the thermal behaviour of courtyards has been studied less. In this dissertation, low-rise residential courtyard buildings were therefore studied among (and along different urban block types in the Netherlands.As the first step, computer simulations were done as a parametric study for indoor and outdoor thermal comfort. Field measurements were done in actual urban courtyards and in dwellings alongside urban courtyards in the Netherlands (and in a similar temperate climate in the US. A scale model experiment later followed the simulations. Some of these field measurements were used to validate the simulation models. These efforts answered the two main research questions:1 To what extent is a dwelling alongside an urban courtyard more efficient and thermally comfortable than other dwellings?2 To what extent do people have a more comfortable

  12. Effect of the Urbanization of Wetlands on Microclimate: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland, Hangzhou, China

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization affects the microclimate and forms a unique urban climate environment. To deepen the understanding on the microclimate regulation function of an urban wetland, this study analyzed the influence of a suburb wetland’s urbanization process on the local climate through contrast observations of the protected wetland area and the former wetland area in Xixi wetland. Results show that the urbanization of suburb wetlands has an impact on the local microclimate and decreases human comfort, and that wetlands can effectively regulate the microclimate. The fragmentation of urban wetlands caused by urban sprawl decreases their microclimate regulation function, a decrease that is particularly evident in summer. Additionally, wetlands stabilize the microclimate in all seasons. For every land cover type in wetlands, vegetation has a better stabilizing effect on temperature, whereas a water body has a better stabilizing effect on wind speed and humidity. Meteorological conditions also affect the microclimate regulation function of wetlands. Temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed influence the cooling function of urban wetlands, while solar radiation modifies the humidifying function of urban wetlands.

  13. Comparison of Microclimate Simulated weather data to ASHRAE Clear Sky Model and Measured Data

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    Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    In anticipation of emerging global urbanization and its impact on microclimate, a need exists to better understand and quantify microclimate effects on building energy use. Satisfaction of this need will require coordinated research of microclimate impacts on and from “human systems.” The Urban Microclimate and Energy Tool (Urban-MET) project seeks to address this need by quantifying and analyzing the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, land cover, and energy use; and using these relationships to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. Initial research will focus on analysis of measured and modeled energy efficiency of various building types in selected urban areas and temporal variations in energy use for different urban morphologies under different microclimatic conditions. In this report, we analyze the differences between microclimate weather data sets for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus produced by ENVI-met and Weather Research Forecast (WRF) models, the ASHRAE clear sky which defines the maximum amounts of solar radiation that can be expected, and measured data from a weather station on campus. Errors with climate variables and their impact on building energy consumption will be shown for the microclimate simulations to help prioritize future improvement for use in microclimate simulation impacts to energy use of buildings.

  14. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

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    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  15. Natural ventilation for controlling the indoor microclimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, M.; Dell' Osso, G.R.; Iannone, F. [Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Architettura e Urbanistica

    2004-07-01

    The results of CFD numerical simulations show that the stairwell can have a fundamental role in the natural ventilation of low-rise multifamily buildings (three to five levels) in winter. The natural ventilation system here presented is characterized by low installation costs, quite easy operation and inexpensive management. In this case-study, the main design rules to obtain an effective natural ventilation system are: location and size of inlet and outlet (to move upward the neutral pressure level above the upper extraction grille device) and the aerodynamic characteristics of the openings (to equalize the flow rates). CFD simulations showed effective behaviour of the above mentioned ventilation system. The well known stack effect simplified model cannot be used in the case studied because the stairwell was characterized by complex geometry and boundary conditions. So, CFD codes are an invaluable tool in the design and verification of the behaviour of the stairwell performing as a chimney. The behaviour of the system studied is influenced by a great number of parameters depending on the external micro-climate (such as air temperature and solar radiation), the stairwell (such as the morphology and the geometry of the stairwell, the location and the aerodynamic characteristics of the openings, the thermal properties of the envelope), the dwellings (heating temperature, pressure losses along the internal flow path), the users (the control of the natural ventilation system and the heating scheduling/operation). The results shown only concern a certain number of the typical boundary conditions. However, these results can be useful for the design of other similar natural ventilation systems. Future research projects will concern the evaluation of different boundary conditions. The further aim is the definition of the most relevant parameters for the designing of similar systems. Further CFD simulations will be run to test different boundary conditions and different

  16. USAF physiological studies of personal microclimate cooling: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Stefan H.

    1993-05-01

    The U.S. Air Force has accomplished a number of research studies which evaluated the efficacy of selected personal cooling approaches for alleviating heat stress in personnel wearing certain protective clothing. Most of this work involved laboratory, as opposed to field, studies and incorporated human subjects performing work in either warm or hot environments. Both air and liquid microclimate cooling systems were evaluated. The general findings include the following: (1) personal microclimate cooling systems (both air and liquid) were shown to remove significant quantities of body heat; (2) in general, commercially available systems were Inferior to in-house prototype units; (3) backpack (ambulatory) systems usage would likely have a limited user audience for a number of reasons; (4) some near-term, partial solutions to the problem may be at hand for selected deployments; and (5) microclimate cooling technologies on the horizon will likely not provide an optimum solution for most ground crew applications. The USAF Armstrong Laboratory has limited plans for further research in this area.

  17. Infestation of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in the human dwelling environments: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades

  18. Microclimate perception analysis through cognitive mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort is not only determined by microclimate, but also by perceptual factors. As environmental psychology has brought forward, people develop cognitive ¿schemata¿ about the physical settings they are exposed to. It can be assumed that this mechanism influences thermal perception as

  19. [Occupational microclimate. Results and prospects of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, R F; Bessonova, N A; Burmistrova, O V; Burmistrov, V M; Losik, T K

    2013-01-01

    The article covers results of studies conducted over last 15 years and aimed to elaboration of requirements to integral parameters of microclimate at workplace, its evaluation and regulation, prophylactic measures against body overcooling and overheating. The authors present methods to evaluate combined effects of physical factors (noise, vibration, microclimate) and to assess microclimate with consideration of factors determining body thermal load (energy expenditure, duration of stay at workplace, heat insulation of clothes and thermo-physical parameters of its materials). Mathematic models of forecasting cold and heat stress are presented, as well as requirements to heat insulation for individual protective means against cold and methods to calculate it. Regimens of work in heating and cooling conditions are specified. The authors set directions for further studies to define regulation requirements to microclimate on basis of studied patterns of body heat state formation, its evaluation criteria, epidemiologic studies results, specified prophylactic measures against overheating and overcooling with consideration of adaptation, sex, thermo-physical characteristics of individual protective means (special clothes, footwear, gauntlets, headwear).

  20. Genetic population structure accounts for contemporary ecogeographic patterns in tropic and subtropic-dwelling humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Hadley, Craig; Brewis, Alexandra A; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this pattern reflects plastic responses to current environments or genetic differences among populations. Analyzing anthropometric surveys of 232,684 children and adults from across 80 ethnolinguistic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas, we confirm that body surface-to-volume correlates with contemporary temperature at magnitudes found in more latitudinally diverse samples (Adj. R2 = 0.14-0.28). However, far more variation in body surface-to-volume is attributable to genetic population structure (Adj. R2 = 0.50-0.74). Moreover, genetic population structure accounts for nearly all of the observed relationship between contemporary temperature and body surface-to-volume among children and adults. Indeed, after controlling for population structure, contemporary temperature accounts for no more than 4% of the variance in body form in these groups. This effect of genetic affinity on body form is also independent of other ecological variables, such as dominant mode of subsistence and household wealth per capita. These findings suggest that the observed fit of human body surface-to-volume with current climate in this sample reflects relatively large effects of existing genetic population structure of contemporary humans compared to plastic response to current environments.

  1. Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

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    Tammy E. Parece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known urban heat island (UHI effect recognizes prevailing patterns of warmer urban temperatures relative to surrounding rural landscapes. Although UHIs are often visualized as single features, internal variations within urban landscapes create distinctive microclimates. Evaluating intraurban microclimate variability presents an opportunity to assess spatial dimensions of urban environments and identify locations that heat or cool faster than other locales. Our study employs mobile weather units and fixed weather stations to collect air temperatures across Roanoke, Virginia, USA, on selected dates over a two-year interval. Using this temperature data, together with six landscape variables, we interpolated (using Kriging and Random Forest air temperatures across the city for each collection period. Our results estimated temperatures with small mean square errors (ranging from 0.03 to 0.14; landscape metrics explained between 60 and 91% of temperature variations (higher when the previous day’s average temperatures were included as a variable. For all days, similar spatial patterns appeared for cooler and warmer areas in mornings, with distinctive patterns as landscapes warmed during the day and over successive days. Our results revealed that the most potent landscape variables vary according to season and time of day. Our analysis contributes new dimensions and new levels of spatial and temporal detail to urban microclimate research.

  2. Cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae): A Reservoir of Pathogenic Microbes in Human-Dwelling Localities in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memona, H; Manzoor, F; Anjum, A A

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat. Relative abundance and frequency were measured for each bacterial species on external and internal surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitations, two major species of cockroaches were isolated, i.e., Periplaneta americana (P. americana) and Blattella germanica (B. germanica). Out of 240 cockroaches collected, 167 were P. americana and 73 were B. germanica. In total, 11 bacterial species were isolated, but no different bacterial load in each habitat was observed. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the external surface of cockroaches was found to be Escherichia coli (10.31%). In contrast, the most common isolate from the internal gut tract of cockroaches was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with relative frequency of 19.96%. Jaccard's index of similarity of bacterial species found on cockroaches was highest (0.3125) in houses, whereas Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity was highest for hospitals (0.2174). The highest Shannon-Wiener's diversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroaches collected from the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (2.610632). No Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia were found in the digestive tract of any cockroach. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  3. Hunting, swimming, and worshiping: human cultural practices illuminate the blood meal sources of cave dwelling Chagas vectors (Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala and Belize.

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    Lori Stevens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥ 99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog, food animals (pig, sheep/goat, wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species and commensal animals (mouse, rat. Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10 tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.

  4. Impact of protective shelterbelt microclimate characteristics

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    Lampartová Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of microclimate characteristics of a protective shelterbelt in Obelisk enclosure in 2010. Vegetation performs indispensable functions in the landscape. Protective shelterbelts are important landscape elements. Individual interventions to these ecosystems should be made with the intention to increase the retention capacity of the landscape, the biodiversity, and the stability of individual landscape elements and the landscape as a whole. This article presents the results of the measuring of the effect of model forest vegetation in the proximity of Obelisk in the Lednice-Valtice area on the microclimate. The protective shelterbelt, declared as a forest stand, is located in the cadastral area of Lednice, Podivin and Rakvice. A set of weather stations, supplied by AMET- Litschmann and Suchy Velke Bilovice, was used for the measuring. The stations measured wind velocity (m/s, soil temperature in depths of 5 and 10 cm (°C, air temperature (°C, radiation (W.m-2 and precipitation (mm from January 1 to December 31, 2010. The ImageTool application was used to establish optical porosity, based on photos taken in summer and winter. Optical porosity was established as a ratio of white spots to their total number in a specific section of a photograph. The optical porosity was 5% during the growing season and 23% outside the growing season. These values significantly differ from the optimum values for efficient semi-permeable PS, whose porosity is set to 40-50%.

  5. Cities as Water Supply Catchments to deliver microclimate benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Coutts, A.; Loughnan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development extensively modifies the natural hydrology, biodiversity, carbon balance, air quality and climate of the local and regional environment mainly due to increased impervious surface area (roads, pavements, roofs, etc.). Impervious surface are a legacy of urban infrastructure planning based on a ‘drained city’ to minimise flood risk. The result is a modification of the microclimate around buildings and on a city scale results in the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect where the urban areas are much hotter than the surrounding rural areas. Such heating comes on top of 20th century human induced climate change, namely decreased rainfall and higher temperatures. Drought conditions have triggered water restrictions in many Australian cities that have dramatically reduced ‘irrigation’ in urban areas. Ironically the drying influence from climate change has now been compounded by the drying influence of water restrictions and the efficient removal of stormwater resulting in desert like climates during summer. This will be further exacerbated by the projected increases in hot days, extreme hot days, heat waves, etc. In turn this excessive heating will compromise the health and liveability of urban dwellers. Stormwater is a potential critical resource that could be used to keep water in the landscape to irrigate urban areas to improve urban micro-climates, sustain vegetation and provide other multiple benefits to create more liveable and resilient urban environments. In Australia's major cities, stormwater harvesting has the potential to provide a low cost, low energy, fit-for-purpose source of water to help secure city supplies. Stormwater reuse not only provides a potential mitigation tool for the UHI and global climate change but has multiple benefits to provide resilience such as 1) Improved human thermal comfort to reduce heat related stress and mortality, 2) Healthy and productive vegetation and increased carbon sequestration, 3) Decreased stormwater

  6. Micro-Climate Evaluation System in Thermal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy evaluation method was used to evaluate the microclimate in thermal mines. A theoretical model of a microclimate evaluation system was designed and membership functions of the evaluation indices in the system were established. An analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to analyze the weight of the evaluation indices and their methods of calculation. Software for this evaluation system was developed and used for the evaluation of the microclimate of 714 sections in a mine. It is shown that the evaluation results correspond completely with the actual situation. This evaluation system and the software can be applied in thermal mines.

  7. microclimate and animal life in the equatorial mountains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hedberg (1957) called this type of climate "winter every night and .... The diurnal nature of temperature change in the equatorial mountains is the .... the nature of night frosts and the accompanying microclimate at ground level, that will affect.

  8. [Work schedule of electric welders in heating microclimate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, G A; Frolova, N M

    2010-01-01

    The authors present results of specified hygienically justified timing regulations for setting the variants of work and rest modes within electric welders shift, who work in various postures with variable visual strain while welding in heating microclimate.

  9. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  10. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  11. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...

  12. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  13. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  14. Microclimates buffer the responses of plant communities to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maclean, Ilya M. D.; Hopkins, John J.; Bennie, Jonathan; Lawson, Callum R.; Wilson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite predictions of high extinction risk resulting from climate change, range expansions have been documented more frequently than range retractions, prompting suggestions that species can endure climatic changes by persisting in cool or damp microclimates. We test whether such ‘microrefugia’

  15. Impact of different urban structures on the microclimate in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbjuhn, Cornelia; Goldberg, Valeri; Westbeld, Anna; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Heat island intensity of cities and, therefore, urban warming mainly depends on the density of urban structures and sealing of urban areas. Against the background of a probable increase of summer temperature in Central Europe, actual urban planning strategies should consider the importance of open areas and vegetation in the centre of cities for the urban microclimate. This study deals with the interaction between open areas and vegetation structures in the urban micro climate of Dresden. Investigations are embedded in the project "city nature and open area structures under climate change" of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation which aims to demonstrate impacts of different urban structures based on climatic factors and to identify their capability for adaptation. Main topic of this research is the determination of the capabilities of given and potentially vegetated areas and open areas in the inner city of Dresden to attenuate microclimatic extremes. The diversity of impacts of vegetated and open areas on the urban microclimate is presented by mobile bicycle measurements and model simulations. Simulations were carried out with the coupled vegetation-boundary layer model HIRVAC-2D and the three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI-met. Model output was compared to measurements of air temperature and air humidity on sunny days in the year 2009 to quantify cooling effects of vegetated areas for summer heat periods. ENVI-met is designed to simulate the surface-plant-atmosphere interactions in urban environment and allows the derivation of bioclimatic factors like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) for different urban structures. PMV describes the thermal perception of a human body which can result in cold or heat stress. Simulations with ENVI-met were carried out to define the cooling effects of urban areas and to estimate microclimate effects on humans. HIRVAC quantifies the interactions of urban structures with the atmospheric boundary layer depending on area

  16. Designing the Urban Microclimate: A framework for a design-decision tool for the dissemination of knowledge on the urban microclimate to the urban design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers-van Esch, M.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    The urban microclimate has a significant impact on people’s physical health. Effects range from discomfort, for example sleep disturbance, to life- threatening conditions, such as heat stroke, skin and lung cancer. It is therefore vital that the urban microclimate is given considerable attention in

  17. Designing the Urban Microclimate: A framework for a design-decision tool for the dissemination of knowledge on the urban microclimate to the urban design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers-van Esch, M.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    The urban microclimate has a significant impact on people’s physical health. Effects range from discomfort, for example sleep disturbance, to life- threatening conditions, such as heat stroke, skin and lung cancer. It is therefore vital that the urban microclimate is given considerable attention in

  18. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  19. Microclimate Influence on Bird Arrival Behavior Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, R. [Radford Univ., VA (United States); O’Brien, S. [Radford Univ., VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Using our own prototype sensor arrays that were deployed to collect microclimate data, we were able to visualize distinct differences in temperature, wind speed, and humidity over very small ranges of distance. We collected data across four polygons within the Barrow Environmental Observatory site. Our prototype microclimate arrays were based on an Arduino microcontroller, DS18B20 temperature sensors, DHT11 relative humidity/temperature sensors, and Vernier anemometers. Data were obtained in a small grid pattern with four sensors spaced 60 cm apart along the x-axis, and moved at 60 cm increments along a y-line across a polygon. Overlaying bird nest location with such data has allowed us to better answer our research question, “How do Arctic birds choose where to nest to maximize fitness in harsh Arctic environments?”

  20. Numerical Study of Urban Canyon Microclimate Related to Geometrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Lieto Vollaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study a microclimate analysis on a particular urban configuration: the—street canyon—has been carried out. The analysis, conducted by performing numerical simulations using the finite volumes commercial code ANSYS-Fluent, shows the flow field in an urban environment, taking into account three different aspect ratios (H/W. This analysis can be helpful in the study on urban microclimate and on the heat exchanges with the buildings. Fluid-dynamic fields on vertical planes within the canyon, have been evaluated. The results show the importance of the geometrical configuration, in relation to the ratio between the height (H of the buildings and the width (W of the road. This is a very important subject from the point of view of “Smart Cities”, considering the urban canyon as a subsystem of a larger one (the city, which is affected by climate changes.

  1. Public Interest in Microclimate Data in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Reyes Mason

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can sense urban environmental conditions at finer scales than previously possible. This has paved the way for monitoring microclimates between and within neighborhoods. Equally vital, though much less studied, is stakeholder engagement in understanding and using such data. This study examines interests and preferences for accessing neighborhood-scale microclimate data among residents of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Data are from randomly sampled phone surveys (N = 200 and purposively sampled focus group participants (N = 25. Survey participants expressed high interest in neighborhood air quality, temperature, and rainfall. Focus groups revealed four themes for designing smartphone applications or websites for neighborhood-scale data: easy access to integrated data, clear and intuitive design, information for everyday living and healthy behavior, and tools for civic engagement. Results support the value of creating meaningful, usable science interfaces with which the public can readily engage.

  2. Evaluation of battery packs for liquid microclimate cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, Walter B., Jr.; Avellini, Barbara A.

    1995-05-01

    The Navy clothing and Textile Research Facility conducted a literature and industry survey to determine the best commercially available battery technology for use with liquid microclimate cooling systems (MCS), and a laboratory evaluation of a battery pack utilizing that technology. Nickel/cadmium batteries were determined to be the best battery technology commercially available at the present time. However, several other battery technologies are nearing commercialization and may be available in the near future.

  3. The Mitigative Potential of Urban Environments and Their Microclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Schiano-Phan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cities play a crucial role in climate change: More than 50% of the growing population lives in cities producing most of the global GDP but also 78% of greenhouse gases (GHG responsible for climate change. Moreover, due to their highly modified land-use and intensive activities, cities are at the forefront of the most rapid environmental and climatic change ever experienced by mankind. Yet, cities’ potential to mitigate both climate change and their own environment is underexploited. This paper explores ideas related to the potential of urban environments to modify their microclimates, reflecting on the overlapping potential between mitigative and adaptive actions. These actions in cities can not only tackle some of the largest contributing factors to global climate change but offer short- to medium-term benefits that could drive more immediate socioeconomic and behavioral changes. This review proposes and discusses a new preliminary definition of urban environments as microclimate modifiers—Mitigative urban Environments and Microclimates (MitEM—and calls for further research into: (a inter-connecting the full range of mitigative and adaptive initiatives already being undertaken in many cities and maximizing their input systemically; (b developing a common and holistic definition of MitEM; (c promoting its uptake at policy level and amongst the key stakeholders, based on its social and public value beyond the environmental.

  4. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  5. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  6. Investigation of microclimate between wall and furniture with CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    velocities and diffusion transport in constructions is presented. It is a CFD model where the air is modelled as a mixture of dry air and water vapour and walls fluids modelled with ordinary wall characteristics as material properties. This enables easy modelling of moisture transfer within the walls....... This investigation has special focus on the coupling of the moisture transfers in the wall and the moisture content of the air. The microclimate in a room is studied for different geometrical configurations, meaning that the moisture and temperature conditions are analysed and discussed using different distances...... between wall constructions and furnishing....

  7. Simulation of Micro-Climate in Heated Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Diachek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main theoretical principles that serve as a basis for the developed numerical model of processes pertaining to conjugated heat exchange in the heated buildings. Information on functional capabilities of the developed programme, results of calculations and comparison of the obtained data with the conditions of heat comfort are given in the paper. It has been established that an application of simulation processes pertaining to energy and substance transfer at the design stage is considered as a rather efficient method for provision of the required parameters of a micro-climate and optimization of heat consumption by heated buildings.

  8. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; Groot, de Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing sea

  9. Nest site selection in a hot desert : Trade-off between microclimate and predation risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Nest placement affects the risk of predation on both eggs and incubating parents and determines the microclimate for incubation, two functions that may be in conflict, especially in hot deserts. We studied the roles of microclimate and nest predation on nest site selection by Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon a

  10. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; Groot, de Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing

  11. Canopy processes, fluxes and microclimate in a pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launiainen, S.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction between forests and the atmosphere occurs by radiative and turbulent transport. The fluxes of energy and mass between surface and the atmosphere directly influence the properties of the lower atmosphere and in longer time scales the global climate. Boreal forest ecosystems are central in the global climate system, and its responses to human activities, because they are significant sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and of aerosol particles. The aim of the present work was to improve our understanding on the existing interplay between biologically active canopy, microenvironment and turbulent flow and quantify. In specific, the aim was to quantify the contribution of different canopy layers to whole forest fluxes. For this purpose, long-term micrometeorological and ecological measurements made in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest at SMEAR II research station in Southern Finland were used. The properties of turbulent flow are strongly modified by the interaction between the canopy elements: momentum is efficiently absorbed in the upper layers of the canopy, mean wind speed and turbulence intensities decrease rapidly towards the forest floor and power spectra is modulated by spectral short-cut . In the relative open forest, diabatic stability above the canopy explained much of the changes in velocity statistics within the canopy except in strongly stable stratification. Large eddies, ranging from tens to hundred meters in size, were responsible for the major fraction of turbulent transport between a forest and the atmosphere. Because of this, the eddy-covariance (EC) method proved to be successful for measuring energy and mass exchange inside a forest canopy with exception of strongly stable conditions. Vertical variations of within canopy microclimate, light attenuation in particular, affect strongly the assimilation and transpiration rates. According to model simulations, assimilation rate decreases with height more rapidly than stomatal

  12. Urbanization effects on the microclimate of Manaus: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Diego Oliveira de; Alvalá, Regina Célia dos Santos; Nascimento, Marília Guedes do

    2016-01-01

    Activities associated with land use and land cover changes and urbanization induce local impacts, such as changes in atmospheric composition in water and energy balances and changes in the ecosystem. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between urban growth and local and regional changes. In the last 30 years, the population of Manaus grew by over 500%, with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in 2010. Trying to understand the effects of the urban growth of the city of Manaus on its microclimate and atmospheric processes, the present study aims to evaluate the possible physical mechanisms related to the urbanization process observed through a study of atmospheric modeling. The results allowed to assess that the presence of the urban area significantly modifies the surface energy balance (SEB), generating a thermal gradient between the city and the surrounding regions, favoring the formation and intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The results indicated that with urban growth there is an increase in temperature, decrease in the atmospheric water content and significant changes in the flow at low levels, mainly in the breeze circulations, with significant changes observed in the structure and characteristic of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the study area. A positive correlation between the increase of the urban area and increased rainfall was also observed. From the results, it was possible to observe that there is a direct relationship between urban growth and changes in the local microclimate in Manaus.

  13. Soil microclimate monitoring in forested and meadow sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyerova, Katerina; Safanda, Jan

    2016-04-01

    It is well known fact that forest microclimate differs from open area microclimate (Geiger 1965). Less attention is paid to soil temperatures and their long-term monitoring. To evaluate and compare these two environments from the soil microclimate point of view, Institute of Geophysics in Prague monitors soil and air temperatures in Bedřichov in the Jizerské Hory Mountains (Czech Republic). The soil temperatures are measured in three depths (20, 50 and 100 cm) in forest (700 m a. s. l.) and meadow (750 m a. s. l.). Air temperatures are measured at 2m height both in forest and meadow. Nowadays, we have more than three years long time series. The most of studies and experiments described in literature are short-term ones (in order of days or weeks). However, from short-term experiments the seasonal behaviour and trends can be hardly identified and conclusions on soil temperature reaction to climatic extremes such as heat waves, drought or freeze cannot be done with confidence. These drawbacks of the short-term experiments are discussed in literature (eg. Morecroft et al. 1998; Renaud et al. 2011). At the same, with progression of the global warming, the expected increasing frequency of climatic extremes will affect the future form of forest vegetation (Von Arx et al. 2012). The soil and air temperature series, both from the forest and meadow sites, are evaluated and interpreted with respect to long term temperature characteristics and seasonal trends. The emphasis is given on the soil temperature responses to extreme climatic situations. We examine variability between the localities and depths and spatial and temporal changes in this variability. This long-term monitoring allows us to better understand and examine the behaviour of the soil temperature in extreme weather situations. Therefore, we hope to contribute to better prediction of future reactions of this specific environments to the climate change. Literature Geiger, R., 1965. The climate near the ground

  14. Practicing the attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus Mogens

    2007-01-01

    . The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing......Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (

  15. Warming tolerance across insect ontogeny: influence of joint shifts in microclimates and thermal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The impact of warming on the persistence and distribution of ectotherms is often forecasted from their warming tolerance, inferred as the difference between their upper thermal limit and macroclimate temperature. Ectotherms, however, are thermally adapted to their microclimates, which can deviate substantially from macroscale conditions. Ignoring microclimates can therefore bias estimates of warming tolerance. We compared warming tolerance of an insect across its ontogeny when calculated from macro- and microclimate temperatures. We used a heat balance model to predict experienced microclimate temperatures from macroclimate, and we measured thermal limits for several life stages. The model shows a concomitant increase in microclimate temperatures and thermal limits across insect ontogeny, despite the fact that they all share the same macroclimate. Consequently, warming tolerance; as estimated from microclimate temperature, remained constant across ontogeny. When calculated from macroclimate temperature, however, warming tolerance was overestimated by 7-10 degrees C, depending on the life stage. Therefore, errors are expected when predicting persistence and distribution shifts of ectotherms in changing climates using macroclimate rather than microclimate.

  16. Modelling the soil microclimate: does the spatial or temporal resolution of input parameters matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of predicting future impacts of environmental change on vulnerable populations is advancing the development of spatially explicit habitat models. Continental-scale climate and microclimate layers are now widely available. However, most terrestrial organisms exist within microclimate spaces that are very small, relative to the spatial resolution of those layers. We examined the effects of multi-resolution, multi-extent topographic and climate inputs on the accuracy of hourly soil temperature predictions for a small island generated at a very high spatial resolution (<1 m2 using the mechanistic microclimate model in NicheMapR. Achieving an accuracy comparable to lower-resolution, continental-scale microclimate layers (within about 2–3°C of observed values required the use of daily weather data as well as high resolution topographic layers (elevation, slope, aspect, horizon angles, while inclusion of site-specific soil properties did not markedly improve predictions. Our results suggest that large-extent microclimate layers may not provide accurate estimates of microclimate conditions when the spatial extent of a habitat or other area of interest is similar to or smaller than the spatial resolution of the layers themselves. Thus, effort in sourcing model inputs should be focused on obtaining high resolution terrain data, e.g., via LiDAR or photogrammetry, and local weather information rather than in situ sampling of microclimate characteristics.

  17. Microclimate of Atlantic forest fragments: regional and local scale heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Nunes Ramos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate whether (i the organisms within different fragments, on regional scale (separated by up to 100 km, could be submitted to similar climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature, and whether (ii the edge formation in forest fragments could stimulate microclimatic changes (canopy cover, air temperature and soil humidity, on local scale. The organisms within different fragments, on regional scale, were submitted to different climatic conditions, and the edge formation in the forest fragment stimulated microclimatic changes, on local scale, although in a heterogenic way. Not just the distance from the edge influenced the microclimatic differences. Probably, the edge age, location, the matrix structure, as well as, gap proximity could change the microclimatic even within edges.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar se (i os organismos dentro de diferentes fragmentos, em escala regional (separados por até 100 km, podem ser submetidos a condições climáticas similares (pluviosidade e temperatura e se (ii a formação de borda em fragmentos florestais pode estimular mudanças microclimáticas (abertura de dossel, temperatura do ar e umidade do solo, em escala regional. O estudo foi conduzido em cinco fragmentos (escala regional no Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, e em escala local, dentro de um deles. Os organismos dentro dos diferentes fragmentos, em escala regional, foram submetidos a diferentes condições climáticas, e a formação de borda nos fragmentos florestais estimulou mudanças climáticas, de maneira heterogênea. Não apenas a distância das bordas tem influencia nas diferenças microclimáticas. Provávelmente, a idade e localização da borda, a estrutura da matriz, assim como a proximidade de clareiras pode modificar o microclima mesmo entre bordas.

  18. Microclimate, development and productivity of robusta coffee shaded by rubber trees and at full sun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    André Vasconcellos Araújo; Fábio Luiz Partelli; Gleison Oliosi; José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2016-01-01

      There are few studies about the shading of Robusta coffee with rubber trees. The aim of this study was evaluate the microclimate, development and yield of Coffea canephora grown at full sun and shaded by rubber trees...

  19. Topographic microclimates drive microhabitat associations at the range margin of a butterfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Bennie, Jonathan; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Thomas, Chris D.; Wilson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat associations of individuals underpin the dynamics of species distributions. Broad-scale gradients in climate can alter habitat associations across species’ geographic ranges, but topographic heterogeneity creates local microclimates which could generate variation in habitat use at finer

  20. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  1. Physical Characters of Trees And Their Effects on Micro-Climate (Case Study at Urban Forest and Green Open Space at Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endes N Dahlan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature in cities are increasing which can cause reduce the human comfort and productivity. Urban forest can make the environment comfortable. The objectiveof the researc hwere: (1. To Determine the effects of urban forest on air temperature and relative humidity, (2. To analyze the effects of physical characters of trees ont he micro-climate amelioration and(3. To Determine species of trees which are very effective for micro-climate amelioration.The results of the research revealed that the average of daily air temperature in the urban forest was 30.2 C with arelative humidityof 74.0%, while the daily air temperature around the urban forest was 31.8 Karakter Fisik Pohon ... (Dahlan E o C with relative humidityof 71.1%. Tree composisitin of all study sites consist of192trees, 29 speciesand 13families. The TinjomoyoForest Tourism has the highest density of trees(406trees/ha, while the lowest in the Parks Minister Supeno (316trees/ha. Value of Key Performance Indicator (KPI of trees based on calculation of tall of trees, diameter of canopies, total leaves area and canopy forms noticed that very effective trees for micro-climate amelioration were: Angsana(Pterocarpus indicus, beringin(Ficus benjamina, flamboyan(Delonix regia , ketapang(Terminalia catappa, mahoni (Swietenia mahogany, andtrembesi (Albizia saman.

  2. Solar Park Impacts on Air and Soil Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A.; Ostle, N. J.; Whitaker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The drive towards low carbon energy sources and increasing energy demand has resulted in a rapid rise in solar photovoltaics across the world. A substantial proportion of photovoltaics are large-scale ground-mounted systems, solar parks, causing a notable land use change. While the impacts of photovoltaic panel production and disposal have been considered, the consequences of the operation of solar parks on the hosting landscape are poorly resolved. Here, we present data which demonstrates that a solar park sited on permanent grassland in the UK significantly impacted the air and soil microclimate. Specifically, we observed (1) cooler soil under the photovoltaic panels during the summer and between the photovoltaic panel rows during the winter; (2) dampening of the diurnal variation in air temperature and absolute humidity from the spring to the autumn; (3) lower photosynthetically active radiation and a lower direct:diffuse under the panels; and (4) reduced wind speed between the panel rows and substantially reduced wind speeds under the panels. Further, there were differences in vegetation type and productivity and greenhouse gas emissions. Given the centrality of climate on ecosystem function, quantifying the microclimatic impacts of this emerging land use change is critical. We anticipate these data will help develop understanding of effects in other climates, under different solar park designs and the implications for the function and service provision of the hosting landscape.

  3. Feedbacks between woody plant encroachment and microclimate in desert grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; He, Y.; De Wekker, S.; Fuentes, J. D.; Collins, S. L.; Pockman, W.

    2011-12-01

    The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands is a global phenomenon that results from a variety of drivers related to land use and global environmental change. In the southwestern U.S., shrub encroachment can be associated with land degradation, soil erosion, and the formation of coppice dunes. In this region, the relatively abrupt character of grassland-to-shrubland transitions - both in time and in space - suggests that arid and semiarid rangelands may exhibit two alternative stable states characterized by either grass or shrub dominance. In these bistable landscapes, even small changes in environmental drivers may cause abrupt state transitions from grassland to shrubland, sustained by positive feedbacks with environmental drivers. We show that positive feedbacks between land cover change and microclimate may contribute to shrub encroachment in the southwestern US. Thus, we investigate changes in surface air temperature and energy balance resulting from grass-to-shrub transitions in the northern Chiuhuahuan desert. We find that the encroachment of native shrubs into desert grasslands modifies the surface energy balance with the overall net effect of increasing nighttime air temperatures, thereby favoring the establishment and growth of freeze-sensitive Larrea plants.

  4. Microclimate design methods for energy-saving houses on various site conditions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyeong

    2008-07-09

    A small area can have several different microclimates depending on how much sunlight, shade or wind are exposed on the area. Microclimate can be influenced by inclined terrain, surfaces, and 3-dimensionally geometry such as combinations of architectural elements and annex buildings. This study investigates microclimate modification for energy-saving using design elements of Korean traditional and passive house. Microclimate analysis method in this study enables to predict temporal and spatial variances in the building geometry. A combination of passive solar heating, cold wind blocking, indoor air circulation, natural ventilation cooling and shading etc, seasonally help to form a comfort condition with less energy consumption. The passive heating and cooling controls with microclimate modification are efficient to accomplish the energy efficiency in the building. This work includes the microclimate modifications of the high-performance designs, microclimate energy-saving methods, Passive House design methods, and common physical bases in energy simulation methods. For hot and humid summer in Korea, ventilation is beneficial for convective or evaporative cooling. The air flow through a building geometry is generated by differences in air temperature and pressure. The layout of surrounding buildings acts as barriers and diverts the flow into narrower. The resulted patterns of airflow are affected more by building geometry and orientation than by air speed. A novel simulation method combining multi-zone and CFD energy simulations is used to analyze energy-saving aspects in passive and microclimate design elements. EnergyPlus is a multi-zone energy simulation tool that uses a parameterization to simplify the energy-saving problem for each zone. However, the model is not appropriate to handle variations in the building geometry since it estimates only the average value for each volume. On the contrary, CFD method with subdivided grid units is more suitable to estimate

  5. Evaluation of doses and protection afforded by dwellings against atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Faculte de Pharmacie)

    1985-01-01

    A computer program library allowing complete simulation of photon transport for a radioactive cloud surrounding a simplified dwelling and a human phantom are described. Results on radiation spectra, doses and protection factors are presented.

  6. Effect of microclimate on particulate matter, airborne bacteria, and odorous compounds in swine nursery houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H Q; Choi, H L; Lee, J H; Suresh, A; Zhu, K

    2010-11-01

    Nursery pigs are vulnerable to environmental risks associated with the microclimate and aerial contaminants. This study was carried out to assess the effect of microclimate (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air speed) on the quantity of particulate matter (PM), airborne bacteria, and odorants in nursery houses. Data were collected from 15 farms in different locations throughout South Korea during 4 seasons; daily sampling times were from 1000 to 1100 h in the morning. A nonparametric correlation analysis revealed correlations between microclimate variables and airborne contaminants in different seasons. Over the entire year, negative correlations were observed between temperature, air speed, and some odorous compounds (P houses. On the other hand, because of the sensitivity of coliform bacteria to temperature, positive correlations were observed between temperature and total coliform and Escherichia coli counts (P houses, the relationships between the microclimate and airborne contaminants established in this study could be used to reduce those contaminants by controlling microclimate variables. The correlations established in the current study could also be helpful in establishing guidelines for good management practices in nursery houses.

  7. MICROCLIMATE CARTOGRAPHY USING DATA FROM THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING AND SIMULATION OF THERMAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shcherbakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper proposes geoinformation technology that provides automated compiling of informative microclimatic map by co-processing of digital terrain models, historical dataof meteorological observations and satellite registration of plant vegetation index for a number of years. We present a new solution for urgent task of microclimate cartography according to satellite imagery and modeling of thermal fields. Method. Insolation and vegetation index NDVI were selected as indicators of microclimatic environment areas, showing the main microclimate forming factors that affect the condition of plants and the dynamics of their life cycle phases change. Main Results. We have done the comparison of the seasonal rhythm variability of microclimatic indicators for synchronicity and their being timed to each other. We have defined indicative properties of microclimate parameters, generalization degree of cartographic image, borders for microclimatic cartography. We have presented a fragment of microclimate map obtained with the use of the proposed GIS technology implemented in “ArcGIS” environment. Practical Relevance. Proposed technology allows the creation of formalized microclimate maps showing the distribution of insolation and photosynthetic activity of plants foliage on the Earth surface, taking into account the features of the terrain, and the search for locations favorable for growing the required crops and forecasting solution of problems in the sphere of nature.

  8. Integration of remote sensing based surface information into a three-dimensional microclimate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Wieke; Heiden, Uta; Esch, Thomas; Mueller, Andreas; Dech, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Climate change urges cities to consider the urban climate as part of sustainable planning. Urban microclimate models can provide knowledge on the climate at building block level. However, very detailed information on the area of interest is required. Most microclimate studies therefore make use of assumptions and generalizations to describe the model area. Remote sensing data with area wide coverage provides a means to derive many parameters at the detailed spatial and thematic scale required by urban climate models. This study shows how microclimate simulations for a series of real world urban areas can be supported by using remote sensing data. In an automated process, surface materials, albedo, LAI/LAD and object height have been derived and integrated into the urban microclimate model ENVI-met. Multiple microclimate simulations have been carried out both with the dynamic remote sensing based input data as well as with manual and static input data to analyze the impact of the RS-based surface information and the suitability of the applied data and techniques. A valuable support of the integration of the remote sensing based input data for ENVI-met is the use of an automated processing chain. This saves tedious manual editing and allows for fast and area wide generation of simulation areas. The analysis of the different modes shows the importance of high quality height data, detailed surface material information and albedo.

  9. Dwelling, house and home: towards a home-led perspective on dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Wim

    2011-08-01

    "Home" is well known from everyday experience, plays a crucial role in all kinds of narratives about human life, but is hardly ever systematically dealt with in the philosophy of medicine and health care. The notion of home is ambiguous, is often used in a metaphorical way, and is closely related to concepts such as house and dwelling. In this paper the phenomenon of home is explored by means of some phenomenological writings of Heidegger, Bollnow, Bachelard and Levinas. Common in their views is that being at home and dwelling mean something more fundamental than an activity we do along with other activities, such as working and travelling. Dwelling, building a house and being at home are fundamental aspects of human existence. Being human is dwelling. While exploring the relevance of this phenomenological perspective for medical theory and practice, the focus is on the care of people suffering from dementia.

  10. THE ROLE OF WATER IN MICROCLIMATE MANIPULATION IN ORHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LAKATOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of micro-sprinklers have a powerful influence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a plum and pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary. The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher. The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20°C, the drop of temperature may attain 5-7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, flowers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10°C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The pear variety blooming dynamics was

  11. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    into the temporal domain. In the neural interpretation of TVA (NTVA; Bundesen, Habekost and Kyllingsbæk, 2005), processing resources are implemented as allocation of cortical cells to objects in the visual field. A feedback mechanism is then used to keep encoded objects in VSTM alive. The proposed model...... of attentional dwell time extends these mechanisms by proposing that the processing resources (cells) already engaged in a feedback loop (i.e. allocated to an object) are locked in VSTM and therefore cannot be allocated to other objects in the visual field before the encoded object has been released...

  12. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  13. Designing the Urban Microclimate. A framework for a design-decision support tool for the dissemination of knowledge on the urban microclimate to the urban design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Pijpers-van Esch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis presents research on the integration and transfer of knowledge from the specialized field of urban microclimatology into the generic field of urban design. Both fields are studied in order to identify crosslinks and reveal gaps. The main research question of the research is: How can the design of urban neighbourhoods contribute to microclimates that support physical well-being and what kind of information and form of presentation does the urban designer need in order to make design decisions regarding such urban microclimates? This question consists of two parts, which are addressed separately in the first two parts of the dissertation.Part 1 concerns an assessment of relevant knowledge on urban design by literature review, followed by a field study into the use of expert information in the urban design process. Part 2 discusses the influence of the urban environment on its microclimate and, consequently, the living quality of its inhabitants – both by means of literature review.Combined, Parts 1 and 2 serve as a basis for a framework for a design-decision support tool, which is discussed in Part 3. This tool is proposed as a means to integrate knowledge of the urban microclimate into the urban design process, bridging an observed gap.Urban design is concerned with shaping the physical environment to facilitate urban life in all its aspects. This is a complex task, which requires the integration and translation of different stakeholder interests into a proposition for the realization of physical-spatial constructs in the urban environment. Such a proposition comprises different planning elements in the following categories: spatial-functional organization, city plan, public space design and rules for architecture. During the design process, the urban designer has to deal with incomplete, often contradictory and/or changing constraints and quality demands as well as other uncertainties. He/ she handles this complexity by

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  15. The Microclimate and Leaf Area Index of Yam Plant in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Microclimate and Leaf Area Index of Yam Plant in the Guinea Savanna Ecological Zone of Nigeria. ... and hence plant production is mainly the function of its leaf area index (LAI). ... mulching yam beds to reduce the scorching effect of sun.

  16. Investigation of airflow patterns in a microclimate by particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    moisture production. The lack of air circulation decreases the surface temperature, which can cause problems. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation was performed of the airflow patterns in such a microclimate. This paper describes the experimental set-up and the results. The results indicate...

  17. The Effect of a Denser City over the Urban Microclimate: The Case of Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Berardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, several studies have revealed how critical the urban heat island (UHI effect can be in cities located in cold climates, such as the Canadian one. Meanwhile, many researchers have looked at the impact of the city design over the urban microclimate, and have raised concerns about the development of too dense cities. Under the effect of the “Places to Growth” plan, the city of Toronto is experiencing one of the highest rates of building development in North America. Over 48,000 and 33,000 new home permits were issued in 2012 and 2013 respectively, and at the beginning of 2015, almost 500 high-rise proposals across the Greater Toronto Area were released. In this context, it is important to investigate how new constructions will affect the urban microclimate, and to propose strategies to mitigate possible UHI effects. Using the software ENVI-met, microclimate simulations for the Church-Yonge corridor both in the current situation and with the new constructions are reported in this paper. The outdoor air temperature and the wind speed are the parameters used to assess the outdoor microclimate changes. The results show that the new constructions could increase the wind speed around the buildings. However, high-rise buildings will somewhat reduce the air temperature during day-time, as they will create large shadow areas, with lower average mean radiant temperature.

  18. Measurement, evaluation and control of the microclimate in rooms for weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The Animal Occupied Zone (AOZ), or the microclimate, in a room for weaned piglets is roughly the zone between 0 and 50 cm above the floor of the pen. It is distinguished from the macroclimate, which is the average climate of a pig room. The ability to create and maintain an optimal climate in the AO

  19. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Arezou; Manteghi, Golnoosh; Keyvanfar, Ali; Bin Lamit, Hasanuddin; Saito, Kei; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz

    2016-05-01

    Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI) defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27) factors within three clusters; 1) geometry factors, 2) meteorological factors, and 3) streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC) which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta) (DoC = 18 out of 28) is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load) have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28). The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM) method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %), streetscape cluster (86 %), and geometry cluster (85 %) have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user's satisfaction, user's thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  20. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaghat Arezou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27 factors within three clusters; 1 geometry factors, 2 meteorological factors, and 3 streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta (DoC = 18 out of 28 is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28. The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %, streetscape cluster (86 %, and geometry cluster (85 % have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user’s satisfaction, user’s thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  1. Solar park microclimate and vegetation management effects on grassland carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Ostle, Nicholas J.; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Increasing energy demands and the drive towards low carbon (C) energy sources has prompted a rapid increase in ground-mounted solar parks across the world. This represents a significant global land use change with implications for the hosting ecosystems that are poorly understood. In order to investigate the effects of a typical solar park on the microclimate and ecosystem processes, we measured soil and air microclimate, vegetation and greenhouse gas emissions for twelve months under photovoltaic (PV) arrays, in gaps between PV arrays and in control areas at a UK solar park sited on species-rich grassland. Our results show that the PV arrays caused seasonal and diurnal variation in air and soil microclimate. Specifically, during the summer we observed cooling, of up to 5.2 °C, and drying under the PV arrays compared with gap and control areas. In contrast, during the winter gap areas were up to 1.7 °C cooler compared with under the PV arrays and control areas. Further, the diurnal variation in both temperature and humidity during the summer was reduced under the PV arrays. We found microclimate and vegetation management explained differences in the above ground plant biomass and species diversity, with both lower under the PV arrays. Photosynthesis and net ecosystem exchange in spring and winter were also lower under the PV arrays, explained by microclimate, soil and vegetation metrics. These data are a starting point to develop understanding of the effects of solar parks in other climates, and provide evidence to support the optimisation of solar park design and management to maximise the delivery of ecosystem services from this growing land use.

  2. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Hsiao-Lan; Shen, Yu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    .... Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area...

  3. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  4. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  5. The relationship between leaf area index and microclimate in tropical forest and oil palm plantation: Forest disturbance drives changes in microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Stephen R; Toumi, Ralf; Pfeifer, Marion; Turner, Edgar C; Nilus, Reuben; Ewers, Robert M

    2015-02-15

    Land use change is a major threat to biodiversity. One mechanism by which land use change influences biodiversity and ecological processes is through changes in the local climate. Here, the relationships between leaf area index and five climate variables - air temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure deficit, specific humidity and soil temperature - are investigated across a range of land use types in Borneo, including primary tropical forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation. Strong correlations with the leaf area index are found for the mean daily maximum air and soil temperatures, the mean daily maximum vapour pressure deficit and the mean daily minimum relative humidity. Air beneath canopies with high leaf area index is cooler and has higher relative humidity during the day. Forest microclimate is also found to be less variable for sites with higher leaf area indices. Primary forest is found to be up to 2.5 °C cooler than logged forest and up to 6.5 °C cooler than oil palm plantations. Our results indicate that leaf area index is a useful parameter for predicting the effects of vegetation upon microclimate, which could be used to make small scale climate predictions based on remotely sensed data.

  6. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood.We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1 both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2 temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3 RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4 RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers.We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  7. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y.; Sharma, Dhruv B.; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices. PMID:26882104

  8. Changes of the Turda Salt Mine Underground Microclimate Induced by its Rehabilitation and Touristic Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POP Nicoleta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Saline microclimate is a very important element in the process of speleotherapy used mainly in amelioratingrespiratory illnesses. Having one of the best treatment potential among the European countries, many of the Romanian’salt mines can be successfully used in speleotherapy. Moreover, in order to improve the touristic and therapeuticexploitation, Turda Salt Mine was rehabilitated trough a PHARE program. Taking into consideration the possibility thatthe saline microclimate could be affected by the rehabilitation works and the new exploitation conditions, a series ofphysico-chemical parameters have been analyzed. The particulate matter of different aerodynamic diameters – PM1,PM2.5 and PM10, and some chemical compounds (CO2, CO, NO2, SO2, CH4 were monitored in three rehabilitatedchambers (Rudolf, Terezia, Ghizela of Turda Salt Mine during ten months (December 2009 – September 2010.Furthermore, other chemical compounds such as heavy metals, PAH, VOC and formaldehyde have been sampled andanalyzed in the laboratory. The obtained results showed that the presence of certain amounts of chemical compounds inthe mine’s indoor air that could be the consequence of the rehabilitation technology as well as a consequence of thematerials that were used there. Furthermore, the high number of tourists led, on the one hand to the increase of the CO2concentration and, on the other hand to temperature, humidity, and particulate matter. These variations, on a long term,could have significant negative impact upon the saline microclimate.

  9. Manipulating plant geometry to improve microclimate, grain yield, and harvest index in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob A.; Xue, Qingwu; Chen, Yuanquan

    2017-01-01

    Cultivar selection, planting geometry, and plant population are the key factors determining grain sorghum yields in water deficit areas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clump geometry (three plants clustered) improves microclimate within crop canopy when plants are grown under varying water levels. In a 2-yr sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) greenhouse study, plants were grown at two geometries (clump and conventional evenly spaced planting, ESP), two water levels (high and low, representing well-watered and water-limited condition, respectively), and three soil surface treatments (lid covered, straw-mulched, and bare). Air temperature and relative humidity (RH) within the plant canopy were measured every five minutes at different growth stages. Mean vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) within the clumps were consistently lower than those for ESPs, indicating that clumps improved the microclimate. Clumps had significantly higher harvest index (HI) compared to ESPs (0.48 vs. 0.43), which was largely due to clumps having an average of 0.4 tillers per plant compared to 1.2 tillers per plant for ESPs. Grain yield in the current study was similar between clumps and ESPs. However, our results suggest that improved microclimate was likely a reason for clumps producing significantly higher grain yields compared to ESPs in previous studies. PMID:28264051

  10. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y; Sharma, Dhruv B; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  11. Application of Microclimate Modelling and Onsite Survey in Planning Practice Related to an Urban Micro-Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Andrea Égerházi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of human thermal comfort conditions were carried out by means of the urban microclimate model ENVI-met in a popular children’s playground located in Szeged, Hungary. Bioclimatic conditions were quantified by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET. Based on the PET values, thermal stress maps were created in two different periods of typical summer and autumn days. The study aims to reveal the seasonal and diurnal spatial patterns of the simulated thermal conditions and thus the degree of heat stress in different parts of the playground. Furthermore, we analysed the momentary spatial distributions of the visitors triggered by the microclimatic conditions of the area. According to the simulation, remarkable differences in the thermal conditions were found depending on the sun elevation and the resulting shaded conditions as well as the radiation of the heated surfaces. The spatial distribution of the visitors seems to be highly influenced by the patterns of the thermal conditions but the location and the preference of the children’s playground equipment also affects it. In order to reveal the possible causes of the people’s behaviour, an onsite questionnaire survey was conducted on their opinions and possible modification requirements related to the design of the playground.

  12. Population and dwelling unit estimates from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C J

    1996-05-01

    "To increase the utility of satellite imagery as a source of cheap and current information for planning and managing cities some problems have to be resolved.... One answer is to adopt interpretation methods that use the increased information in a more detailed scene. This paper reports on attempts to measure the morphological patterns in an urban satellite scene and to use these for image interpretation. The interpretation task addressed is the estimation of residential dwelling units from the patterns discernible in high resolution satellite images of cities. The practical results include dwelling estimates that can be aggregated to any geographical unit of analysis, population estimates for cities and a dwelling density surface that can be categorised into any number of residential land-use classes."

  13. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  14. The effect of urban design parameters on the local microclimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakoniti, Androula; Georgiou, Gregoria; Neophytou, Marina [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Marakkos, Konstantinos [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    Two-dimensional steady-state simulations have been performed using the standard k-e turbulence model coupled with the heat transfer models available in the CFD software FLUENT 6.1, in order to examine the impact of radiation on the Urban Heat Island phenomenon. Specifically, the impact of radiation in three typical urban areas of Cyprus during the summer period is examined. The first geometry considered represents a typical suburban area and is termed as the reference geometry. The second geometry represents an area at the centre of a town with higher buildings and relatively narrower roads. The third geometry, on the other hand, describes a suburban area with wider roads and larger houses than the reference model. Computed values for air temperature in the urban street canyon have indicated that the increase in temperature associated with radiative heat transfer can be reduced by optimising the canyon geometry and, ultimately, help to mitigate the human thermal discomfort. The present study has also revealed that the selection of construction materials can be optimised to offer further reductions in the air temperature of the urban environment. It can be concluded that the combined effect of these remedies can lead to reductions in the energy consumption for building air-conditioning over the summer period.

  15. 3D quantification of microclimate volume in layered clothing for the prediction of clothing insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yejin; Hong, Kyunghi; Hong, Sung-Ae

    2007-05-01

    Garment fit and resultant air volume is a crucial factor in thermal insulation, and yet, it has been difficult to quantify the air volume of clothing microclimate and relate it to the thermal insulation value just using the information on the size of clothing pattern without actual 3D volume measurement in wear condition. As earlier methods for the computation of air volume in clothing microclimate, vacuum over suit and circumference model have been used. However, these methods have inevitable disadvantages in terms of cost or accuracy due to the limitations of measurement equipment. In this paper, the phase-shifting moiré topography was introduced as one of the 3D scanning tools to measure the air volume of clothing microclimate quantitatively. The purpose of this research is to adopt a non-contact image scanning technology, phase-shifting moiré topography, to ascertain relationship between air volume and insulation value of layered clothing systems in wear situations where the 2D fabric creates new conditions in 3D spaces. The insulation of vests over shirts as a layered clothing system was measured with a thermal manikin in the environmental condition of 20 degrees C, 65% RH and air velocity of 0.79 m/s. As the pattern size increased, the insulation of the clothing system was increased. But beyond a certain limit, the insulation started to decrease due to convection and ventilation, which is more apparent when only the vest was worn over the torso of manikin. The relationship between clothing air volume and insulation was difficult to predict with a single vest due to the extreme openings which induced active ventilation. But when the vest was worn over the shirt, the effects of thickness of the fabrics on insulation were less pronounced compared with that of air volume. In conclusion, phase-shifting moiré topography was one of the efficient and accurate ways of quantifying air volume and its distribution across the clothing microclimate. It is also noted

  16. Climatic effects of urbanization: Urban, suburban and rural microclimates in the Chicago region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzyk, Timothy M.

    Urban microclimates are discrete regions in the urban canopy layer where values of radiative and meteorological variables deviate from their averages over larger spatial scales. The canopy extends from street-level to mean building height. The energy balance framework described here, combined with relevant site measurements, permits quantitative assessments of the mechanisms controlling surface temperatures in microclimates. There are substantial differences in the fluxes of solar and thermal radiation, sensible heat transport, evaporation, conduction, air and surface temperatures, and wind speeds across microclimates in regions that should not be assumed to be homogeneous. Anthropogenic surface alterations appear to be responsible for some of these differences. Measurements were recorded at four locations with varying levels of urban development. The net all-wave energy flux, RNET, represents the limit to the input of energy at the surface and equals the sum of incoming solar and thermal radiation minus the sum of reflected and emitted values. Typically, over a period of 24 hours more radiation is incident on a surface than is reflected and emitted by it. This net gain would result in perpetual heating unless other fluxes dissipated the excess. Those fluxes are sensible heat transport, evaporation and conduction. Thus net radiation equals the sum of the model-derived energy fluxes, such that RNET = +/- QSENS +/- QCOND + QEVAP. The demand for energy to heat or cool interior spaces depends on both outdoor air temperatures and the temperatures of built surfaces, especially the roofs and walls of buildings exposed to the atmosphere. The temperature of a solid surface differs from the air temperature and is a function of its properties, such as albedo, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and availability of liquid water for evaporation. This study demonstrates how the external surroundings of a structure influence its surface temperature. The interplay of these

  17. Direct vs. Microclimate-Driven Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Decomposition in Young Subtropical Forest Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, Katrin N; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-01-01

    Effects of tree species diversity on decomposition can operate via a multitude of mechanism, including alterations of microclimate by the forest canopy. Studying such effects in natural settings is complicated by the fact that topography also affects microclimate and thus decomposition, so that effects of diversity are more difficult to isolate. Here, we quantified decomposition rates of standard litter in young subtropical forest stands, separating effects of canopy tree species richness and topography, and quantifying their direct and micro-climate-mediated components. Our litterbag study was carried out at two experimental sites of a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning field experiment in south-east China (BEF-China). The field sites display strong topographical heterogeneity and were planted with tree communities ranging from monocultures to mixtures of 24 native subtropical tree species. Litter bags filled with senescent leaves of three native tree species were placed from Nov. 2011 to Oct. 2012 on 134 plots along the tree species diversity gradient. Topographic features were measured for all and microclimate in a subset of plots. Stand species richness, topography and microclimate explained important fractions of the variations in litter decomposition rates, with diversity and topographic effects in part mediated by microclimatic changes. Tree stands were 2-3 years old, but nevertheless tree species diversity explained more variation (54.3%) in decomposition than topography (7.7%). Tree species richness slowed litter decomposition, an effect that slightly depended on litter species identity. A large part of the variance in decomposition was explained by tree species composition, with the presence of three tree species playing a significant role. Microclimate explained 31.4% of the variance in decomposition, and was related to lower soil moisture. Within this microclimate effect, species diversity (without composition) explained 8.9% and topography 34.4% of

  18. 517 DWELLING DENSITY VARIABILITY ACROSS GOVERNMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    approach. This finding was supported by the results of a chi-square test which found that, at 95% ... of life. Key words: dwelling density, home spaces, housing units, multifamily apartments ... single interior space is typically referred to as a room ...

  19. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 700.55. (b) May include existing dwellings for resale, new construction, modular homes, mobile homes... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance payments... supplemental income payments received from public agencies. If the person's monthly income pattern is...

  20. Dwelling In-Between Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The title of this paper might evoke claustrophobic associations. In other words, architecture in a very immediate sense can affect our behavior and feelings. In more mediated ways, architecture is also capable of influencing humans and putting their environment into perspective. Consider, for exa...

  1. Diffusive and subdiffusive dynamics of indoor microclimate: a time series modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Monika; Szczurek, Andrzej; Sikora, Grzegorz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    The indoor microclimate is an issue in modern society, where people spend about 90% of their time indoors. Temperature and relative humidity are commonly used for its evaluation. In this context, the two parameters are usually considered as behaving in the same manner, just inversely correlated. This opinion comes from observation of the deterministic components of temperature and humidity time series. We focus on the dynamics and the dependency structure of the time series of these parameters, without deterministic components. Here we apply the mean square displacement, the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), and the methodology for studying anomalous diffusion. The analyzed data originated from five monitoring locations inside a modern office building, covering a period of nearly one week. It was found that the temperature data exhibited a transition between diffusive and subdiffusive behavior, when the building occupancy pattern changed from the weekday to the weekend pattern. At the same time the relative humidity consistently showed diffusive character. Also the structures of the dependencies of the temperature and humidity data sets were different, as shown by the different structures of the ARIMA models which were found appropriate. In the space domain, the dynamics and dependency structure of the particular parameter were preserved. This work proposes an approach to describe the very complex conditions of indoor air and it contributes to the improvement of the representative character of microclimate monitoring.

  2. Traditional Iranian courtyards as microclimate modifiers by considering orientation, dimensions, and proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Soflaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of courtyards as microclimate modifiers on the sustainability of traditional houses in a region with BWks mesoclimate in Iran was explored. The principle behind traditional Iranian courtyards was investigated to identify the most influential physical–environmental characteristics that can effectively improve energy efficiency in contemporary residential buildings. A field study was performed to analyze various physical elements of six valuable traditional courtyard houses located in a region with BWks mesoclimate in Iran. These elements included the orientation, extension, rotation angle, dimensions, and proportions of enclosed and open spaces, as well as physical bodies (opaque walls, transparent surfaces (openings, and natural elements (water and soil. Results showed that most of the studied Iranian courtyards were particularly designed to enable orientation, dimension, and proportion to act as microclimate modifiers. All survey-based data were summarized and integrated to propose a physical–environmental design model for courtyards as a useful energy-efficient strategy for contemporary sustainable housing in a region with BWks mesoclimate. The proposed model can be generalized to all design cases located in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  3. Microclimate Variations between Semienclosed and Open Sections of a Marathon Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Standard Chartered Marathon, held annually, is one of the most popular international marathon events. Its primarily urban environmental setting characterized by high-density urban areas, semienclosed tunnels, and suspension bridges, together with the herds of runners, has an influence on the microclimate along the marathon course. This study focused on assessing and comparing variations in temperature and vapour pressure (vis-à-vis relative humidity against the crowd of runners, or the herd effects, in two different environmental settings along the marathon course: semienclosed (a tunnel versus open space (a suspension bridge. A series of small iButtons were deployed at strategic locations along the course to undertake minute-by-minute measurements of temperature and relative humidity. It was found that herd effects of varying degrees were present in both semienclosed and open settings. Various environmental differences also played a role in ameliorating or amplifying the climatological effects of the herd of runners. Our study suggests that microclimate variations in different environmental settings and crowd conditions could have an impact on runners. This new knowledge can inform the design of marathon routes. It also establishes the feasibility of employing the iButton logging sensors for widespread deployment and monitoring of meteorological situations.

  4. APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENHANCING OF IN-HEAVE MICROCLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osykin S. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the integrative indicators of over-all performance estimation is profitability of the production. It is possible to increase competitiveness of beekeeping production as well as national food security via implementation of efficient electrical technologies. Enhancing of microclimate parameters in hives allows us to enhance the intensity of spring development of bees. The counting of integrate heat losses in heaves with ozone treatment and without the one was carried out. Using the obtained results and graphs we can develop the automation system for in-heave microclimate control. The article presents the graphs of heat losses in a beehive on the outdoor temperature and relative humidity, which were obtained experimental. It is proved that when the outdoor temperature from -15 to 8 ° C and the change in ambient air humidity of 60 to 100% heat loss beehive decrease from 4-5 W to 0.2-0.4 W. It is concluded that treatment of bees by ozone, while reducing the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms, will reduce the energy loss by reducing the air exchange, i.e. improve conditions for the development of the bee colony

  5. Compilation of publication and results from project C2: Modelling of microclimates in collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holck, O. [ed.

    1999-08-01

    It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off on to the absorber surface. The intent of the present work is improvement of a existing computer model for calculation of microclimates data in collectors. Calculations with the model give insight in the humidity and temperature for artificial or realistic climatic data. This design tool makes it possible to calculate the effect of ventilation and insulation materials. Results from investigation of ventilation rates together with a model of the moisture inside the collector are built into the computer program. It has been found that modelling of the moisture transfer in backside insulation is essential to determine the humidity in the air gap of the collector. The objective is to develop guidelines for solar collector design to achieve the most favourable microclimates condition for materials. As a tool the computer model will be useful to fulfil this. Guidelines for collectors will be essential for manufactures to improve the long-term durability of solar collectors. (au)

  6. On the impact of shrub encroachment on microclimate conditions in the northern Chihuahuan desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yufei; D'Odorico, Paolo; de Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Litvak, Marcy

    2010-11-01

    Changes in vegetation cover are known for their ability to modify the surface energy balance and near-surface microclimate conditions. A major change in vegetation composition that has been occurring in many dryland regions around the world is associated with the replacement of arid grasslands by desert shrublands. The impact of shrub encroachment on regional climate conditions remains poorly investigated, and, to date, it is unclear how this shift in plant community composition may affect the microclimate. Here we used concurrent meteorological observations at two adjacent sites dominated by Larrea tridentata shrubs and native grass species, respectively, in the northern Chihuahuan desert to investigate differences in nighttime air temperatures between the shrubland and grassland vegetation covers. The nighttime air temperature was found to be substantially higher (>2°C) in the shrubland than in the grassland, especially during calm winter nights. These differences in surface air temperature were accompanied by differences in longwave radiation and sensible and ground heat fluxes. We developed a one-dimensional model to show how longwave radiation emitted by the ground at night can explain the higher nighttime air temperature over the shrubland. Because of the larger fraction of bare soil typically existing in the shrub cover, the ground surface remains less insulated and more energy flows into the ground at the shrubland site than in the grassland during daytime. This energy is then released at night mainly as longwave radiation, which causes the differences in the nighttime air temperatures between the two land covers.

  7. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  8. Yet one more dwell time algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Alexander; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The current demand of even more powerful and efficient microprocessors, for e.g. deep learning, has led to an ongoing trend of reducing the feature size of the integrated circuits. These processors are patterned with EUV-lithography which enables 7 nm chips [1]. To produce mirrors which satisfy the needed requirements is a challenging task. Not only increasing requirements on the imaging properties, but also new lens shapes, such as aspheres or lenses with free-form surfaces, require innovative production processes. However, these lenses need new deterministic sub-aperture polishing methods that have been established in the past few years. These polishing methods are characterized, by an empirically determined TIF and local stock removal. Such a deterministic polishing method is ion-beam-figuring (IBF). The beam profile of an ion beam is adjusted to a nearly ideal Gaussian shape by various parameters. With the known removal function, a dwell time profile can be generated for each measured error profile. Such a profile is always generated pixel-accurately to the predetermined error profile, with the aim always of minimizing the existing surface structures up to the cut-off frequency of the tool used [2]. The processing success of a correction-polishing run depends decisively on the accuracy of the previously computed dwell-time profile. So the used algorithm to calculate the dwell time has to accurately reflect the reality. But furthermore the machine operator should have no influence on the dwell-time calculation. Conclusively there mustn't be any parameters which have an influence on the calculation result. And lastly it should take a minimum of machining time to get a minimum of remaining error structures. Unfortunately current dwell time algorithm calculations are divergent, user-dependent, tending to create high processing times and need several parameters to bet set. This paper describes an, realistic, convergent and user independent dwell time algorithm. The

  9. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  10. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    they might be applied, and what their energy needs are. Secondly, what scientific analysis has been carried out and what the major findings are. Thirdly, what their economic and technical feasibility of use at the stage of implementation and operation within a dwelling are. Then, either with the reviewed......In this document a review of three active as well as ten passive cooling methods suitable for residential buildings is carried out. The review firstly addresses how the various technologies cool the space according to the terms of the building heat balance, under what technical conditions...... studies or with a simulation modelling, an assessment of temperature drop of each cooling method within a standard-size dwelling is carried out. Also, a comparison of initial investment, energy consumption, maintenance, retrofitting and required space is done. Thereafter, with this information, a decision...

  11. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  12. Critical dwell time of switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun ZHANG; Chunwen LI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between the switching dwell time and the stabilization of switched linear control systems. First of all, a concept of critical dwell time is given for switched linear systems without control inputs, and the critical dwell time is taken as an arbitrary given positive constant for a switched linear control systems with controllable switching models. Secondly, when a switched linear system has many stabilizable switching models, the problem of stabilization of the overall system is considered. An on-line feedback control is designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable under switching laws which depend only on those of uncontrollable subsystems of the switching models. Finally, when a switched system is partially controllable (While some switching models are probably unstabilizable), an on-line feedback control and a cyclic switching strategy are designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable if all switching models of this uncontrollable subsystems are asymptotically stable. In addition,algorithms for designing switching laws and controls are presented.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. Analysis on Influence of Tamped-soil Dwelling Regenerated Technology to Human Settlement Environment%夯土民居再生技术对人居环境影响探析——以豫西农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷学永; 马金柱

    2011-01-01

    Through field investigation, the present situation of tamped-soil dwelling in rural area of the western Henan was studied, the advantnges and deficiencies were analyzed. In line with low technology and low cost principle, applying modern ecological and architectural principle, the technological transformation was carried out from aspects of mechanics and extent, durability, energy conservation and artistic quality and new energy utilization, so as to realize its regeneration. Moreover, its environmental impact was evaluated.%通过实地调查了解豫西农村夯土民居的现状,分析其优点和存在问题.本着低技术、低成本原则,运用现代生态、建筑设计原理,对其宜居性、力学及抗震性、耐久性、节能性、艺术性以及新能源利用等方面进行技术改造,达到使其再生的目的,同时对其进行环境影响评价.

  15. Desirable microclimate in urban public space: a case study in Amanieh Ahvaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahbaz, Mansoureh; Djanlilian, Shahrbanoo; Moosavi, Fatemeh [School of Architecture, Shahid Beheshti University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shtahbaz@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Here are the results of field study research on thermal sensation in outdoor public spaces in Ahvaz city, Amanieh region. Ahvaz, in south Khoozestan, is one of several Iranian cities with an unpleasantly hot and semi-humid climate. In urban spaces with low thermal quality, only urgent and necessary activities take place; then people leave as soon as their business is done. In contrast, where the weather is pleasant, not only do needful activities take place, many social activities do, too. Thermal sensation is one of the determinant criteria for space attraction. In cities with unpleasant weather conditions, arranging a tolerable microclimate in public urban spaces should have high priority. Architectural climatic strategies are needed to modify the heat of summer days to a lower thermal condition level (moderate or low heat stress). Four main design strategies are described and recommended in this study.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  17. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal.

  18. Influence of Urban Microclimate on Air-Conditioning Energy Needs and Indoor Thermal Comfort in Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Chi Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term climate measurement was implemented in the third largest city of Taiwan, for the check of accuracy of morphing approach on generating the hourly data of urban local climate. Based on observed and morphed meteorological data, building energy simulation software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the cooling energy consumption of an air-conditioned typical flat and the thermal comfort level of a naturally ventilated typical flat. The simulated results were used to quantitatively discuss the effect of urban microclimate on the energy consumption as well as thermal comfort of residential buildings. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for city planning and energy management divisions to study urban sustainability strategies in the future.

  19. Evolution of Milan microclimate in XX century. Evoluzione del microclima milanese nel corso del secolo XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieroni, A. (Lombardia Risorse SpA, Milan (Italy))

    Within the framework of studies to correlate the use of fossil fuels with urban area thermal pollution, this article examines the local microclimate of Milan, describing the main features of the so-called 'heat island' phenomenon and analyzing the evolution of ambient temperatures. Two different kinds of data on urban temperatures were employed: the hourly measurements taken by the Multinational Presidium for Hygiene and Prevention, run by the Local Sanitary Unit No. 75 of Milan, in the period ranging from 1985 to 1990, and the maximum and minimum daily values referring to the period between 1909 and 1991 (data supplied by the Meteorologic Observatory of Brera-Duomo). The standard year, worked out in the framework of the C. N. R. (National Research Centre) Finalized Energy Project and referring to the meteorological station of Linate Airport, was employed in order to highlight the difference between the thermal behaviour of the urban and the extra-urban area.

  20. Recognition of microclimate zones through radon mapping, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.I.; LaRock, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radon concentrations range from temperature and barometric pressure, similar to other Type 2 caves. Most of the cave is developed in three geographic branches beneath the entrance passages; these areas maintain Rn levels independent of surface effects, an indication that Rn levels in deep, complex caves or mines cannot be simply estimated by outside atmospheric parameters. These deeper, more isolated areas are subject to convective ventilation driven by temperature differences along the 477-m vertical extent of the cave. Radon concentrations are used to delineate six microclimate zones (air circulation cells) throughout the cave in conjunction with observed airflow data. Suspected surface connections contribute fresh air to remote cave areas demonstrated by anomalous Rn lows surrounded by higher values, the presence of mammalian skeletal remains, CO2 concentrations and temperatures lower than the cave mean, and associated surficial karst features.

  1. Microclimate monitoring of Ariadne's house (Pompeii, Italy) for preventive conservation of fresco paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merello, Paloma; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Zarzo, Manuel

    2012-11-28

    Ariadne's house, located at the city center of ancient Pompeii, is of great archaeological value due to the fresco paintings decorating several rooms. In order to assess the risks for long-term conservation affecting the valuable mural paintings, 26 temperature data-loggers and 26 relative humidity data-loggers were located in four rooms of the house for the monitoring of ambient conditions. Data recorded during 372 days were analyzed by means of graphical descriptive methods and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results revealed an effect of the roof type and number of walls of the room. Excessive temperatures were observed during the summer in rooms covered with transparent roofs, and corrective actions were taken. Moreover, higher humidity values were recorded by sensors on the floor level. The present work provides guidelines about the type, number, calibration and position of thermohygrometric sensors recommended for the microclimate monitoring of mural paintings in outdoor or semi-confined environments.

  2. Characterizing Structure, Microclimate and Decomposition of Peatland, Beachfront, and Newly Logged Forest Edges in Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, Julie Ann

    In this study, I examined the forest structure, composition, microclimate, and decomposition of three common edge types in southeastern Alaska including; peatland, beachfront, and new clearcuts adjacent to productive western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests. Sites were located on 4 larger islands of the Alexander Archipelago in southeastern Alaska. The study was focussed on transects extending from the open area, through the forest boundary to 200 m into the forest. Twenty-two edges were examined during 1990 and 1991. Forest structure was unique for each edge type. Peatland -forest edges exhibit feathered transition of short and sparse tree growth to large dense old-growth western hemlock -Sitka spruce forests. Beachfront-forest edges were sealed at the boundary by a multi-layering of shrubs, small trees, mid-canopy trees, and some emergents. The transition to large productive old-growth was abrupt. Clearcut-forest edges were essentially old-growth forests opened up by logging. Average size of trees at the boundary was large but stand size and productivity decreased moving into the forest. Productive western hemlock-Sitka spruce associations were not apparent for a long distance into the forest. Herbaceous cover appeared to be directly linked to light levels along the forest transects. Because structure was so inherently different for each edge type, microclimatic gradients from open area to the forest interior environment varied with edge type. The strongest gradients were observed on sunny and extremely windy days. An edge index value (EIV) was calculated to differentiate edge-affected microclimate from interior environments. Edge type influenced forest microclimate such that; (1) Peatlands affected interior radiation and air temperature range for 120 m into the forest until interior environments were encountered. (2) Beachfront-forests were penetrated by ocean winds for up to 120 m however, other variables such as interior air temperature and relative humidity were

  3. Comparison of microclimate in various land-use systems in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Badu, Chandra; Meijide, Ana; Gunawan, Dodo; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use changes are ongoing problems for rain forests in Indonesia. The conversion of forests to monocultures of rubber and oil palm plantations reduces not only biodiversity and carbon pools but also affects canopy structure, which is an important determinant of microclimate. There is, however, a lack of quantitative information characterizing the effect of land transformation on microclimate with a systematic experimental design. Here, we report observations microclimatic conditions (air temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture and soil temperature) on a daily, weekly and seasonal basis across four land-use systems (rain forest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation, oil palm plantation) in two near-by landscapes. The data set covers a period of approximately three years from April 2013 to March 2016 and includes one of the strongest El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of the last decades. Mean air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, and vapour pressure deficit differed significantly between the four land-use systems whereas the mean soil moisture differed significantly between two landscapes. Air temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil temperature were highest in oil palm and rubber plantations whereas lowest in forest and jungle rubber. Canopy openness was the most dominant control of microclimatic differences across the land-use systems. During the ENSO 2015, a significant increase in mean air temperature, soil temperature and vapour pressure deficit but a decrease in relative air humidity and soil moisture in all four land-use systems was found. The relative effect of ENSO was highest in forest and jungle rubber compared to rubber and oil palm plantations. In conclusion, conversion of forest to rubber and oil palm plantations has led to substantially warmer and drier microclimatic conditions than before.

  4. Does the microclimate under hail nets influence micromorphological characteristics of apple leaves and cuticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Mauricio; Blanke, Michael M; Noga, Georg

    2010-08-15

    A higher frequency of hail storms, possibly due to climate change, has led to increased installation of hail nets worldwide. The objective of the present work was to investigate potential effects of the microclimate under these hail nets on micromorphological characteristics of the leaves and adaxial leaf cuticles. Leaves of apple cultivars 'Pinova' and 'Fuji' grown on trees under white (highly translucent) or red-black (low transmittance) hail nets or on uncovered (control) trees were evaluated in June, August, September and October. The microclimate under the colored hail nets had no impact on leaf micromorphology, amount of cuticular wax, or leaf thickness. Similarly, no differences in thickness and permeability for calcium could be established between cuticles of leaves grown on trees under the two types of hail nets or uncovered trees. For all evaluated parameters, significant differences were detected between the two cultivars examined. In both cultivars, leaf wax synthesis followed a characteristic curve, increasing from the first to the second evaluation, and then decreasing continuously without affecting cuticular penetration of calcium. Overall, our results show that a reduction of the hail nets by 6-10% in both light and humidity was insufficient to influence the surface properties of apple leaves and permeability of cuticles. This may suggest that pest management strategies, i.e. formulation of agrochemicals, their application and dose, do not need to be adapted when used under hail nets. Overall, the present results indicate that the microclimatic changes brought about by colored hail nets are sufficient to enhance the vegetative growth and induce the 'shade avoidance syndrome', but do not appear to affect the leaf cuticular properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Microclimate and soil moisture in a silvopastoral system in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the microclimate changes in silvopastoral systems are quantified at different time and spatial scales and compared with single-pasture systems. The study was conducted in a silvopastoral system in São Carlos, Brazil (22°01' South and 47°53' West. The silvopastoral system consisted of grass pastures [Urochloa (sin. Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilik] lined with strips of native trees spaced at 17 m. Continuous microclimate measurements (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and incident photosynthetically active radiation were carried out from September 2010 to September 2012 at two positions of the silvopastoral system (2.0 and 8.5 m from the rows of trees and at a pasture under full sunlight, located in an adjacent area. The soil moisture was monitored weekly from 24 March 2010 to 1 April 2012 at distances of 0.0, 2.0, 4.75, and 8.5 m from the rows of trees. The rows of native trees reduced wind speeds (46% reduction and changed the photosynthetically active radiation incidence pattern on the pasture (up to 40% reduction of incidence at the point nearest to the trees. The combined action of these factors promoted thermal and air humidity changes on the pasture at the different points measured. With respect to soil moisture, there was greater soil moisture removal at the sampling points near the rows of native trees under the silvopastoral system, mainly due to enhanced exploration by tree roots at greater depths in dry spells or early dry periods, when compared with the midpoints between the rows.

  6. Relation between microclimate and air quality in the extensively reared turkey house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ostović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Good air quality in poultry houses is crucial for animal health and productivity. In these houses, air is generally contaminated with noxious gases and microorganisms, the concentrations of which depend on numerous factors including microclimate. In this case study, the relation between microclimate and air concentrations of noxious gases and microorganisms was investigated in extensively reared turkey house. The study was carried out at a family household in Dalmatia hinterland, Croatia, with 50.3±3.1 turkeys kept in the house during the study period. Air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, concentrations of ammonia, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi in indoor air were measured three times per month from September to December, in the morning, prior to releasing turkeys out for grazing. Air temperature ranged from 9.73 to 26.98 °C, relative humidity from 63.29% to 75.08%, and airflow rate from 0.11 to 0.17 m/s. Lowest ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured in September (2.17 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively and highest in December (4.50 ppm and 900 ppm, respectively. Bacterial and fungal counts were lowest in December (2.51x105 CFU/m3 and 3.27x103 CFU/m3 air, respectively and highest in September (6.85x105 CFU/m3 and 1.06x105 CFU/m3 air, respectively. Air temperature and relative humidity showed negative correlation with concentrations of noxious gases and positive correlation with air microorganisms (P<0.05 all.

  7. Heat removal using microclimate foot cooling: a thermal foot manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Demes, Robert; Endrusick, Thomas L; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2014-04-01

    It has been proposed that microclimate cooling systems exploit the peripheral extremities because of more efficient heat transfer. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using a patented microclimate cooling technique, the heat transfer from the plantar surface of the foot for comparison to other commonly cooled body regions. A military boot was fitted with an insole embedded with a coiled, 1.27 m length of hollow tubing terminating in inlet and outlet valves. A thermal foot manikin with a surface temperature of 34 degrees C was placed in the boot and the valves were connected to a system that circulated water through the insole at a temperature of 20 degrees C and flow rate of 120 ml x min(-1). The manikin foot served as a constant heat source to determine heat transfer provided by the insole. Testing was done with the foot model dry and sweating at a rate of 500 ml x h(- 1) x m(-2). Climatic chamber conditions were 30 degrees C with 30% RH. Heat loss was approximately 4.1 +/- 0.1 and approximately 7.7 +/- 0.3 W from the dry and sweating foot models, respectively. On a relative scale, the heat loss was 3.0 W and 5.5 W per 1% (unit) body surface area, respectively, for the dry and sweating conditions. The relative heat loss afforded by plantar foot cooling was similar compared to other body regions, but the absolute amount of heat removal is unlikely to make an impact on whole body heat balance.

  8. Microclimate, development and productivity of robusta coffee shaded by rubber trees and at full sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vasconcellos Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are few studies about the shading of Robusta coffee with rubber trees. The aim of this study was evaluate the microclimate, development and yield of Coffea canephora grown at full sun and shaded by rubber trees. The experiment consisted of a Robusta coffee crop (Coffea canephora grown at under full sun and another coffee crop intercropped with rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber trees and coffee crop were planted in the East/West direction, in Jaguaré, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Was evaluated the luminosity, temperature and relative humidity, leaf nutrient concentrations; internodes of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches, leaf area; relative chlorophyll index, and tree yield of the coffee crops. The shading directly influenced the microclimate by reducing the air temperature in the summer and winter, as well as by increasing relative humidity. Luminosity in the summer had an average decrease of 905 lumens ft-2 throughout the day, which was equivalent to 72.49%, and luminosity in the winter had an average decrease of 1665 lumens ft-2, which was equivalent to 88.04%. The shading provided greater etiolation of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches as well as greater leaf expansion as compared to the full sun. The leaf concentration of Fe and Mn were higher in the shaded coffee. Estimated chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were greater in the coffee crop grown at under full sun. The dense shading produced by rubber trees provided losses in the coffee crop yield, however, there is the formation of the rubber tree.

  9. Local- and landscape-scale land cover affects microclimate and water use in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brenda B; Egerer, Monika H; Liere, Heidi; Jha, Shalene; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-08-16

    Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations. We test this theory in 15 urban gardens across California's Central Coast. Local- and landscape-scale measures of ground, vegetation, and land cover were collected in and around each garden, while climate loggers recorded temperatures in each garden in 30min increments. Multivariate analyses, using county as a random factor, show that both local- and landscape-scale factors were important. All factors were significant predictors of mean temperature. Tallest vegetation, tree/shrub species richness, grass cover, mulch cover, and landscape level agricultural cover were cooling factors; in contrast, garden size, garden age, rock cover, herbaceous species richness, and landscape level urban cover were warming factors. Results were similar for the maximum temperature analysis except that agriculture land cover and herbaceous species richness were not significant predictors of maximum temperature. Analysis of gardener watering behavior to observed temperatures shows that garden microclimate was significantly related to the number of minutes watered as well as the number of liters of water used per watering event. Thus gardeners seem to respond to garden microclimate in their watering behavior even though this behavior is most probably motivated by a range of other factors such as water regulations and time availability. This research shows that local management of ground cover and vegetation can reduce mean and maximum temperatures in gardens, and the

  10. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  11. Dwelling habitus and urban out-migration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aner, Louise G.

    2016-01-01

    dwelling habitus” is central. By applying the analytical framework to the study of Danish middle-income families with children, their motives for out-migrating from Copenhagen are explored. Two broad categories of motives for moving are identified: the housing and the anti-urban. The housing motive...... is based on changes in housing needs during family formation and on the limited opportunities in the Copenhagen housing market. The anti-urban motive is based on a wish to bring up children in a non-urban milieu. The paper argues that an understanding of motives that focuses on the interrelationship......This paper examines young Danish families’ motives for leaving the city. By drawing on theories of Bourdieu and Giddens and combining them with a notion of place drawn from human geography, an analytical framework for studying people’s motives for moving is developed. In this framework the concept...

  12. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, Mickaël; Wyart, Guillaume; Le Ponner, Eline; Ramalho, Olivier; Ribéron, Jacques; Mandin, Corinne

    2017-09-28

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 ), radon, temperature and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during one week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, i.e., alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...... showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  14. The effect of urban green infrastructure on local microclimate and human thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s knowledge society there is a demand for professionals who are able to create knowledge across boundaries of disciplines, professions and perspectives. Increasingly, challenges have to be addressed by experts from different fields who collaborate across different contexts. In additio

  15. Comparisons of hot water microclimate heating and conventional overhead heating on the development and nutritional status of seedling geraniums as well as fuel consumption of these heating regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Two crops of seedling geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) were grown for 16 weeks under the microclimate system using ''Gro-Mat'' ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) tubing and a 10/sup 0/C air -21.1/sup 0/ media temperature environment. Another crop was grown with conventional heating at 16.6/sup 0/ air temperature. Evaluations were made on growth, flowering, nutritional status, and energy consumed. The microclimate system sporadically produced a taller plant during the first eight weeks of the October crop compared to the conventional heated crop; and the December crop was affected only twice during the initial eight weeks. This time the microclimate heating system produced a shorter plant. After week eight there were fewer differences in height. One of the principal differences noted in this study was that the conventionally heated plants flowered seven to ten days earlier than the microclimate plants. By the end of the crop (week 16) few differences in elemental concentrations were detected between the two types of heating systems. The microclimate heating system used about 30% less natural gas than did the conventional system. It appears that microclimate heating systems are a possible alternative to conventional heating systems.

  16. Microclima de vinhedos sob cultivo protegido Microclimate of vineyards under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alterações microclimáticas em vinhedos, provocadas pelo uso de cobertura plástica, interferem na fisiologia das plantas e na incidência de doenças fúngicas em videiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da cobertura plástica no microclima de vinhedos, em particular na qualidade da radiação solar. O experimento foi conduzido nos ciclos 2005/06 e 2006/07, em Flores da Cunha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, em um vinhedo de 'Moscato Giallo' conduzido em "Y", com cobertura plástica impermeável (160µm sobre 12 fileiras com 35m, deixando-se cinco fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Em ambas as áreas, avaliou-se o microclima quanto à temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento, próximo ao dossel vegetativo e aos cachos. Medições contínuas foram efetuadas utilizando sensores e sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados. Alterações na qualidade da radiação solar incidente sobre o dossel vegetativo, no espectro de 300 a 750nm, foram avaliadas por meio de medições durante cinco dias, com espectroradiômetro. A cobertura plástica impermeável à água sobre as fileiras das plantas aumentou a temperatura do ar e diminuiu a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e a velocidade do vento. A cobertura interferiu na qualidade da radiação solar incidente, principalmente, reduzindo a irradiância na faixa do ultravioleta e a razão entre a radiação nas faixas do vermelho e vermelho-distante.Microclimate alterations promoted by plastic covering over vineyards interfere in the plant physiology and fungal diseases incidence on grapevines. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the plastic covering on the microclimate of vineyards, in particular on the quality of the incoming solar radiation. The experiment was carried out in 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons in Flores da Cunha-RS, in a vineyard of Moscato Giallo cultivar shaped in Y, with impermeable

  17. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s-1), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m-2. Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  18. Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvatte, Nivaldo; Klosowski, Elcio Silvério; de Almeida, Roberto Giolo; Mesquita, Eduardo Eustáquio; de Oliveira, Caroline Carvalho; Alves, Fabiana Villa

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a microclimate evaluation and determine the indexes of thermal comfort indexes, in sun and shade, in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems with different arrangements of eucalyptus and native trees, in the Brazilian Midwest. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Beef Cattle in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to September 2013. The evaluations were conducted on four consecutive days, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., local time (GMT -4:00), with 1 hour intervals, recording the microclimate parameters: air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (°C), wet bulb temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m.s(-1)), for the subsequent calculation of the Temperature and Humidity Index, the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and the Radiant Thermal Load. The largest changes in microclimate parameters were found in the full sun, between 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m., in less dense eucalyptus system, followed by the scattered native trees system, resulting in a maximum Temperature and Humidity Index of 81, Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index of 88 and Radiant Thermal Load of 794 W m(-2). Therefore, it is observed that with the presence of trees in pastures were possible reductions of up to 3.7 % in Temperature and Humidity Index, 10.2 % in the Black Globe Temperature and Humidity Index, and 28.3 % of the Radiant Thermal Load in the shade. Thus, one can conclude that the presence of trees and their arrangement in the systems provide better microclimate conditions and animal thermal comfort in pastures.

  19. Exotic weeds and fluctuating microclimate can constrain native plant regeneration in urban forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K J; Laughlin, Daniel C; Clarkson, Bruce D

    2017-02-09

    Restoring forest structure and composition is an important component of urban land management, but we lack clear understanding of the mechanisms driving restoration success. Here we studied two indicators of restoration success in temperate rainforests: native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization. We hypothesized that ecosystem properties such as forest canopy openness, abundance of exotic herbaceous weeds, and the microclimate directly affect the density and diversity of native tree seedlings and epiphytes. Relationships between environmental conditions and the plant community were investigated in 27 restored urban forests spanning 3 to 70 years in age and in unrestored and remnant urban forests. We used structural equation modelling to determine the direct and indirect drivers of native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization in the restored forests. Compared to remnant forest, unrestored forest had fewer native canopy tree species, significantly more light reaching the forest floor annually, and higher exotic weed cover. Additionally, epiphyte density was lower and native tree regeneration density was marginally lower in the unrestored forests. In restored forests, light availability was reduced to levels found in remnant forests within 20 years of restoration planting, followed shortly thereafter by declines in herbaceous exotic weeds and reduced fluctuation of relative humidity and soil temperatures. Contrary to expectations, canopy openness was only an indirect driver of tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization, but it directly regulated weed cover and microclimatic fluctuations, both of which directly drove the density and richness of regeneration and epiphyte colonization. Epiphyte density and diversity were also positively related to forest basal area, as large trees provide physical habitat for colonization. These results imply that ecosystem properties change predictably after initial restoration plantings, and that reaching critical

  20. The meaning of dwelling features: conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying t

  1. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  2. The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Eduard; Kaplan, Sigal

    Real-estate market trends regarding housing preferences for tenure, dwelling type and size carry long term implications for cities’ spatial development and compactness. Much attention have been given to the impact of household demographics and socio-economic characteristics on joint housing choices...... that active versus home-oriented lifestyle plays an important role in housing preferences of tenure, dwelling type and size, while controlling for household socio-economic characteristics. The choice model employed for tenure and dwelling type coupled with dwelling unit size is the multinomial logit ordered...... regarding housing preferences, socio-economic characteristics, and activity patterns. The empirical findings show that the tendency of knowledge-workers to reside in owned large dwelling units, preferably single detached houses, increases with high engagement in home-oriented activities, while the tendency...

  3. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  4. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  5. Physiological characteristics of high yield under cluster planting: photosynthesis and canopy microclimate of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton produces more biomass and economic yield when cluster planting pattern (three plants per hole than in a traditional planting pattern (one plant per hole, even at similar plant densities, indicating that individual plant growth is promoted by cluster planting. The causal factors for this improved growth induced by cluster planting pattern, the light interception, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic rate of cotton were investigated in an arid region of China. The results indicated that the leaf area index and light interception were higher in cluster planting, and significantly different from those in traditional planting during the middle and late growth stages. Cotton canopy humidity at different growth stages was increased but canopy temperatures were reduced by cluster planting. In the later growth stage of cluster planting, the leaf chlorophyll content was higher and the leaf net photosynthetic rate and canopy photosynthetic rate were significantly increased in comparing with traditional planting pattern. We concluded that differences in canopy light interception and photosynthetic rate were the primary factors responsible for increased biomass production and economic yield in cluster planting compared with the traditional planting of cotton.

  6. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions (Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

  7. Portable System for Monitoring the Microclimate in the Footwear-Foot Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Palomares, José de Jesús; Yáñez-Mendiola, Javier; Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; López-Vela, José Martin

    2016-07-08

    A new, continuously-monitoring portable device that monitors the diabetic foot has shown to help in reduction of diabetic foot complications. Persons affected by diabetic foot have shown to be particularly sensitive in the plantar surface; this sensitivity coupled with certain ambient conditions may cause dry skin. This dry skin leads to the formation of fissures that may eventually result in a foot ulceration and subsequent hospitalization. This new device monitors the micro-climate temperature and humidity areas between the insole and sole of the footwear. The monitoring system consists of an array of ten sensors that take readings of relative humidity within the range of 100% ± 2% and temperature within the range of -40 °C to 123.8 ± 0.3 °C. Continuous data is collected using embedded C software and the recorded data is processed in Matlab. This allows for the display of data; the implementation of the iterative Gauss-Newton algorithm method was used to display an exponential response curve. Therefore, the aim of our system is to obtain feedback data and provide the critical information to various footwear manufacturers. The footwear manufactures will utilize this critical information to design and manufacture diabetic footwear that reduce the risk of ulcers in diabetic feet.

  8. Uncinula necator (Schow Burr., the Causal Agent of Grape Powdery Mildew: Infection Potential and Microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miladinović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microclimate in Podgorica vineyards and its effect on the formation, maturing and rupturing of cleistothecia, and disease outbreak, was studied. An analysis of collected data on minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation over the periods November-April (2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 and April-July (2002, 2003 and 2004 and their comparison with the average values over a 50-year period, indicate that neither temperature nor precipitation act as a limiting factor for disease outbreak and development in Podgorica vineyards. Over the trial period, conditions were favourable for the formation and maturing of cleistothecia between November and April. Asum of 1100ºC mean daily temperature was reached by mid-March.From bud burst to end of vine flowering, the conditions were again nearly optimal both for ascospore release from cleistothecia and primary infection, and for secondary infection. Initial symptoms appeared on lower leaves and inflorescences. Cleistothecia appeared inall green parts of grapevine. In 2002, and 2004, conditions were favourable for a secondary infection of bunches, leaves and canes from April to mid-July. Conditions for secondary infection were less favourable in the second half of June 2003. That year was characterized by warmer weather with less rainfall, especially in June and July. In 2004, precipitation and temperature were lower than in 2002, which resulted in a slightly less severe outbreak of disease.

  9. Microclimate Effect of Artificial Caragana microphylla Communities in Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanfeng; HE; Lanlan; QIU; Deming; JIANG; Yongming; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Caragana microphylla is one of the key species for vegetation restoration in Horqin Sandy Land. Adopting field investigation and outdoor experiments,the microclimate effect of artificial C. microphylla communities with different restoration years were studied by observing wind velocity,air temperature,relative humidity and soil temperature. The results show that:( 1) Caragana microphylla community has an obvious wind-breaking effect near ground surface. Compared with shifting dunes,the wind velocity in the 6-year-old and 11-year-old C. microphylla shrubs at the height of 30 cm separately decreases by 71. 9% and 76. 0%.( 2) Mean daily temperature in the 6-year-old and 11-yearold C. microphylla communities is 3. 7 ℃ and 4. 9 ℃ lower than in shifting dunes,respectively.( 3) The relative humidity of air in the Caragana microphylla shrubs is higher than in shifting dunes.( 4) Soil temperature in C. microphylla plantation is lower than in shifting dunes. These results are significant in further exploring material and energy exchange near surface layer of artificial vegetation in the extremely arid condition.

  10. Impact of dangerous microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle on pediatric thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Duzinski, Sarah; Null, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) persists as the leading cause of non-crash, vehicle-related deaths among US children with an average of 37 children dying after being left unattended in motor vehicles each year. Our study aims to demonstrate the microclimate conditions within an enclosed vehicle that lead infants and small children to reach key physiological heat thresholds: uncompensable heating (>37 °C) and heatstroke (>40 °C) under "worst case" conditions. A modified version of the Man-Environment Heat Exchange Model was used to compute the length of time for an infant to reach these thresholds. Several different scenarios were modeled using different initial cabin air temperatures. Assuming full sun exposure and maximum heating rates, an infant may reach uncompensable heating within 5 min and experience hyperthermia anywhere from 15 to 55 min depending on the starting cabin air temperature. The rapid approach of these heat-related thresholds occurs as enclosed vehicles maximize heating and minimize cooling mechanisms, leading to net heating and increase in core body temperatures. Health experts can use this information to support public health messaging on the topic of PVH by explaining why it is important to never leave a child alone in a car and increase the public perception of severity and susceptibility to this ongoing public health issue.

  11. Microclimate monitoring of Ariadne’s house (Pompeii, Italy) for preventive conservation of fresco paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ariadne’s house, located at the city center of ancient Pompeii, is of great archaeological value due to the fresco paintings decorating several rooms. In order to assess the risks for long-term conservation affecting the valuable mural paintings, 26 temperature data-loggers and 26 relative humidity data-loggers were located in four rooms of the house for the monitoring of ambient conditions. Results Data recorded during 372 days were analyzed by means of graphical descriptive methods and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results revealed an effect of the roof type and number of walls of the room. Excessive temperatures were observed during the summer in rooms covered with transparent roofs, and corrective actions were taken. Moreover, higher humidity values were recorded by sensors on the floor level. Conclusions The present work provides guidelines about the type, number, calibration and position of thermohygrometric sensors recommended for the microclimate monitoring of mural paintings in outdoor or semi-confined environments. PMID:23190798

  12. Microclimate monitoring of Ariadne’s house (Pompeii, Italy for preventive conservation of fresco paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merello Paloma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ariadne’s house, located at the city center of ancient Pompeii, is of great archaeological value due to the fresco paintings decorating several rooms. In order to assess the risks for long-term conservation affecting the valuable mural paintings, 26 temperature data-loggers and 26 relative humidity data-loggers were located in four rooms of the house for the monitoring of ambient conditions. Results Data recorded during 372 days were analyzed by means of graphical descriptive methods and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results revealed an effect of the roof type and number of walls of the room. Excessive temperatures were observed during the summer in rooms covered with transparent roofs, and corrective actions were taken. Moreover, higher humidity values were recorded by sensors on the floor level. Conclusions The present work provides guidelines about the type, number, calibration and position of thermohygrometric sensors recommended for the microclimate monitoring of mural paintings in outdoor or semi-confined environments.

  13. Microclimate in ski boots--temperature, relative humidity, and water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick; Hasler, Michael; Fauland, Gulnara; Bechtold, Thomas; Nachbauer, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Ski boot quality is determined by mechanical properties and comfort. Comfort is strongly affected by cold feet. The purpose of this study was to determine the microclimate in ski boots. Climate chamber tests with five male subjects and field tests with two male subjects were conducted. Temperature and relative humidity were measured using four sensors placed on the foot and one on the liner. Absorbed water in liners and socks was measured with a precision balance. The subjects gave subjective ratings for comfort. The toe sensor temperature dropped below 20 °C at an ambient temperature of 0 °C, -10 °C, and -20 °C. Relative humidity values at the foot were as high as 78% in the climate chamber and 93% in the field. Water absorption in socks and liners ranged from 4 to 10 g in the climate chamber and 19 to 45.5 g in the field. The results reveal the importance of keeping the feet and in particular the toes warm during skiing. One possible improvement may be to construct the liner so that sweat and melted snow are kept as far away as possible from the foot. Liner material with high water absorption capacity and hydrophobic socks were suggested to prevent wet feet.

  14. Portable System for Monitoring the Microclimate in the Footwear-Foot Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Sandoval-Palomares

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new, continuously-monitoring portable device that monitors the diabetic foot has shown to help in reduction of diabetic foot complications. Persons affected by diabetic foot have shown to be particularly sensitive in the plantar surface; this sensitivity coupled with certain ambient conditions may cause dry skin. This dry skin leads to the formation of fissures that may eventually result in a foot ulceration and subsequent hospitalization. This new device monitors the micro-climate temperature and humidity areas between the insole and sole of the footwear. The monitoring system consists of an array of ten sensors that take readings of relative humidity within the range of 100% ± 2% and temperature within the range of −40 °C to 123.8 ± 0.3 °C. Continuous data is collected using embedded C software and the recorded data is processed in Matlab. This allows for the display of data; the implementation of the iterative Gauss-Newton algorithm method was used to display an exponential response curve. Therefore, the aim of our system is to obtain feedback data and provide the critical information to various footwear manufacturers. The footwear manufactures will utilize this critical information to design and manufacture diabetic footwear that reduce the risk of ulcers in diabetic feet.

  15. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  16. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  17. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  18. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L; Spangholm, D. J.; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates cau...

  19. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  20. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...... heating had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with the heating on. The outdoor solar radiation and the perceived illumination had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on. The most frequent reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain...

  1. Assessing the Performance of Large Scale Green Roofs and Their Impact on the Urban Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls-Mantey, L.; Foti, R.; Montalto, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In ultra-urban environments green roofs offer a feasible solution to add green infrastructure (GI) in neighborhoods where space is limited. Green roofs offer the typical advantages of urban GI such as stormwater reduction and management while providing direct benefits to the buildings on which they are installed through thermal protection and mitigation of temperature fluctuations. At 6.8 acres, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center (JJCC) in New York City, hosts the second largest green roof in the United States. Since its installation in August 2013, the Sustainable Water Resource (SWRE) Laboratory at Drexel University has monitored the climate on and around the green roof by means of four weather stations situated on various roof and ground locations. Using two years of fine scale climatic data collected at the JJCC, this study explores the energy balance of a large scale green roof system. Temperature, radiation, evapotranspiration and wind profiles pre- and post- installation of the JJCC green roof were analyzed and compared across monitored locations, with the goal of identifying the impact of the green roof on the building and urban micro-climate. Our findings indicate that the presence of the green roof, not only altered the climatic conditions above the JJCC, but also had a measurable impact on the climatic profile of the areas immediately surrounding it. Furthermore, as a result of the mitigation of roof temperature fluctuations and of the cooling provided during warmer months, an improvement of the building thermal efficiency was contextually observed. Such findings support the installation of GI as an effective practice in urban settings and important in the discussion of key issues including energy conservation measures, carbon emission reductions and the mitigation of urban heat islands.

  2. The Influence of Climate and Micro-climate (aspect) on Soil Creep Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Asher, M.; Haviv, I.; Crouvi, O.; Roering, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hillslope evolution has occupied geoscientists for over a century, the effect of climate on the morphology of soil-mantled, transport-limited hillslopes remained poorly-constrained. In this study we utilize numerical simulations of volcanic cinder cones in the Golan Heights (Eastern Mediterranean) to estimate soil creep efficiency across a strong north-to-south gradient in mean annual precipitation (1100-500 mm). Our model utilizes the cinder cone initial hillslope profile (constrained by the dip of the ash layers), the current hillslope profile (measured with cm scale accuracy) and the known eruption age (K-Ar and Ar-Ar constraints) to predict the best-fit final hillslope profile by changing the soil creep diffusion coefficient. Hillslope evolution is described using a diffusion equation. Our results indicate that the best-fit soil creep diffusion coefficient varies from 0.5 to 7 m2/kyr. Soil diffusivity depends on both climate (precipitation) and aspect-related microclimate as the diffusion coefficient decreases with mean annual precipitation and is higher on south facing hillslopes. This climate dependency seems to reflect an increase in the apparent soil cohesion at higher precipitation rates due to vegetation coverage (the density of root networks) which co-varies with rainfall and aspect. We demonstrate this strong co-variance utilizing the spatial distribution of NDVI vegetation index calculated from ASTER images. In addition, 650-750 kyr cinder cones display lower diffusion coefficient relative to late Pleistocene cinder cones (120-150 kyr). This temporal variance may reflect the unique climatic conditions of the last glacial and inter-glacial period. Future analysis of additional cones is expected to contribute further to our understanding of hillslope form-process relation and the morphologic signature of climate.

  3. IMPACT OF LEVEL OF DETAILS IN THE 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF TREES FOR MICROCLIMATE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bournez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, urban areas undergo specific climatic conditions like urban heat islands which frequency and intensity increase over the years. Towards the understanding and the monitoring of these conditions, vegetation effects on urban climate are studied. It appears that a natural phenomenon, the evapotranspiration of trees, generates a cooling effect in urban environment. In this work, a 3D microclimate model is used to quantify the evapotranspiration of trees in relation with their architecture, their physiology and the climate. These three characteristics are determined with field measurements and data processing. Based on point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, the 3D reconstruction of the tree wood architecture is performed. Then the 3D reconstruction of leaves is carried out from the 3D skeleton of vegetative shoots and allometric statistics. With the aim of extending the simulation on several trees simultaneously, it is necessary to apply the 3D reconstruction process on each tree individually. However, as well for the acquisition as for the processing, the 3D reconstruction approach is time consuming. Mobile laser scanners could provide point clouds in a faster way than static TLS, but this implies a lower point density. Also the processing time could be shortened, but under the assumption that a coarser 3D model is sufficient for the simulation. In this context, the criterion of level of details and accuracy of the tree 3D reconstructed model must be studied. In this paper first tests to assess their impact on the determination of the evapotranspiration are presented.

  4. Impact of Level of Details in the 3d Reconstruction of Trees for Microclimate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournez, E.; Landes, T.; Saudreau, M.; Kastendeuch, P.; Najjar, G.

    2016-06-01

    In the 21st century, urban areas undergo specific climatic conditions like urban heat islands which frequency and intensity increase over the years. Towards the understanding and the monitoring of these conditions, vegetation effects on urban climate are studied. It appears that a natural phenomenon, the evapotranspiration of trees, generates a cooling effect in urban environment. In this work, a 3D microclimate model is used to quantify the evapotranspiration of trees in relation with their architecture, their physiology and the climate. These three characteristics are determined with field measurements and data processing. Based on point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the 3D reconstruction of the tree wood architecture is performed. Then the 3D reconstruction of leaves is carried out from the 3D skeleton of vegetative shoots and allometric statistics. With the aim of extending the simulation on several trees simultaneously, it is necessary to apply the 3D reconstruction process on each tree individually. However, as well for the acquisition as for the processing, the 3D reconstruction approach is time consuming. Mobile laser scanners could provide point clouds in a faster way than static TLS, but this implies a lower point density. Also the processing time could be shortened, but under the assumption that a coarser 3D model is sufficient for the simulation. In this context, the criterion of level of details and accuracy of the tree 3D reconstructed model must be studied. In this paper first tests to assess their impact on the determination of the evapotranspiration are presented.

  5. Microclimate evaluation of a new design of insect-proof screens in a Mediterranean greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lopez-Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This work studies natural ventilation in a Mediterranean greenhouse, comparing a new experimental screen of 13×30 threads cm-2 (porosity 39.0% with a commercial control screen of 10×20 threads cm-2 (porosity 33.5%. In addition, both screens were tested in a wind tunnel to determine the discharge coefficients Cd of the greenhouse side and roof vents, which proved to be 0.16 for the commercial control screen and 0.18 for the experimental screen at both vents. These values represent a theoretical increase of 11% (Cd,φ-10×20 /Cd,φ-13×30 = 0.89 in the natural ventilation capacity of the greenhouse when the experimental screen is used. The greenhouse was divided into two separate sections allowing us to analyze natural ventilation in both sectors simultaneously. Air velocity was measured in the lateral and roof vents with two 3D and six 2D sonic anemometers. Using the commercial control screen there was an average reduction of 16% in ventilation rate, and an average increase of 0.5ºC in the average indoor air temperature, compared to the experimental screen. In addition, the ventilation efficiency ηT was higher with the experimental screen (mean value of 0.9 than with the control (mean value 0.6. We have designed an experimental insect-proof screen (13×30 threads cm-2 with smaller thread diameter, higher thread density, smaller pore size and higher porosity than are used in most commercial meshes. All of these factors promote natural ventilation and improve the greenhouse microclimate.

  6. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvert, M.; Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.; Hoffmann, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell

  7. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for hourly calculation of the operating temperature in order to evaluate summer comfort in dwellings to help improve building design. A simplified method was developed on the basis of the simple hourly method of the standard ISO 13790...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...... for the fulfilment of summer comfort. Thus it is very important to address both opening areas and ventilation rates. The developed simplified method makes it possible to test whether or not a building design for a dwelling will prevent excess of the summer comfort limits set by the building regulations....

  8. Narrowing the definition of "dwelling" under the Fair Housing Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Karen

    2009-01-01

    .... Courts have applied the Fair Housing Act to any residence--defined by one court as "a temporary or permanent dwelling place, abode or habitation to which one intends to return as distinguished...

  9. 地区建筑营建的被动式节能设计对策的体系化研究——以绿色窑居节能空间的形态设计为例%Systematic Research of Passive Design Strategies on Regional Architecture Construction:Taking the Form Design of Energy-efficient Space for Green Cave Dwellings as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秦; 林磊; 刘勇

    2013-01-01

    该文从窑居微气候环境控制中遇到的通风、采光、保温与降湿等矛盾入手,以建筑环境构成的层级结构作为基本分类准则,依据影响地区建筑微气候的各种环境因素调节的原理,提出地区建筑营建的被动式设计对策的体系化框架.该文还结合拓扑几何学原理,以单体窑居的节能空间设计为例,探讨其形态的被动式设计对策细则.%This paper focuses on ventilation,lighting,insulation,humidity reduction and other problems encountered in microclimate control of cave dwellings,regards the principles of hierarchical structure of building environment and regulation of a variety of influencing factors that affect the building microclimate as the basic principles of classification,and proposes systematic structure for passive design strategies on regional architecture.In addition,it uses the principles of topological geometry,takes the energy-efficient space design of cave dwellings as an example,and explores the passive design strategies for its form design.

  10. Temporal and spatial variations in microclimate influence the larval foraging behaviors and performance of a conifer-feeding sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, R C; Boone, J; Leggo, J J; Smith, S; Carleton, D; Quiring, D T

    2012-06-01

    Herbivorous insects are often exposed to broad temporal and spatial variations in microclimate conditions within their host plants and have adapted a variety of behaviors, such as avoidance or basking, to either offset or benefit from such variation. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of daily and intratree variations in microclimate on the behaviors (feeding, resting, dispersal, and hiding) and associated performance of late-instar larvae of the yellowheaded spruce sawfly, Pikonema alaskensis (Rohwer) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) within crowns of 1.25-1.5 m tall black spruce (Picea mariana [Miller] Britton Sterns Poggenburg); late instars feed on developing shoots of young spruce and are often exposed to microclimatic extremes with unknown effects on performance. Larvae fed diurnally from just after dawn (0800 h) until dusk (2000 h) and rested throughout the night, with brief periods of dispersal occurring in the morning and evening. Neither larval behavior nor abiotic conditions differed significantly between the upper and lower crowns of trees. Temperature, humidity, and solar insolation all explained >90% of variation in feeding; however, sunrise and sunset were the most likely cues influencing diurnal behavior. Most larvae (94%) fed on the bottom, shaded side of shoots, and field experiments indicated that this behavior is adaptive with respect to microclimate, probably reducing hygrothermal stress. Thus, behavioral adaptations by P. alaskensis to daily and within-shoot microclimatic variation may reduce the risk of hygrothermal stress during dispersal or feeding, while still allowing larvae to feed on the preferred and highly nutritious upper crown foliage of young spruce.

  11. Chesapeake Bay Climate Study Partnership: Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning on Microclimates at the University of Hawai'i, Hilo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Adolf, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate student experiential learning activities focused on microclimates of Hawai'i Island, Hawai'i. Six students from Virginia State University, three students from Delaware State University and faculty advisors were hosted by the University of Hawai'i at Hilo (UHH) Department of Marine Science. This partnership provided integrated, cohesive, and innovative education and research capabilities to minority students on climate change science. Activities included a summer course, instrumentation training, field and laboratory research training, sampling, data collection, logging, analysis, interpretation, report preparation, and research presentation. Most training activities used samples collected during students' field sampling in Hilo Bay. Water quality and phytoplankton data were collected along a 220 degree line transect from the mouth of the Wailuku River to the pelagic zone outside of Hilo Bay into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 15.5 km. Water clarity, turbidity, chlorophyll, physical water quality parameters, and atmospheric CO2 levels were measured along the transect. Phytoplankton samples were collected for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. Data showed the extent of anthropogenic activity on water quality, with implications for food web dynamics. In addition, atmospheric CO2 concentration, island vegetation, and GPS points were recorded throughout the island of Hawai'i to investigate how variations in microclimate, elevation, and land development affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, vegetation, and water quality. Water quality results at locations near rivers were completely different from other study sites, requiring students' critical thinking skills to find possible reasons for the difference. Our data show a correlation between population density and CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic activities affecting CO2 and ocean conditions in Hawaiian microclimates can potentially have deleterious effects on the life

  12. Distributed interactive communication in simulated space-dwelling groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Joseph V; Hienz, Robert D; Hursh, Steven R; Ragusa, Leonard C; Rouse, Charles O; Gasior, Eric D

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the development and preliminary application of an experimental test bed for modeling human behavior in the context of a computer generated environment to analyze the effects of variations in communication modalities, incentives and stressful conditions. In addition to detailing the methodological development of a simulated task environment that provides for electronic monitoring and recording of individual and group behavior, the initial substantive findings from an experimental analysis of distributed interactive communication in simulated space dwelling groups are described. Crews of three members each (male and female) participated in simulated "planetary missions" based upon a synthetic scenario task that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic specimens with a range of grade values. The results of these preliminary studies showed clearly that cooperative and productive interactions were maintained between individually isolated and distributed individuals communicating and problem-solving effectively in a computer-generated "planetary" environment over extended time intervals without benefit of one another's physical presence. Studies on communication channel constraints confirmed the functional interchangeability between available modalities with the highest degree of interchangeability occurring between Audio and Text modes of communication. The effects of task-related incentives were determined by the conditions under which they were available with Positive Incentives effectively attenuating decrements in performance under stressful time pressure.

  13. FOLK DWELLING IN THE NOVEL OF IVAN BAHRIANYI "TYHROLOVY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGUSLAVSKAYA L. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The image of the national home contains a number of basic characteristics on the basis of which can be traced specifically to the national vision and principles of human connections with the material world. In the novel "Tyhrolovy" the uniqueness of this play lies in the fact that the “Ukrainian Khata” consolidated among the "alien" space. On the pages of the novel takes place already well-established, self-sufficient and organized life of an Ukrainian family that not only survived, but also learned new vital dimension. Folk housing in the context appears as the main object of maintaining tribal affiliation to the Ukrainian land. The purpose of the article. To perform the folk characteristic properties at home in the works of Ivan Bahrianyi. Conclusions. Roman "Tyhrolovy" Ivan Bahrianyi contains a number of significant parts filled with the symbols of tribal affiliation to the Ukrainian world. In particular, fully preserved and carefully restored in the family home of Sirko the guard function of these important components of the domestic home space, like images, embroidered towels, oven painted with flowers, carved cupboard. A combination feature of former agricultural world with the world of game is transmitted via the zoomorphic elements of the painting ovens ( former peace doves have become falcons and deploying a visual of the number of images that are typical for Ukrainian dwelling as the basic form of fixation of life and family development.

  14. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-04-12

    The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known. During the last decades, several investigations carried out in Afrotropical caves suggested the medical and veterinary importance particularly of insect taxa of the Diptera order. Therefore, the role of some of these insects as vectors of pathogens that infect cave-dwelling vertebrates has been studied. The present review summarizes these findings, brings insights into the diversity of cave-dwelling hematophagous Diptera and their involvement in pathogen transmission, and finally discusses new challenges and future research directions.

  15. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  17. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  18. [Effect of vibration, noise, physical exertion and unfavorable microclimate on carbohydrate metabolism in workers engaged into mining industry and machine building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapko, I V; Kir'iakov, V A; Antoshina, L I; Pavlovskaia, N A; Kondratovich, S V

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied influence of vibration, noise, physical overexertion and microclimate on carbohydrates metabolism and insulin resistance in metal mining industry workers. Findings are that vibration disease appeared to have maximal effect on insulin resistance test results and insulin level. The authors suggested biomarkers for early diagnosis of insulin resistance disorders in metal mining industry workers.

  19. River temperature processes under contrasting riparian land cover: linking microclimate, heat exchange and water thermal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Kantola, K.; Malcolm, I.

    2012-12-01

    River temperature influences strongly growth and survival in salmonid fish, which are often the target of river management strategies. Temperature is controlled by transfers of heat and water to/ from the river system, with land and water management modifying exchanges and consequently thermal regime. In the UK, fisheries managers are promoting riparian forest planting as a climate change adaption measure to reduce water temperature extremes. However, scientific understanding lags behind management and policy needs. Specifically, there is an urgent requirement to determine planting strategies that maximise expected benefits of riparian forest in terms of reduction in maximum water temperature. Scientific knowledge is necessary to underpin conceptual and deterministic models to inform management. To address this research gap, this paper analyses high resolution (15 minute) hydrometeorological data collected over a calendar year in the western Scottish Highlands (Loch Ard) to understand the controls and processes determining river temperature dynamics under open moorland (control), semi-natural woodland and commercial forest. The research programme aims: (1) to characterise spatial and temporal variability in riparian microclimate and stream water temperature regime across forest treatments; (2) to identify the hydrological, climatological and site-specific factors affecting stream temperature; (3) to estimate the energy balance at sites representative of each forest treatment and, thus, yield physical process understanding about dominant heat exchanges driving thermal variability; and (4) to use 1-3 to predict stream temperature sensitivity under different forestry and hydroclimatological scenarios. Results indicated that inter-treatment differences in mean and maximum daily water column temperature were ordered open > semi-natural > commercial during summer, but semi-natural > commercial > open during winter. Minimum water temperature was ordered commercial > semi

  20. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  1. Dwelling and Mobility in Postphenomenological Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botin, Lars

    as a puzzle-piece that can be moved and transformed in relation to which tasks are required. The late-capitalist commodification of humans, which has been the result of globalization, has deteriorated the intimate relationship in between humans and place, hence in a Heideggerian perspective preventing us from...

  2. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings......, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The quality classes reflect dierent levels of acoustical comfort. The paper presents and compares the sound classification schemes in Europe. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the 1990es. However, due to lack of coordination....... The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize concepts and other characteristics of the schemes....

  3. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  4. Second campaign of microclimate monitoring in the carcer tullianum: temporal and spatial correlation and gradients evidenced by multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visco Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses results obtained in the second monitoring campaign of the Carcer Tullianum, a particular hypogeum environment located in the historical centre of Rome (Italy. In the first paper we stressed the need to apply chemometric tools to this kind of studies in order to obtain full and significant information; really information on sampling design, sensors (type, number, position and instrument validation seems to be not easy to find in literature for researches dealing with monitoring of indoor environments. Also in this case three main parameters (temperature, humidity, illuminance were monitored in the complex construction by an inexpensive self-assembled system along some horizontal and vertical vectors together with some measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide and barometric pressure. With respect to the first campaign, we used a higher number of sensors to cover a new excavated zone; for the same reason, as well as to take into account the presence of visitors, a different experimental design was adopted. Results Different data treatments were applied to data coming from all the used sensors. A good view of the microclimate was obtained that also resulted coherent with the different position of the three rooms constituting the monitored site (Carcer, Tullianum, Convent. Classical time plots resulted useful to evidence the correlation of the main monitored parameters (T, RH% and illuminance with macroclimate, as well as their delay in following macroclimate. Box-Whisker and Gain-Loss graphs evidenced at the best the microclimate differences between the three rooms; an almost hypogean microclimate was evidenced for the lower room (Tullianum where humidity values range between 90 and 100% while lower values, but anyway higher than the external, and spread more widely were measured passing to Convent and Carcer with minimum values around 50% for the last. A scarce or very scarce correlation with macroclimate was

  5. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  6. Microclimate-induced Lateral Channel Migration as a Driver for Hillslope Asymmetry in Semi-arid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, P. W.; Perron, J. T.; Miller, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    North-facing slopes in semi-arid regions of the northern hemisphere are commonly steeper than south-facing slopes, whereas the converse is observed in the southern hemisphere. In the absence of a structural cause, the most common explanations for topographic asymmetry ultimately invoke aspect-related microclimate. Landscapes with asymmetric topography are therefore potential natural laboratories for investigating the sensitivity of surface processes to climate. However, the specific mechanisms driving asymmetry are not well understood, and studies using asymmetric topography to investigate landscape climate sensitivity may have to consider multiple origins of the asymmetry. Two leading hypotheses have emerged. One states that small differences in microclimate cause differences in the efficiency of erosional processes on slopes with different aspect. The more efficiently eroding slope erodes faster until the resulting slope asymmetry compensates for the difference in erosional efficiency. According to the other hypothesis, the difference in erosional efficiency is not sufficient to create the observed topographic asymmetry. Instead, sediment aggradation at the foot of the more quickly eroding slope forces lateral channel migration and undercutting of the opposing slope. These two explanations for topographic asymmetry predict different trajectories of long-term landscape evolution - sustained migration of asymmetric valleys would drive stream capture and drainage reorganization, whereas the mechanism without lateral channel migration would not - but there is no existing test capable of distinguishing between them. We develop such a test using a landscape evolution model that simulates different asymmetry-forming mechanisms, including asymmetric runoff production, channel incision threshold, soil creep, and lateral channel migration. For the case of topographic asymmetry produced by lateral channel migration, the model predicts that north-facing hilltops should be

  7. Effect of Over-Tree Evaporative Cooling in Orchards on Microclimate and Accuracy of Insect Model Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Ute; Jones, Vincent P

    2015-12-01

    Orchard design and management practices can alter microclimate and, thus, potentially affect insect development. If sufficiently large, these deviations in microclimate can compromise the accuracy of phenology model predictions used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sunburn causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest, United States, apple-producing region. Common prevention strategies include the use of fruit surface protectants, evaporative cooling (EC), or both. This study focused on the effect of EC on ambient temperatures and model predictions for four insects (codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.; Lacanobia fruitworm, Lacanobia subjuncta Grote and Robinson; oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris; and Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott). Over-tree EC was applied in July and August when daily maximum temperatures were predicted to be ≥30°C between 1200-1700 hours (15/15 min on/off interval) in 2011 and between 1200-1800 hours (15/10 min on/off interval, or continuous on) in 2012. Control plots were sprayed once with kaolin clay in early July. During interval and continuous cooling, over-tree cooling reduced average afternoon temperatures compared with the kaolin treatment by 2.1-3.2°C. Compared with kaolin-treated controls, codling moth and Lacanobia fruitworm egg hatch in EC plots was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d late, respectively. The presence of fourth-instar oblique-banded leafroller and Pandemis leafroller was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d earlier in EC plots, respectively. These differences in model predictions were negligible, suggesting that no adjustments in pest management timing are needed when using EC in high-density apple orchards.

  8. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    invitations to a sample of the Danish housing stock. The addresses were obtained from a Danish register along with information on physical properties of each dwelling. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. The outdoor temperature, solar radiation and type of supplementary...

  9. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  10. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  11. The spectrum of worry in the community-dwelling elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golden, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we examine the prevalence and distribution of worry, its content, and its associations with quality of life and depression, based on a large sample of community-dwelling elderly. We will attempt to distinguish between pathological and non-pathological worry based on these associations.

  12. Forecasting Demand for KC-135 Sorties: Deploy to Dwell Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Without the predictability, structure, and rule sets that the AEF construct provides, individual crewmembers suffer a perceived unsystematic assignment to...Enablers. It explained why deploy to dwell ratio is more than a quality of life issue and outlined some of the risks of sustained high operations

  13. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 years in ... and environmental factors on the health status and quality of life in older persons living in ... nutritional status (p≤0.001), the inability to count on family (p=0.008) and ...

  14. Relationships between building characteristics and airtightness of Dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramiana, C.N.; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Building airtightness is an important parameter to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. By means of a literature study, as well as the use of empirical data on the specific leakage of more than 300 dwellings, this paper provides insights in the relationships between building airtightness and

  15. Evolutionary diversification of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Sancia Esmeralda Theonilla van der

    2015-01-01

    Gall crabs (Crustacea : Cryptochiridae) are small, coral-dwelling crabs that live in obligate association with their host corals (Scleractinia), on which they rely for food and shelter. They have been recorded from shallow and deeper waters (over 500 m), but the majority of the species live in reef

  16. Interactions between higher plants and soil-dwelling organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, T.W.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers interactions between higher plants and soil-dwelling organisms, with sections on ecologically important biota in the rhizosphere, the soil community as cause and consequence of plant and community composition, specificity and selectivity, feedback mechanisms, soil communities and

  17. Predictive modelling of running and dwell times in railway traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of running and dwell times is important for all levels of planning and control of railway traffic. The availability of historical track occupation data with a high degree of granularity inspired a data-driven approach for estimating these process times. In this paper we present

  18. Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Jellema, S.; Bakker, E.B.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Occupational therapy might play an important role in maintaining independent living for community dwelling elderly people. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether occupational therapy improves outcome for people who are >/=60 years and are living independently. METHODS:

  19. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores, in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998 in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F, using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306 of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740 to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480 to 77% (3350 of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652 to 25% (1088 will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372 to 92% (10515 of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  20. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores), in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998) in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F), using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306) of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740) to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480) to 77% (3350) of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652) to 25% (1088) will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372) to 92% (10515) of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  1. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and other buildings in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas derived from the natural decay series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th, which are present in rocks and soils. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to the surface and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important indoor radon source is the building material construction. Therefore, it may accumulate indoor environments with reduced ventilation rates. Radon progeny attach to the aerosol particle in the air. The attached and unattached radon progeny may deposit in the lungs and irradiate to the lung tissue as they decay. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard, that causes excess of lung cancer among underground miners and there is an evidence that radon is also a heath hazard in dwellings and other indoor environments. Radon accounts for about half of all human exposure to natural radiation. Radon concentration measurements were carried out in dwellings, schools and shopping centers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. Most part of the inhabitants of the RMBH lives over the granitic gneissic complex, which has a variable depth out coming in some areas. For the radon concentration measurement continuous detectors, AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO, RAD7 and Pylon Lucas Cells were used and, for Potential Alpha Energy Concentration-PAEC measurement a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO was used. The experiments showed that most results are below 50 Bqm{sup -3} (mean+3{sigma}). This value is bellowing the action levels of the USEPA, ICRP and others, which varies in the range from 148 to 200 Bqm{sup -3}. The values are in the low range, as it was expected for a tropical climate. (author)

  2. Principles of formation of mobile dwelling of cluster type with application of additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most acute problems of modern society are issues related to the globalization of mankind caused by the next small scientific and technological revolution that is taking place and the emerging transition to a post-industrial society. Some of their characteristic features of this society are: deterritoriality, weakening of functional-spatial ties between places of residence, the application of labor and recreation rights. The peculiarity of the emerging new architecture with the arrival of the postindustrial information society is becoming completely new approaches to the formation of cities and the human dwelling itself. The article deals with the application of additive technologies in the production of mobile residential objects of high factory readiness. The article describes the concept of the formation of a mobile dwelling cluster type based on the principles of the organization of intelligent self-adapting systems (Smart Development, gives examples of author’s developments in the field of cluster housing, with a description of the fundamental principles necessary for the possibility of further development and technical implementation.

  3. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  4. Test Study on Xining Residential Microclimate in Winter%西宁住宅小区冬季微气候测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世文; 杨柳; 张璞; 张源; 苏士凯

    2013-01-01

    住区微气候是决定室外热舒适与建筑能耗的主要因素.西宁市位于我国青藏高原严寒气候区,有着独特住区微气候特征.本文针对西宁市滨河铁路小区进行了冬季住区微气候的测试,测试包含空气温度、空气湿度、风速、太阳辐射以及黑球温度.通过计算热应力指标湿黑球温度WBGT,分析了各测点的室外热环境.通过当地气象站数据和各测点之间的对比,分析西宁冬季住区微气候的影响因素.%Residential microclimate is the main factor deciding outdoor thermal comfort and construction energy consumption.Xining locates in extremely cold climate region in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of our country and bears unique residential microclimate feature.This paper conducts test on residential microclimate in winter specific to Binhe Railway Community of Xining,which includes air temperature,air humidity,wind speed,solar radiation and black globe temperature.Through calculating thermal stress index of wet black globe temperature WBGT,the outdoor thermal environment of each testing point is analyzed and through comparing data of the local meteorological station with those of each testing point,the influencing factors regarding residential microclimate in winter of Xining are also analyzed.

  5. Calculation of Level of Comfort of the Micro-Climate in Buildings During the Estimation of the Energy-Saving Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prorokova, M. V.; Bukhmirov, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the method of valuation of comfort of microclimate of residen-tial, public and administrative buildings. The method is based on calculation of the coefficient of thermal comfort of a person in the room. Further amendments are introduced to the asym-metry of the thermal radiation, radiation cooling and air quality. The method serves as the basis for a computer program.

  6. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Silveira Simões

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*. Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b* foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE.

  7. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.;

    1996-01-01

    basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three......A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...

  8. Allotment Garden Dwellings: Exploring Tradition and Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja LORBEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 19th century, the removal of city walls and introduction of mass transport in European cities provided the opportunity to expand cities in green suburban areas. Colonies of small houses with garden plots and allotment gardens developed during this era thus represent a new type of settlement, where green infrastructure (gardens and allotment dwellings are closely intertwined. The gardens in these settlements were originally based on the notion of subsistence economy, providing food and emergency accommodation in periods of crisis. This paper examines the evolution of allotments and particularly allotment dwellings in Germany and Austria by matching the actual practices of gardeners with the formation of and changes in the legal framework. The legislation and zoning regulations, which were predominantly established after the fact, reveal an ongoing process of negotiation between informal practices and planning authorities.

  9. The research of the stock utilization plans in aged housing estate by remodeling of dwelling units -I By Experimental self-aide remodeling of dwelling units in Nishimuko housing estate

    OpenAIRE

    大坪, 明

    2009-01-01

    The students in 5 universities who learn architecture and pretended to be tenants implemented the experi-mental self-aid remodeling of dwelling units in a collective housing. Those dwelling units in the aged hous-ing estate were revived by them with a remarkable personality. This result proved that the aged dwelling unit stocks will be still utilized sufficiently. There will be many ways of continuing to use those remodeled dwell-ing units.

  10. Dwelling Buildings’ Energy Certification by Total Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Belindževa-Korkla, O; Krēsliņš, A; Borodiņecs, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the requirements of the Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings is introduction in the EU member countries of energy certification of buildings. It has to be implemented starting from 2006. In Latvia the energy certification scheme for dwelling buildings was developed in RTU in 2000 and successfully implemented in Ogre in 2002-2004. The existing buildings’ energy certification scheme takes into account only energy consumption of space heating and hot water supply. I...

  11. Vertical Distribution of Air Temperatures in Heated Dwelling Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Šikula, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental and theoretic research on one of factors influencing the indoor climate in dwelling rooms heated by heating systems, the vertical distribution of temperatures. The paper summarizes results from simulation of the room heated by a gas space heater and a plate radiator. Among main factors causing unfavorable distribution of temperatures in a room belong insufficient elimination of cold dropping airflows and high temperature of heating air. The paper presents...

  12. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p < .0002). In contrast, walking speed of the elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  13. Dwelling Price Ranking versus Socioeconomic Clustering: Possibility of Imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleishman Larisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the socioeconomic profile of various geographic units, it is common practice to use aggregated indices. However, the process of calculating such indices requires a wide variety of variables from various data sources available concurrently. Using a number of administrative databases for 2001 and 2003, this study examines the question of whether dwelling prices in a given locality can serve as a proxy for its socioeconomic level. Based on statistical and geographic criteria, we developed a Dwelling Price Ranking (DPR methodology. Our findings show that the DPR can serve as a good approximation for the socioeconomic cluster (SEC calculated by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics for years when the required data was available. As opposed to the SEC, the suggested DPR indicator can easily be calculated, thus ensuring a continuum of socioeconomic index series. Both parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses have been carried out in order to examine the additional social, demographic, location, crime and security effects that are exogenous to SEC. Complementary analysis on recently published SEC series for 2006 and 2008 show that our conclusions remain valid. The proposed methodology and the obtained findings may be applicable for different statistical purposes in other countries which possess dwelling transactions data.

  14. A study of indoor radon levels and radon effective dose in dwellings of some cities of Gezira State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzain Abd-Elmoniem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sources of radiation, especially 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products has become an important issue throughout the world because sustained exposure of humans to indoor radon may cause lung cancer. The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Medani, El Hosh, Elmanagil, Haj Abd Allah, and Wad Almahi cities, Gezira State - Central Sudan, in 393 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from (57 ± 8 Bq/m3 in Medani to 41 ± 9 Bq/m3 in Wad Almahi, with an average of 49 ± 10 Bq/m3. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from 222Rn in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.05 to 1.43 mSv per year and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was 1.044%. In this research, we also correlated the relationship of radon concentration and building age. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is larger than the “normal” background level as quoted by UNSCEAR, lower than the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  15. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  16. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  17. Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 μg m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 μg m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 μg m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 μg m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 μg m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

  18. Studies on the Edible Terrestrial Snails Helix aspersa Muller Food Conversion Ratio in a Confined Microclimate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Toader-Williams

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial edible snail breeding is an agricultural activity that finds itself at pioneering stage in Romania. One of the species used in snail farming is Helix aspersa Muller. In order to accelerate their growth, farmers feed the snails with pumpkins as well as concentrated forage consisting of mix of flours to which calcium carbonate is added in order to supplement snails need for shell’s development. In a controlled microclimate environment we measured the average growth of six weeks old Helix aspersa Muller snails placed in four different plastic enclosures. The consumption of different type of foods within 24 hours period was measured. The wheat (60%, corn flour (20% and calcium carbonate (20% mix had a superior food conversion ratio (FCR of 4.80, whereas the second FCR registered 6.04 in the case of 53% pumpkin and 47% flour mix served in the same time followed by the pure fresh vegetable mix accounting for a FCR of 8.00 and by 19.02 when only the pumpkin has been administrated as meal. During the experiments the snails did not have access to soil, being known that soil is an integral part of their diet.

  19. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando-Juan García-Diego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets.

  20. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Verticchio, Elena; Beltrán, Pedro; Siani, Anna Maria

    2016-08-15

    Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain) were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets.

  1. Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of patch use by the Karner blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of which aspects of habitat quality and habitat spatial arrangement best account for variation in a species’ distribution can guide management for organisms such as the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), a federally endangered subspecies inhabiting savannas of Midwest and Eastern United States. We examined the extent to which three sets of predictors, (1) larval host plant (Lupinus perennis, wild lupine) availability, (2) characteristics of the matrix surrounding host plant patches, and (3) factors affecting a patch’s thermal environment, accounted for variation in lupine patch use by Karner blues at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana and Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, USA. Each predictor set accounted for 7–13% of variation in patch occupancy by Karner blues at both sites and in larval feeding activity among patches at Indiana Dunes. Patch area, an indicator of host plant availability, was an exception, accounting for 30% of variation in patch occupancy at Indiana Dunes. Spatially structured patterns of patch use across the landscape accounted for 9–16% of variation in patch use and explained more variation in larval feeding activity than did spatial autocorrelation between neighboring patches. Because of this broader spatial trend across sites, a given management action may be more effective in promoting patch use in some portions of the landscape than in others. Spatial trend, resource availability, matrix quality, and microclimate, in general, accounted for similar amounts of variation in patch use and each should be incorporated into habitat management planning for the Karner blue butterfly.

  2. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, B.; Schalm, O.; De Wael, K.; Cardell, C.; Van Grieken, R.

    2012-07-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO2, SO2, O3, and NH3) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  3. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Verticchio, Elena; Beltrán, Pedro; Siani, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain) were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets. PMID:27537886

  4. MEASUREMENT OF RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DWELLINGS OF PAURI GARHWAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena; Dutt, Sanjay; Yadav, Manjulata; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that inhalation of radon, thoron and their progeny contributes more than 50 % of natural background radiation dose to human being. The time-integrated passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The measurements of radon and thoron concentrations were performed by LR-115 detector-based single-entry pin-hole dosemeter, while for the measurement of progeny concentrations, LR-115 deposition-based direct radon and thoron progeny sensors technique was used. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Concept of successful ageing among the community-dwelling oldest old in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Komata, Michiko; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae; Katsura, Toshiki

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, increasing human longevity has forced society to rethink the notion of what constitutes 'successful ageing'. This study attempts to advocate a new concept of successful ageing that involves complete acceptance of the ageing process. Research was based on semi-structured interviews with 15 community dwelling oldest-old (aged 85 years and above) participants. The analysis was completed using a grounded theory approach. Successful ageing for the oldest old was grouped into six categories. Within these categories, we discovered the structure of successful ageing, which synthesises ideas from the adaptation process with those of physical and cognitive decreased function as well as spirituality. The oldest old in Japan work to arrive at a conclusion with their lives, all the while coping with the drawbacks of ageing, such as declining physical and cognitive functions. This resilient and flexible way of life makes their form of ageing an equally 'successful' one.

  6. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-01-01

    .... The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China...

  7. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam Kumar; Das, Projit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m - 3.

  8. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Kumar Dey; Projit Kumar Das

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m−3.

  9. Recreational Impacts on the Microclimate of the Gorilla Limestone Cave in Shoushan National Nature Park of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Ho, Lih-Der

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a continuous microclimate monitoring carried out in the Gorilla Cave (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) between December 2015 and December 2016. This limestone cave is located in the Mt. Shoushan, which is mainly composed of limestone and mudstone. This study tried to assess the recreational impacts to the microclimate of the cave by monitoring the CO2, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. Two monitoring stations were set up respectively at the front part (station A) and the end of the cave (station B). We also set up an auto-operated time-lapse camera at the entrance of the cave to record the numbers of tourists, and their entering time and the durations in cave. As carbon dioxide in the limestone cave may have negative impact to both speleothems and visitors, our presentation focuses on the variations of CO2 concentration in the Gorilla Cave. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of CO2 concentration were observed. The fluctuations are closely related with the temperature outside the cave. In summer, when the temperature outside the cave maintained at 30。C, fluctuations of CO2 concentration in the cave will become chaotic. The CO2 concentration would fluctuate around 1000ppm most of the day, but it would be relatively low ( 500ppm) during the noon. In winter, when temperature outside the cave maintained below 25゜C, the fluctuation of CO2 concentration in cave presented a steady state ( 400-500 ppm). Only at the noon, the temperature outside the cave rose above 25 ゜C, the CO2 concentration inside the cave would increase. There were 1,517 tourists entered the cave during the monitoring period. The average number of visitors in a group is 13, and each group averagely stayed for 15 minutes. Over half of the visitors (776 tourists) entered the cave in December, due to lower humidity, drier in the cave and less dripping water in winter. After tourists entered the cave, the CO2 concentration value of station A rose instantly. However, most tourists stayed

  10. Microclimate Controls on the Evolution of Critical Zone Architecture in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Kirby, E.; Nyblade, A.; Brantley, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    the feedbacks between chemical weathering and the physical structure of the critical zone at SSHO may be driven by microclimate asymmetry over geologic time.

  11. Effects of reproductive condition, roost microclimate, and weather patterns on summer torpor use by a vespertilionid bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of mammal species are recognized as heterothermic, capable of maintaining a high-core body temperature or entering a state of metabolic suppression known as torpor. Small mammals can achieve large energetic savings when torpid, but they are also subject to ecological costs. Studying torpor use in an ecological and physiological context can help elucidate relative costs and benefits of torpor to different groups within a population. We measured skin temperatures of 46 adult Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to evaluate thermoregulatory strategies of a heterothermic small mammal during the reproductive season. We compared daily average and minimum skin temperatures as well as the frequency, duration, and depth of torpor bouts of sex and reproductive classes of bats inhabiting day-roosts with different thermal characteristics. We evaluated roosts with microclimates colder (caves) and warmer (buildings) than ambient air temperatures, as well as roosts with intermediate conditions (trees and rock crevices). Using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), we found that different statistical models best predicted various characteristics of torpor bouts. While the type of day-roost best predicted the average number of torpor bouts that bats used each day, current weather variables best predicted daily average and minimum skin temperatures of bats, and reproductive condition best predicted average torpor bout depth and the average amount of time spent torpid each day by bats. Finding that different models best explain varying aspects of heterothermy illustrates the importance of torpor to both reproductive and nonreproductive small mammals and emphasizes the multifaceted nature of heterothermy and the need to collect data on numerous heterothermic response variables within an ecophysiological context.

  12. Water relations and microclimate around the upper limit of a cloud forest in Maui, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsch, Sybil G; Crausbay, Shelley D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Weintraub, Alexis E; Longman, Ryan J; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Dawson, Todd E

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of atmospheric demand on both plant water relations and daily whole-tree water balance across the upper limit of a cloud forest at the mean base height of the trade wind inversion in the tropical trade wind belt. We measured the microclimate and water relations (sap flow, water potential, stomatal conductance, pressure-volume relations) of Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich. var. polymorpha in three habitats bracketing the cloud forest's upper limit in Hawai'i to understand the role of water relations in determining ecotone position. The subalpine shrubland site, located 100 m above the cloud forest boundary, had the highest vapor pressure deficit, the least amount of rainfall and the highest levels of nighttime transpiration (EN) of all three sites. In the shrubland site, on average, 29% of daily whole-tree transpiration occurred at night, while on the driest day of the study 50% of total daily transpiration occurred at night. While EN occurred in the cloud forest habitat, the proportion of total daily transpiration that occurred at night was much lower (4%). The average leaf water potential (Ψleaf) was above the water potential at the turgor loss point (ΨTLP) on both sides of the ecotone due to strong stomatal regulation. While stomatal closure maintained a high Ψleaf, the minimum leaf water potential (Ψleafmin) was close to ΨTLP, indicating that drier conditions may cause drought stress in these habitats and may be an important driver of current landscape patterns in stand density.

  13. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  14. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan's day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE≥22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11≤MMSE≤21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE≤10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder.

  15. Relationships between indoor radon concentrations, thermal retrofit and dwelling characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Le Ponner, Eline; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to explore the relationships between the indoor radon concentrations and building characteristics, particularly the thermal retrofit. The geometric mean of the indoor radon concentration was 155 Bq m(-3) (with a geometric standard deviation of 3). The houses that had undergone a thermal retrofit had a higher average radon concentration than those that had not, which may have been due to a decrease in air permeability of the building envelope following rehabilitation work that did not systematically include proper management of the ventilation. Other building characteristics, primarily the building material and the foundation type, were associated with the indoor radon concentration. The indoor radon concentrations were higher in older houses built with granite or other stone, with a slab-on-grade foundation and without any ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  17. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-12-31

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  18. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  19. Psychological and socioeconomic health of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Lin, Mei-Hui; Wang, Yueh-Chin; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Different dimensions of health are intertwined. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the psychological and socioeconomic health status of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan, and (2) to compare the psychological and socioeconomic health differences among people of different age groups, gender, marital status, and exercise habits. Using stratified random sampling, 384 Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this survey research. Based on the Health Model of Older Adults, seven constructs were measured: (1) psychological health: sleep quality, emotional health, cognitive functioning, and health promotion behaviors; (2) socioeconomic health: social engagement, social support, and financial status. Results showed that most participants were in a good state of psychological and socioeconomic health, except that 38.02% of them suffered from sleep disruptions, and the majority of them were not involved in any social group, nor engaged in any volunteer work. Young-old older adults had better psychological and socioeconomic health than middle-old and old-old older adults. Male older adults had better psychological health than female older adults; however, they had less social engagement and social support than female older adults. Married older adults and exercisers performed better in most of the psychological and socioeconomic health indicators than single/widowed older adults and non-exercisers.

  20. {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: chang.kyu.kim@iaea.org; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Chang, Byung-Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Tokonami, Shinji [Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny were measured in 450 dwellings from 2002 to 2004 using two kinds of simple passive {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn monitors, Radopot{sup TM} and {sup 220}Rn progeny monitor. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of {sup 220}Rn concentrations were 40.4 and 10.7Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) of EEC{sub Tn} concentration was 0.89{+-}0.70Bqm{sup -3}, and the annual geometric mean (GM) was 0.60Bqm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78Bqm{sup -3}). The concentrations of {sup 220}Rn in Korean-style houses built with mud block were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective dose due to inhalation exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings was 0.25mSvy{sup -1}.

  1. A comparative study of indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, E.; Altinsoy, N.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of radon concentrations between dwellings and the schools located in the same regions and to obtain related indoor average radon concentration dwelling-school correction factor for similar locations. The research has been carried out by determining indoor radon concentrations at schools and dwellings located at the same districts in the selected two separate research fields called The Former Adapazari region and The New Adapazari region in the city of Adapazari using a total of 81 Cr-39 passive radon detectors for 75 days. The average radon concentrations have been determined for the dwellings and the schools in 15 districts of the Former Adapazari region as 59.9 Bq m-3 and 57.1 Bq m-3, respectively. The results in 4 districts of the New Adapazari region were 63.5 Bq m-3 for the dwellings and 61.0 Bq m-3 for the schools. Moreover, the annual effective doses were calculated as 1.33 mSv/y and 1.41 mSv/y for the dwellings of Former Adapazari and New Adapazari, respectively. It was seen that the doses received in the dwellings are about four times the doses received in the schools. The indoor radon concentration dwelling-school correction factor was found to be 1.04±0.01 for the research area.

  2. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  3. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  4. The effect of coverplates on the dwell characteristics of silican carbide subject to KE impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickup, I.M.; Barker, A.K.; Elgy, I.D.; Peskes, G.J.J.M.; Voorde, M.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    The high ballistic efficiency of non-oxide ceramics such as silicon carbide against kinetic energy (KE) threats is largely due to penetrator dwell (the erosion of the tip of the rod prior to ceramic target penetration). This paper considers the effect of target surface conditions on the dwell charac

  5. Analytical interconnection of energy processes of the human body with the surrounding atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Валеріївна Ходаріна

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research, described by the author in this article addresses the important scientific and practical issues of social ecological safety of life, which is to stabilize the performance of the RT for the passengers and crew РMV by the regulatory impact on air quality computer equipment. The problem of habitability sea and river transport vehicles associated with the creation of the microclimate in the passenger cabin, crew, production and office space remains unresolved and is located at 50 years old due to a lack of new technical means for climate control air pollution. Using the theoretical basis for the creation of the ship microclimate for the formation of algorithms for control and management of indoor air, the author carried out a study to establish the relationship between patterns of complex refractive thermal sensation human PMV and complex refractive energy state ambient air by RT multifactor experiment and mathematical description in the form of the regression equation. The results of mathematical modeling showed non-linear relationship between PMV and PT and yielded quite correct empirical formula. Nonlinear coefficients of the regression equation has a physical confirmation, since metabolism (M and the work (W of the human body are united by the - heart rate. Establishing the analytical relationship between the parameters of the control object in the court system and microclimate integral indicator of the environment allows to proceed to further improvement of the management systems, which is aimed at the development of optimal controllers comfortable microclimate

  6. Dwell position inaccuracy in the Varian GammaMed HDR ring applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin L; Liu, Tianxiao

    2010-09-07

    Varian has issued two Product Notification Letters warning of known inaccuracies in dwell positions for their GammaMed HDR ring applicator. This inaccuracy was measured for two sets of applicators. Autoexposed radiographs were taken of the HDR source at different dwell positions and analyzed per Varian recommendations using tools within the BrachyVision treatment planning program. Comparison between programmed and actual dwell positions showed the actual positions shifted distally by an average of 0.34 cm (0.17 cm-0.59 cm) across all positions in all rings. A correction method was developed and tested. During planning, the tip of the ring was extrapolated distally beyond its actual position in the patient image set and a proximal offset of the same distance was applied to the dwell positions. A global shift of 0.3 mm corrected all but the most proximal actual dwell position to within +2 mm of the planned position.

  7. OPTIMAL DESIGNS AND CAPABILITY LIMITS OF SINGLE ROLLER-TO-CAM INDEXING MECHANISMS FOR THREE DWELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. K. S. TRIPATHI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the continuous contact single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism for optimal designs and capability limits, based on generic transmission and curvature constraint for three dwell periods. First of all, the paper determines the solutions of the problems associated with multiple dwells and then develops optimal designs for three maximum extent dwell periods with equal indexing angles with curvature and transmission constraints. Next, stipulating that the three dwell periods should be equal; iteration is done. This gives optimal designs for three equal maximized dwells with equal indexing periods with curvature and transmission constraints. Final information in the form of capability limits will be very helpful to those who search for various alternative indexing mechanisms for several applications of automatic and packaging industries.

  8. Microclimate in coffee plantation grown under grevillea trees shading = Microclima de café arborizado com grevílea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco de Souza Rolim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of solar global radiation, wind speed, temperature andrelative humidity of air were made in a coffee plantation (Coffea Arabica L. variety Icatu Vermelho- IAC 4045, grown under conditions of shading levels caused by grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta in Mococa-SP region (21º 28’ S, 47º 01’ W, altitude 665m, betweenJanuary and December 2005, aiming to show the effects of shading crop system on the microclimate. The results showed that there was a reduction of about 26% of solar global radiation in the shaded systems, with a monthly variation of 24-30%. It has been highlighted some differences in the transmittance of global radiation in the shaded coffee trees due to the spatial variation of grevillea canopy. There was a reduction of about 35% in the five days-averaged wind speed in the shaded system that also presented reduced maximum air temperature and a reduction in the vapor pressure deficit during day-light period, especially in the point sampled near to the grevillea trees.Medições de radiação solar global, velocidade do vento, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, foram realizadas em um cafezal (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu Vermelho IAC 4045, cultivado a pleno sol e arborizado com grevílea (Grevillea robusta, no município de Mococa – SP (21º 28’ S, 47º 01’ W, altitude 665 m entre janeiro e dezembro de 2005, com o objetivo de apresentar os efeitos do cultivo arborizado no microclima. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que houve atenuação média dos valores de radiação solar global, em cultivo de café arborizado, em 26%, com variação mensal de 24 a 30%. Pela descontinuidade da cobertura das árvores de grevílea, foi verificadadiferença de transmissão da radiação solar em diferentes pontos do sistema arborizado. Foi verificada ainda redução média de 35% nas médias quinquidiais da velocidade do vento no cultivo arborizado em relação ao cultivo a pleno sol. O cultivo arborizado promoveu redu

  9. Remote Sensing of Urban Microclimate Change in L'Aquila City (Italy) after Post-Earthquake Depopulation in an Open Source GIS Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Zottele, Fabio; Dominici, Donatella

    2017-02-19

    This work reports a first attempt to use Landsat satellite imagery to identify possible urban microclimate changes in a city center after a seismic event that affected L'Aquila City (Abruzzo Region, Italy), on 6 April 2009. After the main seismic event, the collapse of part of the buildings, and the damaging of most of them, with the consequence of an almost total depopulation of the historic city center, may have caused alterations to the microclimate. This work develops an inexpensive work flow-using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) scenes-to construct the evolution of urban land use after the catastrophic main seismic event that hit L'Aquila. We hypothesized, that, possibly, before the event, the temperature was higher in the city center due to the presence of inhabitants (and thus home heating); while the opposite case occurred in the surrounding areas, where new settlements of inhabitants grew over a period of a few months. We decided not to look to independent meteorological data in order to avoid being biased in their investigations; thus, only the smallest dataset of Landsat ETM+ scenes were considered as input data in order to describe the thermal evolution of the land surface after the earthquake. We managed to use the Landsat archive images to provide thermal change indications, useful for understanding the urban changes induced by catastrophic events, setting up an easy to implement, robust, reproducible, and fast procedure.

  10. Remote Sensing of Urban Microclimate Change in L’Aquila City (Italy after Post-Earthquake Depopulation in an Open Source GIS Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Baiocchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a first attempt to use Landsat satellite imagery to identify possible urban microclimate changes in a city center after a seismic event that affected L’Aquila City (Abruzzo Region, Italy, on 6 April 2009. After the main seismic event, the collapse of part of the buildings, and the damaging of most of them, with the consequence of an almost total depopulation of the historic city center, may have caused alterations to the microclimate. This work develops an inexpensive work flow—using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ scenes—to construct the evolution of urban land use after the catastrophic main seismic event that hit L’Aquila. We hypothesized, that, possibly, before the event, the temperature was higher in the city center due to the presence of inhabitants (and thus home heating; while the opposite case occurred in the surrounding areas, where new settlements of inhabitants grew over a period of a few months. We decided not to look to independent meteorological data in order to avoid being biased in their investigations; thus, only the smallest dataset of Landsat ETM+ scenes were considered as input data in order to describe the thermal evolution of the land surface after the earthquake. We managed to use the Landsat archive images to provide thermal change indications, useful for understanding the urban changes induced by catastrophic events, setting up an easy to implement, robust, reproducible, and fast procedure.

  11. Analysis of the microclimate and CO2 flux characteristics in arid desert wetland ecosystem in summer: A case study in Xihu desert wetland, Dunhuang, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qian-Qian Gou; Jian-Jun Qu; Zhi-Wen Han

    2014-10-01

    Xihu desert wetland is an important and unusual environment in China or even in the world. However, until now, little research has been focused on the microclimate and CO2 flux characteristics in this area. This paper reports the characteristics of daily variations of microclimate and CO2 flux in the Dunhuang Xihu desert wetland, based on data observed in the desert wetland during a period of continuous fine weather in summer 2012. Results indicate that the characteristics of the micrometeorology were significantly affected by the land–lake breeze during the study period, and updrafts were prevalent in this region. The friction wind speed and the vertical velocity were much greater than those in the Maqu grasslands. The energy budget was strongly imbalanced: the latent heat flux was significantly higher than the sensible flux. The daily mean values of total solar radiation and net radiation were larger than those in Maqu grasslands and Jinta oasis. There was a temperature inversion and inverse humidity gradient in the atmospheric surface layer at night. The desert wetland ecosystem was a carbon sink during the whole of the observation period, and the maximum rate of carbon absorption usually occurred at about 11:00 hr each day in this region.

  12. Remote Sensing of Urban Microclimate Change in L’Aquila City (Italy) after Post-Earthquake Depopulation in an Open Source GIS Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Zottele, Fabio; Dominici, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    This work reports a first attempt to use Landsat satellite imagery to identify possible urban microclimate changes in a city center after a seismic event that affected L’Aquila City (Abruzzo Region, Italy), on 6 April 2009. After the main seismic event, the collapse of part of the buildings, and the damaging of most of them, with the consequence of an almost total depopulation of the historic city center, may have caused alterations to the microclimate. This work develops an inexpensive work flow—using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) scenes—to construct the evolution of urban land use after the catastrophic main seismic event that hit L’Aquila. We hypothesized, that, possibly, before the event, the temperature was higher in the city center due to the presence of inhabitants (and thus home heating); while the opposite case occurred in the surrounding areas, where new settlements of inhabitants grew over a period of a few months. We decided not to look to independent meteorological data in order to avoid being biased in their investigations; thus, only the smallest dataset of Landsat ETM+ scenes were considered as input data in order to describe the thermal evolution of the land surface after the earthquake. We managed to use the Landsat archive images to provide thermal change indications, useful for understanding the urban changes induced by catastrophic events, setting up an easy to implement, robust, reproducible, and fast procedure. PMID:28218724

  13. The practice of dwelling and the nature of decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Håkon; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    There exists a political desire to make buildings more energy efficient and resilient to extreme weather. For existing private housing this is done through refurbishment and retrofitting. In response, various projects and policies aiming to influence decisions made by homeowners in relation...... of dwelling”. We see maintenance, refurbishment and reparations as part of an ongoing practice of dwelling. In this light, decision making is just one of many aspects that contribute to shaping the actions of homeowners when they invest time and money in their properties....... to refurbishment. Focus on decisions seems to be based on a perspective where actions are understood to be the result of isolated decisions. By means of case studies from Denmark and Norway we challenge this point of view. Based on a practice theoretical approach we argue that homeowners’ actions should be seen...

  14. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  15. The relationship between sound insulation and acoustic quality in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  16. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important...... European countries have introduced classification schemes. The schemes typically include four classes. Comparative studies have shown significant discrepancies between countries due to national development of schemes. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of construction experience for different...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...

  17. Localization of Dwell Fatigue Cracks in Ti-6242 Alloy Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlin, S. I.; Kim, J.-Y.; Xie, B.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Zoofan, B.

    2003-03-01

    An in-situ ultrasonic guided wave technique is employed for real-time monitoring of crack initiation and evolution during dwell, cyclic fatigue and creep tests of Ti-6242 alloy samples. Ultrasonic signals are acquired continuously during the test at different levels of fatigue load using a high-speed data acquisition system. The initiation time and growth history of primary and multiple secondary cracks are assessed. Localization of the secondary cracks is performed by both the in-situ ultrasonic method and an ultrasonic immersion scanning method which we call "vertical C-scan" (VC scan). The VC scan is developed for imaging small cracks aligned normal to the fatigue sample axis. The fusion of ultrasonic and microradiographic images exhibits good agreement in crack location. Joint use of the three techniques provides location, shape, and size of the secondary cracks.

  18. Dwell Time Modelling and Optimized Simulations for Crowded Rail Transit Lines Based on Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of rail transit dwell time has potential benefits for both the users and the operators. Crowded passenger trains cause longer dwell times and may prevent some passengers from boarding the first available train that arrives. Actual dwell time and the process of passenger alighting and boarding are interdependent through the sequence of train stops and propagated delays. A comprehensive and feasible dwell time simulation model was developed and optimized to address the problems associated with scheduled timetables. The paper introduces the factors that affect dwell time in urban rail transit systems, including train headway, the process and number of passengers alighting and boarding the train, and the inability of train doors to properly close the first time because of overcrowded vehicles. Finally, based on a time-driven micro-simulation system, Shanghai rail transit Line 8 is used as an example to quantify the feasibility of scheduled dwell times for different stations, directions of travel and time periods, and a proposed dwell time during peak hours in several crowded stations is presented according to the simulation results.

  19. Forest Microclimate Characteristics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR . ERDC/CERL SR-14-8 iii Contents...understory density, height from forest floor 33 Raynor 1971 Wind and Temperature Structure in a Coniferous Forest and a Contiguous Field New...radiation, turbulence, wind speed 35 Spies 1994 Dynamics and Patterns of a Managed Coniferous Forest Landscape in Oregon Oregon forest interior

  20. Condições microclimáticas em um parreiral irrigado coberto com tela plástica Microclimate conditions inside an irrigated vineyard covered with a plastic screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A região de Jales é uma das principais produtoras de uvas de mesa do Estado de São Paulo. As videiras da região são irrigadas e conduzidas, normalmente, no sistema latada, sendo comum, também, a utilização de coberturas com telas plásticas para a proteção contra granizo, pássaros e morcegos. Entretanto, a irrigação, o sistema de condução e a cobertura plástica podem modificar as condições microclimáticas no parreiral. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar as condições meteorológicas no interior de um parreiral de uvas, na região de Jales, com as registradas a céu aberto. As avaliações foram realizadas na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP, em uma área conduzida no sistema latada, coberta com tela plástica de polietileno e irrigada por microaspersão. Os dados meteorológicos foram registrados fora e no interior do parreiral, empregando-se dois sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados, com registros efetuados a cada 15 minutos. Verificou-se que o uso da cobertura de tela plástica reduziu em 20%, em média, a radiação solar incidente (Rs acima do dossel. Os valores de Rs abaixo do dossel, durante o período de maior expansão foliar, chegaram a ser inferiores a 20% dos registrados a céu aberto. A temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar no interior do parreiral não apresentaram, em geral, diferenças para os valores registrados na estação meteorológica. Durante a irrigação, a temperatura do ar foi reduzida em 3%, e a umidade relativa do ar aumentou em 4%, em média, no interior do parreiral.Jales is one of the most important table grape producing regions of São Paulo State, Brazil. The grapevines are usually irrigated and cultivated using the pergola training system and, also, covered with a plastic screen to protect against hail, birds and bat attacks. Nevertheless, the irrigation, the training system and the plastic covering modify the

  1. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L.; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2-5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models.

  2. An Experimental Study of the Thermal Behavior of the Courtyard Style Cave Dwelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳峰; 刘亚; 刘加平

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the courtyard on moderating the hush climate and improving the thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling, and the interaction amongst the ambient, the courtyard and its surrounding cave rooms were investigated. A field measurement was carried out in such a typical dwelling in the winter. The results presented in this paper prove the ability of this dwelling to transform an extreme winter environment outside cave rooms into a better outdoor community space and will be helpful for modern architects to seek a low cost housing solution with concern for sustainable development.

  3. Learning dementia care in three contexts: practical training in day-care, group dwelling and nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, M; Negussie, B; Grafström, M

    2000-07-01

    During the period 1996-1999, 18 licensed practical nurses (LPNs) received specialized training to become caregivers and mentors in the field of dementia care at the Silvia Home Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of the study was to illuminate how the trainees utilized their practical training to learn about dementia care. The trainees gained practical training within three care models for elderly persons with dementia. The three forms of care and the context for practical training included the school's integrated day-care, a group dwelling and a nursing home. The findings show that the trainees made use of each training context in a similar fashion but there were differences between the contexts. A perspective of human dignity characterized the day-care. This was an opportunity for the nursing philosophy taught by the programme to be put to practical use, and for reflection and experiences pertaining to the individual patient to be developed. In the group dwelling, the trainees encountered patients with different forms of dementia and studied how the care-giving could be adapted to the individual patient's symptoms - the disease perspective. In the nursing home, the trainees chose a staff perspective in which they focused on organization, management and working conditions as well as staff attitudes and the effects of these factors on patient care.

  4. Antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion of Laemostenus punctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) against cave-dwelling micromycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Marija; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Ćirić, Ana; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Živković, Nemanja; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2017-06-01

    The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium. Five isolates were selected for testing the antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion: Talaromyces duclauxi, Aspergillus brunneouniseriatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma viride. The microdilution method has been applied to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). The most sensitive isolate was Penicillium sp., while the other isolates demonstrated a high level of resistance to the tested agent. L. punctatus has developed a special mechanism of producing specific compounds that act synergistically within the secretion mixture, which are responsible for the antifungal action against pathogens from the cave. The results open opportunities for further research in the field of ground beetle defense against pathogens, which could have an important application in human medicine, in addition to the environmental impact, primarily.

  5. Ancient earthen constructions and antiseismic dwellings: Boni's project after the earthquake of 13th January 1915 (Avezzano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Beranger

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available After the earthquake of 13th January 1915, the archaeologist Giacomo Boni (1859-1925, inspired by ancient building techniques. proposed the reconstruction of Marsica and the Middle Liri Valley with earthen dwellings. With the cooperation of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, he organized an exhibition where he collected samples of vegetal trellises which were an essential support to implement these techniques. Furthermore, he rebuilt two huts on the Palatine (Orti Farnesiani: one rectangular, the other circular, inspired by terracotta urns which he himself had discovered a few years earlier exploring the famous ancient tombs in the Forum Romanum, near the temple of Antonino and Faustina, by the Via Sacra. Boni's unusual proposal was intended as an alternative to the plans put forward by seismic engineering which was developing in Italy at that time. This is a prime example of a clash between two different outlooks and cultures (humanism versus science each of which claimed to offer solutions to attenuate the effect of earthquakes. We have so far been unable to establish whether any earthen dwellings were actually constructed in Marsica or the surroundings of Sora for the survivors of the earthquake of 13th January 1915. Unfortunately, only one of the many houses built with this technique. still existing in the Soran countryside can be dated (1924.

  6. Calcite Farming at Hollow Ridge Cave: Calibrating Net Rainfall and Cave Microclimate to Dripwater and Calcite Chemical Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, D. M.; Kilgore, B. P.; Froelich, P. N.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element records in cave speleothems are often interpreted as climate changes in rainfall amount or source, cave air temperature, overlying vegetation and atmospheric pCO2. However, these records are difficult to verify without in situ calibration of changes in cave microclimate (e.g., net rainfall, interior ventilation changes) to contemporaneous variations in dripwater and speleothem chemistry. In this study at Hollow Ridge Cave (HRC) in Marianna, Florida (USA), cave dripwater, bedrock, and modern calcite (farmed in situ) were collected in conjunction with continuous cave air pCO2, temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, radon-222 activity, airflow velocity and direction, rainfall amount, and drip rate data [1]. We analyzed rain and dripwater δD and δ18O, dripwater Ca2+, pH, δ13C and TCO2, cave air pCO2 and δ13C, and farmed calcite δ18O and δ13C to examine the relationships among rainwater isotopic composition, cave air ventilation, cave air temperature, calcite growth rate and seasonal timing, and calcite isotopic composition. Farmed calcite δ13C decreases linearly with distance from the front entrance to the interior of the cave during all seasons, with a maximum entrance-to-interior gradient of Δδ13C = -7‰ . A whole-cave "Hendy test" at distributed contemporaneous farming sites reveals that ventilation induces a +1.9 ± 0.96‰ δ13C offset between calcite precipitated in a ventilation flow path and out of flow paths. Farmed calcite δ18O exhibits a +0.82 ± 0.24‰ offset from values predicted by both theoretical calcite-water calculations and by laboratory-grown calcite [2]. Unlike calcite δ13C, oxygen isotopes show no ventilation effects and are a function only of temperature. Combining our data with other speleothem studies, we find a new empirical relationship for cave-specific water-calcite oxygen isotope fractionation across a range of temperatures and cave environments: 1000 ln α = 16

  7. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls

  8. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls

  9. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  10. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  11. Numerical Simulation Analysis and Ecological Evaluation on Wind Environment of Dwelling Groups in Severe Cold Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jin; Teng Shao

    2014-01-01

    The wind environment around residential building groups is increasingly concerned, while the dwelling groups as the elementary unit of planning design, its quality of surrounding wind environment will directly affect people’ s life. This study based on the climatic conditions of severe cold regions, selects four dwellings groups with different openings scale and position as the research objects, and then simulates and analyzes the wind speed distribution characteristics of each pattern. Meanwhile, it extracts the wind speed values of one hundred points of each pattern and applies the coefficient of uniformity method to the ecological evaluation. It has been found that grouping pattern of buildings has a dramatic effect on the resulting airflow behavior. Configurations that contain a T⁃shaped central space with small opened side can effectively prevent and contain airflow in the site offer. The interactive influence between layout of dwelling groups and wind environment are explored, so as to provide basis for the planning design of dwelling groups.

  12. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  13. Perceived Environmental Barriers to Outdoor Mobility and Feelings of Loneliness Among Community-Dwelling Older People.

    OpenAIRE

    Rantakokko, Merja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Vahaluoto, Satu; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility and loneliness among community-dwelling older people. In addition, we studied whether walking difficulties and autonomy in participation outdoors affected this association.

  14. Determinants of ventilation behavior in naturally ventilated dwellings: Identification and quantification of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levie, D.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hoes-van Oeffelen, E.C.M.; Hofstetter, H.; Janssen, S.A.; Spiekman, M.E.; Koene, F.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ventilation in dwellings is essential for well-being and health. However, insight in determinants of ventilation behavior is still limited. Aim: Identifying determinants of ventilation behavior and quantifying relationships. Secondly, identifying households characteristics associated wit

  15. Risk for falls among community-dwelling older people: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Luís Manuel Mota; Marques-Vieira, Cristina Maria Alves; Caldevilla, Maria Nilza Guimarães Nogueira de; Henriques, Cristina Maria Alves Dias; Severino, Sandy Silva Pedro; Caldeira, Sílvia Maria Alves

    2017-02-23

    To identify the risk factors for falls of the community-dwelling elderly in order to update the Taxonomy II of NANDA International. A systematic literature review based on research using the following platforms: EBSCOHost®, CINAHL and MEDLINE, from December 2010 to December 2014. The descriptors used were (Fall* OR Accidental Fall) AND (Community Dwelling OR Community Health Services OR Primary health care) AND (Risk OR Risk Assessment OR Fall Risk Factors) AND (Fall* OR Accidental Fall) AND (Community Dwelling OR older) AND Nurs* AND Fall Risk Factors. The sample comprised 62 studies and 50 risk factors have been identified. Of these risk factors, only 38 are already listed in the classification. Two new categories of risk factors are proposed: psychological and socio-economical. New fall risk factors for the community-dwelling elderly have been identified, which can contribute to the updating of this nursing diagnosis of the Taxonomy II of NANDA International.

  16. Effects of compound music program on cognitive function and QOL in community-dwelling elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujita, Takaaki; Ito, Akemi; Kikuchi, Nana; Kakinuma, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the effect of structured interventions comprising music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life of the community-dwelling elderly...

  17. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-01-01

    .... In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale...

  18. Stability analysis of switched cellular neural networks: A mode-dependent average dwell time approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuangxia; Cao, Jie; Cao, Jinde

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the exponential stability of switched cellular neural networks by using the mode-dependent average dwell time (MDADT) approach. This method is quite different from the traditional average dwell time (ADT) method in permitting each subsystem to have its own average dwell time. Detailed investigations have been carried out for two cases. One is that all subsystems are stable and the other is that stable subsystems coexist with unstable subsystems. By employing Lyapunov functionals, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), Jessen-type inequality, Wirtinger-based inequality, reciprocally convex approach, we derived some novel and less conservative conditions on exponential stability of the networks. Comparing to ADT, the proposed MDADT show that the minimal dwell time of each subsystem is smaller and the switched system stabilizes faster. The obtained results extend and improve some existing ones. Moreover, the validness and effectiveness of these results are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  19. The Application of Downdraught Cooling in Vernacular Skywell Dwellings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, H.; Lv, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Traditional skywell dwellings in the hot climate regions of China represent an important cultural heritage. Achieving indoor comfort meeting occupants’ expectations, can contribute to the preservation of this unique traditional architecture. Improvement of ventilation and indoor temperatures through natural, sustainable and low impact solutions is an opportunity in achieving building thermal comfort in these traditional dwellings. The existence of skywells provides a good opportunity for the incorporation of downdraught cooling with minor interventions, and thus by avoiding extensive ductwork, saving energy and improving indoor temperatures, it can contribute to the preservation of traditional dwellings. Applicability of downdraught cooling, the history of traditional ventilation solutions, layout and space features of skywell dwelling are discussed and the way of incorporating downdraught cooling as an alternative to air-conditioning into these buildings is investigated.

  20. Exercise and risk of injurious fall in home-dwelling elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Iinattiniemi, Sari; Jokelainen, Jari; Luukinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between different types of physical exercise and the risk of subsequent fall-related injury. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of the home-dwelling elderly. METHODS: A population sample of home-dwelling subjects aged 85 years or older (n = 512) in northern Finland participated in the study. Baseline data were collected by home-nursing staff through postal questionnaires and clinical tests. Frequency and times of physical exercise--that is, walking exe...

  1. Impact of Interlayer Dwell Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. K.; Beese, A. M.; Keist, J. S.; McHale, E. T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Path planning in additive manufacturing (AM) processes has an impact on the thermal histories experienced at discrete locations in simple and complex AM structures. One component of path planning in directed energy deposition is the time required for the laser or heat source to return to a given location to add another layer of material. As structures become larger and more complex, the length of this interlayer dwell time can significantly impact the resulting thermal histories. The impact of varying dwell times between 0 and 40 seconds on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Inconel® 625 and Ti-6Al-4V builds has been characterized. Even though these materials display different microstructures and solid-state phase transformations, the addition of an interlayer dwell generally led to a finer microstructure in both materials that impacted the resulting mechanical properties. With the addition of interlayer dwell times up to 40 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, finer secondary dendrite arm spacing values, produced by changes in the thermal history, correspond to increased yield and tensile strengths. These mechanical properties did not appear to change significantly, however, for dwell times greater than 20 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, indicating that longer dwell times have a minimal impact. The addition of interlayer dwell times in Ti-6Al-4V builds resulted in a slight decrease in the measured alpha lath widths and a much more noticeable decrease in the width of prior beta grains. In addition, the yield and tensile values continued to increase, nearly reaching the values observed in the rolled plate substrate material with dwell times up to 40 seconds.

  2. Dwell fatigue in two Ti alloys: An integrated crystal plasticity and discrete dislocation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zebang; Balint, Daniel S.; Dunne, Fionn P. E.

    2016-11-01

    It is a well known and important problem in the aircraft engine industry that alloy Ti-6242 shows a significant reduction in fatigue life, termed dwell debit, if a stress dwell is included in the fatigue cycle, whereas Ti-6246 does not; the mechanistic explanation for the differing dwell debit of these alloys has remained elusive for decades. In this work, crystal plasticity modelling has been utilised to extract the thermal activation energies for pinned dislocation escape for both Ti alloys based on independent experimental data. This then allows the markedly different cold creep responses of the two alloys to be captured accurately and demonstrates why the observed near-identical rate sensitivity under non-dwell loading is entirely consistent with the dwell behaviour. The activation energies determined are then utilised within a recently developed thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model to predict the strain rate sensitivities of the two alloys associated with nano-indentation into basal and prism planes. It is shown that Ti-6242 experiences a strong crystallographic orientation-dependent rate sensitivity while Ti-6246 does not which is shown to agree with recently published independent measurements; the dependence of rate sensitivity on indentation slip plane is also well captured. The thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model shows that the incorporation of a stress dwell in fatigue loading leads to remarkable stress redistribution from soft to hard grains in the classical cold dwell fatigue rogue grain combination in alloy Ti-6242, but that no such load shedding occurs in alloy Ti-6246. The key property controlling the behaviour is the time constant of the thermal activation process relative to that of the loading. This work provides the first mechanistic basis to explain why alloy Ti-6242 shows a dwell debit but Ti-6246 does not.

  3. [association Between Insomnia Symptoms, Daytime Napping, And Falls In Community-dwelling Elderly].

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Alexandre Alves; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Neri,Anita Liberalesso

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Prevalence rates for insomnia symptoms and daytime napping were 49.9% (n = ...

  4. Wind farm and solar park effects on plant-soil carbon cycling: uncertain impacts of changes in ground-level microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas J

    2014-06-01

    Global energy demand is increasing as greenhouse gas driven climate change progresses, making renewable energy sources critical to future sustainable power provision. Land-based wind and solar electricity generation technologies are rapidly expanding, yet our understanding of their operational effects on biological carbon cycling in hosting ecosystems is limited. Wind turbines and photovoltaic panels can significantly change local ground-level climate by a magnitude that could affect the fundamental plant-soil processes that govern carbon dynamics. We believe that understanding the possible effects of changes in ground-level microclimates on these phenomena is crucial to reducing uncertainty of the true renewable energy carbon cost and to maximize beneficial effects. In this Opinions article, we examine the potential for the microclimatic effects of these land-based renewable energy sources to alter plant-soil carbon cycling, hypothesize likely effects and identify critical knowledge gaps for future carbon research.

  5. Successional development from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora and elements of microclimates: The seed germination and seedling establishment conditions of P. densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-09-01

    The succession mechanism from stands of Miscanthus sinensis to stands of Pinus densiflora was studied in relation to elements of microclimates within those plant communities. Laboratory experiments indicated that the seed germination of P. densiflora occurred at cumulative soil temperature between 75 °C ṡ day and 200 °C ṡ day. It is assumed from field research that establishment of P. densiflora seedlings is impossible if the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm is less than 2,000 °C day, and the cumulative solar radiation figure totals less than 633 MJ/m2. The seedlings thrived in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently convex topography, which fulfills the requisites mentioned above. The seedlings in a M. sinensis stand growing on gently concave topography and in a P. densiflora stand died completely by October.

  6. Electron microscopic examination of uncultured soil-dwelling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Kazunobu; Takade, Akemi; Taniai, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Bacteria living in soil collected from a rice paddy in Fukuoka, Japan, were examined by electron microscopy using a freeze-substitution fixation method. Most of the observed bacteria could be categorized, based on the structure of the cell envelope and overall morphology, into one of five groups: (i) bacterial spore; (ii) Gram-positive type; (iii) Gram-negative type; (iv) Mycobacterium like; and (v) Archaea like. However, a few of the bacteria could not be readily categorized into one of these groups because they had unique cell wall structures, basically resembling those of Gram-negative bacteria, but with the layer corresponding to the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-negative bacteria being extremely thick, like that of the cortex of a bacterial spore. The characteristic morphological features found in many of these uncultured, soil-dwelling cells were the nucleoid being in a condensed state and the cytoplasm being shrunken. We were able to produce similar morphologies in vitro using a Salmonella sp. by culturing under low-temperature, low-nutrient conditions, similar to those found in some natural environments. These unusual morphologies are therefore hypothesized to be characteristic of bacteria in resting or dormant stages.

  7. Physiological ecology of the mangrove-dwelling varanid Varanus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James G; Christian, Keith; Green, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Some species of terrestrial lizards in wet-dry tropical climates reduce their body temperatures (T(b)'s) and activity and lower their metabolic rates during the dry season when food and water resources are scarce. However, semiaquatic lizards have access to water and presumably food throughout the year, so it is possible that they will not have the seasonal response seen in terrestrial species. We studied the thermal biology, energetics, and water flux of Varanus indicus, a semiaquatic, mangrove-dwelling varanid in tropical northern Australia. Although V. indicus remained active all year, they reduced their activity in the dry season, but not to the extent of terrestrial varanids. Varanus indicus field metabolic rates decreased by 38% in the dry season mostly as a result of the reduction in activity. Although food and water depletion are the driving forces behind decreases in dry season T(b) selection and energetics for many varanids, V. indicus appears not to be subject to these pressures to the same extent. Thermoregulatory indices indicate that V. indicus actively thermoregulate in the wet and dry seasons, but they do not fully exploit the available thermal resources. These lizards are unusual among varanid lizards in that their midday T(b)'s are relatively low (about 31 degrees C) despite the availability of thermal resources that would allow them to attain substantially higher T(b)'s.

  8. Neighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily Joy; Lohman, Matthew C; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-02-10

    Background: Falls present a major challenge to active aging, but the relationship between neighborhood factors and falls is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between fall events and neighborhood factors, including neighborhood social cohesion (sense of belonging, trust, friendliness, and helpfulness) and physical environment (vandalism/graffiti, rubbish, vacant/deserted houses, and perceived safety walking home at night). Methods: Data were analyzed from 9259 participants over four biennial waves (2006-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Results: In models adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates, a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (odds ratio (OR): 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.99) and 6% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98). A one-unit increase in the physical environment scale was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and with 5% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) in adjusted models. Conclusions: The physical and social neighborhood environment may affect fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Findings support the ongoing need for evidence-based fall prevention programming in community and clinical settings.

  9. Sustainable Housing in Chilean Patagonia: From Greenhouse to Dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Osorio Schmied

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The complete lack of a sustainable housing market in the cold and rainy context of Valdivia, Southern Chile (39°49’ S, 73°14’ W, draws the need to find an affordable solution for the construction of energy-efficient living spaces. A team of architects undertook the challenge, whilst acknowledging other environmental issues such as the use of recycled materials. Based on research, the greenhouse principle was the focus of the design, as it dealt with prevailing weather conditions in a more proper fashion, by maximising daylight and solar gains during the long, cold winter, and also by allowing small-scale farming all year round, amongst other features. The greenhouse was thought to perform more as an in-between space -in terms of temperature and lightning- to all common zones in a house (e.g., a doorway or a living room, rather than applying to each inhabited space, individually. The architects researched on the above qualities to see whether they applied to the new prototype or not. Both potential overheating -in the short warm season- and glare risks were taken into account, by conducting specific environmental assessments (e.g., natural lighting levels on both physical and virtual models. Keywords: Environmental design, sustainable dwellings, Southern Chile, extreme weather.

  10. Nutrient Addition Leads to a Weaker CO2 Sink and Higher CH4 Emissions through Vegetation-Microclimate Feedbacks at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, J. L.; Arnkil, S.; Humphreys, E.; Juutinen, S.; Larmola, T.; Moore, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands globally, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. Nutrient-limited boreal bogs are long-term sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, for 10-15 years with N as NO3 and NH4 at 5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition (0.6-0.8 g N m-2 y-1), with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration, and CH4 flux with climate-controlled chambers; leaf-level CO2 exchange and biochemistry; substrate-induced respiration, CH4 production and consumption potentials with laboratory incubations; plant species composition and abundance; and microclimate (peat temperature, moisture, light interception). After 15 years, we have found that NEE has decreased, and CH4 emissions have increased, in the highest nutrient treatments owing to changes in vegetation, microtopography, and peat characteristics. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new deciduous species. Simulated atmospheric N deposition has not benefitted the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant evergreen shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration, contributing to a weaker ecosystem CO2 sink. Loss of moss has led to wetter near-surface substrate, higher rates of decomposition and CH4 emission, and a shift in microbial communities. Thus, elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients may endanger C storage in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions among vegetation, microclimate, and microbial communities.

  11. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  12. Risk factors of falls in community dwelling active elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunainen, Eeva; Rasku, Jyrki; Jäntti, Pirkko; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2014-02-01

    To search for measures to describe and relate to accidental falls in community dwelling elderly. A EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire based on a patient's otoneurological case history provided a general health related quality of life measure, a fall history for the last 3 months and force platform measures for 96 active elderly from a pensioner organization. On average, the elderly experienced 0.3 falls over the preceding three months. A fall was seen to cause a significant deterioration in the quality of life and vertigo and caused fear of falling. The postural instability correlated with falls. Vertigo was present among 42% and was most commonly characterized as episodic and rotatory in factorial analysis items relating to vertigo correlated to falls and balance complaints. Four factors were identified and three of these correlated with falls. Vestibular failure correlated to a fall occurring when a person was rising up; Movement intolerance correlated with falls due to slips and trips, and Near-syncope factor correlated to falls for other reasons. In posturography, the variable measuring critical time describing the memory based "closed loop" control of postural stability carried a risk for accidental fall with an odds ratio of 6. The variable measuring zero crossing velocity showed a high rate of velocity change around the neutral position of stance. Vertigo and poor postural stability were the major reasons for falls in the active elderly. In ageing, postural control is shifted towards open loop control (visual, proprioception, exteroception and vestibular) instead of closed loop control and is a factor that contributes to a fall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L; Koch, J; Riemer, T; Orion, I; Haquin, G

    2014-12-01

    The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multistorey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multistorey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990 s is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multistorey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon.

  14. Ingredients for a Dutch radon action plan, based on a national survey in more than 2500 dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetsers, R C G M Ronald; Blaauboer, R O Roelf; Dekkers, S A J Fieke

    2016-12-01

    A new Euratom directive demands that Member States establish a national action plan for indoor radon. Important requirements are a national reference level for the radon concentration in dwellings, actions to identify dwellings with radon concentrations that might exceed this reference level and the encouragement of appropriate measures to reduce the radon concentrations in dwellings where these are high. This paper provides ingredients and recommendations for a national action plan for radon in dwellings, applicable to the Netherlands. The approach presented here, which may serve as a model for other countries or regions with a comparatively favourable indoor radon situation, is based on the analysis of radon data from a national survey in more than 2500 Dutch dwellings, built since 1930. The annual average activity concentration of radon in dwellings in the Netherlands equals 15.6 ± 0.3 Bq m(-3). The 50th and 95th percentiles were found to be 12.2 and 38.0 Bq m(-3), respectively. In 0.4 per cent of the dwellings we found values above 100 Bq m(-3). Radon concentrations showed correlations with type of dwelling, year of construction, ventilation system, soil type and smoking behaviour of inhabitants. The survey data suggest that it is feasible for the Netherlands to adopt a national reference level for radon in dwellings of 100 Bq m(-3), in line with recommendations by WHO and ICRP. We were able to predict dwellings with a moderate probability for radon concentrations above 100 Bq m(-3) by applying a combination of three selection criteria: location, type of dwelling and manner of ventilation. Of the existing 6.2 million dwellings in the Netherlands (built since 1930), approximately 23-24 thousand are suspected to exceed this level. Some 80% of these are found in the group of naturally ventilated single-family dwellings in either the southern part of Limburg (approx. 13 thousand) or the Meuse-Rhine-Waal river delta (approx. six thousand). This selected

  15. Anomalous indoor radon concentration in a dwelling in Qatif City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2005-01-01

    An indoor radon survey was carried out recently in nine cities of Saudi Arabia using nuclear track detectors (NTD)-based passive radon detectors. The survey included Qatif City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where 225 detectors were collected back successfully. It was found that the average indoor radon concentration in the dwellings was 22 +/- 15 Bq m(-3). However, one of the dwellings showed an anomalous radon concentration of 535 +/- 23 Bq m(-3). This finding led to a detailed investigation of this dwelling using active and passive techniques. In the active technique, an AlphaGUARD 2000 PRQ radon gas analyser was used. In the passive technique, CR-39 based passive radon detectors were used in all the rooms of the dwelling. Radon exhalation from the wall and the floor was also measured using the can technique. The active measurement confirms the passive one. Before placing the passive radon detectors in all the rooms of the two-storey building, the inhabitant was advised to ventilate his house regularly. The radon concentration in the different rooms was found to vary from 124 to 302 Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation from the floor and the wall of the room with the anomalous radon concentration was found to vary from 0.5 to 0.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1). These low radon exhalation rates suggest that the anomalous radon concentration is most probably due to underground radon diffusion into the dwelling through cracks and joints in the concrete floor.

  16. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segvić Klarić, M; Kosalec, I; Mastelić, J; Piecková, E; Pepeljnak, S

    2007-01-01

    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings. Fifty samples of wall scrapes were collected from damp dwellings in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The members of the following mould genera were recovered from the samples: Aspergillus (44%), Penicillium (18%) Alternaria, Ulocladium, Absidia and Mucor (8%) Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus (6%), and Chaetomium (2%). Two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum were isolated from damp dwellings in Slovakia. Antifungal activities of the thyme essential oil, which contains p-cymene (36.5%), thymol (33.0%) and 1,8-cineole (11.3%) as main components, and pure thymol were determined by the dilution method and exposure to vaporous phase of the oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both thymol and essential oil were bellow 20 microg ml(-1), except for Mucor spp. (50.20 microg ml(-1)). Thymol exhibited approximately three-times stronger inhibition than essential oil of thyme. The vaporous phase of the thyme essential oil (82 microg l(-1)) in glass chambers strongly suppressed the sporulation of moulds during 60 days of exposure. The thyme essential oil possesses a wide range spectrum of fungicidal activity. The vaporous phase of the oil exhibited long-lasting suppressive activity on moulds from damp dwellings. Essential oil of thyme and thymol could be used for disinfection of mouldy walls in the dwellings in low concentration.

  17. The impact of green areas on dwelling prices – the case of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Trojanek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of urban green areas on dwelling prices in Poznań. Research Design & Methods: In order to identify the influence of the green spaces on dwelling prices, the hedonic method was used. In the analysis, transaction prices of residential units in Poznań were used. Findings: The application of the log-linear model allows to identify the percentage difference in the price of the same dwelling located with different distances to green areas. In case of this research, the results indicates that increase the distance from green area by one kilometer lowered the price of a dwelling by 3% in Poznań in years 2013-2015. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to conduct research on impact of green areas on other types of properties. Different types of urban green areas may affect in different way. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of influence of green areas on dwelling prices in Poland.

  18. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  19. Transporte de frangos: caracterização do microclima na carga durante o inverno Poultry transport: microclimate characterization of the truck during the winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Delfino Barbosa Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil microclimático da carga de caminhões de transporte de frangos de corte sob condições comerciais durante o inverno, por meio do monitoramento constante das variáveis ambientais (temperatura e umidade relativa do ar e das perdas na chegada na linha de abate. Foram monitorados três carregamentos, da saída das aves da granja até a chegada ao abatedouro, considerando fatores como a distância (perto, média e longa e os turnos (manhã, tarde e noite. Para obtenção do perfil das variáveis ambientais durante a carga dos caminhões, foram instaladas miniestações meteorológicas (Loggers que permitiram determinar o microclima a que as aves foram submetidas e visualizar o perfil do índice entalpia de conforto, que possibilitou a classificação das regiões da carga de acordo com os limites de conforto térmico para frangos de corte na sexta semana. Os dados de temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e do índice entalpia de conforto na carga foram analisados utilizando-se a geoestatística pelo método de krigagem ordinária. O turno da tarde foi o mais crítico do ponto de vista ambiental, e as partes central e traseira da carga do caminhão foram as mais problemáticas para as aves, do ponto de vista microclimático, portanto, as mais propícias à ocorrência de perdas.The objective of this study was to characterize the the microclimatic profile of broiler chicken transport trucks under commercial conditions, in the winter by continuous monitoring of environmental variables (temperature and relative air humidity and deaths on arrival (DOA's. Three loads were monitored, from farm to slaughterhouse, considering factors such as distance (short, medium and long and periods of the day (morning, afternoon and night. To obtain the environmental variables profile in the trucks during the journey, data loggers were installed in the trucks that determined the microclimate to which the

  20. An ELM-Based Approach for Estimating Train Dwell Time in Urban Rail Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwell time estimation plays an important role in the operation of urban rail system. On this specific problem, a range of models based on either polynomial regression or microsimulation have been proposed. However, the generalization performance of polynomial regression models is limited and the accuracy of existing microsimulation models is unstable. In this paper, a new dwell time estimation model based on extreme learning machine (ELM is proposed. The underlying factors that may affect urban rail dwell time are analyzed first. Then, the relationships among different factors are extracted and modeled by ELM neural networks, on basis of which an overall estimation model is proposed. At last, a set of observed data from Beijing subway is used to illustrate the proposed method and verify its overall performance.

  1. Radon levels and doses in dwellings in two villages in Kosovo, affected by depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafezi, G; Gregoric, A; Vaupotic, J; Bahtijari, M; Kuqali, M

    2014-01-01

    The radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration in 15 dwellings in the Planej village and 10 dwellings in the Gorozhup village has been measured with the aim to complement the national radon survey and to compare the results of two different measurement techniques. The radon concentration has been measured in winter and spring using alpha scintillation cells and in winter, spring and summer by exposing solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both methods gave similar results. Radon concentrations in both villages were similar, ranging from 82 to 432 Bq m(-3); the value of 400 Bq m(-3) was exceeded only in two dwellings. The resulting annual effective doses ranged from 1.78 to 6.40 mSv, with the average values of 3.28 mSv in the Planej village and 3.87 mSv in the Gorozhup village.

  2. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    constructions fulfilling different classes. The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize characteristics of the schemes, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing......Sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in ten countries in Europe, typically prepared and published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. The main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack...

  3. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack...... constructions fulfilling different classes. The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize characteristics of the schemes, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing...... Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings....

  4. On the Modeling and Emulation of the Microclimate of Sunlight Greenhouse in the Northwest China%西北日光温室小气候建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚立; 杨泽林; 李相白

    2011-01-01

    The microclimate of greenhouse was a nonstationary, nonliner dynamic environment with strong coupling and great lag. The model and emulation were established for the greenhouse microclimate in order to build a sound supervisory and control system of the greenhouse. Based on the characteristics of microclimate of greenhouse, and the specific macroclimate in the summer of northwest china, the temperature and humidity models were set up by the new international method of heat banlance steady state equation. Through the analysis and emulation experiments, the effects were basically conform what were supposed.%针对温室小气候的基本特点,结合国际较新的热平衡稳定状态方法,根据西北地区夏季的温室具体情况,建立了温室的温度、湿度模型.通过对模型的分析和仿真试验,取得了较好的效果.

  5. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  6. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available stream_source_info VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9765 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Development of a Sine-Dwell Ground... vibration testing? • Basics of sine-dwell testing Getting the structure to vibrate in phase, and what then? • Excitation hardware Exciters are similar to speakers • Measurement system Force and response as complex numbers • Excitation control...

  7. Effect of music on pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heeok

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of music on pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia. A quasiexperimental design was used. Fifteen subjects listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes before peak agitation time, for 2 days per week, followed by no music for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The finding of this study showed that mean pain levels after listening to music were significantly lower than before listening to the music (t=2.21, df=28; p music intervention to control pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia.

  8. Influence of isothermal transformation dwell on tensile and fatigue properties of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechet, S.; Hanzlikova, K. [Brno Univ. of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic); Kohout, J. [Military Academy in Brno, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    Two ADI heats transformed at temperatures of 400 and 380 C during temporal range from 2 minutes to 9 hours were studied in details, with emphasis on structure composition and mechanical properties (tensile and fatigue properties were determined). In the case of the shortest dwells the level of mechanical properties is influenced by martensite, which occurs in the structure as a result of subsequent cooling. UTS and yield stress increase slightly with the dwell of isothermal transformation while the values of elongation to fracture as well as of fatigue limit are very closely dependent on the amount of the retained austenite in the microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Impact of UK Building Regulations on design and thermal performance of dwellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; D; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the progressive impact of UK Building Regulations (Part L) on the energy consumption of dwellings with respect to thermal performance of the building envelope. It provides an overview of building legislation,highlighting progressive improvement in building elemental U-values and compliance methods. The focus centres on Building Regulations from 1965 to 2006,at a time when energy conservation has become an integral component of building control due to environmental concerns. Simulation software is used to compare energy consumption for 5 typical UK dwelling types through a series of case studies which illustrate the rate of impact over recent years.

  10. Nordic Standards for measurement of aircraft noise immission in residential areas and noise reduction of dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, Christian; Plovsing, Birger

    Quantification by measurement of aircraft noise in residential areas and air traffic noise reduction of dwellings suffer from sensibility to the measurement technique used. Around the Copenhagen Airport (200.000 opr./year) 3.500 families have been granted from 50% to 90% of sound insulation costs by the Danish Government. Based on experience from evaluation measurements carried out by the Danish Acoustical Institute, the authors have proposed standardized measurement methods for the outdoor aircraft noise in residential areas and for the noise reduction of dwellings. In 1989 both noise measurement methods were accepted as Nordic Standards (NORDTEST ACOU 074 and 075) by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

  11. 24 CFR 203.16 - Certificate and contract regarding use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. 203.16 Section 203.16 Housing and Urban Development... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. Every application filed with respect to insurance of... housing or any part thereof covered by the mortgage for transient or hotel purposes, together with...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  13. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  14. Moss stable isotopes (carbon-13, oxygen-18) and testate amoebae reflect environmental inputs and microclimate along a latitudinal gradient on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew J; Roland, Thomas P; Jones, Glyn D; Convey, Peter; Griffiths, Howard; Hodgson, Dominic A; Charman, Dan J

    2016-07-01

    The stable isotope compositions of moss tissue water (δ(2)H and δ(18)O) and cellulose (δ(13)C and δ(18)O), and testate amoebae populations were sampled from 61 contemporary surface samples along a 600-km latitudinal gradient of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) to provide a spatial record of environmental change. The isotopic composition of moss tissue water represented an annually integrated precipitation signal with the expected isotopic depletion with increasing latitude. There was a weak, but significant, relationship between cellulose δ(18)O and latitude, with predicted source water inputs isotopically enriched compared to measured precipitation. Cellulose δ(13)C values were dependent on moss species and water content, and may reflect site exposure to strong winds. Testate amoebae assemblages were characterised by low concentrations and taxonomic diversity, with Corythion dubium and Microcorycia radiata types the most cosmopolitan taxa. The similarity between the intra- and inter-site ranges measured in all proxies suggests that microclimate and micro-topographical conditions around the moss surface were important determinants of proxy values. Isotope and testate amoebae analyses have proven value as palaeoclimatic, temporal proxies of climate change, whereas this study demonstrates that variations in isotopic and amoeboid proxies between microsites can be beyond the bounds of the current spatial variability in AP climate.

  15. Variations in Badger (Meles meles Sett Microclimate: Differential Cub Survival between Main and Subsidiary Setts, with Implications for Artificial Sett Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining homeothermy is essential for mammals, but has considerable energetic costs. In this study, we monitored the internal conditions of setts within five European badger (Meles meles social groups during the cub-rearing season, that is, February to July, in 2004. Sett temperature showed substantial and significant variation over this period, while relative humidity remained stable throughout. Microclimate was least stable during the period for which cubs remain entirely below ground between February and April; however here the instrumented main sett demonstrated a much warmer and more stable temperature regime than did nearby subsidiary outliers. We thus postulate that the energy budget of reproducing females could be affected by even small temperature fluctuations, militating for optimal sett choice. For comparison we also report microclimatic data from two artificial setts and found them to be markedly inferior in terms of thermal insulative properties, suggesting that man-made setts may need more careful consideration in both thermal and spatial setts network in each territory to adequately compensate the loss (e.g., destruction due to development of a natural sett, especially as a breeding den.

  16. Simulation analysis on relationship between spatial form and microclimate of pedestrian street in Nanjing%南京步行街空间形式与微气候关联性模拟分析技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京津; 王建国

    2016-01-01

    为了研究城市步行街空间形态对其微气候的影响,选择Envi-met微气候数值模拟软件对南京市3条不同类型步行街2014年6月21日的空气温度分布、风速分布、湿度分布及太阳辐射强度4项微气候指标进行模拟分析。借鉴奥尔基亚室外生物气候分析表评估狮子桥步行街、南捕厅步行街和河西奥体步行街微气候质量,其中狮子桥步行街微气候质量最高,南捕厅步行街次之,河西步行街最差。模拟结果表明,街道朝向、断面形式、天空可视域、植被分布因子均对街道微气候环境产生不同程度的影响。在此基础上,探讨了基于微气候优化的步行街规划设计策略。%To study the influences of the spatial form of pedestrian streets on urban microclimate, four parameters,including air temperature,relative humidity,wind speed,and solar radiation of three different kinds of streets on June 21,2014 in Nanjing city were simulated by applying Envi-met software.The microclimate environments of the Shiziqiao street,Nanbuting street,and Hexi street were evaluated based on the Olgyay 's bioclimatic evaluating index,among which the Shiziqiao street was a street with better micro-climate environment than the other two streets,and Nanbuting street was better than Hexi street.Results show that direction,section form,sky-view factor,and green have different impacts on the street microclimate.Based on the research,some strategies are sugges-ted to improve the microclimate conditions of the pedestrian streets.

  17. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries – Differences and similarities between the five national schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In all five Nordic countries, sound classification schemes for dwellings have been published in national standards being implemented and revised gradually since the late 1990s. The national classification criteria for dwellings originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 1990s, thus...... having several similarities. In 2012, status is that number and denotations of classes for dwellings are identical in the Nordic countries, but the structures of the standards and several details are quite different. Also the issues dealt with are different. Examples of differences are sound insulation...... for classification of such buildings. This paper presents and compares the main class criteria for sound insulation of dwellings and summarizes differences and similarities in criteria and in structures of standards. Classification schemes for dwellings also exist in several other countries in Europe...

  18. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known.

  19. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  20. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Klecka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of woodland species may be

  1. Facing the Heat: Thermoregulation and Behaviour of Lowland Species of a Cold-Dwelling Butterfly Genus, Erebia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kleckova

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of animals to immediately respond to changing temperatures is imperative for predicting the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Ectothermic animals, such as insects, use behavioural thermoregulation to keep their body temperature within suitable limits. It may be particularly important at warm margins of species occurrence, where populations are sensitive to increasing air temperatures. In the field, we studied thermal requirements and behavioural thermoregulation in low-altitude populations of the Satyrinae butterflies Erebia aethiops, E. euryale and E. medusa. We compared the relationship of individual body temperature with air and microhabitat temperatures for the low-altitude Erebia species to our data on seven mountain species, including a high-altitude population of E. euryale, studied in the Alps. We found that the grassland butterfly E. medusa was well adapted to the warm lowland climate and it was active under the highest air temperatures and kept the highest body temperature of all species. Contrarily, the woodland species, E. aethiops and a low-altitude population of E. euryale, kept lower body temperatures and did not search for warm microclimates as much as other species. Furthermore, temperature-dependence of daily activities also differed between the three low-altitude and the mountain species. Lastly, the different responses to ambient temperature between the low- and high-altitude populations of E. euryale suggest possible local adaptations to different climates. We highlight the importance of habitat heterogeneity for long-term species survival, because it is expected to buffer climate change consequences by providing a variety of microclimates, which can be actively explored by adults. Alpine species can take advantage of warm microclimates, while low-altitude grassland species may retreat to colder microhabitats to escape heat, if needed. However, we conclude that lowland populations of

  2. Performance of Counter Flow Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems in Dwellings Considering the Influence of Uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Cauberg, J.J.M.; Tenpierik, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Both critical and optimistic claims have been made regarding the performance of heat recovery ventilation systems (HRVS) in dwellings. Such arguments are raised partly because two key aspects are not fully clarified, i.e. the performance criteria and the influence of uncertainties. In the current pa

  3. Exploring robustness of energy performance of dwellings top occupant behaviour: renovation and post occupancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Harputlugil, G.U.; Itard, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the influence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance of dwellings, before and after renovation process. In this context, ‘ventilation control pattern’, ‘maintenance’, and ‘heating energy demand’ are selected as the key parameters of the study. The aim is to reveal

  4. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith O.

    2011-01-01

    Emily Dickinson wrote, "I dwell in Possibility--A fairer House than Prose--More Numerous of Windows--Superior--for Doors" (p. 657). Dickinson's simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) over written modes…

  5. Parental longevity correlates with offspring's optimism in two cohorts of community-dwelling older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Kromhout, D.; Craen, A.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Mast, van der R.C.; Zitman, F.G.; Westendorp, R.G.; Slagboom, E.; Giltay, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional optimism and other positive personality traits have been associated with longevity. Using a familial approach, we investigated the relationship between parental longevity and offspring’s dispositional optimism among community-dwelling older subjects. Parental age of death was assessed

  6. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  7. Impact of Dwell Angle on the Electromagnetic Torque Ripplesof the Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhuvaneswari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Switched reluctance motors (SRM are emerging as promising competitors to the vector-controlled induction motor (VCIM drives and permanent magnet (PM motor drives in the variable-speed drive market owing to their robust nature coupled with low cost, simplicity, and capabilityto operate in harsh environments. They are also suitable for nuclear and aerospace applicationsdue to their low inertia and capability to be fed from a dc supply through a simple power converter.The principle of torque production in SRM makes rotor position information mandatory foreffective control of the drive. The torque produced by any particular phase of the SRM isdependent upon the exciting current and the period during which the current is carried by thatphase winding. The conduction period of any particular phase is termed as dwell angle whenit is specified in terms of rotor angular position. In the present work, the SRM operation has beenanalysed in sensor mode and in sensor-less mode, paying special attention to the relationshipbetween dwell angle and output torque ripple. The performance has been studied for differentvalues of dwell angle and the resultant torque profile has been analysed. From the analysis, amethodology has been devised to deduce an appropriate value of dwell angle for minimising thetorque pulsations, given the values of speed and load torque, thus improving the performanceof the SRM drive.

  8. Pesticides in Urban Multiunit Dwellings: Hazard IdentificationUsing Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many units in public housing or other low-income urban dwellings may have elevated pesticide residues, given recurring infestation, but it would be logistically and economically infeasible to sample a large number of units to identify highly exposed households to design interven...

  9. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as t

  10. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as

  11. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  12. Association between urogenital symptoms and depression in community-dwelling women aged 20 to 70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Carl Hulbert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; de Leeuw, J. Rob J.; Heintz, A. Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association between urogenital symptoms and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. METHODS A random sample of 3200 community-dwelling women, aged 20 to 70 years, was invited to answer a questionnaire. A total of 2042 questionnaires (63.8%) were returned. Urogenital sympto

  13. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimäki, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.saarimaki@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Materials Technology, SE-61283 Finspång (Sweden); Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-26

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate.

  14. Road traffic noise and annoyance: A quantification of the effect of quiet side exposure at dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Salomons, E.M.; Zhou, H.; Berg, F. van den

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a "quiet side" to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the

  15. Origins and Application of Postmodern Trends in Private Dwelling-Houses of Lithuania, 1987–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Galaunytė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available On 28 September 1987, the resolution No. 264 On Further Development of Individual Housing in the Republic passed by the Central Committee of the Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian SSR restored the typological group of private dwelling-houses to Lithuanian towns after a break of nearly three decades. Post-modern trends in architecture that prevailed in western countries at that time reached Lithuania in the form of limited spectrum of architectural press. Architectural expression of individual dwelling-houses in Lithuania relied specifically on projects published in foreign magazines (mostly, of Japan, the U.S.A and Western Europe, and later – in the local periodicals. Different features of such analogous architecture were adapted in Lithuanian dwelling-houses in different ways: the spatial structure of the building was used and interpreted in ones, while in the others – only certain specific details, most often published in such professional press. Three groups of individual dwelling-houses were formed: the elite – benchmark-type, typical -adapted and self-taught architecture. They represented examples of architecture, which over the ten-year’s period were built in parallel and intense mode, until finally the economic conditions prevalent in the post-Soviet Lithuania led to the more practical approach to one’s housing, and the style of post-modernism became unfashionable in Lithuania just like in the remaining part of the world.

  16. Analysis of Energy Demand for Low-Energy Multi-Dwelling Buildings of Different Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Streckienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To meet the goals established by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, the topics of energy efficiency in new and old buildings must be solved. Research and development of new energy solutions and technology are necessary for increasing energy performance of buildings. Three low-energy multi-dwelling buildings have been modelled and analyzed in the presented study. All multi-dwelling houses are made of similar single-family house cells. However, multi-dwelling buildings are of different geometry, flat number and height. DesignBuilder software was used for simulating and determining heating, cooling and electricity demand for buildings. Three different materials (silicate, ceramic and clay concrete blocks as bearing constructions of external walls have been analyzed. To decrease cooling demand for buildings, the possibility of mounting internal or external louvers has been considered. Primary energy savings for multi-dwelling buildings using passive solar measures have been determined.

  17. Sound insulation between dwellings - Descriptors applied in building regulations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2010-01-01

    was carried out of legal sound insulation requirements in 24 countries in Europe. The comparison of requirements for sound insulation between dwellings revealed significant differences in descriptors as well as levels. This paper focuses on descriptors and summarizes the history of descriptors, the problems...

  18. Minimum Energy Dwelling (MED) workbook: an investigation of techniques and materials for energy conscious design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This workbook is based upon information gathered during the design phase of the Minimum Energy Dwelling. The objective of the project, sponsored by the Southern California Gas Co., Department of Energy, and Mission Viejo is to substantially reduce energy use by the incorporation of energy conservation and solar techniques in a single-family detached dwelling. The Project will demonstrate to builders, as well as to the general public, a number of technological innovations that can, at reasonable cost, be included in a dwelling design. The problem facing Southern California Gas Co., along with most other gas utilities, is ever-decreasing amounts of gas at increasing prices. The dwelling designed has approximately 1,150 ft/sup 2/, consistent with current home-building trends. Through the optimum use of energy-conserving appliances, insulation, window and wall shading, exterior coloring, and thermal mass, the yearly energy usage has been reduced by over 50%. Of the remaining 50% of the energy required for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water, the majority is supplied by the solar-energy system. Three hundred twenty square feet (270 effective) of evacuated tube collector are incorporated into the building structure. The hot water provided by the collectors is used to run an absorption chiller for cooling, the domestic hot water, and the heating system. The remaining energy requirements are met by an auxiliary natural gas energy system and a cool-air-economizer cycle.

  19. Determinants of non-compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in the community-dwelling elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, Wim; van Essen, Gerrit A; Hak, Eelko

    2009-01-01

    As part of a series of studies on vaccine acceptance, we assessed determinants of compliance of the community-dwelling elderly with herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination in an existing influenza vaccination program. General practitioners (GPs) sent out a questionnaire to 1778 patients aged > or =65 years,

  20. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  1. Dwell Time and Psychological Screening Outcomes Among Military Service Members With Multiple Combat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    on mental health outcomes and should be exam- ined to identify key determinants of resilience. The issues of a dwell-titTie policy and whether certain...Gahm GA, Swanson RD, Duma SJ; Association between number of deployments to Iraq and niental health screening outcomes in US Army soldiers. J Clin

  2. Interactions between eutrophication and contaminants - partitioning, bioaccumulation and effects on sediment-dwelling organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylland, Ketil; Schaanning, Morten; Skei, Jens; Berge, John Arthur; Eriksen, Dag Oe.; Skoeld, Mattias; Gunnarsson, Jonas

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an experiment on the interactions between eutrophication and contaminants in marine sediments. The experiment was performed in 24 continuously flushed glass aquaria within which three sediment-dwelling species were kept in a marine sediment. A filter-feeder, blue mussel, was kept in downstream aquaria. The experiment combined three environmental factors: oxygen availability, the presence or absence of contaminants, the addition of organic matter. The objectives were: (1) to quantify differences in the partitioning of contaminants between sediment, pore water and biota as a result of the treatment, (2) to quantify effects of treatments and interactions between treatments on sediment-dwelling organisms, (3) to identify differences, if any, in the release of contaminants from the sediment as the result of treatments. All three contaminants bio accumulated to higher levels in sediments with increased levels of organic material. Feeding directly or indirectly appeared to be the major route for bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene and mercury. Cadmium was also controlled by the concentration in pore water. Sediment in enriched aquaria released more contaminants than sediment with low organic content. Organic enrichment strongly affected growth in the three sediment-dwelling organisms. Growth was less affected by decreased oxygen availability. The presence of contaminants had little effect on the three sediment-dwelling species at the concentrations used in the experiment. 103 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. OYSTER GROUNDS, A SUPERIOR HABITAT FOR SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habitats includ...

  4. EFFECTS OF ON-BOTTOM OYSTER MARICULTURE ON SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small ( 0.5 mm), sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habit...

  5. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  6. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  7. Survey of Occupant behavour and control of the indoor environment in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    by sending out invitations to 5000 addresses in Denmark. The addresses were obtained from a Danish register along with information on physical properties of each dwelling. Meteorological data from the closest weather station was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. Out of the three parameters...

  8. Prevention of legionella in dwellings and buildings; Legionellapreventie in woningen en gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, R.; Van der Kooij, D.; Kolner, W.P.P.; Wessels, R.; Offinga, M.; Scheffer, W.; Van Wolferen, H.; Doldersum, R.; Van der Lugt, W.; Bertrand, F.; Nijlant, E.

    2011-04-15

    In 10 articles and 1 interview attention is paid to several aspects of Legionella in water heaters, mains, and sanitary installations in dwellings and other buildings. [Dutch] In 10 artikelen en 1 interview wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten met betrekking tot legionella in sanitaire installaties, waterverwarmingsinstallaties, en waterleidingen in woningen en andere gebouwen.

  9. Comprehensive geriatric assessment : recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; Ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Buurman, Bianca M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. METHODS: trained regis

  10. 24 CFR 100.80 - Discriminatory representations on the availability of dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be unlawful, because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin... rented, because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin. (2... rental of dwellings because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national...

  11. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  12. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy an

  13. Nutritional interventions in community-dwelling Alzheimer patients with (risk of) undernutrition : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogsma, Erika; van Asselt, Dieneke; van Steijn, Jolanda; Veeger, Nic; van Dusseldorp, Ingeborg; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight loss and undernutrition are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated with negative health outcomes. In the current guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of AD, no recommendations for treatment of (risk of) undernutrition in community-dwelling AD patients are

  14. Amount and type of alcohol consumption and missing teeth among community-dwelling older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen; Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists. Methods: A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65...

  15. Fear of falling and changed functional ability following hip fracture among community-dwelling elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesmark, Annette; Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Egerod, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to assess self-reported fear of falling (FOF) and functional ability among community-dwelling elderly people 3-6 months post hospital discharge after a hip fracture, to investigate the association between FOF and functional ability, and to explore the lived experience...

  16. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two comm...

  17. Grouping patterns in a forest dwelling population of Pyrenean chamois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal grouping in a population of Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra p. pyrenaica was studied by direct observation on the edge of their westernmost distribution. The whole area occupied by a population was surveyed by performing monthly fixed transects over one year. The size of 214 groups ranged from 1 to 54. Both size and composition were quite variable and differed between seasons and habitats. Groups were generally very small (45% of only one animal, median: 2; P75=4, which is characteristic of small and low density forest-dwelling populations. Groups appeared to depend strongly on the annual biological cycle, food distribution and vegetation cover. The spatial segregation between males and females was only evident in the summer, when solitary males mostly occupied the forest and females with kids lived on open pasturelands. All the general patterns on size and composition of the groups occurred in this population.

    [fr]
    Par la voie de l'observation directe nous avons étudié le grégarisme journalier chez une population d'isard (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica à la limite occidentale de l'aire de répartition de l'espèce. La surface complète occupée a été suivie par de trajets fixes mensuels durant un an. La taille des différents troupeaux a varié de là 54 individus. De même, la composition était également très variable et changeait d'une saison à l'autre ou d'un habitat à l'autre. De manière générale, les troupeaux étaient très petits (45% de seulement un animal, moyenne: 2 ; P75=5, c'est la caractéristique des petites populations, à basse densité et vivant en forêt. Les groupes étaient fortement conditionnés par le cycle annuel, la distribution des ressources alimentaires et le recouvrement végétal. La ségrégation spatiale entre mâles et femelles avait lieu seulement en été, moment où les mâles solitaires occupaient surtout la forêt tandis que les femelles avec les

  18. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  19. Distance to faults as a proxy for radon gas concentration in dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard

    2016-02-01

    This research was done to demonstrate the usefulness of the local structural geology characteristics to predict indoor radon concentrations. The presence of geologic faults near dwellings increases the vulnerability of the dwellings to elevated indoor radon by providing favorable pathways from the source uranium-rich bedrock units to the surface. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analyses of variance by ranks were used to determine the distance where faults have statistically significant influence on indoor radon concentrations. The great-circle distance between the 640 spatially referenced basement radon concentration measurements and the nearest fault was calculated using the Haversine formula and the spherical law of cosines. It was shown that dwellings located less than 150 m from a major fault had a higher radon potential. The 150 m threshold was determined using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on: (1) all the basement radon measurements dataset and; (2) the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units only. The results indicated that 22.8% of the dwellings located less than 150 m from a fault exceeded the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) when using all the basement radon measurements dataset. This percentage fell to 15.2% for the dwellings located between 150 m and 700 m from a fault. When using only the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units, these percentages were 30.7% (0-150 m) and 17.5% (150 m-700 m). The assessment and management of risk can be improved where structural geology characteristics base maps are available by using this proxy indicator.

  20. Influence of the slope altitude-associated microclimate and light conditions on the physiological and biochemical processes in leaves of coastal forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Khromykh

    2015-09-01

    compared to the lower plot, and CAT activity on the middle and upper plots exceeded 4.3-fold and 1.8-fold the activity on the lower plot. In R. pseudoacacia leaves high correlation of light, temperature and humidity was found with GPOD activity (respectively, r = –0.99; r = –0.82; r = 0.82, whereas correlation with the light level was significant only for BPOD (r = –0.84, and no significant correlation was recorded for CAT activity. Results of the study confirm high sensibility of photosynthetic and antioxidant processes in leaves of both tree species to microclimate changes, which is defined as a conventional enhancement of aridity traits when moving upwards on the slope. It is suggested that the level of correlation between enzyme activity and microclimate and lighting parameters can serve as a marker of tree species adaptation to the slope altitude-associated changes of the local environmental factors in the natural forest.

  1. Microclimate under different shading screens in greenhouses cultivated with bromeliads Microclima sob diferentes malhas de sombreamento em ambiente protegido cultivado com bromélias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its objective the evaluation of the influence of shading screens of different colors on the different microclimate variables in a greenhouse covered with transparent low-density polyethylene (LDPE. The experiment was conducted with five treatments: thermo-reflective screen (T1; a control - without screen (T2; red screen (T3; blue screen (T4; and black screen (T5, all of them with 70% of shading. An automatic micrometeorological station was installed in each treatment, measuring air temperature (T, relative humidity (RH, incoming solar radiation (Rg, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and net radiation (Rn continuously. The control (T2 and red screen (T3 treatments promoted the highest solar radiation transmissivity, respectively 56.3 and 27%. The black screen (T5 had the lowest solar radiation transmissivity (10.4%. For PAR and Rn the same tendency was observed. The highest temperature was observed under blue screen (T4 treatment, which was 1.3 °C higher than external condition. Blue screen (T4 treatment also presented the highest relative humidity difference between inside and outside conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de malhas de sombreamento de diferentes cores nos elementos microclimáticos em ambiente protegido coberto com polietileno de baixa densidade transparente (LDPE. O experimento contou com cinco tratamentos: malha termorrefletora (T1; testemunha - sem malha (T2; tela vermelha (T3; tela azul (T4 e tela preta (T5, todas com 70% de sombreamento. Um sistema automático de aquisição de dados micrometeorológicos foi instalado em cada tratamento, obtendo-se dados contínuos de temperatura do ar (T, umidade relativa do ar (UR, radiação solar global (Qg, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA e saldo de radiação (Rn. O tratamento testemunha (T2 e a malha vermelha (T3 proporcionaram os maiores valores de transmitância de radiação solar global, respectivamente 56,3 e 27%; já a

  2. The relationship between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomere length in community-dwelling elderly women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ha Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Both telomere length and mitochondrial function are accepted as reflective indices of aging. Recent studies have shown that telomere dysfunction may influence impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and function. However, there has been no study regarding the possible association between telomere and mitochondrial function in humans. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to identify any relationships between mitochondrial and telomere function. METHODS: The present study included 129 community-dwelling, elderly women. The leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomere length were measured using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Anthropometric measurement, biochemical blood testing, a depression screening questionnaire using a 15-question geriatric depression scale (GDS-15, and a cognitive function test using the Korean version of the mini mental state examination (K-MMSE were performed. RESULTS: Leukocyte mtDNA copy number was positively associated with telomere length (r=0.39, p=<0.0001 and K-MMSE score (r=0.06, p=0.02. Additionally, leukocyte mtDNA copy number was negatively correlated with GDS-15 score (r=-0.17, p=0.04. Age (r=-0.15, p=0.09, waist circumference (r=-0.16, p=0.07, and serum ferritin level (r=-0.13, p=0.07 tended to be inversely correlated with leukocyte mtDNA copy number. With a stepwise multiple regression analysis, telomere length was found to be an independent factor associated with leukocyte mtDNA copy number after adjustment for confounding variables including age, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, serum ferritin, HOMA-IR, K-MMSE, GDS-15, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, currently smoking, alcohol drinking, and regular exercise. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that leukocyte mtDNA copy number was positively correlated with leukocyte telomere length in community-dwelling elderly women. Our findings suggest

  3. The impact of domestic load profiles on the grid-interaction of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems in extremely low-energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetens, R.; De Coninck, R.; Helsen, L.; Saelens, D.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: A BIPV system may produce the same amount of electricity as consumed in the building on a yearly base, however the simultaneity of production and consumption needs to be evaluated. The present paper aims at quantifying the impact of domestic load profiles on the integration of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) electricity generation in a Belgian climate. In this work, a multi-zone TRNSYS model for a dwelling with compression heat pump for both space heating and domestic hot water (DHW), domestic consumers and on-site photovoltaic generation is set-up. As a consequence of the dynamics of the electricity demand and supply, it is necessary to use small time-steps. The model is used to assess the influence of the user behaviour, the influence of the dimensioning of the heating installation and grid interactions on the auto-consumption of BIPV systems. Furthermore, bottle-necks for possible large-scale implementation of on-site photovoltaic generation are illustrated. The electricity consumption of a dwelling typically peaks when the habitants wake up and arrive back home, whereas the BIPV system shows a profile depending on the local weather and system characteristics. By putting the results of the requested and delivered power within the same model, it is shown that the domestic load profiles due to human behaviour do not coincide with the output of photovoltaic systems. A dwelling with a classic gas-fired heating system is compared by a dwelling equipped with a electricity-driven heat pump for space heating and DHW. Herefore, the cover factor is defined, i.e. the ratio of domestic demand that is covered by the BIPV, for a BIPV installation with a yearly electricity production that equals the yearly domestic demand. If no attempt is made to bring the electricity demand and supply into balance on instant basis, a cover factor of 0.42 is found if a classic heating system is installed, denoting that more than half of the produced electricity will be

  4. Improvement of thermal performance of envelopes for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 石磊; 余志武

    2016-01-01

    Thermal performance of envelopes and indoor thermal environment were technologically improved for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China, on the premise of protecting their conventional styles. Thermal insulation boards and wooden boards were added to the interior side of external walls of vernacular dwellings to form two layers of air cavities, so as to gain excellent thermal performance. The indoor temperature of such dwellings after reconstruction was apparently improved compared with the data before reconstruction both in winter and summer, which verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the reconstruction technologies proposed.

  5. Dwelling on Courtyards: Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.

    2014-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and the dependency of buildings on fossil fuels were the two main issues that formed this dissertation. UHI results in higher air temperatures in dense urban areas compared with their suburbs and rural surroundings. This phenomenon affects human health through

  6. Dwelling on Courtyards: Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.

    2014-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and the dependency of buildings on fossil fuels were the two main issues that formed this dissertation. UHI results in higher air temperatures in dense urban areas compared with their suburbs and rural surroundings. This phenomenon affects human health through

  7. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii: lessons learned from a xylem-dwelling pathogen of sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, M Caroline

    2011-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that primarily infects sweet corn. Studies of this bacterium have provided useful insight into how xylem-dwelling bacteria establish themselves and incite disease in their hosts. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a remarkable bacterial system for laboratory studies because of its relative ease of propagation and genetic manipulation, and the fact that it appears to employ a minimal number of pathogenicity mechanisms. In addition, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii produces copious amounts of its quorum sensing (QS) signal, acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), making it an excellent organism for studying QS-controlled gene regulation in a plant-pathogenic bacterium. In fact, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii has become the microbial paradigm for QS control of gene expression by both repression and activation via a QS regulator that binds DNA in the absence and dissociates in the presence of the signal ligand. Moreover, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, and lessons learned from its interaction with plants may be extrapolated to other plant-associated enterics, such as Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp., or enteric human pathogens associated with plants, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Bacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; family Enterobacteriaceae; genus Pantoea; species stewartii (Mergaert et al., 1993). Gram-negative, motile, yellow pigmented, mucoid, facultative anaerobe. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Smith, 1898) Dye causes Stewart's wilt of corn (Zea mays). Early-maturing sweet corn varieties and some elite inbred maize lines are particularly susceptible. There are two major phases of Stewart's wilt disease: (i) wilt and (ii) leaf blight. The wilt phase occurs when young seedlings are infected with P. stewartii subsp. stewartii (Fig. 1A). Water-soaked lesions first appear on the young expanding leaves and, later, seedlings may become severely wilted

  8. The climatic change and the new demands in dwelling design; El cambio climatico y las nuevas exigencias en el diseno de la vivienda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardan Waltz, Jenny [Asociacion de Empresas para el Ahorro de la Energia en la Edificacion, A.C. (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In Mexico, the culture of energy saving began more than one decade ago, but the benefits are not yet concrete. The Mexican society, requires new designs of dwellings adapted to its needs and in addition modifies the present systems of construction that do not include criteria of design for the thermal comfort, the energy saving and the sustainability. It is urgent to reconsider the urbanism of the cities, as well as the promotion of the concept of sustainable development in all the branches of human activity. The design of dwellings must significantly integrate the energy and environmental components to reduce to the power consumption and the CO{sub 2} emissions. [Spanish] En Mexico, la cultura de ahorro de energia se inicio hace mas de una decada, pero los beneficios aun no son palpables. La sociedad mexicana, requiere de nuevos disenos de viviendas que se adapten a sus necesidades y que ademas modifiquen los sistemas de construccion actuales que no incluyen criterios de diseno para el confort termico, el ahorro de energia y la sustentabilidad. Es urgente reconsiderar el urbanismo de las ciudades, asi como la promocion del concepto de desarrollo sustentable en todas las ramas de la actividad humana. El diseno de la vivienda debe integrar los componentes energeticos y medioambientales, para reducir significativamente el consumo de energia y las emisiones de CO{sub 2}.

  9. New forms of dwelling – sustainable urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Various new forms of settlements composed of sustainable communities are emerging all around the World as answers to the urban crises in great cities. These settlements differ, especially when comparing the countries where they appear. However they also have many common features, such as the humane scale and social community cohesion, public participation in their management, enforcing new societal values and sustainable orientation of activities. These settlements where developed following development of information and communication technology and correspond to the introduction of new styles of life and employment.

  10. Numerical simulation of microclimate in Beijing typical residential area based on ENVI-met model%基于ENVI-met的北京典型住宅区微气候数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文翠; 胡聃; 李元征; 郭振

    2015-01-01

    基于三维微气候模拟软件ENVI-met,以北京典型住宅区为研究对象,建立实况及设有屋顶绿化两种场景下的三维数值模拟模型,对研究区的微气候特征进行模拟分析。结果表明:微气候ENVI-met模型经过多次参数校正后,模型模拟结果与实测结果较接近,能较好反应微尺度气候的分布特征;屋顶经过简单的绿化后具有较好的降温增湿效果,使研究区平均温度降低了2—3℃,相对湿度增加了2.7%,风速由0.32—2.70 m·s-1降低至0.40—1.11 m·s-1,整体下降了0.34 m·s-1。ENVI-met通过三维模型可有效地应用于微气候模拟评价中,对评估当地微气候设计和城市规划具有一定的应用性。%Based on an ENVI-met three-dimensional microclimate model,a numerical simulation model in a typical residential area of Beijing under the actual situation and roof greening conditions was established and microclimate characteristics were simulated.The results show that the simulated value is similar to the observed one after multi-ple parameter calibration for the ENVI-met model,and the model could reflect the micro-scale climate distribution characteristics.Roof greening significantly decreases temperature and increases humidity.Mean temperature in the study area decreases by 2-3 ℃ after roof greening;relative humidity increases by 2 .7%;wind speed falls by 0.34 m·s-1 ,and its range decreases from 0.40-1 .1 1 m·s-1 to 0.32-2.70 m·s-1 .The ENVI-met model could be used in the microclimate simulation and assessment by an effective three-dimensional model,which could provide scientific information for the local microclimate design and urban planning.

  11. Cooperation and competition in a cliff-dwelling people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I

    2011-06-28

    In animals that breed cooperatively, adult individuals will sometimes delay reproduction to act as helpers at the nest who raise young that are not their genetic offspring. It has been proposed that humans are also a cooperatively breeding species because older daughters, grandmothers, and other kin and nonkin may provide significant childcare. Through a prospective cohort study of children's (n = 1,700) growth and survival in the Dogon of Mali, I show that cooperative breeding theory is a poor fit to the family dynamics of this population. Rather than helping each other, siblings competed for resources, producing a tradeoff between the number of maternal siblings and growth and survival. It did not take a village to raise a child; children fared the same in nuclear as in extended families. Of critical importance was the degree of polygyny, which created conflicts associated with asymmetries in genetic relatedness. The risk of death was higher and the rate of growth was slower in polygynous than monogamous families. The hazard of death for Dogon children was twofold higher if the resident paternal grandmother was alive rather than dead. This finding may reflect the frailty of elderly grandmothers who become net consumers rather than net producers in this resource-poor society. Mothers were of overwhelming importance for child survival and could not be substituted by any category of kin or nonkin. The idea of cooperative breeding taken from animal studies is a poor fit to the complexity and diversity of kin interactions in humans.

  12. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit – Effect on animal health and microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Stein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective.[/b] In intensive pig production aerial contaminates are potential hazards for the health of animals and humans. In this study, the effect of fogging a low concentrated tartaric acid solution on pigs’ health, environmental and hygiene parameters were evaluated in an inhabited fattening unit. [b]Materials and method.[/b] Pigs were housed in separate units (control group n=109 and experimental group n=110. During the whole fattening period, twice a week at 48 hour intervals, a 0.1% tartaric acid solution was aerosolized by a cold-fogging system for 20 minutes in the experimental unit. Environmental parameters were spot-checked on days of fogging. Sedimentation dust and surfaces were analysed for bacterial and fungal load. Dust particle size distribution was assessed. Pigs were clinically examined weekly. Standard meat examination at an abattoir was extended by individual quantification of lung alterations. [b]Results. [/b]The fogging procedure had no influence on ammonia concentrations. A significant reduction of mould, but not of bacteria, was found in sedimentation dust, and bacterial and mould scores of surface samples were improved. A significant reduction of particle size classes 1.6–2.0 µm, 4.0–5.0 µm, 7.5–10 µm, as well as 10–15 µm was observed. The high sound level of the fogging machine (82–102 dB led to higher activity and pen-mate directed behaviour. More skin alterations, conjunctivitis and sneezing were recorded in the experimental group. Gross pathological lung alterations did not differ between both groups. [b] Conclusions.[/b] Although fogging of tartaric acid is limited to a concentration of 0.1% due to its irritating effect on the respiratory mucosa, reduction of microbial load can be achieved, but it would be enhanced by using more powerful fogging systems.

  13. System Design for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Multi-Family Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into solutions for the system design of a centralized DCV system in multi-family dwellings. The design focused on simple and inexpensive solutions. A cost benefit estimate showed that the initial cost of implementing DCV in a system with an efficient heat...... are typically controlled by maintaining the static pressure at a fixed level at a selected point in the main duct. However, sustaining the static pressure at a fixed level at part load leads to throttling of all control components and thereby unnecessary energy consumption. Resetting the static pressure at part...... load reduces throttling and energy can be saved. A static pressure reset strategy was applied to a dwelling-specific DCV system where the airflow varied between three fixed rates. The system performance was evaluated for two diffusers. The annual electricity consumption was reduced by 20% to 30% when...

  14. The effectiveness of Pilates on balance and falls in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Sharon; Pratt, Mary Lee; Calk Meadows, Emily; Thurmond, Stephanie; Wagner, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Pilates is more effective than traditional strength and balance exercises for improving balance measures, balance confidence and reducing falls in community dwelling older adults with fall risk. Thirty-one participants with fall risk were randomly assigned to the Pilates group (PG) or the traditional exercise group (TG). Both groups participated in 12 weeks of exercise, 2 times/week for 1 h. There was significant improvement in the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale for both the PG (mean difference = 6.31, p Pilates and traditional balance programs are effective at improving balance measures in community dwelling older adults with fall risk, with the Pilates group showing improved balance confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stochastic kinetics of a single headed motor protein: dwell time distribution of KIF1A

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    KIF1A, a processive single headed kinesin superfamily motor, hydrolyzes Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to move along a filamentous track called microtubule. The stochastic movement of KIF1A on the track is characterized by an alternating sequence of pause and translocation. The sum of the durations of pause and the following translocation defines the dwell time at the binding site on the microtubule. Using the NOSC model (Nishinari et. al. PRL, {\\bf 95}, 118101 (2005)), which captures the Brownian ratchet mechanism of individual KIF1A along with its biochemical cycle, we systematically derive an analytical expression for the dwell time distribution. In principle, our theoretical prediction can be tested by carrying out single-molecule experiments with adequate spatio-temporal resolution.

  16. Short- and long-term variability of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezáková, M; Navrátilová Rovenská, K; Tomásek, L; Holecek, J

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, repeated measurements of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic are described. Two distinct data sets are available: one based on present measurements in 170 selected dwellings in the Central Bohemian Pluton with a primary measurement carried out in the 1990s and the other based on 1920 annual measurements in 960 single-family houses in the Czech Republic in 1992 and repeatedly in 1993. The analysis of variance model with random effects is applied to data to evaluate the variability of measurements. The calculated variability attributable to repeated measurements is compared with results from other countries. In epidemiological studies, ignoring the variability of measurements may lead to biased estimates of risk of lung cancer.

  17. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.

  18. [Assertiveness and peripheral intravenous catheters dwell time with ultrasonography-guided insertion in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; da Pedreira, Mavilde Luz Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Randomized controlled trial which aimed to verify whether the use of vascular ultrasound (VUS) increases assertiveness in the use of peripheral venous catheter in children, and the catheter dwell time, when compared to traditional puncture. Data were collected after approval of theethical merit. Children and adolescents undergoing VUS-guided peripheral intravenous (GVUS) or puncture guided by clinical assessment of the venous conditions(CG) were included in the study. Significance level was set at pAssertiveness was found in 73 (71.6%) GVUS catheters and in 84(71.8%) of the CG (p=0.970), and catheter dwell time presented a median of less than one day in both groups (p=0.121), showing nostatistically significant difference. VUS did not significantly influence the results of the dependent variables investigated. ClinicalTrials.govNCT00930254.

  19. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.

  20. Predictors of participation in physical activity for community-dwelling elderly Italians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Marcellini, Fiorella

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses variables associated with community-dwelling older people's engagement in physical activity (PA). Data were examined using the results from the European ZINCAGE study on 306 community-dwelling Italians aged 65 years and over. The lifestyle questionnaire was used to evaluate the data. Levels of regular/non-regular PA were based on ≥ 1 h of weekly exercise. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the predictors of PA. Participants reported the time they had spent per week engaging in PA over the last year. Overall, 56.2% of them engaged in regular physical exercise. PA levels decreased in subjects with probable cognitive decline, depression and high perceived stress levels (p<0.001). Lower age, a lower body mass index (BMI), better health status, absence of depression, being married, were all associated with regular PA. The importance of monitoring PA in the elderly emerged, in particular in those having some certain social-demographic characteristics.

  1. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Dyspnea in Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Multifactorial Geriatric Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Brienne; Tinetti, Mary E; Van Ness, Peter H; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Newman, Anne B; Lee, Patty J; Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between a broad array of cardiorespiratory and noncardiorespiratory impairments and dyspnea in older persons. Cross-sectional. Cardiovascular Health Study. Community-dwelling persons (N = 4,413; mean age 72.6, 57.1% female, 4.5% African American, 27.2% score ≥16; aOR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.26-3.23), and obesity (BMI ≥30; aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.67-2.55). Impairments with modest but still statistically significant associations with moderate to severe dyspnea included respiratory muscle weakness, diastolic cardiac dysfunction, grip weakness, anxiety symptoms, and use of cardiovascular and psychoactive medications (aORs = 1.31-1.71). In community-dwelling older persons, several cardiorespiratory and noncardiorespiratory impairments were significantly associated with moderate to severe dyspnea, akin to a multifactorial geriatric health condition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Dampness in buildings and health. Building characteristics as predictors for dampness in 8681 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type of found...... of "Dry air" in 17.3 and 33.7% respectively. Older buildings and the use of natural ventilation were associated with increased frequency of dampness indicators as well as to increased frequencies of complaints on bad indoor air quality.......Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type...

  4. The feeding habits of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Buckley, Troy W.; Hoff, Gerald R.

    2001-03-01

    The diet of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific is poorly known. We collected several hundred stomach samples to investigate the feeding habits of Coryphaenoides acrolepis and Albatrossia pectoralis, the two dominant slope dwelling macrourids off the continental United States. Coryphaenoides acrolepis exhibited a pronounced ontogenetic shift in diet. Specimens 15 cm with scavenged food constituting approximately 20% of the weight of total prey and occurring in approximately 20% of fish 21-29 cm. Albatrossia pectoralis consumed primarily midwater fish and squid, and we believe that it feeds in the water column. There were significant differences between the diets of A. pectoralis and C. acrolepis suggesting some degree of niche separation between macrourid species on the continental slope of the eastern North Pacific. Both species are at the top of the food web on the upper continental slope and, because of their abundance, may exert significant pressures on their prey populations.

  5. Sediment Dwelling Benthos as Indicator Species for Pollution Monitoring of Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 9900121)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multifaceted study of the sediment dwelling benthos was conducted in Mamala Bay to identify suitable species as indicators of sewage enrichment. There are five...

  6. Distributed communication and psychosocial performance in simulated space dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, R. D.; Brady, J. V.; Hursh, S. R.; Ragusa, L. C.; Rouse, C. O.; Gasior, E. D.

    2005-05-01

    The present report describes the development and application of a distributed interactive multi-person simulation in a computer-generated planetary environment as an experimental test bed for modeling the human performance effects of variations in the types of communication modes available, and in the types of stress and incentive conditions underlying the completion of mission goals. The results demonstrated a high degree of interchangeability between communication modes (audio, text) when one mode was not available. Additionally, the addition of time pressure stress to complete tasks resulted in a reduction in performance effectiveness, and these performance reductions were ameliorated via the introduction of positive incentives contingent upon improved performances. The results obtained confirmed that cooperative and productive psychosocial interactions can be maintained between individually isolated and dispersed members of simulated spaceflight crews communicating and problem-solving effectively over extended time intervals without the benefit of one another's physical presence.

  7. Malnutrition in a Sample of Community-Dwelling People with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Jamie M; Susan Ash; Mellick, George D; Peter A Silburn; Graham K Kerr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition results in poor health outcomes, and people with Parkinson's disease may be more at risk of malnutrition. However, the prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease is not yet well defined. The aim of this study is to provide an estimate of the extent of malnutrition in community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of people with Parkinson's disease residing within a 2 hour driving radius of Brisbane, Australia. The Su...

  8. Risk of falling, fear of falling and functionality in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Tomás, Mª Teresa; Quirino, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Ageing among Portuguese population is leading to an increase in the proportion of elderly people. Age-related changes are responsible for high levels of disability, balance problems and high risk of falls, Physiotherapy can identify elderly in risk of falling and provide strategies to prevent falls in this population contributing to maintain functionality. The purpose of this study was to characterise the risk of falling in a sample of community-dwelling older adults and investigate the assoc...

  9. Manual of acceptable practices for energy conservation in one- and two-family dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, R.

    1981-08-01

    The manual describes some acceptable methods for meeting the energy conservation requirements of the Energy Conservation Code of the District of Columbia for one- and two-family dwellings. This document illustrates examples that meet these energy performance standards. Terms are defined and the five options available for determining compliance are discussed. Standards on air infiltration, HVAC equipment, and service water heating are given. (MCW)

  10. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    invitations to addresses obtained from a Danish register along with information on dwelling characteristics. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. Four control mechanisms (window open/closed, heating on/off, lighting on/off and solar shading in/ not in use) were analysed...... analyses form a basis for a definition of standard behaviour patterns which can be used to make calculation of energy consumption of buildings more accurate....

  11. Architecture of pure geometry: Dwellings houses of architects Stevan i Milena Tešić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janakova-Grujić Mare

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes part of work of Serbian's architects Stevan Tešić and Milena Veljković Tešić. The works have been designed and made in Italy from 2000 to 2008 and have been dedicated to dwellings houses. Following up developmental creative line, we can observe basic characteristics and particularity: urban sense, attitude to cultural and historical heritage and subject matter of works which is narrowly.

  12. Monitoring of Indoor Relative Humidity Levels in Residential Dwellings: A Sensor Network Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is an increasing concern in the world today. The mere presence of people in a building or residence can significantly alter indoor air quality. Relative humidity over the range of normal indoor temperatures (66 - 80 degrees Farenheit) has been linked both directly and indirectly to various health and structural problems. The purpose of this project was to discover whether residential dwellings might benefit from an indoor humidification system. The project consisted of the dep...

  13. To the Problem of Designing Water Heating Solar Systems with Flat Collectors for Individual Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant of efficient combination of two renewable energy sources as a biogas system and a water heating solar system has been considered for power supply of individual dwellings. Criteria dependence has been suggested for determination of solar system power efficiency. Its legitimacy has been proved by an experiment. Power efficient solar system has been proposed with peculiar features of its designing and due account of energy flow distribution in technology of biogas production.

  14. Sedentary behavior and sleep efficiency in active community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Ashe, Maureen C; Chris Lockhart; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise interventions have a positive impact on sleep efficiency in older adults. However, little work has been done on the impact of sedentary behavior (sitting, watching television, etc.) on sleep efficiency. Methods: 54 Community-dwelling men and women >65 years of age living in Whistler, British Columbia (mean 71.5 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. Measures of sleep efficiency as well as averag...

  15. 普米族传统民居%The Traditional Dwellings of Pumi Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 唐文

    2012-01-01

    普米族是我国少数民族中人口较少的民族,主要居住在云南.从普米族的生活环境、宗教信仰、风俗文化等出发,研究普米族传统民居的布局,主要为正房、厢房和其他用房,还分析了根据普米族传统文化以及宗教信仰划分的传统民居中的各个空间,包括正房内部空间以及院落空间.普米族传统民居中最为主要的建筑形式为木楞房,井干式结构的壁体以及“闪片”屋顶体现出普米族传统民居质朴、粗犷、原生态等特点.通过对现状的分析总结,提出普米族传统民居的发展方向.%The Pumi nationality is one of the less of Chinese minorities which lives in Yunnan. Beginning with the living environment, religion, customs and culture of the Pumi nofionolity, the paper studies the layout form of the traditional dwellings which consist of principal room, wing room and others. Besides, to analyze the space of traditional dwellings according to culture and religion of Pumi nationality, include of principal room and courtyard. The timber-house which contains dry-type wall and "ShanpiarTroof ,is one of the Pumi traditional dwellings, and reflects the characteristics of which is rustic, straightforward, ecological. According to the status ,it put forward the direction of Pumi traditional dwellings.

  16. Monitoring of Indoor Relative Humidity Levels in Residential Dwellings: A Sensor Network Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is an increasing concern in the world today. The mere presence of people in a building or residence can significantly alter indoor air quality. Relative humidity over the range of normal indoor temperatures (66 - 80 degrees Farenheit) has been linked both directly and indirectly to various health and structural problems. The purpose of this project was to discover whether residential dwellings might benefit from an indoor humidification system. The project consisted of the dep...

  17. A comparison between national scheme for the acoustic classification of dwellings in Europe and in the U.S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed through many schemes worldwide in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particula...... scheme may facilitate exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings....

  18. Comparison of indoor radon and thoron concentrations in the urban and rural dwellings of Chhattisgarh state of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, M.S.K. [Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 009 (India)], E-mail: mskkhokhar@rediffmail.com; Kher, R.S. [Department of Physics, Government Science Postgraduate College, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 006 (India); Rathore, V.B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur (C.G.) 492 001 (India); Pandey, S. [Department of Physics, St. Thomas Postgraduate College, Bhilai (C.G.) (India); Ramachandran, T.V. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-08-15

    In the frame of nationwide radon/thoron monitoring program, indoor radon/thoron and their progeny concentrations have been estimated for 210 dwellings situated in 8 towns (urban) and 9 villages (rural) of Chhattisgarh state of India. The measurement has been made on quarterly integrating cycle for one full year in each dwelling. Twin chamber dosimeter cup with LR-115 Type-II Solid State Nuclear Track Detector was used for the measurement of indoor radon/thoron concentration. The results show that the geometric mean of indoor thoron concentration in urban dwellings varies from 11.57 to 25.88Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 16.65Bqm{sup -3}, while in rural dwellings it varies from 12.50 to 30.08Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 19.00Bqm{sup -3}. The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels of thoron in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 2.58 and 4.57 mWL, respectively. Similarly, the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations in urban dwellings is found to vary from 20.20 to 30.13Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 25.28Bqm{sup -3}, while in rural dwellings it varies from 15.50 to 36.05Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 27.32Bqm{sup -3}. The PAEC levels of radon in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 1.50 and 1.87 mWL, respectively. The dose contribution of thoron and progeny in total inhalation dose has been found to be more than 20% in all the surveyed places that show the necessity to pay attention to the presence of thoron and progeny from public health point of view.

  19. Comparison between investigations of induced stepping postural responses and voluntary steps to better detect community-dwelling elderly fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserand, R; Robert, T; Chabaud, P; Livet, P; Bonnefoy, M; Chèze, L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we review a physiological task that is predominant in preventing humans from falling, but that simultaneously also challenges balance: taking a step. In particular, two variants of this task are presented and compared: the voluntary step versus a step induced by an external and unpredictable perturbation. We show that, while these contribute different information, it is interesting to compare these. Indeed, they both are relevant in a global balance assessment and should be included within this, at the same level as tests usually dispensed in the clinical environment such as posturography. We choose to focus on the community-dwelling elderly population, to discuss means of early detection of risk of falls, in order to prescribe an appropriate prevention. An overview of posture-movement coordination and balance recovery strategies is also provided. Finally, a working hypothesis is suggested on how "compensatory protective" steps are controlled and how their evaluation could bring additional information to the global balance assessment of risk of fall.

  20. Fire and home range expansion: a behavioral response to burning among savanna dwelling vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nicole M; Parker, Christopher H; Keefe, Earl R; Coxworth, James; Barrett, Alan; Hawkes, Kristen

    2014-08-01

    The behavioral adaptations of primates to fire-modified landscapes are of considerable interest to anthropologists because fire is fundamental to life in the African savanna-the setting in which genus Homo evolved. Here we report the behavioral responses of a savanna-dwelling primate, vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), to fire-induced ecological change. Using behavioral and spatial data to characterize ranging patterns prior to and postburn and between burn and nonburn years, we show that these primates inhabiting small, spatially bound, riverine habitats take advantage of newly burned savanna landscapes. When subjects encountered controlled fires, they did not flee but instead avoided the path of the fire seemingly unbothered by its approach. After fire, the primates' home range expanded into newly burned but previously unused areas. These results contribute to understanding the response of non-human primates to fire-modified landscapes and can shed light on the nature and scope of opportunities and constraints posed by the emergence of fire-affected landscapes in the past. Results also expose deficiencies in our knowledge of fire-related behavioral responses in the primate lineage and highlight the need for further investigation of these responses as they relate to foraging opportunities, migration, resource use, and especially fire-centric adaptations in our own genus.

  1. Validation of N-myristoyltransferase as Potential Chemotherapeutic Target in Mammal-Dwelling Stages of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, an endemic and debilitating illness in Latin America. Lately, owing to extensive population movements, this neglected tropical disease has become a global health concern. The two clinically available drugs for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease have rather high toxicity and limited efficacy in the chronic phase of the disease, and may induce parasite resistance. The development of new anti-T. cruzi agents is therefore imperative. The enzyme N-myristoyltransferase (NMT has recently been biochemically characterized, shown to be essential in Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei, and T. cruzi¸ and proposed as promising chemotherapeutic target in these trypanosomatids.Here, using high-content imaging we assayed eight known trypanosomatid NMT inhibitors, against mammal-dwelling intracellular amastigote and trypomastigote stages and demonstrated that three of them (compounds 1, 5, and 8 have potent anti-proliferative effect at submicromolar concentrations against T. cruzi, with very low toxicity against human epithelial cells. Moreover, metabolic labeling using myristic acid, azide showed a considerable decrease in the myristoylation of proteins in parasites treated with NMT inhibitors, providing evidence of the on-target activity of the inhibitors.Taken together, our data point out to the potential use of NMT inhibitors as anti-T. cruzi chemotherapy.

  2. Perceived indoor air quality and its relationship to air pollutants in French dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S; Ramalho, O; Le Ponner, E; Derbez, M; Kirchner, S; Mandin, C

    2017-05-05

    Perception of indoor air quality (PIAQ) was evaluated in a nationwide survey of 567 French dwellings, and this survey was combined with measurements of gaseous and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) indoor air pollutants and indoor climate parameters. The perception was assessed on a nine-grade scale by both the occupants of the dwellings and the inspectors who performed the measurements. The occupants perceived the air quality in their homes as more pleasant than the inspectors. The inspectors perceived the air quality as more unpleasant in dwellings in which the residents smoked indoors. Significant associations between PIAQ and indoor air pollutant concentrations were observed for both the inspectors and, to a lesser extent, the occupants. Introducing confounding parameters, such as building and personal characteristics, into a multivariate model suppressed most of the observed bivariate correlations and identified the tenure status of the occupants and their occupation as the parameters that most influenced their PIAQ. For the inspectors, perceived air quality was affected by the presence of smokers, the season, the type of ventilation, retrofitting, and the concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757

  4. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

  5. The relationships between serum fructosamine concentrations and lipid profiles in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, You-Fan; Wei, Ye-Sheng

    2017-07-31

    We examined the epidemiological associations between serum fructosamine and dyslipidemia indices in community-dwelling adults. Clinical characteristics and lipid profiles were analyzed in 1352 community-dwelling adults. The demographic characteristics and laboratory results were grouped according to the quartiles of serum fructosamine concentrations in all eligible individuals. From the bottom to the top quartile of serum fructosamine, there were graded increases in age, total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total protein (TP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol/ high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum fructosamine was positive correlated with age, TC, FBG, TP, TG, TC/HDL-C and AIP in whole individuals. The positive correlations were then observed in both genders between serum fructosamine and TC, FBG, TP, TG. Two dominant factors were identified by principal component analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that the two factors were associated with increased serum fructosamine with adjustment for gender, age, body mass index (BMI), FBG and TP. The similar results were observed in males, but not in females. Dyslipidemia tends to contribute to increased serum fructosamine concentrations in study population, suggesting that elevated serum fructosamine may herald an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among community-dwelling adults, especially in males.

  6. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  7. Mechanisms of dwell fatigue crack growth in an advanced nickel disc alloy RR1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RR1000 is one of an advanced class of nickel-based superalloys developed for disc applications. Under one hour dwell fatigue loading, complex crack growth behaviour has been observed especially in a coarse grained version of this alloy. At a temperature of 700 ∘C in air an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in crack growth rates compared to baseline fatigue crack growth rates may be seen. However for certain microstructural conditions, cracks can also demonstrate retardation following initial acceleration. When using a direct current potential difference (d.c.p.d technique for monitoring crack growth, a damage zone of a few hundred microns is often measured ahead of a fast growing crack. Advanced characterisation techniques including SEM, ECCI and X-ray tomography have been adopted in the current study to understand the observed damage zone and retardation phenomenon. It is found that damage zones measured by d.c.p.d reflect brittle and non-uniform advance of the crack resulting from continuous dynamic or quasi-dynamic fracture of an oxide intrusion ahead of the crack tip during the dwell period. In contrast, cracking of the oxide intrusion is less frequent or even prevented during dwell periods associated with a retarded and slow growing crack. Crack tip stress relaxation plays an important role in dictating whether or not dynamic cracking of the oxide intrusion can be avoided.

  8. Radon levels and the expected population mortality in dwellings of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alzimami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal exposure from inhalation of radon and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Radon levels and radon equilibrium factor were measured in the dwellings of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia using passive technique. Calibrated CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors were used for radon measurements and the method of can and bare is adapted for the measurement of radon equilibrium factor. Passive measurements enable the accumulation of the result over a long period and cover a wide area. The probability of cancer induction and then the expected mortality was calculated based on different approaches. The results show that the overall weighted mean of annual effective dose for Al-Kharj resident is equal to 1.51 ± 0.8 mSv and The average expected mortality for residents in dwellings of Al-Kharj city is ranged from 0.596 ± 0.25 to 0.369 ± 0.15 death per 10,000 persons of ages from 40 to 70 years respectively. Also, the lifetime excess absolute risk (LEAR of the residents of the Al-Kharj city is equal to (2.06 ± 0.8 × 10−4. The effect of dwelling types, ventilation and construction materials on the expected mortality is discussed.

  9. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  10. The Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in elderly adults; however, little is known about the relationship of sleep duration and sarcopenia. We examined the relationship of sleep duration with obesity and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 488 community-dwelling adults (224 men and 264 women) aged ≥65 years were included in the analysis. Self-reported sleep duration and anthropometric data were collected. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using the predicted equation from a bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement. Obesity and sarcopenia were defined according to the body mass index and the skeletal muscle mass index, respectively. The association between sleep duration and sarcopenia exhibited a U shape in older adults. Compared to adults with 6-8 h of sleep, adults with adults with ≥8 h of sleep had a nearly 2-fold increased risk of sarcopenia (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01-3.54). Older adults with a sleep duration obesity (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.08-4.30). After gender stratification, the association between obesity and short sleep duration was more robust in women. There were significant associations of sleep duration with either obesity or sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Gender differences in these associations were also observed.

  11. Variabilidade quantitativa de população microbiana associada às condições microclimáticas observadas em solo de floresta tropical úmida Quantitative microbial population variability associated with the microclimate conditions observed in tropical rainforest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani José Brazão Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é uma proposta de contribuição científica ao entendimento das inter-relações entre densidade de populações de microorganismos de solo, associadas à variabilidade microclimática sazonal em floresta tropical úmida, considerando também estudo de caso de evento extremo. Alguns organismos vivos, especialmente microorganismos de solo, são muito sensíveis às pequenas variações microclimáticas (luminosidade, temperatura, umidade do solo, vento, calor sensível, calor latente, etc. Seguramente estes fatores condicionantes são importantes para o entendimento da distribuição espacial destes seres vivos em ecossistemas naturais, habitados por uma enorme variedade de microorganismos (fungos e bactérias. Estes foram estudados quanto sua distribuição e densidade, utilizando a técnica "Pour Plate" de contagem em placas de "Petri" seguindo a metodologia utilizada por De-Polli e Guerra, descrita por Clark. O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas experimentais, PPBio (área de floresta densa natural e ESECAFLOR (área de um hectare coberta para simulação de seca prolongada em Caxiuanã-PA, com medidas contínuas de variáveis microclimáticas térmicas, úmidas e precipitações, além da avaliação de padrões de distribuição espacial e temporal da abundância e riqueza das espécies, para estabelecer um sistema de monitoramento de fungos e bactérias de solo associado à variabilidade climática na floresta nacional de Caxiuanã. As áreas experimentais são predominantemente de Yellow Latossolo. As análises microbiológicas mostraram que fungos desenvolveram-se melhor em época seca e bactérias na época chuvosa. Suas populações diminuem com a profundidade, exceto em ambiente alterado. As correlações de variações sazonais entre populações de fungos e bactérias e as variáveis temperatura e umidade do solo, se estabeleceram satisfatoriamente para qualquer época do ano em ambos os sítios estudados.This study is

  12. The Influence of Climate and Micro-climate (aspect) on Soil Creep Efficiency: cinder cone morphology and evolution along the eastern Mediterranean Golan Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Asher, Matan; Haviv, Itai; Roering, Joshua. J.; Crouvi, Onn

    2017-04-01

    Although hillslope evolution has occupied geoscientists for over a century, the effect of climate on the morphology of soil-mantled hillslopes remained poorly-constrained. In this study we utilize numerical simulations of volcanic cinder cones in the Golan Heights (Eastern Mediterranean) to estimate soil creep efficiency across a strong north-to-south gradient in mean annual precipitation (1100-500 mm). Our model utilizes the initial cinder cone profile (constrained by the dip of the ash layers), the current hillslope profile (measured with cm scale accuracy) and the known eruption age (40Ar-39Ar constraints) to predict the best-fit value of the soil creep diffusion coefficient ('diffusivity'). Our results indicate that the best-fit diffusivity coefficient varies from 0.5 to 6 m2/ka among the seven cinder cones we have analyzed. Soil diffusivity varies with both climate (precipitation) and aspect-related microclimate: diffusivity values are higher on south facing hillslopes, and decrease with mean annual precipitation. This climate dependency likely reflects an increase in the apparent soil cohesion (or resistance to disturbance-driven transport) at higher precipitation rates due to higher density of vegetation coverage (root network) which co-varies with rainfall and aspect. We demonstrate this significant co-variance utilizing the spatial distribution of NDVI vegetation index calculated from ASTER images and show that aspect-related hillslope asymmetry becomes established over time on cinder cones as well as in other landforms. In addition, our results show that 750-850 ka cinder cones display lower diffusivity values relative to late Pleistocene cinder cones (120-150 ka). This temporal variance in diffusivity may reflect either rapid transport associated with climatic conditions of the last glacial and inter-glacial period or time-dependent material properties that influence transport efficiency. Analysis of previously studied cinder cones in the US extends our

  13. Effects of local microclimates on the surface sensible heat flux on a mid-latitude alpine valley glacier using Large-Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Tobias; Galos, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    While the large-scale climate conditions play an important role in shaping the environment in which glaciers exist, the mass and energy balance of each individual glacier are dictated by local conditions. Given the complex mountain topography around alpine glaciers, it is not trivial to find a direct link between the large-scale atmospheric motions and the local-scale weather conditions at an individual glacier. Non-local dynamic effects due to the surrounding complex topography can significantly modify the spatial variability of exchange processes, either by small scale circulations or episodic entrainment of heat and momentum by burst events. Motivated by the fact that distributed glacier models strongly rely on the quality of high resolution forcing data to adequately represent the glacier wide ablation and accumulation processes, the present study investigates (i) whether non-local topographic effects have a significant impact on the spatial distribution of turbulent sensible heat fluxes (local microclimates) over alpine glaciers, and (ii) how much variability is smoothed out when using linearly interpolated fields together with the commonly used bulk approach. To answer these questions, we perform highly resolved and properly designed case experiments by Large-Eddy Simulations with real topography to determine the impact of topographic flow features on the spatial variability of the surface sensible heat flux and compare the fields with those derived with the bulk approach. The analysis shows that there is a significant spatial variability of the mean fluxes with values ranging from -10 Wm-2 to -120 Wm-2. Since the sensible heat flux can make up to 40% of the total melting on mid-latitude alpine valley glaciers, the heterogeneity of the fluxes can substantially dictate the local melting rates. When estimating the glacier-wide surface heat fluxes on the basis of point-measurements and the bulk approach, a considerable amount of spatial information is lost. All

  14. Protection against noise and cold. Futuristic noise and heat protection in dwelling houses. Schutz vor Laerm und Kaelte. Zukunftsorientierter Schall- und Waermeschutz im Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepens, M.

    1987-01-01

    Noise protection, particularly in dwelling houses, has great importance for the health and well-being of human beings. This report is concerned with sensible and futuristic noise protection and the associated environmental protection by economical use of energy, using the example of outside and inside walls. Methods of building using sand lime bricks are considered here. Heat and noise insulation is examined on double-shelled KS outside walls with core insulation and on single shell outside walls with a thermal skin. In order to make use in the optimum way of direct and indirect solar irradiation, the method of construction should be aimed at thermal storage capability. The energy saving effect on a highly insulated house is given as an example.

  15. Lightweight Passive Microclimate Cooling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    vapor-compression air conditioning system, thereby providing the cooling. Such a design is superior to Stirling or Brayton approaches in terms of...adsorption system, since all of the materials used in these experiments were from either oven-dried or vacuum-system- regenerated desiccant. Full-Scale Backpack...current design has an overall volume of 7.04 L, which is adequate. Part of this volume is not available due to the regeneration tubes and the needed free

  16. The Microclimate of Valley Glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers have fascinated mankind throughout history. Glaciers look solid and robust, but observing them for only a couple of years shows that they are dynamic and change shape all the time. The lower glaciers come, the greater the contrast with the surrounding landscape. Many glaciers in the world e

  17. The microclimate of valley glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers have fascinated mankind throughout history. Glaciers look solid and robust, but observing them for only a couple of years shows that they are dynamic and change shape all the time. The lower glaciers come, the greater the contrast with the surrounding landscape. Many glaciers in the world e

  18. Modelling of Microclimate in collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Abstract It is important to avoid condensation in solar collectors, most of all because wetness of the absorber can damage the selective surface and cause corrosion on the absorber plate. During night time the cover of collectors will cool below ambient temperature due to thermal radiation...... to the cold sky. In climates where the air during night time becomes saturated with humidity (the relative humidity is 100%), condensation will form on the outside and inside of the collector glazing. If too much condensation takes place on the inside of the glazing, it will start to fall off...... on to the absorber surface. It is important to characterize microclimatic conditions in the collector, and at the Department of Buildings and Energy work is carried out with the improvement of a computer model. As a tool the computer model will be useful in developing guidelines to achieve the most favourable...

  19. How to assess frailty and the need for care? Report from the Study of Health and Drugs in the Elderly (SHADES) in community dwellings in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bravell, Marie Ernsth; Westerlind, Bjorn; Midlöv, Patrik; Ostgren, Carl-Johan; Borgquist, Lars; Lannering, Christina; Molstad, Sigvard

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the need for care of elderly individuals in community dwellings and the factors affecting their needs and support is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the frailty of a population of elderly individuals living in community dwellings in Sweden in relation to co-morbidity, use of drugs, and risk of severe conditions such as malnutrition, pressure ulcers, and falls. In 2008, 315 elderly individuals living in community dwellings were interviewed and examined as par...

  20. Tandem-ring dwell time ratio in Nigeria: dose comparisons of two loading patterns in standard high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT), the source dwell times and dwell positions are essential treatment planning parameters. An optimal choice of these factors is fundamental to obtain the desired target coverage with the lowest achievable dose to the organs at risk (OARs). This study evaluates relevant dose parameters in cervix brachytherapy in order to assess existing tandem-ring dwell time ratio used at the first HDR BT center in Nigeria, and compare it with an alternative s...

  1. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Sitha [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  2. Infección natural de chinches Triatominae con Trypanosoma cruzi asociadas a la vivienda humana en México Natural infection of Triatominae bugs in Mexican dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianey Vidal-Acosta

    2000-11-01

    : Between January 1993 and December 1999, 5 399 Triatominae bugs from 14 states of Mexico, were received in the Department of Entomology of the Institute for Epidemiologic Diagnosis and Referral (InDRE, for taxonomic determination and parasitoscopical search of Trypanosoma cruzi. Results obtained between 1993 and 1999 were analyzed globally. RESULTS: From 13 bug species associated with human dwellings, nine were naturally infected with T. cruzi. The highest percentage of infection occurred in Triatoma pallidipennis, T. picturata, Rhodnius prolixus and T. longipennis. Nayarit, Morelos, and Michoacán were the states with the highest percentage of infected bugs. The species T. dimidiata, T. gerstaeckeri, T. longipennis, T. mexicana and T. pallidipennis were first state records and Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus was a first local record. CONCLUSIONS: These findings stress the importance of studying the biology of Triatominae and the need for permanent surveillance, to allow for up-to-date distribution records of Triatominae species in and around human dwellings, those adapting to human dwellings, and frequencies of those naturally infected by T. cruzi.

  3. Microclimate without shade and silvopastoral system during summer and winter - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15155 Microclimate without shade and silvopastoral system during summer and winter - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Krutzman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the microclimate in a system without shade (WS and in a silvopastoral system (SP with eucalyptus during summer and winter, by measuring the air temperature (Ta, black globe temperature (Tg, relative humidity (RH, wind speed (Ws, every 2 hours for 24 hours between rows, shade (SP and no shade effect (WS. It was employed the randomized blocks design (months, in the plots (systems, subplots (hours and sub-subplots (seasons. Except for Ta and RH, the Tg (24.73, 26.41ºC, Ws (3.16, 4.57 m s-1, Black globe-humidity index (BGHI (71.83, 73.84, Thermal load index (TLI (74.53, 76.11 and Radiant thermal load (RTL (526.46, 595.80 W m-2, respectively for SP and WS, were higher in WS. Ta, RH and Ws had a quadratic effect of hour. There was an effect of season, respectively in summer and winter, on the Ta (27.55, 14.93°C, RH (72.11, 60.68%, Tg (29.80, 21.33°C, BGHI (80.04, 65.63, TLI (81.64, 69.00 and RTL (575.65, 546.61 W m-2. Tg, RH and RTL showed an interaction of season x hour, and a quadratic effect, and the RTL had an interaction of system x season. The Tg was correlated with BGHI (0.962, TLI (0.956 and RTL (0.809. The silvopastoral system decreased the Tg and Ws, and made the environment more harmonious by decreasing the climatic differences between seasons.  This study evaluated the microclimate in a system without shade (WS and in a silvopastoral system (SP with eucalyptus during summer and winter, by measuring the air temperature (Ta, black globe temperature (Tg, relative humidity (RH, wind speed (Ws, every 2 hours for 24 hours between rows, shade (SP and no shade effect (WS. It was employed the randomized blocks design (months, in the plots (systems, subplots (hours and sub-subplots (seasons. Except for Ta and RH, the Tg (24.73, 26.41ºC, Ws (3.16, 4.57 m s-1, Black globe-humidity index (BGHI (71.83, 73.84, Thermal load index (TLI (74.53, 76.11 and Radiant thermal load (RTL (526.46, 595.80 W m-2, respectively for SP and WS

  4. Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease - a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilvis Reijo S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD leads to physical disability, need for help and permanent institutional care. The trials investigating effects of exercise rehabilitation on physical functioning of home-dwelling older dementia patients are still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intensive exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year on mobility and physical functioning of home-dwelling patients with AD. Methods During years 2008-2010, patients with AD (n = 210 living with their spousal caregiver in community are recruited using central AD registers in Finland, and they are offered exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year. The patients are randomized into three arms: 1 tailored home-based exercise twice weekly 2 group-based exercise twice weekly in rehabilitation center 3 control group with usual care and information of exercise and nutrition. Main outcome measures will be Guralnik's mobility and balance tests and FIM-test to assess physical functioning. Secondary measures will be cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregivers' burden, depression and health-related quality of life (RAND-36. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two year follow-up. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first large scale trial exploring whether home-dwelling patients with AD will benefit from intense and long-lasting exercise rehabilitation in respect to their mobility and physical functioning. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial registration ACTRN12608000037303

  5. Semi-volatile organic compounds in the particulate phase in dwellings: A nationwide survey in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, Corinne; Mercier, Fabien; Ramalho, Olivier; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Gilles, Erwann; Blanchard, Olivier; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Sixty-six semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one pyrethroid, organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, alkylphenols, synthetic musks, tri-n-butylphosphate and triclosan-were measured on PM10 filters collected over 7 days during a nationwide survey of 285 French dwellings, representative of nearly 25 million housing units. Thirty-five compounds were detected in more than half of the dwellings. PAHs, phthalates and triclosan were the major particle-bound SVOCs, with a median concentration greater than 1 ng m-3 for butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) (median: 1.6 ng m-3), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (46 ng m-3) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) (7.9 ng m-3), and greater than 0.1 ng m-3 for triclosan (114 pg m-3), benzo(a)pyrene (138 pg m-3), benzo(b)fluoranthene (306 pg m-3), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (229 pg m-3), and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (178 pg m-3). For most of the SVOCs, higher concentrations were found in the dwellings of smokers and during the heating season. The concentrations of banned SVOCs-namely, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-were correlated. Permethrin, 4-tert-butylphenol and bisphenol-A showed no correlation with the other SVOCs and seemed to have their own specific sources. Most SVOCs were positively associated with PM10 concentration, suggesting that any factor that raises the mass of indoor airborne particles also increases the exposure to SVOCs through inhalation.

  6. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception.

  7. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  8. Nutritional screening of older home-dwelling Norwegians: a comparison between two instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn, Bjørg Dale, Kari Sundsli, Olle SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research-Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: It is important to obtain knowledge about the prevalence of nutritional risk and associated factors among older home-dwelling people in order to be able to meet nutritional challenges in this group in the future and to plan appropriate interventions. The aim of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of home-dwelling older people at nutritional risk and to identify associated factors using two different nutritional screening instruments as self-report instruments.Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. A postal questionnaire, including the Norwegian versions of the Nutritional Form for the Elderly (NUFFE-NO and Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF, background variables, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 6033 home-dwelling older people in southern Norway. A total of 2106 (34.9% subjects were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.Results: When using the NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF, 426 (22.3% and 258 (13.5% older persons, respectively, were identified to be at nutritional risk. The risk of undernutrition increased with age. Several predictors for being at risk of undernutrition, including chronic disease/handicap and receiving family help, as well as protective factors, including sufficient food intake and having social contacts, were identified.Conclusion: Health professionals must be aware of older people's vulnerability to risk of undernutrition, perform screening, and have a plan for preventing undernutrition. For that purpose, MNA-SF and NUFFE-NO can be suggested for screening older people living at home.Keywords: aged, risk factors, undernutrition, screening

  9. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  10. Predicting sarcopenia from functional measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michelle; Glenn, Jordan M; Binns, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related lean tissue mass (LTM) loss resulting in reduced muscular strength, physical function, and mobility. Up to 33 % of older adults currently are sarcopenic, with likely many more undiagnosed. The purpose of this investigation was to predict sarcopenia status from easily accessible functional measures of community-dwelling older adults. Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (n = 32 females and n = 11 males) participated in the present investigation. Inclusion criteria included ≥65 years of age, mini-mental state examination score ≥24, and no falls within previous 12 months. All subjects completed their appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were categorized as either sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic. Physical assessments included 10-m usual walk, hand-grip (HG) strength, 6-min walk, 8-ft up-and-go, 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, and sit-to-stand muscular power. A forward, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, sex, weight, height, 10-m walk, HG, and sit-to-stand muscular power account for 96.1 % of the variance in ASM. The area under the curve was 0.92 for correctly identifying sarcopenic participants compared to their actual classification. This is the first prediction model used to identify sarcopenia based on parameters of demographic and functional fitness measures in community-dwelling older adults. The ability to accurately identify sarcopenia in older adults is imperative to their quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  11. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  12. Dietary Modification Trial in Community-Dwelling Japanese Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoki, Chika; Tsuji, Taeko; Shikata, Yukina; Urade, Hana; Morimoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Shinya; Habu, Daiki

    2017-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of 6-month nutrition education programs for community-dwelling elderly. Methods This study enrolled 50 community-dwelling elderly who regularly visit outpatient clinics. The programs had three goals: salt reduction, increase in dietary fiber, and adequate protein intake. Since it would be difficult for elderly to achieve all goals concurrently, a single goal was chosen by participants themselves. Anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, and assessment of dietary intake were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results The nutrition education program for salt reduction was well accepted by the participants and the amount of daily salt intake showed median value of 9.6 g at baseline, 8.0 g at 3 months and 8.1 g at 6 months (P = 0.005). The amount of dietary fiber intake only slightly increased after taking the nutrition program (median value of 13.4 g at baseline, 15.3 g at 3 months and 15.5 g at 6 months; P = 0.695), because of difficulties in introducing new food options to the diet. After taking the adequate protein intake program, participants showed small decreases in protein (a modification from 1.24 g/kg IBW to 1.20 g/kg IBW) and salt intake (8.2 to 7.3 g) at 3 months, but the effects were not sustained at 6 months. Conclusion This nutrition education program focusing on a single nutrient may serve as a strategy to successfully reduce salt intake and improve systolic blood pressure control in community-dwelling elderly individuals who regularly visit outpatient clinics. In our view, dietary and lifestyle habits should be taken into account as much as possible in nutrition education for elderly individuals. PMID:28611865

  13. Polypharmacy in a Belgian cohort of community-dwelling oldest old (80+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Maarten; Elseviers, Monique; Vaes, Bert; Degryse, Jan; Dalleur, Olivia; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van Bortel, Luc; Azermai, Majda

    2016-06-01

    Polypharmacy is highly prevalent among older people (65+), but little is known on the medication use of the oldest old (80+). This study explores the medication use of the Belgian community-dwelling oldest old in relation to their demographic, clinical and functional characteristics. Baseline data was used from the BELFRAIL study; a prospective, observational population-based cohort of Belgian community-dwelling patients (80+). General practitioners recorded clinical problems and medications. Medications were coded by the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification. Participants' (n = 503) mean age was 84.4 years (range 80-102) and 61.2% was female. Median chronic medication use was 5 (range 0-16). Polypharmacy (≥5 medications) was high (57.7%), with excessive polypharmacy (≥10 medications) in 9.1%. Most commonly used medication group were antithrombotics, but also benzodiazepines and antidepressants were frequently consumed. Demographics related to polypharmacy (univariate analysis) were female gender, low education and moderate alcohol use. Age, care dependency and cognitive impairment showed no association with polypharmacy. In multivariate analysis, the predominant association with polypharmacy was found for multimorbidity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), followed by depression (OR 3.7, 95% CI 4.4-9.7) and physical activity (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9). Polypharmacy was high among Belgian community-dwelling oldest old (80+). Determinants of polypharmacy were interrelated, but dominated by multimorbidity. On top of the burden of multimorbidity, polypharmacy was independently associated with less physical activity, and with depressive symptoms.

  14. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  15. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  16. The Application of Gas Dwell Time Control for Rapid Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forest Synthesis to Acetylene Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Matsumoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.

  17. The Application of Gas Dwell Time Control for Rapid Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forest Synthesis to Acetylene Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Oshima, Azusa; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji; Futaba, Don N.

    2015-01-01

    One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.

  18. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  19. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  20. Lead-based paint in dwellings: The potential for contamination of the home environment during renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, M J; Hutton, M

    1987-12-01

    The quantity and particle size characteristics of lead in dust released during three different paint removal techniques was determined under controlled conditions and in situ in a dwelling. Air-lead and deposited dust-lead levels were highest after sanding but 'burning-off' and 'hot-air' removal methods also produced significant contamination. The importance of dust particle-size and lead is discussed in relation to the potential hazard to home renovators via inhalation and to children via the 'hand-to-mouth' route.

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Dwell Development, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Challenge Home is one of 42 homes in a micro-community of ultra-modern, energy-efficient homes built by Dwell Development on an urban gray-field site in South Seattle. Every home will achieve a 5-Star Built Green rating from the regional master builders association and meet the criteria of the Northwest ENERGY STAR program, which is more strict than the national ENERGY STAR criteria. Also, the home won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  2. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.

  3. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva; Larsen, Allan; van der Hurk, Evelien;

    times at important transfer points based on expected passenger ows. We introduce a compact mixed integer linear formulation of the SVSPSP-FDT able to address small instances. We also present a meta-heuristic approach to solve medium/large instances of the problem. The e ectiveness of the proposed......In this talk, we deal with a generalization of the well-known Vehicle Scheduling Problem(VSP) that we call Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times (SVSPSP-FDT). The SVSPSP-FDT generalizes the VSP because the original timetables of the trips can...

  4. Religiousness/Spirituality and anger management in community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Linda; Thomas, Sandra P; Callen, Bonnie; Groer, Maureen

    2014-04-01

    Mismanaged anger is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study examined whether dimensions of religiousness/spirituality could predict healthy anger management in a sample of 82 community-dwelling older Americans. A correlational research design was employed using the Deffenbacher Anger Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. Higher scores on Forgiveness, Daily Spiritual Experiences, Religiousness/Spirituality as Coping, and Self-Ranking of Religiousness/Spirituality were correlated with healthier anger management; however forgiveness was the only significant predictor in the regression analysis. Interventions to facilitate forgiveness may promote healthy anger management and minimize the adverse health effects of mismanaged anger.

  5. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  6. To What Factors Do Rural-Dwelling Hispanics Attribute Depressive Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsit V. Vahia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective chart review comparing rural-dwelling Caucasian and Hispanic outpatients’ attribution of depressive symptoms. Based on the data gathered at intake, Hispanics were more likely to attribute depression to curse/spell and supernatural causes, while Caucasians were more likely to attribute symptoms to hereditary factors or job stress. Among both groups, higher CESD score was associated with problems with significant others or how they got along with others. Among Hispanics, depression severity was additionally associated with problems related to job or finances. Our findings point to a consequential role for clinical inquiry into attributed causes of depressive symptoms.

  7. Commissioning of Varian ring & tandem HDR applicators: reproducibility and interobserver variability of dwell position offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ryan; Zhuang, Tingliang; Steffey, Beverly A; Song, Haijun; Craciunescu, Oana I

    2011-11-15

    Studies have shown that source dwells within Varian's HDR CT/MR compatible ring applicators can deviate from intended positions by several millimeters. Quantifying this offset is an important part of commissioning. The aims of this study were to: 1) determine the reproducibility of the offset, 2) study the interobserver variation in the offset's measurement, and 3) quantify the dosimetric impact of the offset. Offsets were measured for four ring applicators: two 30°, one 45°, and one 60°. Dwell positions were measured five times for each ring to determine the reproducibility of source positioning. Experiments were done to compare two separate source wires, as well as different time points within a single source wire's lifecycle. Data were analyzed by three independent observers. To quantify the dosimetric impact of the offset, a treatment plan was generated using BrachyVision. The dose to point A, and the D(2cc) metric for rectum and bladder were calculated with and without the offset. For the 45° and 60° rings, measured offsets were 3.0 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The 30° ring showed substantial variation in distal dwell positions (maximum difference between the five experiments of 2.9 mm). Subsequent testing of a replacement ring showed an offset of 2.4 mm that was more reproducible. Offsets varied less than 1 mm between different source wires, and changed less than 1 mm over the course of a source wire's lifecycle. When comparing observers, the average range in a measurement of a dwell position was 0. 5 mm (σ = 0.2 mm, max 1.3 mm). The offset resulted in dose variations to point A, bladder, and rectum of less than 1%, 2%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicate that Varian rings can show systematic and random offsets of more than 3 mm. Some can be considered defective and should be replaced. Each applicator should be individually commissioned and reproducibility should be confirmed with multiple tests.

  8. Finite-frequency model reduction of continuous-time switched linear systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the model reduction problem of continuous-time switched linear systems with finite-frequency input signals. The objective of the paper is to propose a finite-frequency model reduction method for such systems. A finite-frequency ? performance index is first defined in frequency domain, and then a finite-frequency performance analysis condition is derived by Parseval's theorem. Combined with the average dwell time approach, sufficient conditions for the existence of exponentially stable reduced-order models are derived. An algorithm is proposed to construct the desired reduced-order models. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  9. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple family dwelling for upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquatra, J., Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple family dwelling in three upstate New York cities, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse was studied. Specifically, two passive solar applications, a Trombe wall and direct gain system, for a nine unit structure were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. city specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  10. Influence of User Behaviour on Indoor Environmental Quality and Heating Energy Consumptions in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo;

    Danish dwellings were analysed by means of logistic regression to infer the probability of adjusting the set-point of TRVs. Three different models of occupant’s interactions with heating controls were obtained and implemented in a building simulation tool. They were used to investigate how different...... probabilistic user patterns influence indoor climate quality and energy consumptions. The aim was to compare the obtained results with an actual/deterministic use of the simulation program. Since comfort categories are related to users’ expectations and the users’ impact is crucial on determining the energy...

  11. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  12. Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickley, Andrew; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland. Methods Data were analyzed from...... frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety. Conclusion UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older...... community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression....

  13. Chemical defense in the cave-dwelling millipede Brachydesmus troglobius Daday, 1889 (Diplopoda, Polydesmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov Slobodan E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The troglomorphic millipede Brachydesmus troglobius Daday, 1889 (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae secretes allomones from glands on both lateral surfaces of its body segments. The secretion was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis with electron and chemical ionization, and was shown to be composed of a mixture of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoylnitrile, benzoic acid and mandelonitrile benzoate. Hydrogen cyanide was qualitatively identified by the picric acid test. This is the first identification of these compounds in a cave-dwelling polydesmid.

  14. Lesser prairie-chicken nest site selection, microclimate, and nest survival in association with vegetation response to a grassland restoration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Zavaleta, Jennifer C.; Dixon, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict that the region of the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) will experience increased maximum and minimum temperatures, reduced frequency but greater intensity of precipitation events, and earlier springs. These climate changes along with different landscape management techniques may influence the persistence of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act and a priority species under the GPLCC, in positive or negative ways. The objectives of this study were to conduct (1) a literature review of lesser prairie-chicken nesting phenology and ecology, (2) an analysis of thermal aspects of lesser prairie-chicken nest microclimate data, and (3) an analysis of nest site selection, nest survival, and vegetation response to 10 years of tebuthiuron and/or grazing treatments. We found few reports in the literature containing useful data on the nesting phenology of lesser prairie-chickens; therefore, managers must rely on short-term observations and measurements of parameters that provide some predictive insight into climate impacts on nesting ecology. Our field studies showed that prairie-chickens on nests were able to maintain relatively consistent average nest temperature of 31 °C and nest humidities of 56.8 percent whereas average external temperatures (20.3–35.0 °C) and humidities (35.2–74.9 percent) varied widely throughout the 24 hour (hr) cycle. Grazing and herbicide treatments within our experimental areas were designed to be less intensive than in common practice. We determined nest locations by radio-tagging hen lesser prairie-chickens captured at leks, which are display grounds at which male lesser prairie-chickens aggregate and attempt to attract a female for mating. Because nest locations selected by hen lesser prairie-chicken are strongly associated with the lek at which they were captured, we assessed nesting habitat use on the basis of hens

  15. The influence of indoor microclimate on thermal comfort and conservation of artworks: the case study of the cathedral of Matera (South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment

  16. KARAKTERISTIK TANAH DAN MIKROKLIMAT HABITAT BURUNG MALEO (MACROCEPHALON MALEO DI TAMAN NASIONAL LORE LINDU SULAWESI TENGAH (Soil Characteristics and Microclimate of Habitat Maleo Bird (Macrocephalon Maleo in Lore Lindu National Park Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsah Hafsah

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik tanah dan mikroklimat habitat burung maleo di Taman Nasional Lore Lindu Sulawesi Tengah. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode survey dengan melakukan pengamatan dan pengukuran langsung variabel di habitat alami. Analisis data secara deskriptif berdasarakan hasil pengamatan di lapangan dan di laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa habitat peneluran burung maleo di Taman Nasional Lore Lindu mempunyai karakteristik tanah dengan tekstur (pasir pada kisaran 45,80%-62,80%; liat antara 4,30%-8,20% dan debu dengan kisaran 22,90%-46,50% dan kelsa tekstur tanah didominasi lempung berpasir (LB 77,80% dan lempung debu berpasir (LDB 22,20%. Kisaran pH tanah antara 6,15-6,75 dengan kandungan bahan organik (C dan N yang rendah, berarti tingkat kesuburan juga rendah. Kondisi mikroklimat pada lubang peneluran mempunyai rataan temperatur 33,08 oC dengan kisaran (31-35 oC, dan kelembaban 86,52% dengan kisaran 60,90-71,00%. Mikroklimat dalam tanah sangat penting peranannya untuk perkembangan embrio telur burung maleo selama dalam proses inkubasi.   ABSTRACT Objective of the research was to identify the soil characteristics and microclimate habitat of maleo bird in Lore Lindu National Park Central Sulawesi. This research was based on field observation and measurement of several variables in order to achieve the aim of the research. Variables which were measured, there are soil characteristics included  soil  texture (sand, clay and silt, pH  and   soil organic matter  ( C and N.  The results of research was shown  the habitat  of maleo bird for nesting site  have  soil characteristics with sand texture range from  45.80 % - 62.80 %;  clay 4.30 % -  8.20 % , and  silt 22.90 % -  46.50 % respectively.  While the class of soil texture dominated by sandy loam (77.80% and sandy clay loam  (22.20%.  The range of soil pH was 6.15 – 6.75 with the range of  organics matter of

  17. Output regulation of switched linear multi-agent systems: an agent-dependent average dwell time method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongwei; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The output regulation problem of switched linear multi-agent systems with stabilisable and unstabilisable subsystems is investigated in this paper. A sufficient condition for the solvability of the problem is given. Owing to the characteristics of switched multi-agent systems, even if each agent has its own dwell time, the multi-agent systems, if viewed as an overall switched system, may not have a dwell time. To overcome this difficulty, we present a new approach, called an agent-dependent average dwell time method. Due to the limited information exchange between agents, a distributed dynamic observer network for agents is provided. Further, a distributed dynamic controller based on observer is designed. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  18. Ability to negotiate stairs predicts free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Matar Abdullah; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Which clinical measures of walking performance best predict free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke? Cross-sectional observational study. 42 community-dwelling stroke survivors. Predictors were four clinical measures of walking performance (speed, automaticity, capacity, and stairs ability). The outcome of interest was free-living physical activity, measured as frequency (activity counts) and duration (time on feet), collected using an activity monitor called the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity. Time on feet was predicted by stairs ability alone (B 166, 95% CI 55 to 278) which accounted for 48% of the variance. Activity counts were also predicted by stairs ability alone (B 6486, 95% CI 2922 to 10 050) which accounted for 58% of the variance. The best predictor of free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke was stairs ability.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Lower Extremity Subscale of the Fugl-Myer Assessment for Community-dwelling Hemiplegic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Choi, Yoo Im

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the lower extremity subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment lower extremity (FMA-LE) for community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects] The participants were 140 community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Methods] To determine the psychometric properties of the FMA-LE, we examined construct validity, response characteristics, item discrimination, and internal consistency. [Results] Factor analysis of the FMA-LE revealed that the first factor explained 61.73% of the variance and provided evidence of unidimensionality. The FMA-LE did not show ceiling or floor effects; Cronbach's α was 0.935 (95% CI: 0.919-0.950). [Conclusion] Because the FMA-LE seems to be both valid and reliable, we conclude that it is appropriate for the measurement of the lower extremity motor impairment of community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients.

  20. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Carlier-Grynkorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics.

  1. Evidence and mapping of extinction debts for global forest-dwelling reptiles, amphibians and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Peng, Shushi

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of extinction debts for the global distributions of forest-dwelling reptiles, mammals and amphibians was tested and the debt magnitude was estimated and mapped. By using different correlation tests and variable importance analysis, the results showed that spatial richness patterns for the three forest-dwelling terrestrial vertebrate groups had significant and stronger correlations with past forest cover area and other variables in the 1500 s, implying the evidence for extinction debts. Moreover, it was likely that the extinction debts have been partially paid, given that their global richness patterns were also significantly correlated with contemporary forest variables in the 2000 s (but the absolute magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were usually smaller than those calculated for historical forest variables). By utilizing species-area relationships, spatial extinction-debt magnitudes for the three vertebrate groups at the global scale were estimated and the hotspots of extinction debts were identified. These high-debt hotspots were generally situated in areas that did not spatially overlap with hotspots of species richness or high extinction-risk areas based on IUCN threatened status to a large extent. This spatial mismatch pattern suggested that necessary conservation efforts should be directed toward high-debt areas that are still overlooked.

  2. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education in Riyadh, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh 11417 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303{+-}57 to 700{+-}38 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} with an average value of 455.1{+-}45 {mu}Gy y{sup -1}. The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212{+-}40 to 490{+-}27 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} with an average value of 318.57{+-}31 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.{sup 222}Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean {sup 222}Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 18.4 Bq m{sup -3}. The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46 mSv y{sup -1}.

  3. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S

    2007-07-01

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303+/-57 to 700+/-38microGyy(-1) with an average value of 455.1+/-45microGyy(-1). The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212+/-40 to 490+/-27microSvy(-1) with an average value of 318.57+/-31microSvy(-1).(222)Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from (222)Rn and its progeny. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean (222)Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69Bqm(-3) with an average of 18.4Bqm(-3). The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46mSvy(-1).

  4. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  5. Effects of compound music program on cognitive function and QOL in community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Ito, Akemi; Kikuchi, Nana; Kakinuma, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshihisa

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Interventions using music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy are widely used both for rehabilitation and care of the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the effect of structured interventions comprising music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life of the community-dwelling elderly. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 15 community-dwelling elderly people who used a day-care center. Participants underwent sessions comprising the following three factors: 1) singing songs familiar to the elderly; 2) physical exercise to music; and 3) observation of historical pictures. Sessions were conducted once or twice per week, 30 to 40 min per day, for 10 weeks. Pre and post interventions of the Mini Mental State Examination, the Behavioral Rating Scale for the Elderly, and the SF-8 were compared. [Results] No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-intervention scores on the Mini Mental State Examination and the Behavioral Rating Scale for the Elderly. However, the post intervention physical component summary of SF-8 was significantly higher than the pre intervention summary. [Conclusion] This study suggests that interventions comprising music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy may contribute toward the improvement of elderly individuals' health-related quality of life, especially physical health.

  6. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  7. Evaluation of the Iranian Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form in Community-dwelling Elderly

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    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to assess agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the Iranian version of Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF against the original MNA, as a gold standard in community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The full MNA and 9-item MNA-SF comprising questions regarding clinical status, dietary assessment and self-perception of health status and nutri-tion together with mid-arm and calf circumference measurements without in-cluding the body mass index (BMI were completed for 205 volunteers aged 65 or older recruited from all over Markazi Province (Iran. Correlation, diagnostic accuracy and agreement between the MNA-SF and full MNA were calculated. Results: The MNA and the MNA-SF classified 45.4% and 64.4% of the sub-jects as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Substantial agree-ment between the MNA-SF and full MNA was observed (Kappa=0.633. The MNA-SF correlated strongly with the full MNA (r=0.868, P<0.001. The MNA-SF showed high sensitivity (96.77% and negative predictive values (95.89%, relatively high specificity (62.5% and positive predictive values (68.18% and fair accuracy (Area under curve =0.796. Conclusion: Iranian MNA-SF seems to be an applicable screening tool for quick detection of malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition in community-dwelling elderly especially when BMI is unavailable.

  8. Benzodiazepines for insomnia in community-dwelling elderly: a review of benefit and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, R M

    1995-11-01

    To critically assess and summarize the beneficial effects of benzodiazepine therapy for insomnia in community-dwelling elders, a systematic search was undertaken to review all published clinical trials and sleep laboratory studies. The risk of injury for benzodiazepine users was also reviewed. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for assessing benefit. There are no studies regarding the long-term effectiveness of benzodiazepines for the treatment of sleep disorders in the elderly. In the sleep laboratory setting, triazolam 0.125 mg, flurazepam 15 mg, and estazolam 1 mg improved sleep latency by 27 to 30 minutes and increased total sleep time by 47 to 81 minutes for the first 2 to 3 nights of treatment, compared with baseline measurements taken while the patients were receiving placebo. In contrast to these modest short-term benefits, there is an association between the use of benzodiazepines with a long half-life, eg, flurazepam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide, and an increased risk of hip fracture in the elderly. Triazolam can cause rebound insomnia as well as anterograde amnesia. Clinicians should discontinue their prescribing of long-acting benzodiazepines for elderly patients with insomnia. More research is needed on the effects of nondrug interventions as well as on short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines, such as oxazepam and temazepam, to treat insomnia in community-dwelling elderly.

  9. Leisure activity participation as predictor of quality of life in Korean urban-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated participation in leisure activities in urban-dwelling elderly persons in Korea and its role in predicting quality of life. The participated activities over a 48-hour period were recorded by each participant, and amount of participated time for each activity was calculated. Correlational analysis examined the relationship between the degree of participation in domains of leisure activity and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which leisure activity participation predicted quality of life. The results indicated that the participants spent the most time in "use of media". Quality of life showed a positive correlation with "use of media", "sports and outdoor leisure activity" and "hobby and other leisure activity". The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis found that use of media, "religious activity", sports and outdoor leisure activity and hobby and other leisure activity significantly predicted quality of life after controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Of these variables, hobby and other leisure activity was the strongest predictor of quality of life. The results will augment treatment planning and activity management in enhancing quality of life by allied health professionals, especially occupational therapists. The findings are limited in that the sample consisted of urban-dwelling elderly primarily with a religious affiliation. It is recommended that a cross-cultural investigation using standard assessment measures be conducted to validate whether there is indeed similarities in time use and leisure activity participation in the elderly in different cultures.

  10. Operational energy in the life cycle of residential dwellings: The experience of Spain and Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Oscar [University of Rovira i Virgili, Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, Av. Paisos Catalanes 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); University of Pamplona, Department of Industrial Engineering, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona, N de S (Colombia); Castells, Francesc [University of Pamplona, Department of Industrial Engineering, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona, N de S (Colombia); Sonnemann, Guido [University of Rovira i Virgili, Visiting Senior Research Fellow, AGA Group (AGA) (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied within the residential building sector of two buildings, one in each a developed (Spain) and a developing (Colombia) country. The main goal of this paper involves the environmental loads and also brings together the operational energy for activities during the operation phase such as HVAC, domestic hot water, electrical appliances, cooking and illumination. The present research compares two real scenarios: Situation 1, where 100% of the dwelling's energy is supplied with electricity only and Situation 2, where dwellings can be operated with natural gas plus electricity. The results for the environmental impacts using natural gas plus electricity show that of the Spanish environmental impacts air conditioning had the highest impact with approximately 27-42% due to the electricity used to power it. In Colombian results showed that electrical appliances had the highest environmental impacts in the same order of magnitude with approximately 60% and cooking had the best reduction of emissions due to the use of natural gas, from 10% down to less than 2%. The origin of the energy source used in each Country plays an important role to minimize environmental impacts, as was demonstrated by the environmental impacts of its use in Colombia where 78% of the electricity came from hydroelectric plants whereas in Spain it is more mixed, fossil fuels represented 55%, nuclear 18% and wind 9%. In summary, LCA has been applied because this methodology supports the decision making to concern environmental sustainability. (author)

  11. Occurrence patterns of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae over depth intervals in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj M. van Tienderen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral-associated invertebrates form a major part of the diversity on reefs, but their distribution and occurrence patterns are virtually unstudied. For associated taxa data are lacking on their distribution across shelves and environmental gradients, but also over various depths. Off Curaçao we studied the prevalence and density of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae, obligate symbionts of stony corals. Belt transects (10 × 0.5m2 were laid out at 6, 12 and 18 m depth intervals at 27 localities. Twenty-one known host coral species were surveyed, measured, and the number of crab dwellings was recorded to study the influence of host occurrence, depth distribution, and colony size on the occurrence rates of three Atlantic gall crab species: Opecarcinus hypostegus, Troglocarcinus corallicola and Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola. The overall gall crab prevalence rate was 20.3% across all available host corals at all depths. The agariciid-associated species O. hypostegus was found to mostly inhabit Agaricia lamarcki and its prevalence was highest at deeper depths, following the depth distribution of its host. Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola, associated with Siderastrea and Stephanocoenia, inhabited shallower depths despite higher host availability at deeper depths. The generalist species T. corallicola showed no clear host or depth specialisation. These results show that the primary factors affecting the distribution and occurrence rates over depth intervals differed between each of the three Atlantic cryptochirid species, which in turn influences their vulnerability to reef degradation.

  12. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility, with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29 and community-dwelling (n = 74 elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume and free water reserve (FWR was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale’s dimensionality and Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct’s validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named “Hydration Score” and “Pain Score”, and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The “Hydration Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the “Pain Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  13. Conceptualization and nursing implications of self-imposed activity limitation among community-dwelling elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guifang; Phillips, Linda R

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to explore, from a theoretical perspective, explanations for why some community-dwelling elders self-impose activity limitations (SIALs); to develop an integrated explanation for SIAL from a nursing perspective; and to identify some clinical implications of relevance to public health nursing practice. Activity limitation is an important risk factor for functional decline, morbidity, and mortality among community-dwelling elders. Many studies have focused on disease and environmental influences on activity limitations. The intrinsic processes associated with voluntary or SIAL in old age among otherwise physically and mentally capable elders are poorly understood and little studied. The conceptualization of SIAL provides nurses with an understanding of an understudied aging phenomenon and helps nurses understand how elders see activities related to their life priorities. The conceptual framework will facilitate future qualitative and quantitative study of SIAL, assist nurses in the development of a new gerontological nursing theory, and design of interventions for elders with activity limitations. Public health nurses with a better understanding of SIAL may be able to help elders improve or maintain their independence.

  14. Evidence and mapping of extinction debts for global forest-dwelling reptiles, amphibians and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Peng, Shushi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of extinction debts for the global distributions of forest-dwelling reptiles, mammals and amphibians was tested and the debt magnitude was estimated and mapped. By using different correlation tests and variable importance analysis, the results showed that spatial richness patterns for the three forest-dwelling terrestrial vertebrate groups had significant and stronger correlations with past forest cover area and other variables in the 1500 s, implying the evidence for extinction debts. Moreover, it was likely that the extinction debts have been partially paid, given that their global richness patterns were also significantly correlated with contemporary forest variables in the 2000 s (but the absolute magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were usually smaller than those calculated for historical forest variables). By utilizing species-area relationships, spatial extinction-debt magnitudes for the three vertebrate groups at the global scale were estimated and the hotspots of extinction debts were identified. These high-debt hotspots were generally situated in areas that did not spatially overlap with hotspots of species richness or high extinction-risk areas based on IUCN threatened status to a large extent. This spatial mismatch pattern suggested that necessary conservation efforts should be directed toward high-debt areas that are still overlooked. PMID:28300200

  15. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  16. Developing a personal health record for community-dwelling older adults and clinicians: technology and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Paitich, Nadine; Ekstrom, Dawn; Mehle, Susan C; Kaeding, Maggie; Abdo, Sajeda; Natarajan, Gowtham; Ruddarraju, Uday Kumar Raju

    2012-07-01

    To empower older consumers and improve health outcomes, a consumer-friendly personal health record (PHR) is needed. The purpose of this article was to evaluate PHR technology and content for older community-dwelling consumers. Specific aims were to: (a) develop a secure, web-based application for a PHR to enable interoperable exchanges of data between consumers and clinicians; (b) develop structured, evidence-based shared care plan content for the PHR using an interface terminology standard; and (c) validate the shared care plans with consumers. An interoperable web-based form was developed. The standardized PHR content was developed by expert panel consensus using the Omaha System problem list and care plans, and validated by consumer interviews. Evidence-based shared care plans for 21 problems common among community-dwelling older adults were developed and encoded with Omaha System terms for data capture in the PHR. An additional problem, Neighborhood-workplace safety, was identified by consumers and will be added to the care plans.

  17. Association of personality traits with elder self-neglect in a community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2011-08-01

    Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Population-based study conducted from 1993 to 2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N = 9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N = 1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders.

  18. Association of Personality Traits with Elder Self-Neglect in a Community Dwelling Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Objective Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Methods Population-based study conducted from 1993–2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N=9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N=1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. Results In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Conclusion Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders. PMID:21788924

  19. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K.; McLaughlin, J.P. [University College Dublin (Ireland); Fenton, D.; Colgan, P.A. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-07-01

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  20. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  1. Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah A; Lecomte, Nicolas; Schaefer, James A; Olsen, Steffen M; Swingedouw, Didier; Côté, Steeve D; Pellissier, Loïc; Yannic, Glenn

    2016-09-01

    Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both continental and Peary caribou, even after accounting for the possible effect of sea surface. Sea ice has thus been an effective corridor for Peary caribou, promoting inter-island connectivity and population mixing. Using a time series of remote sensing sea-ice data, we show that landscape resistance in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has increased by approximately 15% since 1979 and may further increase by 20-77% by 2086 under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Under the persistent increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, reduced connectivity may isolate island-dwelling caribou with potentially significant consequences for population viability.

  2. Physical performance measures that predict faller status in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, P G; Lacourse, M; Moldavon, R

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among the elderly. Accurate determination of risk factors associated with falls in older adults is necessary, not only for individual patient management, but also for the development of fall prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical measures, such as the one-legged stance test (OLST), sit-to-stand test (STST), manual muscle tests (MMT), and response speed in predicting faller status in community-dwelling older adults (N = 94, age 60-89 years). The variables assessed were single-leg standing (as measured by OLST), STST, and MMT of 12 different muscle groups (hip flexors, hip abductors, hip adductors, knee flexors, knee extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, ankle plantarflexors, shoulder flexors, shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and finger flexors), and speed of response (as measured by a visual hand reaction and movement time task). Of the 94 older adults assessed, 28 (29.7%) reported at least one fall within the previous year. The discriminant analysis revealed that there were six variables that significantly discriminated between fallers and nonfallers. These variables included MMT of the ankle dorsiflexors, knee flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors, as well as time on the OLST and the STST. The results indicate that simple clinical measures of musculoskeletal function can discriminate fallers from nonfallers in community-dwelling older adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(3):123-128.

  3. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Aly, Mohamed F A; Vuijk, Pieter J; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-04-17

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older cardiac patients remains unknown. An older (≥70 years) heterogeneous group of 117 community-dwelling cardiac patients under medical supervision by a cardiologist underwent thorough echocardiographic assessment including left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular diastolic function, and valvular calcification. During a home visit, a neuropsychological assessment was performed within 7.1 ± 3.8 months after echocardiographic assessment; the neuropsychological assessment included three subtests of a word-learning test (encoding, recall, recognition) to examine one memory function domain and three executive function tests, including digit span backwards, Trail Making Test B minus A, and the Stroop colour-word test. Regression analyses showed no significant linear or quadratic associations between any of the echocardiographic functions and the cognitive function measures. None of the echocardiographic measures as representative of cardiac function was correlated with memory or executive function in this group of community-dwelling older cardiac patients. These findings contrast with those of previous studies. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction among community-dwelling female stroke survivors in Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzat, T K; Olaleye, O A; Akinwumi, O B

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is not gender-discriminatory. Yet, the subject of stroke among females has apparently not received significant attention from clinical researchers. The consequences of stroke include functional and psychosocial sequelae which may cause disability, hinder community reintegration and restrict participation. The inter-relationships among functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction of community-dwelling, female stroke survivors in Ibadan were assessed in this descriptive study. Fifty-two community-dwelling female stroke survivors (mean age = 56.55±9.91 years) were surveyed using consecutive sampling technique. Their functional ability level was measured using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) while London Handicap Scale (LHS) was used to assess their participation restriction. Data were analyzed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (rho) and Mann-Whitney U test at p = 0.05. Significantly positive correlations (preintegration (r = 0.54; p = 0.01) as well as between participation restriction and community reintegration (r = 0.34; p = 0.05). Individuals with left hemiplegia had significantly higher mean rank scores in functional ability (30.41) than those who had right hemiplegia (mean rank scores = 21.94). Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the community. A similar study which compares male and female stroke survivors in the same community is thus necessary.

  5. Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M Carrington; Williams, Christianna S; Concato, John; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether the presence of depressive symptoms is an independent risk factor for disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons. Prospective cohort study with a 12-month follow-up period. General community. Seven hundred forty-four members of a large health plan who were aged 70 and older and independent in bathing, walking, dressing, and transferring at baseline. The presence of depressive symptoms, defined as a score of 16 or greater on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, was documented during a comprehensive baseline assessment that also included information regarding participants' demographic, medical, and physical/cognitive status. The occurrence of disabling back pain was ascertained during monthly telephone interviews. Depressive symptoms were present in 153 (20.6%) participants at baseline. Over the 12-month follow-up period, 186 participants (25.0%) reported disabling back pain during 1 to 2 months and 91 (12.2%) during 3 or more months. After adjustment for potential confounders, the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with the occurrence of disabling back pain (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-4.4) for 1 to 2 months with disabling back pain; AOR=7.8 (95% CI=3.7-16.4) for 3 or more months with disabling back pain). The presence of depressive symptoms is a strong, independent, and highly prevalent risk factor for the occurrence of disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons.

  6. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05. Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05, but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05. The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H΄, Pielou eveness index (J, and Simpson dominance index (D. All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude.

  7. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ajeet K

    2010-01-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid subunits of the protein is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotide subunits) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechano-chemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is defined as the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We present an analytical calculation of the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Our theoretical prediction is consistent with the experimental results reported in the literature.

  8. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-04-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  9. Beers versus STOPP criteria in polyharmacy community-dwelling older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.7399/fh.2016.40.3.9706

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP using Beers (2012 version and STOPP (2008 version criteria in polypharmacy, community-dwelling, older patients. Methods: From the information collected in the invoicing data of the prescriptions and the electronic medical records, a sample was selected of 223 ≥ 65-year-old patients who were taking simultaneously 10 or more drugs per day. Beers and STOPP criteria were separately applied, and the results obtained with the two methods were compared. Results: A total of 141 (63.2% patients presented at least one Beers criterion. The two most frequently observed Beers criteria independent of diagnosis were the use of benzodiazepines and the use of non-COX-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. With regard to Beers criteria considering diagnosis, the most frequent were the use of anticholinergic drugs in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms or benign prostatic hyperplasia, and the use of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, zolpidem or H2-antihistamines, in patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. A total of 165 (73.9% patients had at least one PIP according to the STOPP criteria. Duplicate drug classes and long-term use of long-acting benzodiazepines were the two most frequent STOPP criteria. Discussion: Our study identified a high frequency of PIP in polymedicated community-dwelling older patients. Simultaneous application of Beers and STOPP criteria represents a useful tool to improve prescribing in this population group.

  10. Health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Terri R; O'Leary, John; Towle, Virginia; Goldstein, Mary K; Trentalange, Mark; Martin, Deanna K

    2014-12-01

    To summarize evidence regarding the health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, defined as number of prescribed medications, in older community-dwelling persons. Systematic review of MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946 to May, Week 3, 2014). Community. Observational studies examining health outcomes according to number of prescription medications taken. Association between number of medications and health outcomes. Because of the importance of comorbidity as a potential confounder of the relationship between polypharmacy and health outcomes, articles were assessed regarding the quality of their adjustment for confounding. Of the 50 studies identified, the majority that were rated good in terms of their adjustment for comorbidity demonstrated relationships between polypharmacy and a range of outcomes, including falls, fall outcomes, fall risk factors, adverse drug events, hospitalization, mortality, and measures of function and cognition. However, a number of these studies failed to demonstrate associations, as did a substantial proportion of studies rated fair or poor. Data are mixed regarding the relationship between polypharmacy, considered in terms of number of medications, and adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older persons. Because of the challenge of confounding, randomized controlled trials of medication discontinuation may provide more-definitive evidence regarding this relationship than observational studies can provide. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  12. [Association between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre Alves; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance set at p insomnia symptoms and daytime napping were 49.9% (n = 339) and 62.8% (n = 432), respectively. 14.4% reported a single fall and 11.9% reported multiple falls. Falls were associated with female gender (OR = 7.73; 95%CI: 3.03-19.72), age > 80 (OR = 3.48; 95%CI: 1.54-7.85), napping (OR = 2.24; 95%CI: 1.24-4.05), and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.11-3.53). The association between daytime napping and falls corroborates data from international research. Identifying modifiable risk factors may help programs to prevent falls in the elderly.

  13. Robust linear equation dwell time model compatible with large scale discrete surface error matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2015-04-01

    The linear equation dwell time model can translate the 2D convolution process of material removal during subaperture polishing into a more intuitional expression, and may provide relatively fast and reliable results. However, the accurate solution of this ill-posed equation is not so easy, and its practicability for a large scale surface error matrix is still limited. This study first solves this ill-posed equation by Tikhonov regularization and the least square QR decomposition (LSQR) method, and automatically determines an optional interval and a typical value for the damped factor of regularization, which are dependent on the peak removal rate of tool influence functions. Then, a constrained LSQR method is presented to increase the robustness of the damped factor, which can provide more consistent dwell time maps than traditional LSQR. Finally, a matrix segmentation and stitching method is used to cope with large scale surface error matrices. Using these proposed methods, the linear equation model becomes more reliable and efficient in practical engineering.

  14. Dwelling-mobility”: An existential theory of well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Todres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we offer an existential theory of well-being that is guided by Heidegger's later writings on “homecoming”. We approach the question of what it is about the essence of well-being that makes all kinds of well-being possible. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, well-being is both a way of being-in-the-world, as well as a felt sense of what this is like as an experience. Drawing on Heidegger's notion of Gegnet (abiding expanse, we characterise the deepest possibility of existential well-being as “dwelling-mobility”. This term indicates both the “adventure” of being called into expansive existential possibilities, as well as “being-at-home-with” what has been given. This deepest possibility of well-being carries with it a feeling of rootedness and flow, peace and possibility. However, we also consider how the separate notions of existential mobility and existential dwelling as discrete emphases can be developed to describe multiple variations of well-being possibilities.

  15. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  16. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; MIZUMOTO, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older...

  17. Reduced Dwell-Fatigue Resistance in a Ni-Base Superalloy After Short-Term Thermal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnqvist, Magnus; Viskari, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of short-term thermal exposure on microstructure and dwell-fatigue resistance of Ni-base superalloy 718Plus was investigated. Contrary to previous studies performed after long-term exposure, an increase in the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate was observed, which was connected to a small increase in the size of the hardening precipitates. The proposed controlling mechanism was the stress relaxation rate at the crack tip, and based on this a schematic model for the development of the properties during exposure is presented.

  18. Study on constructive system of green cave dwelling in Loess Plateau-Interpretation with the "regional gene" theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article reveals the inherent evolution adjusting mechanism of regional architecture by means of considering the concept and method of "regional gene" as the research approach of regional architecture construction system, and in the meanwhile establishes the "gene database" of regional architecture and optimum technology, on the basis of the principle of sustainable development and scientific evaluation system. In addition, this article chooses the planning of model villages of cave dwellings in Loess Plateau and the construction of ecological cave dwellings for case study to prove the feasibility of the research approach.

  19. As possíveis alterações microclimáticas devido a formação do lago artificial da hidrelétrica de Tucuruí -PA The possible impacts on the microclimate due to the artificial lake from Tucuruí's dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sanches

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem muitas preocupações ecológicas do impacto que a construção de grandes lagos na Amazônia podem provocar, principalmente relacionadas ao microclima. Este estudo visa aumentar o conhecimento científico sobre a distribuição de chuvas antes e depois da formação do lago artificial da UHE Tucuruí-PA. Foram utilizados dados diários de precipitação dos períodos de 1972 a 1983 (pré-enchimento e de 1984 a 1996 (pós-enchimento para as cidades de Tucuruí e Marabá-PA. Comparando-se os totais mensais (pré e pós-enchimento, não se observam diferenças estatisticamente significantes (foram aplicados os testes de Fisher e Man-Whitney. Analisando-se a ocorrência de dias com precipitação superior a 5 e 25 mm.dia-1, também não se observam diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Há um leve aumento do número de dias com chuvas leves no final período sêco após a formação do lago, talvez devido a alta evaporação do lago artificial. Também não se observou modificações do início ou final da estação chuvosa.There are a lot of ecological concern about the ecological impacts due to an artificial lake in Amazonia, especially related with the microclimate. This study aims to increase the scientific knowledge of the rainfall distribution prior and post flooding of the UHE Tucuruí-PA. Daily rainfall from 1972 until 1983 (prior inundation and from 1984 until 1996 (post inundation for Tucuruí and Marabá-PA. Comparing the monthly totals (prior and post, there is no statistical differences between the averages (using the statistical tests from Fisher and Man-Whitney. Analyzing the number of days with rainfall higher than 5 and 25 mm.day-1, there are also no statistical differences. It was observed a small increase of light rain during the end of the dry season. Also, the are no signal related to the modification of the onset or end from the rainy season.

  20. Factors related to fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Oanh Tran Thi; Jullamate, Pornchai; Piphatvanitcha, Naiyana; Rosenberg, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between age, gender, history of falls, balance and gait status, general health perception, activities of daily living and depression to fear of falling in community-dwelling older people in Danang, Vietnam. Fear of falling is a common and consequential psychosocial problem for older people and can lead to decreased quality of life. There is only limited research on fear of falling in Vietnam. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. One hundred fifty-three community-dwelling older people were recruited from seven communities of different districts in Danang. Data were collected using six instruments: a demographic questionnaire, the Fall Efficacy Scale-International, the General Health Perception questionnaire, the Barthel Activities of Daily Living, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Timed Up and Go test. Data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. The mean Fall Efficacy Scale-International score was 35, indicating a high level of fear of falling. ADLs, general health perception and Timed Up and Go were significantly and negatively related to fear of falling (rp  = -0·80, rsp  = -0·77 and rp  = -0·75, respectively). Age, depression and history of falls were significantly and positively related to fear of falling (rp  = 0·54, rp  = 0·45 and rs  = 0·39, respectively). Women were significantly more likely than men to have higher fear of falling (rpb  = -0·28). Fear of falling is more common in older people who are female, have a history of falls, have poor balance and gait status, have poor health perception, have greater ADL dependency, are depressed and, within the older people population, are older. Further research could examine additional correlates of fear of falling and develop/evaluate factor-specific intervention strategies to reduce fear of falling among community-dwelling older people. Understanding correlates of fear of falling among older Vietnamese people contributes to