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Sample records for human dna double-strand

  1. Human Ku70 protein binds hairpin RNA and double stranded DNA through two different sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisenko, Andrey N; Knyazhanskaya, Ekaterina S; Zatsepin, Timofey S; Gottikh, Marina B

    2017-01-01

    Human protein Ku usually functions in the cell as a complex of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80. The Ku heterodimer plays a key role in the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway by specifically recognizing the DNA ends at the site of the lesion. The binding of the Ku heterodimer to DNA has been well-studied, and its interactions with RNA have been also described. However, Ku70 subunit is known to have independent DNA binding capability, which is less characterized. RNA binding properties of Ku70 have not been yet specially studied. We have prepared recombinant full-length Ku70 and a set of its truncated mutants in E. coli, and studied their interactions with nucleic acids of various structures: linear single- and double-stranded DNA and RNA, as well as closed circular DNA and hairpin RNA. Ku70 has demonstrated a high affinity binding to double stranded DNA and hairpin RNA with a certain structure only. Interestingly, in contrast to the Ku heterodimer, Ku70 is found to interact with closed circular DNA. We also show for the first time that Ku70 employs two different sites for DNA and RNA binding. The double-stranded DNA is recognized by the C-terminal part of Ku70 including SAP domain as it has been earlier demonstrated, whereas hairpin RNA binding is provided by amino acids 251-438. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  2. The involvement of human RECQL4 in DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Karmakar, Parimal; Aamann, Maria Diget

    2010-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder associated with mutation in RECQL4 gene, a member of the human RecQ helicases. The disease is characterized by genomic instability, skeletal abnormalities and predisposition to malignant tumors, especially osteosarcomas....... The precise role of RECQL4 in cellular pathways is largely unknown; however, recent evidence suggests its involvement in multiple DNA metabolic pathways. This study investigates the roles of RECQL4 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. The results show that RECQL4-deficient fibroblasts are moderately......-induced DSBs and remains for a shorter duration than WRN and BLM, indicating its distinct role in repair of DSBs. Endogenous RECQL4 also colocalizes with gammaH2AX at the site of DSBs. The RECQL4 domain responsible for its DNA damage localization has been mapped to the unique N-terminus domain between amino...

  3. Sequence conservation of the rad21 Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA double-strand break repair gene in human and mouse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McKay (Michael); C. Troelstra (Christine); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R. Kanaar (Roland); B. Smit (Bep); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe rad21 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is involved in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. The isolation of mouse and human putative homologs of rad21 is reported here. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequence of Rad21 with the mammalian proteins

  4. Telmisartan induces growth inhibition, DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis in human endometrial cancer cells.

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    Naoko Koyama

    Full Text Available Telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker, is often used as an antihypertension drug, and it has also been characterized as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ ligand. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antitumor effects of telmisartan on endometrial cancer cells. We treated three endometrial cancer cell lines with various concentrations of telmisartan, and we investigated the effects of the telmisartan on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and their related measurements in vitro. We also administered telmisartan to nude mice with experimental tumors to determine its in vivo effects and toxicity. All three endometrial cancer cell lines were sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of telmisartan. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed in concert with the altered expression of genes and proteins related to the apoptosis. We also observed that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs were induced in HHUA (human endometrial cancer cells by telmisartan treatment. In addition, experiments in nude mice showed that telmisartan significantly inhibited human endometrial tumor growth, without toxic side effects. Our results suggest that telmisartan might be a new therapeutic option for the treatment of endometrial cancers.

  5. Smoking cessation reverses DNA double-strand breaks in human mononuclear cells.

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    Mari Ishida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for a significant proportion of smoking-related deaths. However, the precise mechanism whereby smoking induces this pathology has not been fully delineated. Based on observation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the most harmful type of DNA damage, in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that there is a direct association between smoking and DSBs. The goal of this study was to investigate whether smoking induces DSBs and smoking cessation reverses DSBs in vivo through examination of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNCs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Immunoreactivity of oxidative modification of DNA and DSBs were increased in human atherosclerotic lesions but not in the adjacent normal area. DSBs in human MNCs isolated from the blood of volunteers can be detected as cytologically visible "foci" using an antibody against the phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γ-H2AX. Young healthy active smokers (n = 15 showed increased γ-H2AX foci number when compared with non-smokers (n = 12 (foci number/cell: median, 0.37/cell; interquartile range [IQR], 0.31-0.58 vs. 4.36/cell; IQR, 3.09-7.39, p<0.0001. Smoking cessation for 1 month reduced the γ-H2AX foci number (median, 4.44/cell; IQR, 4.36-5.24 to 0.28/cell; IQR, 0.12-0.53, p<0.05. A positive correlation was noted between γ-H2AX foci number and exhaled carbon monoxide levels (r = 0.75, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking induces DSBs in human MNCs in vivo, and importantly, smoking cessation for 1 month resulted in a decrease in DSBs to a level comparable to that seen in non-smokers. These data reinforce the notion that the cigarette smoking induces DSBs and highlight the importance of smoking cessation.

  6. X-ray induced DNA double-strand breakage and rejoining in a radiosensitive human renal carcinoma cell line estimated by CHEF electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, K. (Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ. (Austria) Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, BJ (China)); Wandl, E. (Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ. (Austria)); Kaercher, K.H. (Univ. Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ. (Austria))

    1993-12-01

    Cell intrinsic radiosensitivity is of great importance in radiation therapy, but its molecular basis is still uncertain. Since DNA double strand breakage is considered to be the most important lesion related to cell death induced by ionizing radiation, the relationship between DNA double-strand breakage, repair and cell survival was investigated in three cell lines: Chinese hamster cell (CHO-K1), human fibroblast and human renal carcinoma (Tu 25). The D[sub 0] values after X-irradiation were 1.73, 1.23, and 0.89 Gy, respectively, showing that Tu 25 was the most sensitive among them. DNA double-strand breaks were measured by CHEF electrophoresis, the initial yield of double-strand break per dose in the three cell lines was almost the same, and no correlation to cell survival was found. However, the rejoining capacity for DNA double-strand break differed. After a dose of 20 Gy, the repair rate was markedly lower in Tu 25, with a half repair time of 40 min, as compared with the other two cell lines with half repair times of 15 min. The results strongly supported the correlation between the repair capacity for DNA double-strand break and cell survival. It was concluded that DNA repair capacity is one of the determinants of cell radiosensitivity. Estimation of DNA double-strand break rejoining by CHEF was suggested as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity of human tumor cells. (orig.)

  7. Interaction of clinically important human DNA topoisomerase I poison, topotecan, with double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, Sergei; Oleinikov, Vladimir; Ermishov, Mikhail; Mochalov, Konstantin; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nechipurenko, Yuri; Grokhovsky, Sergei; Zhuze, Alexei; Pluot, Michel; Nabiev, Igor

    2003-01-01

    Topotecan (TPT), a water-soluble derivative of camptothecin, is a potent antitumor poison of human DNA topoisomerase I (top1) that stabilizes the cleavage complex between the enzyme and DNA. The role of the recently discovered TPT affinity to DNA remains to be defined. The aim of this work is to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the TPT-DNA interaction and to propose the models of TPT-DNA complexes in solution in the absence of top1. It is shown that TPT molecules form dimers with a dimerization constant of (4.0 +/- 0.7) x 10(3) M(-1) and the presence of DNA provokes more than a 400-fold increase of the effective dimerization constant. Flow linear dichroism spectroscopy accompanied by circular dichroism, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments provide evidence that TPT dimers are able to bind DNA by bridging different DNA molecules or distant DNA structural domains. This effect may provoke modification of the intrinsic geometry of the cruciform DNA structures, leading to the appearance of new crossover points that serve as the sites of the top1 loading position. The data presume the hypothesis of TPT-mediated modulation of top1-DNA recognition before ternary complex formation. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Human RECQ1 interacts with Ku70/80 and modulates DNA end-joining of double-strand breaks.

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    Swetha Parvathaneni

    Full Text Available Genomic instability is a known precursor to cancer and aging. The RecQ helicases are a highly conserved family of DNA-unwinding enzymes that play key roles in maintaining genome stability in all living organisms. Human RecQ homologs include RECQ1, BLM, WRN, RECQ4, and RECQ5β, three of which have been linked to diseases with elevated risk of cancer and growth defects (Bloom Syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome or premature aging (Werner Syndrome. RECQ1, the first RecQ helicase discovered and the most abundant in human cells, is the least well understood of the five human RecQ homologs. We have previously described that knockout of RECQ1 in mice or knockdown of its expression in human cells results in elevated frequency of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges, chromosomal instability, increased load of DNA damage and heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation. We have now obtained evidence implicating RECQ1 in the nonhomologous end-joining pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. We show that RECQ1 interacts directly with the Ku70/80 subunit of the DNA-PK complex, and depletion of RECQ1 results in reduced end-joining in cell free extracts. In vitro, RECQ1 binds and unwinds the Ku70/80-bound partial duplex DNA substrate efficiently. Linear DNA is co-bound by RECQ1 and Ku70/80, and DNA binding by Ku70/80 is modulated by RECQ1. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence for an interaction of RECQ1 with Ku70/80 and a role of the human RecQ helicase in double-strand break repair through nonhomologous end-joining.

  9. The neutral comet assay detects double strand DNA damage in selected and unselected human spermatozoa of normospermic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooij, R J; de Boer, P; De Vreeden-Elbertse, J M T; Ganga, N A; Singh, N; Te Velde, E R

    2004-06-01

    The occurrence of DNA breaks in human sperm is of concern to genetic safety in artificial reproduction techniques. Here, we have explored the neutral comet assay (NCA) for evaluating the frequency of spermatozoa with double strand (ds) DNA breaks in normospermic donors. The NCA results into DNA tail formation by fibre extension and by the separation of DNA fragments. Gamma-irradiated native, lysed and lysed plus RNA and protein degraded human sperm nuclei have been used to assess sensitivity and specificity of fragment formation as an indication for ds DNA breaks. At 5 and 10 Gy gamma irradiation, the sensitivity increases in the order: native, lysed, lysed plus RNA and protein degraded. At 10 Gy, a uniform response between donors was obtained. For technical and biological reasons, the NCA underestimates the true incidence of ds DNA breaks by an unknown factor. Semen samples of six healthy normospermic donors were differentiated by swim up and by Percoll density centrifugation, followed by the NCA. In native semen, percentages of sperm nuclei with ds DNA breaks ranged from 15 to 25%. Swim up and selection for high-density sperm nuclei (high Percoll fraction) reduced the frequency of sperm with ds DNA breaks by about one third, whereas an increased frequency was found in the low Percoll fraction. In conclusion, the response to gamma irradiation of DNA fragment formation indicates the NCA to demonstrate ds DNA breaks which is in keeping with theory and experimental results from somatic cells. Ds DNA breaks are a characteristic of the sperm population of normal donors. Current sperm selection procedures reduce the fractions of sperm with ds DNA breaks, yet are not effective in eliminating these cells.

  10. Human RNF169 is a negative regulator of the ubiquitin-dependent response to DNA double-strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Maria; Lukas, Claudia; Lukas, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand breaks (DSBs), mediated by the RNF8/RNF168 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in recruiting repair factors, including 53BP1 and BRCA1, to reestablish genome integrity. In this paper, we show that human RNF...

  11. Facile synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Double-stranded DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with double-stranded DNA by simple mixing in an aqueous buffer media without unwinding double-stranded. DNA to single-stranded DNA. The GO/dsDNA hydrogels have shown controlled porosity by changing the concentration of the components. The strong binding between dsDNA and graphene is proved by Raman.

  12. Mobile phone radiofrequency exposure has no effect on DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Benati, Marco; Bovo, Chiara; Bonaguri, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-07-01

    The use of mobile phones has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain type of cancer, especially in long term users. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the potential genotoxic effect of mobile phone radiofrequency exposure on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The study population consisted in 14 healthy volunteers. After collection of two whole blood samples, the former was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm from the chassis of a commercial mobile phone (900 MHz carrier frequency), which was activated by a 30-min call. The second blood sample was instead maintained far from mobile phones or other RF sources. The influence of mobile phone RF on DNA integrity was assessed by analyzing γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes using immunofluorescence staining kit on AKLIDES. No measure of γ-H2AX foci was significantly influenced by mobile phone RF exposure, nor mobile phone exposure was associated with significant risk of genetic damages in vitro (odds ratio comprised between 0.27 and 1.00). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that exposure of human lymphocytes to a conventional 900 MHz RF emitted by a commercial mobile phone for 30 min does not significantly impact DNA integrity.

  13. Impact of charged particle exposure on homologous DNA double-strand break repair in human blood-derived cells

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    Melanie eRall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation generates DNA double-strand breaks (DSB which, unless faithfully repaired, can generate chromosomal rearrangements in hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPC, potentially priming the cells towards a leukemic phenotype. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-based reporter system, we recently identified differences in the removal of enzyme-mediated DSB in human HSPC versus mature peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL, particularly regarding homologous DSB repair (HR. Assessment of chromosomal breaks via premature chromosome condensation or γH2AX foci indicated similar efficiency and kinetics of radiation-induced DSB formation and rejoining in PBL and HSPC. Prolonged persistence of chromosomal breaks was observed for higher LET charged particles which are known to induce more complex DNA damage compared to X rays. Consistent with HR deficiency in HSPC observed in our previous study, we noticed here pronounced focal accumulation of 53BP1 after X-ray and carbon ion exposure (intermediate LET in HSPC versus PBL. For higher LET, 53BP1 foci kinetics were similarly delayed in PBL and HSPC suggesting similar failure to repair complex DNA damage. Data obtained with plasmid reporter systems revealed a dose- and LET-dependent HR increase after X-ray, carbon ion and higher LET exposure, particularly in HR-proficient immortalized and primary lymphocytes, confirming preferential use of conservative HR in PBL for intermediate LET damage repair. HR measured adjacent to the leukemia-associated MLL breakpoint cluster sequence in reporter lines revealed dose-dependency of potentially leukemogenic rearrangements underscoring the risk of leukemia-induction by radiation treatment.

  14. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks by monochlorophenol isomers and ChKM in human gingival fibroblasts.

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    Shehata, M; Durner, J; Thiessen, D; Shirin, M; Lottner, S; Van Landuyt, K; Furche, S; Hickel, R; Reichl, F X

    2012-09-01

    Phenol has been traditionally used in dental treatment as a sedative for the pulp or as disinfectant for carious cavity and root canal. However, phenol is regarded as a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent and its use in dental practice is now therefore restricted. Monochlorophenols are derivatives of phenol, which are still used clinically as root canal disinfectants, they are even more active antiseptics/disinfectants than phenol, and the so-called Walkhoff (ChKM) solution makes use of monochlorophenol for root canal disinfection. Ingredients in the ChKM solution are the monochlorophenol compound 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), camphor, and menthol. In literature, the use of the ChKM solution is controversial because of a possible DNA toxicity of the ingredient 4-CP. However, it is unknown whether ChKM can really induce DNA damage in human oral cells. In this study, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by ChKM and monochlorophenol compounds (2-chlorophenol, 2-CP; 3-chlorophenol, 3-CP; and 4-chlorophenol, 4-CP) was tested in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). DNA DSBs (foci) induced in HGFs unexposed and exposed to monochlorophenols or ChKM solution were investigated using the γ-H2AX DNA focus assay, which is a direct marker for DSBs. DSBs result in the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the histone H2AX. When cells were exposed to medium or medium + DMSO (1 %) (negative controls), an average of 3 foci per cell were found. In positive control cells (H₂O₂ + medium, or H₂O₂ + medium + DMSO (1 %), an average of 35 foci each were found. About 20 DSB foci per cell were found, when HGFs were exposed to 2-CP (4 mM), 3-CP (2.3 mM), 4-CP (2.1 mM), or ChKM (corresponding to 1.5 mM 4-CP). Our results show increasing DNA toxicities in the order of 2-CP toxicity was found for 4-CP in combination with camphor in the ChKM solution, compared to the 4-CP alone. No significant differences regarding multi-foci cells (cells that contain more than 40 foci) were found when HGFs

  15. Bi-directional routing of DNA mismatch repair protein human exonuclease 1 to replication foci and DNA double strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Sascha E; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA metabolism, including replication, recombination and repair, substantiated by its interactions with PCNA, DNA helicases BLM and WRN, and several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We investigated the sub-nuclear localization of hEXO1 during S-phas...

  16. ATM alters the otherwise robust chromatin mobility at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells.

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    Becker, Annabelle; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Jakob, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) which can lead to the formation of chromosome rearrangements through error prone repair. In mammalian cells the positional stability of chromatin contributes to the maintenance of genome integrity. DSBs exhibit only a small, submicron scale diffusive mobility, but a slight increase in the mobility of chromatin domains by the induction of DSBs might influence repair fidelity and the formation of translocations. The radiation-induced local DNA decondensation in the vicinity of DSBs is one factor potentially enhancing the mobility of DSB-containing chromatin domains. Therefore in this study we focus on the influence of different chromatin modifying proteins, known to be activated by the DNA damage response, on the mobility of DSBs. IRIF (ionizing radiation induced foci) in U2OS cells stably expressing 53BP1-GFP were used as a surrogate marker of DSBs. Low angle charged particle irradiation, known to trigger a pronounced DNA decondensation, was used for the defined induction of linear tracks of IRIF. Our results show that movement of IRIF is independent of the investigated chromatin modifying proteins like ACF1 or PARP1 and PARG. Also depletion of proteins that tether DNA strands like MRE11 and cohesin did not alter IRIF dynamics significantly. Inhibition of ATM, a key component of DNA damage response signaling, resulted in a pronounced confinement of DSB mobility, which might be attributed to a diminished radiation induced decondensation. This confinement following ATM inhibition was confirmed using X-rays, proving that this effect is not restricted to densely ionizing radiation. In conclusion, repair sites of DSBs exhibit a limited mobility on a small spatial scale that is mainly unaffected by depletion of single remodeling or DNA tethering proteins. However, it relies on functional ATM kinase which is considered to influence the chromatin structure after irradiation.

  17. Dihydroartemisinin induces autophagy-dependent death in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells through DNA double-strand break-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinli; Wang, Li; Li, Xiaoming; Bai, Jing; Li, Jianchun; Li, Shenghao; Wang, Zeming; Zhou, Mingrui

    2017-07-11

    Dihydroartemisinin is an effective antimalarial agent with multiple biological activities. In the present investigation, we elucidated its therapeutic potential and working mechanism on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). It was demonstrated that dihydroartemisinin could significantly inhibit cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay in vitro. Meanwhile, autophagy was promoted in the Cal-27 cells treated by dihydroartemisinin, evidenced by increased LC3B-II level, increased autophagosome formation, and increased Beclin-1 level compared to dihydroartemisinin-untreated cells. Importantly, dihydroartemisinin caused DNA double-strand break with simultaneously increased γH2AX foci and oxidative stress; this inhibited the nuclear localization of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), finally leading to autophagic cell death. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of dihydroartemisinin-monotherapy was confirmed with a mouse xenograft model, and no kidney injury associated with toxic effect was observed after intraperitoneal injection with dihydroartemisinin for 3 weeks in vivo. In the present study, it was revealed that dihydroartemisinin-induced DNA double-strand break promoted oxidative stress, which decreased p-STAT3 (Tyr705) nuclear localization, and successively increased autophagic cell death in the Cal-27 cells. Thus, dihydroartemisinin alone may represent an effective and safe therapeutic agent for human TSCC.

  18. Chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Godelieve

    2012-01-01

    During my PhD project, I studied the role of several chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break (DSB) response. We discovered that both CHD4 and SMARCA5 are required for ubiquitin signaling through the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, which is a central signaling event in the response

  19. The Regularities of the Induction and Reparation of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Lymphocytes after Irradiation by Carbon Ions with High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Boreyko, A V

    2005-01-01

    The regularities of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes after irradiation by different doses of accelerated carbon ions (480 MeV/nucleon, LET = 10.6 keV/$\\mu $m) and $\\gamma $-rays $^{60}$?? by using of comet assay were investigated. It was shown that dependence of DSB formation increases linearly with growing of the dose of carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays. The biological effectiveness of carbon ions with high energy was similar to $\\gamma $-rays. The kinetics of DSB reparation in human lymphocytes after irradiation by both carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays was studied. It is revealed that the reparation proceeds effectively with heavy ion and $\\gamma $-ray irradiation.

  20. The Over-expression of the β2 Catalytic Subunit of the Proteasome Decreases Homologous Recombination and Impairs DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Collavoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By a human cDNA library screening, we have previously identified two sequences coding two different catalytic subunits of the proteasome which increase homologous recombination (HR when overexpressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effect of proteasome on spontaneous HR and DNA repair in human cells. To determine if the proteasome has a role in the occurrence of spontaneous HR in human cells, we overexpressed the β2 subunit of the proteasome in HeLa cells and determined the effect on intrachromosomal HR. Results showed that the overexpression of β2 subunit decreased HR in human cells without altering the cell proteasome activity and the Rad51p level. Moreover, exposure to MG132 that inhibits the proteasome activity reduced HR in human cells. We also found that the expression of the β2 subunit increases the sensitivity to the camptothecin that induces DNA double-strand break (DSB. This suggests that the β2 subunit has an active role in HR and DSB repair but does not alter the intracellular level of the Rad51p.

  1. Do DNA Double-Strand Breaks Drive Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ryan R; Vijg, Jan

    2016-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rare, but highly toxic, lesions requiring orchestrated and conserved machinery to prevent adverse consequences, such as cell death and cancer-causing genome structural mutations. DSBs trigger the DNA damage response (DDR) that directs a cell to repair the break, undergo apoptosis, or become senescent. There is increasing evidence that the various endpoints of DSB processing by different cells and tissues are part of the aging phenotype, with each stage of the DDR associated with specific aging pathologies. In this Perspective, we discuss the possibility that DSBs are major drivers of intrinsic aging, highlighting the dynamics of spontaneous DSBs in relation to aging, the distinct age-related pathologies induced by DSBs, and the segmental progeroid phenotypes in humans and mice with genetic defects in DSB repair. A model is presented as to how DSBs could drive some of the basic mechanisms underlying age-related functional decline and death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Double Stranded RNA in Human Seminal Plasma

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    Maxim V. Zagoskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, human semen was shown to contain cell-free nucleic acids, such as DNA, long single stranded RNA, and small RNAs–miRNA and piRNA. The RNAs have been suggested to have potential biological roles as communication molecules between cells and in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression in the male reproductive system. Here we demonstrate that human seminal plasma contains a variety of cell-free dsRNAs, describe a robust method to isolate this type of nucleic acid in preparative amounts, and discuss the potential biological roles of these molecules in inheritance. dsRNA plays a role in a variety of biological processes, including gene regulation, is extremely stable and can gain access to cells from the extracellular medium. We suggest that one of the possible functions of dsRNA in human seminal plasma may be to influence human oocytes and therefore, influence the offspring. It also remains possible that these dsRNAs might have potential use as biomarkers for the study of human physiopathological conditions and genetic variation.

  3. Multispectral imaging flow cytometry reveals distinct frequencies of γ-H2AX foci induction in DNA double strand break repair defective human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourton, Emma C; Plowman, Piers N; Zahir, Sheba Adam; Senguloglu, Gonul Ulus; Serrai, Hiba; Bottley, Graham; Parris, Christopher N

    2012-02-01

    The measurement of γ-H2AX foci induction in cells provides a sensitive and reliable method for the quantitation of DNA damage responses in a variety of cell types. Accurate and rapid methods to conduct such observations are desirable. In this study, we have employed the novel technique of multispectral imaging flow cytometry to compare the induction and repair of γ-H2AX foci in three human cell types with different capacities for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB). A repair normal fibroblast cell line MRC5-SV1, a DSB repair defective ataxia telangiectasia (AT5BIVA) cell line, and a DNA-PKcs deficient cell line XP14BRneo17 were exposed to 2 Gy gamma radiation from a (60)Cobalt source. Thirty minutes following exposure, we observed a dramatic induction of foci in the nuclei of these cells. After 24 hrs, there was a predictable reduction on the number of foci in the MRC5-SV1 cells, consistent with the repair of DNA DSB. In the AT5BIVA cells, persistence of the foci over a 24-hr period was due to the failure in the repair of DNA DSB. However, in the DNA-PKcs defective cells (XP14BRneo17), we observed an intermediate retention of foci in the nuclei indicative of partial repair of DNA DSB. In summary, the application of imaging flow cytometry has permitted an evaluation of foci in a large number of cells (20,000) for each cell line at each time point. This provides a novel method to determine differences in repair kinetics between different cell types. We propose that imaging flow cytometry provides an alternative platform for accurate automated high through-put analysis of foci induction in a variety of cell types. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. RNA-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Qi, Yijun

    2015-08-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious DNA lesions, which if unrepaired or repaired incorrectly can cause cell death or genome instability that may lead to cancer. To counteract these adverse consequences, eukaryotes have evolved a highly orchestrated mechanism to repair DSBs, namely DNA-damage-response (DDR). DDR, as defined specifically in relation to DSBs, consists of multi-layered regulatory modes including DNA damage sensors, transducers and effectors, through which DSBs are sensed and then repaired via DNAprotein interactions. Unexpectedly, recent studies have revealed a direct role of RNA in the repair of DSBs, including DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA)-directed and RNA-templated DNA repair. Here, we summarize the recent discoveries of RNA-mediated regulation of DSB repair and discuss the potential impact of these novel RNA components of the DSB repair pathway on genomic stability and plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of in situ DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis by 200 MeV protons and 10 MV X-rays in human tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerelchuluun, Ariungerel; Hong, Zhengshan; Sun, Lue; Suzuki, Kenshi; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Yasuoka, Kiyoshi; Sakae, Takeji; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the properties of clinical high-energy protons by comparing with clinical high-energy X-rays. Human tumor cell lines, ONS76 and MOLT4, were irradiated with 200 MeV protons or 10 MV X-rays. In situ DNA double-strand breaks (DDSB) induction was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). Apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry after staining with Annexin V. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was obtained by clonogenic survival assay. DDSB induction was significantly higher for protons than X-rays with average ratios of 1.28 (ONS76) and 1.59 (MOLT4) at 30 min after irradiation. However the differences became insignificant at 6 h. Also, apoptosis induction in MOLT4 cells was significantly higher for protons than X-rays with an average ratio of 2.13 at 12 h. However, the difference became insignificant at 20 h. RBE values of protons to X-rays at 10% survival were 1.06 ± 0.04 and 1.02 ± 0.15 for ONS76 and MOLT4, respectively. Cell inactivation may differ according to different timings and/or endpoints. Proton beams demonstrated higher cell inactivation than X-rays in the early phases. These data may facilitate the understanding of the biological properties of clinical proton beams.

  6. Cytotoxicity and induction of DNA double-strand breaks by components leached from dental composites in primary human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Mohamed; Durner, Jürgen; Eldenez, Ayce; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Styllou, Panorea; Rothmund, Lena; Hickel, Reinhard; Scherthan, Harry; Geurtsen, Werner; Kaina, Bernd; Carell, Thomas; Reichl, Franz X

    2013-09-01

    The public interest steadily increases in the biological adverse effects caused by components released from resin-based dental restorations. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the genotoxicity were investigated of following released components from dental resin restorations in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF): tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEEGDMA), neopentylglycol dimethacrylate (Neopen), diphenyliodoniumchloride (DPIC), triphenyl-stibane (TPSB) and triphenylphosphane (TPP). XTT based cell viability assay was used for cytotoxicity screening of substances. γ-H2AX assay was used for genotoxicity screening. In the γ-H2AX assay, HGFs were exposed to the substances for 6h. Induced foci represent double DNA strand breaks (DSBs), which can induce ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the histone H2AX. Cell death effects (apoptosis and necrosis), induced by the substances were visually tested by the same investigator using the fluorescent microscope. All tested substances induced a dose-dependent loss of viability in HGFs. Following toxicity ranking among the substances at EC50-concentration were found in the XTT assay (mM, mean±SEM; n=5): DPIC>Neopen>TPSB>TPP>TEEGDMA. DSB-foci per HGF-cell were obtained, when HGFs were exposed to the EC50-concentration of each substance in the following order (mean±SEM; n=3): DPIC>Neopen>TPSB>TPP>TEEGDMA. Multi-foci cells (cells that contain more than 40 foci each) in 80 HGF-cells at EC50-concentration of each substance were found as follow (mean±SEM; n=3): DPIC>Neopen>TPP>TPSB>TEEGDMA. Cell apoptosis contained in each substance at EC50-concentration in the following order (mean±SEM; n=3): DPIC>Neopen>TPSB>TPP >TEEGDMA. Cell necrosis contained in each substance at EC50-concentration in the following order (mean±SEM; n=3): DPIC>Neopen>TPSB>TPP>TEEGDMA. Leached components from dental resin restorations can induce DNA DSBs and cell death effects in HGFs. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Entropy in DNA Double-Strand Break, Detection and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Schindler, Christina; Heermann, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    In biology, the term entropy is often understood as a measure of disorder - a restrictive interpretation that can even be misleading. Recently it has become clearer and clearer that entropy, contrary to conventional wisdom, can help to order and guide biological processes in living cells. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most dangerous lesions and efficient damage detection and repair is essential for organism viability. However, what remains unknown is the precise mechanism of targeting the site of damage within billions of intact nucleotides and a crowded nuclear environment, a process which is often referred to as recruitment or signaling. Here we show that the change in entropy associated with inflicting a DSB facilitates the recruitment of damage sensor proteins. By means of computational modeling we found that higher mobility and local chromatin structure accelerate protein association at DSB ends. We compared the effect of different chromatin architectures on protein dynamics and concentrations in the vicinity of DSBs, and related these results to experiments on repair in heterochromatin. Our results demonstrate how entropy contributes to a more efficient damage detection. We identify entropy as the physical basis for DNA double-strand break signaling.

  8. Inducible nitric oxide synthase mediates DNA double strand breaks in Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-induced leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Hicham H; Cherian, Mathew A; Green, Patrick; Ratner, Lee

    2015-08-12

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive and fatal malignancy of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes infected by the Human T-Cell Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1). The molecular mechanisms of transformation in ATLL have not been fully elucidated. However, genomic instability and cumulative DNA damage during the long period of latency is believed to be essential for HTLV-1 induced leukemogenesis. In addition, constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway was found to be a critical determinant for transformation. Whether a connection exists between NF-κB activation and accumulation of DNA damage is not clear. We recently found that the HTLV-1 viral oncoprotein, Tax, the activator of the NF-κB pathway, induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we investigated whether any of the NF-κB target genes are critical in inducing DSBs. Of note, we found that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages, neutrophils and T-cells is over expressed in HTLV-1 infected and Tax-expressing cells. Interestingly, we show that in HTLV-1 infected cells, iNOS expression is Tax-dependent and specifically requires the activation of the classical NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways. A dramatic reduction of DSBs was observed when NO production was inhibited, indicating that Tax induces DSBs through the activation of NO synthesis. Determination of the impact of NO on HTLV-1-induced leukemogenesis opens a new area for treatment or prevention of ATLL and perhaps other cancers in which NO is produced.

  9. Dose-dependent misrejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts: Experimental and theoretical study for high and low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, Bjorn; Cooper, Brian; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Holley, William; Chatterjee, Aloke

    2004-11-18

    Misrejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) was measured in human primary fibroblasts after exposure to X-rays and high LET particles (He, N and Fe) in the dose range 10-80 Gy. To measure joining of wrong DNA ends, the integrity of a 3.2 Mbp restriction fragment was analyzed directly after exposure and after 16 hr of repair incubation. It was found that the misrejoining frequency for X-rays was non-linearly related to dose, with less probability of misrejoining at low doses than at high doses. The dose dependence for the high LET particles, on the other hand, was closer to being linear, with misrejoining frequencies higher than for X-rays particularly at the lower doses. These experimental results were simulated with a Monte-Carlo approach that includes a cell nucleus model with all 46 chromosomes present, combined with realistic track structure simulations to calculate the geometrical positions of all DSBs induced for each dose. The model assumes that the main determinant for misrejoining probability is the distance between two simultaneously present DSBs. With a Gaussian interaction probability function with distance, it was found that both the low and high LET data could be fitted with an interaction distance (sigma of the Gaussian curve) of 0.25 {micro}m. This is half the distance previously found to best fit chromosomal aberration data in human lymphocytes using the same methods (Holley et al. Radiat. Res . 158, 568-580 (2002)). The discrepancy may indicate inadequacies in the chromosome model, for example insufficient chromosomal overlap, but may also partly be due to differences between fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Although the experimental data was obtained at high doses, the Monte Carlo calculations could be extended to lower doses. It was found that a linear component of misrejoining versus dose dominated for doses below 1 Gy for all radiations, including X-rays. The calculated relative biological efficiency (RBE) for misrejoining at this low dose

  10. Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, M.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Rothstein, R.

    2003-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an essential process for preserving genomic integrity in all organisms. To investigate this process at the cellular level, we engineered a system of fluorescently marked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to visualize in ...

  11. Protamine-induced DNA compaction but not aggregation shows effective radioprotection against double-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mari; Crozatier, Cecile; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Mori, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Yuko

    2009-09-01

    Protamine, an arginine-rich protein, is essential for the compaction of sperm DNA. We performed single-molecule observations of DNA double-strand breaks caused by 60Co γ-ray irradiation and quantitatively evaluated the protective effect of protamine. It was shown that double-strand breaks were significantly protected for the tightly compact DNA, whereas there is no apparent decrease on the damage for loosely aggregated DNA molecules. Our findings suggest that the densely packed structure of DNA reduces the ability of radiolytic reactive oxygen species to access DNA and thus protects DNA from double-strand breaks.

  12. Splicing stimulates siRNA formation at Drosophila DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Karin; Breinig, Marco; Böttcher, Romy; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Boutros, Michael; Förstemann, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation. We validated this observation through site-specific DNA cleavage with CRISPR-cas9 followed by deep sequencing of small RNAs. DNA breaks in intron-less genes or upstream of a gene's first intron did not efficiently trigger siRNA production. When DNA double-strand breaks were induced downstream of an intron, however, this led to robust siRNA generation. Furthermore, a downstream break slowed down splicing of the upstream intron and a detailed analysis of siRNA coverage at the targeted locus revealed that unspliced pre-mRNA contributes the sense strand to the siRNA precursor. Since splicing factors are stimulating the response but unspliced transcripts are entering the siRNA biogenesis, the spliceosome is apparently stalled in a pre-catalytic state and serves as a signaling hub. We conclude that convergent transcription at DNA breaks is stimulated by a splicing dependent control process. The resulting double-stranded RNA is converted into siRNAs that instruct the degradation of cognate mRNAs. In addition to a potential role in DNA repair, the break-induced transcription may thus be a means to cull improper RNAs from the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster. Since the splicing factors identified in our screen also stimulated siRNA production from high copy transgenes, it is possible that this surveillance mechanism serves in genome defense beyond DNA double-strand breaks.

  13. Manipulation of double-stranded DNA melting by force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Raj; Granek, Rony

    2017-09-01

    By integrating elasticity—as described by the Gaussian network model—with bond binding energies that distinguish between different base-pair identities and stacking configurations, we study the force induced melting of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Our approach is a generalization of our previous study of thermal dsDNA denaturation [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 144101 (2016), 10.1063/1.4964285] to that induced by force at finite temperatures. It allows us to obtain semimicroscopic information about the opening of the chain, such as whether the dsDNA opens from one of the ends or from the interior, forming an internal bubble. We study different types of force manipulation: (i) "end unzipping," with force acting at a single end base pair perpendicular to the helix, (ii) "midunzipping," with force acting at a middle base pair perpendicular to the helix, and (iii) "end shearing," where the force acts at opposite ends along the helix. By monitoring the free-energy landscape and probability distribution of intermediate denaturation states, we show that different dominant intermediate states are stabilized depending on the type of force manipulation used. In particular, the bubble state of the sequence L60B36, which we have previously found to be a stable state during thermal denaturation, is absent for end unzipping and end shearing, whereas very similar bubbles are stabilized by midunzipping, or when the force location is near the middle of the chain. Ours results offer a simple tool for stabilizing bubbles and loops using force manipulations at different temperatures, and may implicate on the mechanism in which DNA enzymes or motors open regions of the chain.

  14. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  15. Inter-individual variation in DNA double-strand break repair in human fibroblasts before and after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul F.; Nham, Peter B.; Urbin, Salustra S.; Hinz, John M.; Jones, Irene M. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PO Box 808, L-452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94551-0808 (United States); Thompson, Larry H., E-mail: thompson14@llnl.gov [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, PO Box 808, L-452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94551-0808 (United States)

    2010-01-05

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are generally considered the most critical lesion induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and may initiate carcinogenesis and other disease. Using an immunofluorescence assay to simultaneously detect nuclear foci of the phosphorylated forms of histone H2AX and ATM kinase at sites of DSBs, we examined the response of 25 apparently normal and 10 DNA repair-deficient (ATM, ATR, NBN, LIG1, LIG4, and FANCG) primary fibroblast strains irradiated with low doses of {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Quiescent G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cultures were exposed to 5, 10, and 25 cGy and allowed to repair for 24 h. The maximum level of IR-induced foci (0.15 foci per cGy, at 10 or 30 min) in the normal strains showed much less inter-individual variation (CV {approx} 0.2) than the level of spontaneous foci, which ranged from 0.2-2.6 foci/cell (CV {approx} 0.6; mean {+-} SD of 1.00 {+-} 0.57). Significantly slower focus formation post-irradiation was observed in seven normal strains, similar to most mutant strains examined. There was variation in repair efficiency measured by the fraction of IR-induced foci remaining 24 h post-irradiation, curiously with the strains having slower focus formation showing more efficient repair after 25 cGy. Interestingly, the ranges of spontaneous and residual induced foci levels at 24 h in the normal strains were as least as large as those observed for the repair-defective mutant strains. The inter-individual variation in DSB foci parameters observed in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in this small survey of apparently normal people suggests that hypomorphic genetic variants in genomic maintenance and/or DNA damage signaling and repair genes may contribute to differential susceptibility to cancer induced by environmental mutagens.

  16. A role for small RNAs in DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, W.; Ba, Z.; Wu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved complex mechanisms to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through coordinated actions of protein sensors, transducers, and effectors. Here we show that ∼21-nucleotide small RNAs are produced from the sequences in the vicinity of DSB sites in Arabidopsis and in human cells....... We refer to these as diRNAs for DSB-induced small RNAs. In Arabidopsis, the biogenesis of diRNAs requires the PI3 kinase ATR, RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV), and Dicer-like proteins. Mutations in these proteins as well as in Pol V cause significant reduction in DSB repair efficiency. In Arabidopsis, di...

  17. Processing of 3'-Phosphoglycolate-Terminated DNA Double-StrandBreaks by Artemis Nuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povrik, Lawrence F.; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Ruizhe; Cowan, Morton J.; Yannone, Steven M.

    2005-10-01

    The Artemis nuclease is required for V(D)J recombination and for repair of an as yet undefined subset of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. To assess the possibility that Artemis functions on oxidatively modified double-strand break termini, its activity toward model DNA substrates, bearing either 3{prime}-hydroxyl or 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate moieties, was examined. A 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate had little effect on Artemis-mediated trimming of long 3{prime} overhangs (>9 nucleotides), which were efficiently trimmed to 4-5 nucleotides. However, 3{prime}-phosphoglycolates on overhangs of 4-5 bases promoted selective Artemis-mediated trimming of a single 3{prime}-terminal nucleotide, while at least 2 nucleotides were trimmed from identical hydroxyl-terminated substrates. Artemis also efficiently removed a single nucleotide from a phosphoglycolate-terminated 3-base 3{prime} overhang, while leaving an analogous hydroxyl-terminated overhang largely intact. Such removal was dependent upon Ku, DNA-dependent protein kinase, and ATP. Together, these data suggest that Artemis-mediated cleavage of 3{prime} overhangs requires a minimum of 2 nucleotides, or a nucleotide plus a phosphoglycolate, 3{prime} to the cleavage site. Shorter 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate-terminated overhangs and blunt ends were also processed by Artemis, but much less efficiently. Consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of Artemis, human cells lacking Artemis exhibited hypersensitivity to X-rays, bleomycin and neocarzinostatin, which all induce 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate-terminated double-strand breaks. Collectively, these results suggest that 3{prime}-phosphoglycolate termini and/or specific classes of DNA ends that arise from such blocked termini are relevant Artemis substrates in vivo.

  18. Comparison of repair of DNA double-strand breaks in identical sequences in primary human fibroblast and immortal hamster-human hybrid cells harboring a single copy of human chromosome 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, B.; Waldren, C. A.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We have optimized a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay that measures induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in specific regions of the genome (Lobrich et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12050-12054, 1995). The increased sensitivity resulting from these improvements makes it possible to analyze the size distribution of broken DNA molecules immediately after the introduction of DSBs and after repair incubation. This analysis shows that the distribution of broken DNA pieces after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is consistent with the distribution expected from randomly induced DSBs. It is apparent from the distribution of rejoined DNA pieces after repair incubation that DNA ends continue to rejoin between 3 and 24 h postirradiation and that some of these rejoining events are in fact misrejoining events, since novel restriction fragments both larger and smaller than the original fragment are generated after repair. This improved assay was also used to study the kinetics of DSB rejoining and the extent of misrejoining in identical DNA sequences in human GM38 cells and human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells containing a single human chromosome 11. Despite the numerous differences between these cells, which include species and tissue of origin, levels of TP53, expression of telomerase, and the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome for the restriction fragments examined, the kinetics of rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs and the extent of misrejoining were similar in the two cell lines when studied in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, DSBs were removed from the single-copy human chromosome in the hamster A(L) cells with similar kinetics and misrejoining frequency as at a locus on this hybrid's CHO chromosomes.

  19. Rad52 and Ku bind to different DNA structures produced early in double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Dejan; Modesti, Mauro; Kanaar, Roland; Wyman, Claire

    2003-09-15

    DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by one of two main pathways, non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination. A competition for binding to DNA ends by Ku and Rad52, proteins required for non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination, respectively, has been proposed to determine the choice of repair pathway. In order to test this idea directly, we compared Ku and human Rad52 binding to different DNA substrates. How ever, we found no evidence that these proteins would compete for binding to the same broken DNA ends. Ku bound preferentially to DNA with free ends. Under the same conditions, Rad52 did not bind preferentially to DNA ends. Using a series of defined substrates we showed that it is single-stranded DNA and not DNA ends that were preferentially bound by Rad52. In addition, Rad52 aggregated DNA, bringing different single-stranded DNAs in close proximity. This activity was independent of the presence of DNA ends and of the ability of the single-stranded sequences to form extensive base pairs. Based on these DNA binding characteristics it is unlikely that Rad52 and Ku compete as 'gatekeepers' of different DNA double-strand break repair pathways. Rather, they interact with different DNA substrates produced early in DNA double-strand break repair.

  20. Structure of the Rad50 DNA double-strand break repair protein in complex with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojowska, Anna; Lammens, Katja; Seifert, Florian U; Direnberger, Carolin; Feldmann, Heidi; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

    2014-12-01

    The Mre11-Rad50 nuclease-ATPase is an evolutionarily conserved multifunctional DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor. Mre11-Rad50's mechanism in the processing, tethering, and signaling of DSBs is unclear, in part because we lack a structural framework for its interaction with DNA in different functional states. We determined the crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima Rad50(NBD) (nucleotide-binding domain) in complex with Mre11(HLH) (helix-loop-helix domain), AMPPNP, and double-stranded DNA. DNA binds between both coiled-coil domains of the Rad50 dimer with main interactions to a strand-loop-helix motif on the NBD. Our analysis suggests that this motif on Rad50 does not directly recognize DNA ends and binds internal sites on DNA. Functional studies reveal that DNA binding to Rad50 is not critical for DNA double-strand break repair but is important for telomere maintenance. In summary, we provide a structural framework for DNA binding to Rad50 in the ATP-bound state. © 2014 The Authors.

  1. Repair and genetic consequences of DNA double strand breaks during animal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, Bennie Benjamin Lodewijk Gerardus

    2014-01-01

    The genetic code of life is stored in DNA molecules that consist of two parallel strands of coupled nucleotides that form a DNA double helix. One of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) in which both strands of the helix are broken. When not repaired adequately

  2. Cell cycle-regulated centers of DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Antúnez de Mayolo, Adriana; Mortensen, Uffe H

    2003-01-01

    In eukaryotes, homologous recombination is an important pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. We have studied this process in living cells in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using Rad52 as a cell biological marker. In response to DNA damage, Rad52 redistributes itself and forms...... foci specifically during S phase. We have shown previously that Rad52 foci are centers of DNA repair where multiple DNA double-strand breaks colocalize. Here we report a correlation between the timing of Rad52 focus formation and modification of the Rad52 protein. In addition, we show that the two ends...... of a double-strand break are held tightly together in the majority of cells. Interestingly, in a small but significant fraction of the S phase cells, the two ends of a break separate suggesting that mechanisms exist to reassociate and align these ends for proper DNA repair....

  3. γ-H2AX as a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2014-07-01

    The visualisation of DNA damage response proteins enables the indirect measurement of DNA damage. Soon after the occurrence of a DNA double-strand break (DSB), the formation of γ-H2AX histone variants is to be expected. This review is focused on the potential use of the γ-H2AX foci assay in assessing the genotoxicity of environmental contaminants including cytostatic pharmaceuticals, since standard methods may not be sensitive enough to detect the damaging effect of low environmental concentrations of such drugs. These compounds are constantly released into the environment, potentially representing a threat to water quality, aquatic organisms, and, ultimately, human health. Our review of the literature revealed that this method could be used in the biomonitoring and risk assessment of aquatic systems affected by wastewater from the production, usage, and disposal of cytostatic pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Triplex-Forming Oligonucleotide Probes for the Reagentless, Electrochemical Detection of Double-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Adriana; Caprio, Felice; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Moscone, Danila; Plaxco, Kevin W.; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Ricci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We report a reagentless, electrochemical sensor for the detection of double-stranded DNA targets that employs triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) as its recognition element. These sensors are based on redox-tagged TFO probes strongly chemisorbed onto an interrogating gold electrode. Upon the addition of the relevant double-stranded DNA target, the probe forms a rigid triplex structure via reverse Hoogsteen base pairing in the major groove. The formation of the triplex impedes contact between the probe’s redox moiety and the interrogating electrode, thus signaling the presence of the target. We first demonstrated the proof of principle of this approach by using a well-characterized 22-base polypurine TFO sequence that readily detects a synthetic, double-stranded DNA target. We then confirmed the generalizability of our platform with a second probe, a 19-base polypyrimidine TFO sequence that targets a polypurine tract (PPT) sequence conserved in all HIV-1 strains. Both sensors rapidly and specifically detect their double-stranded DNA targets at concentrations as low as ~10 nM and are selective enough to be employed directly in complex sample matrices such as blood serum. Moreover, to demonstrate real-world applicability of this new sensor platform, we have successfully detected unpurified, double-stranded PCR amplicons containing the relevant conserved HIV-1 sequence. PMID:20936782

  5. TRF2 is required for repair of nontelomeric DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Zhiyong; Seluanov, Andrei; Jiang, Ying; Gorbunova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2) is an essential component of the telomeric cap, where it forms and stabilizes the T-loop junctions. TRF2 forms the T-loops by stimulating strand invasion of the 3′ overhang into duplex DNA. TRF2 also has been shown to localize to nontelomeric DNA double-strand breaks, but its functional role in DNA repair has not been examined. Here, we present evidence that TRF2 is involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of nontelomeric double-strand breaks. ...

  6. Non-canonical uracil processing in DNA gives rise to double-strand breaks and deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenhorn, Stephanie; Kallenberger, Lia; Artola-Borán, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    During class switch recombination (CSR), antigen-stimulated B-cells rearrange their immunoglobulin constant heavy chain (CH) loci to generate antibodies with different effector functions. CSR is initiated by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines in switch (S) regions......, repetitive sequences flanking the CHloci, to uracils. Although U/G mispairs arising in this way are generally efficiently repaired to C/Gs by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)-initiated base excision repair (BER), uracil processing in S-regions of activated B-cells occasionally gives rise to double strand breaks...... (DSBs), which trigger CSR. Surprisingly, genetic experiments revealed that CSR is dependent not only on AID and UNG, but also on mismatch repair (MMR). To elucidate the role of MMR in CSR, we studied the processing of uracil-containing DNA substrates in extracts of MMR-proficient and -deficient human...

  7. Visualization of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair at the Single-Molecule Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynan, William S.; Li, Shuyi; Mernaugh, Raymond; Wragg, Stephanie; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2003-03-27

    Exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation is universal. The signature injury from ionizing radiation exposure is induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The first line of defense against DSBs is direct ligation of broken DNA ends via the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. Because even a relatively high environmental exposure induces only a few DSBs per cell, our current understanding of the response to this exposure is limited by the ability to measure DSB repair events reliably in situ at a single-molecule level. To address this need, we have taken advantage of biological amplification, measuring relocalization of proteins and detection of protein phosphorylation as a surrogate for detection of broken ends themselves. We describe the use of specific antibodies to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of repair of very small numbers of DSBs in human cells by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway.

  8. A sharp Pif1-dependent threshold separates DNA double-strand breaks from critically short telomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strecker, Jonathan; Stinus, Sonia; Caballero, Mariana Pliego; Szilard, Rachel K.; Chang, Michael; Durocher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and short telomeres are structurally similar, yet have diametrically opposed fates. Cells must repair DSBs while blocking the action of telomerase on these ends. Short telomeres must avoid recognition by the DNA damage response while promoting telomerase recruitment.

  9. Regulation of DNA double-strand break repair by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwertman, Petra; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions. The swift recognition and faithful repair of such damage is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability, as well as for cell and organismal fitness. Signalling by ubiquitin, SUMO and other ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs...

  10. Chromatin mobility is increased at sites of DNA double-strand breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, P. M.; Borovski, T.; Stap, J.; Cijsouw, T.; ten Cate, R.; Medema, J. P.; Kanaar, R.; Franken, N. A. P.; Aten, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can efficiently kill cancer cells, but they can also produce unwanted chromosome rearrangements when DNA ends from different DSBs are erroneously joined. Movement of DSB-containing chromatin domains might facilitate these DSB interactions and promote the formation of

  11. Replication-independent endogenous DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsroy, Jirapan; Matangkasombut, Oranart; Thongnak, Araya; Rattanatanyong, Prakasit; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2013-01-01

    Without exposure to any DNA-damaging agents, non-dividing eukaryotic cells carry endogenous DNA double-strand breaks (EDSBs), or Replication-Independent (RIND)-EDSBs. In human cells, RIND-EDSBs are enriched in the methylated heterochromatic areas of the genome and are repaired by an ATM-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ). Here, we showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae similarly possess RIND-EDSBs. Various levels of EDSBs were detected during different phases of the cell cycle, including G0. Using a collection of mutant yeast strains, we investigated various DNA metabolic and DNA repair pathways that might be involved in the maintenance of RIND-EDSB levels. We found that the RIND-EDSB levels increased significantly in yeast strains lacking proteins involved in NHEJ DNA repair and in suppression of heterochromatin formation. RIND-EDSB levels were also upregulated when genes encoding histone deacetylase, endonucleases, topoisomerase, and DNA repair regulators were deleted. In contrast, RIND-EDSB levels were downregulated in the mutants that lack chromatin-condensing proteins, such as the high-mobility group box proteins, and Sir2. Likewise, RIND-EDSB levels were also decreased in human cells lacking HMGB1. Therefore, we conclude that the genomic levels of RIND-EDSBs are evolutionally conserved, dynamically regulated, and may be influenced by genome topology, chromatin structure, and the efficiency of DNA repair systems.

  12. Exonuclease TREX1 degrades double-stranded DNA to prevent spontaneous lupus-like inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Jessica L; Fye, Jason M; Harvey, Scott; Grayson, Jason M; Hollis, Thomas; Perrino, Fred W

    2015-04-21

    The TREX1 gene encodes a potent DNA exonuclease, and mutations in TREX1 cause a spectrum of lupus-like autoimmune diseases. Most lupus patients develop autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), but the source of DNA antigen is unknown. The TREX1 D18N mutation causes a monogenic, cutaneous form of lupus called familial chilblain lupus, and the TREX1 D18N enzyme exhibits dysfunctional dsDNA-degrading activity, providing a link between dsDNA degradation and nucleic acid-mediated autoimmune disease. We determined the structure of the TREX1 D18N protein in complex with dsDNA, revealing how this exonuclease uses a novel DNA-unwinding mechanism to separate the polynucleotide strands for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) loading into the active site. The TREX1 D18N dsDNA interactions coupled with catalytic deficiency explain how this mutant nuclease prevents dsDNA degradation. We tested the effects of TREX1 D18N in vivo by replacing the TREX1 WT gene in mice with the TREX1 D18N allele. The TREX1 D18N mice exhibit systemic inflammation, lymphoid hyperplasia, vasculitis, and kidney disease. The observed lupus-like inflammatory disease is associated with immune activation, production of autoantibodies to dsDNA, and deposition of immune complexes in the kidney. Thus, dysfunctional dsDNA degradation by TREX1 D18N induces disease in mice that recapitulates many characteristics of human lupus. Failure to clear DNA has long been linked to lupus in humans, and these data point to dsDNA as a key substrate for TREX1 and a major antigen source in mice with dysfunctional TREX1 enzyme.

  13. Mouse RAD54 affects DNA double-strand break repair and sister chromatid exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.B. Beverloo (Berna); R.D. Johnson (Roger); M. Jasin (Maria); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); M.L.G. Dronkert (Mies)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractCells can achieve error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination through gene conversion with or without crossover. In contrast, an alternative homology-dependent DSB repair pathway, single-strand annealing (SSA), results in deletions. In this study, we

  14. Parp1-XRCC1 and the repair of DNA double strand breaks in mouse round spermatids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, E.A.; Boer, P. de; Philippens, M.E.P.; Kal, H.B.; Rooij, D.G. de

    2010-01-01

    The repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in male germ cells is slower and differently regulated compared to that in somatic cells. Round spermatids show DSB repair and are radioresistant to apoptosis induction. Mutation induction studies using ionizing irradiation, indicated a high frequency of

  15. Balancing Pathways in DNA Double Strand Break Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Brandsma (Inger)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAll information a cell needs to live and survive is stored in the genomic DNA. Maintenance of an intact and uncompromised genome is of vital importance for cell survival. Damaged DNA can block transcription and replication, processes essential for cell viability. Persistent DNA

  16. ASPM influences DNA double-strand break repair and represents a potential target for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takamitsu A; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Jeggo, Penny A; Fujimori, Akira

    2011-12-01

    In a previous study using HiCEP (High coverage expression profiling), we demonstrated that ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated) or the most common-type microcephaly (MCPH5) gene was selectively down-regulated by IR (ionizing radiation). The roles of ASPM on radiosensitivity, however, have never been studied. Using glioblastoma cell lines and normal human fibroblasts, we investigated how IR sensitivity (survived fraction, DNA repair and chromosome aberration) was affected by the reduction of ASPM by specific siRNA (small interfering RNA). Down-regulation of ASPM by siRNA enhanced radiosensitivity in three human cell lines examined. Constant-field gel electrophoreses and γ-H2AX (phosphorylated form of Histone H2A variant H2AX) foci analysis showed that ASPM-specific siRNA impaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in irradiated cells. Elevated levels of abnormal chromosomes were also observed following ASPM siRNA. In addition IR-sensitization by ASPM knockdown was not enhanced in DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) deficient glioblastoma cells suggesting that ASPM impacts upon a DNA-PK-dependent pathway. Our results show for the first time that ASPM is required for efficient non-homologous end-joining in mammalian cells. In clinical applications, ASPM could be a novel target for combination therapy with radiation as well as a useful biomarker for tumor prognosis as ever described.

  17. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Gen1/Yen1 resolvases links DNA damage signaling to DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aymeric P; Freeman, Alasdair; Hall, Julie; Déclais, Anne-Cécile; Alpi, Arno; Lilley, David M J; Ahmed, Shawn; Gartner, Anton

    2010-07-15

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR), which can involve Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates that are ultimately resolved by nucleolytic enzymes. An N-terminal fragment of human GEN1 has recently been shown to act as a Holliday junction resolvase, but little is known about the role of GEN-1 in vivo. Holliday junction resolution signifies the completion of DNA repair, a step that may be coupled to signaling proteins that regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dual function DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage signaling protein orthologous to the human GEN1 Holliday junction resolving enzyme. GEN-1 has biochemical activities related to the human enzyme and facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks, but is not essential for DNA double-strand break repair during meiotic recombination. Mutational analysis reveals that the DNA damage-signaling function of GEN-1 is separable from its role in DNA repair. GEN-1 promotes germ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a pathway that acts in parallel to the canonical DNA damage response pathway mediated by RPA loading, CHK1 activation, and CEP-1/p53-mediated apoptosis induction. Furthermore, GEN-1 acts redundantly with the 9-1-1 complex to ensure genome stability. Our study suggests that GEN-1 might act as a dual function Holliday junction resolvase that may coordinate DNA damage signaling with a late step in DNA double-strand break repair.

  18. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Gen1/Yen1 resolvases links DNA damage signaling to DNA double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric P Bailly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR, which can involve Holliday junction (HJ intermediates that are ultimately resolved by nucleolytic enzymes. An N-terminal fragment of human GEN1 has recently been shown to act as a Holliday junction resolvase, but little is known about the role of GEN-1 in vivo. Holliday junction resolution signifies the completion of DNA repair, a step that may be coupled to signaling proteins that regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dual function DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage signaling protein orthologous to the human GEN1 Holliday junction resolving enzyme. GEN-1 has biochemical activities related to the human enzyme and facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks, but is not essential for DNA double-strand break repair during meiotic recombination. Mutational analysis reveals that the DNA damage-signaling function of GEN-1 is separable from its role in DNA repair. GEN-1 promotes germ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a pathway that acts in parallel to the canonical DNA damage response pathway mediated by RPA loading, CHK1 activation, and CEP-1/p53-mediated apoptosis induction. Furthermore, GEN-1 acts redundantly with the 9-1-1 complex to ensure genome stability. Our study suggests that GEN-1 might act as a dual function Holliday junction resolvase that may coordinate DNA damage signaling with a late step in DNA double-strand break repair.

  19. G-Quadruplex and i-Motif Are Mutually Exclusive in ILPR Double-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Soma; Yu, Zhongbo; Konik, Ryan; Cui, Yunxi; Koirala, Deepak; Mao, Hanbin

    2012-01-01

    G-quadruplex has demonstrated its biological functions in vivo. Although G-quadruplex in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has been well characterized, investigation of this species in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) lags behind. Here we use chemical footprinting and laser-tweezers-based single-molecule approaches to demonstrate that a dsDNA fragment found in the insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR), 5′-(ACA GGGG TGT GGGG)2 TGT, can fold into a G-quadruplex at pH 7.4 with 100 mM K+, and an i-motif at pH 5.5 with 100 mM Li+. Surprisingly, under a condition that favors the formation of both G-quadruplex and i-motif (pH 5.5, 100 mM K+), a unique determination of change in the free energy of unfolding (ΔGunfold) by laser-tweezers experiments provides compelling evidence that only one species is present in each dsDNA. Under this condition, molecules containing G-quadruplex are more stable than those with i-motif. These two species have mechanical stabilities (rupture force ≥ 17 pN) comparable to the stall force of RNA polymerases, which, from a mechanical perspective alone, could justify a regulatory mechanism for tetraplex structures in the expression of human insulin. PMID:22713573

  20. Differential requirement for SUB1 in chromosomal and plasmid double-strand DNA break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijian Yu

    Full Text Available Non homologous end joining (NHEJ is an important process that repairs double strand DNA breaks (DSBs in eukaryotic cells. Cells defective in NHEJ are unable to join chromosomal breaks. Two different NHEJ assays are typically used to determine the efficiency of NHEJ. One requires NHEJ of linearized plasmid DNA transformed into the test organism; the other requires NHEJ of a single chromosomal break induced either by HO endonuclease or the I-SceI restriction enzyme. These two assays are generally considered equivalent and rely on the same set of NHEJ genes. PC4 is an abundant DNA binding protein that has been suggested to stimulate NHEJ. Here we tested the role of PC4's yeast homolog SUB1 in repair of DNA double strand breaks using different assays. We found SUB1 is required for NHEJ repair of DSBs in plasmid DNA, but not in chromosomal DNA. Our results suggest that these two assays, while similar are not equivalent and that repair of plasmid DNA requires additional factor(s that are not required for NHEJ repair of chromosomal double-strand DNA breaks. Possible roles for Sub1 proteins in NHEJ of plasmid DNA are discussed.

  1. The ability of sperm selection techniques to remove single- or double-strand DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, María; Iglesias, Miriam; Galán, Isabel; Sarasa, Jonás; Gosálvez, Antonio; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of techniques for the preparation of sperm are currently available, of which the most commonly employed are density–gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up (SUP). To date, these methods appear to be effective in selecting functional sperm for assisted reproduction techniques (ART), but they may have negative effects on sperm DNA. In this study, the ability of these semen processing techniques to eliminate spermatozoa containing single- and double-strand DNA damage was assessed by the two-tailed comet assay and the sperm chromatin dispersion test in 157 semen samples from patients seeking assisted reproduction treatment. Our results indicated that SUP and DGC are equally efficient in eliminating spermatozoa containing double-strand DNA damage and sperm with highly damaged (degraded) DNA, as characterized by the presence of both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. However, DGC is more efficient than SUP in selecting spermatozoa that are free from single-strand DNA damage. Future studies should characterise the importance of the various types of DNA damage and examine the sperm processing protocols used in each laboratory to determine their ability to eliminate DNA damage and hence, prevent the potential transmission of genetic mutations via ART. PMID:21725332

  2. Evidence for double-strand break mediated mitochondrial DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Kanchanjunga; Robinson, Lucy C; Scott, Rona S; Tatchell, Kelly; Harrison, Lynn

    2017-07-27

    The mechanism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controversial. Evidence exists for double-strand break (DSB) mediated recombination-dependent replication at mitochondrial replication origin ori5 in hypersuppressive ρ- cells. However, it is not clear if this replication mode operates in ρ+ cells. To understand this, we targeted bacterial Ku (bKu), a DSB binding protein, to the mitochondria of ρ+ cells with the hypothesis that bKu would bind persistently to mtDNA DSBs, thereby preventing mtDNA replication or repair. Here, we show that mitochondrial-targeted bKu binds to ori5 and that inducible expression of bKu triggers petite formation preferentially in daughter cells. bKu expression also induces mtDNA depletion that eventually results in the formation of ρ0 cells. This data supports the idea that yeast mtDNA replication is initiated by a DSB and bKu inhibits mtDNA replication by binding to a DSB at ori5, preventing mtDNA segregation to daughter cells. Interestingly, we find that mitochondrial-targeted bKu does not decrease mtDNA content in human MCF7 cells. This finding is in agreement with the fact that human mtDNA replication, typically, is not initiated by a DSB. Therefore, this study provides evidence that DSB-mediated replication is the predominant form of mtDNA replication in ρ+ yeast cells. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Dynamics of double stranded DNA reptation from bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabashvili, I S; Grosberg AYu

    1992-04-01

    The dynamics of dsDNA release process from a phage head has been analyzed theoretically. The process was considered as dsDNA reptation through the phage tail. The driving force is assumed to be the decrease of the DNA globule free energy on its releasing from the head in the surrounding medium. The results of the equilibrium theory on an intraphage DNA globule were applied. Three possible sources of friction were examined. The first one is in the inner channel of the tail. The second is the friction of DNA segments in the whole globule volume, which is essential when the globule decondensation is a collective process, at simultaneous moving of all the turns (mechanism 1). The third is the globule friction with the capsid inner surface, that is most important when decondensation proceeds via the globule rotation as a whole spool (mechanism 2). Mechanism 1 would require a lot of time for ejection. Mechanism 2 would lead to different ejection dynamics of short- and long-tailed phages. Comparison of the theoretical results with the published experimental data argues in favor of mechanism 2.

  4. DNA double strand breaks and Hsp70 expression in proton irradiated living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Anja [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany) and Faculty of Biology, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: afiedler@uni-leipzig.de; Reinert, Tilo [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany); Tanner, Judith [Clinic and Polyclinic for Radiation Oncology, University of Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Butz, Tilman [Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in living cells can be directly provoked by ionising radiation. DSBs can be visualized by immunostaining the phosphorylated histone {gamma}H2AX. Our concern was to test the feasibility of {gamma}H2AX staining for a direct visualization of single proton hits. If single protons produce detectable foci, DNA DSBs could be used as 'biological track detectors' for protons. Ionising radiation can also damage proteins indirectly by inducing free radicals. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) help to refold or even degrade the damaged proteins. The level of the most famous heat shock protein Hsp70 is increased by ionising radiation. We investigated the expression of {gamma}H2AX and Hsp70 after cross and line patterned irradiation with counted numbers of 2.25 MeV protons on primary human skin fibroblasts. The proton induced DSBs appear more delocalised than it was expected by the ion hit accuracy. Cooling the cells before the irradiation reduces the delocalisation of DNA DSBs, which is probably caused by the reduced diffusion of DNA damaging agents. Proton irradiation seems to provoke protein damages mainly in the cytoplasm indicated by cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregates. On the contrary, in control heat shocked cells the Hsp70 was predominantly localized in the cell nucleus. However, the irradiated area could not be recognized, all cells on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} window showed a homogenous Hsp70 expression pattern.

  5. THE COVALENT BINDING OF ENANTIOMERIC BENZO [A] PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDES TO DOUBLE STRANDED DNA IS STEREOSELECTIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, T.; Straub, K.

    1978-07-01

    Reaction of optically pure (+) and (-) 7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9.10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene with DNA in vitro yielded diastereomeric covalent adducts with the exocyclic amino groups of deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine. The ratio of two deoxyguanosine diastereomers derived by reacting the (+) and (-) hydrocarbons with native calf thymus and double stranded 0X174 DNA was 20:1 while reaction of the enantiomers with heat denatured calf thymus and single stranded 0X174 DNA resulted in a ratio near 1:1. In contrast, deoxyaadenosine diastereomer pairs were approximately 1:1 in all cases studied. The (+) and (-) enantiomers of the benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, therefore, interact asymmetrically with the guanine binding sites of double stranded but not single stranded polydeoxynucleotides. In contrast, reaction of the enantiomers with adenine is not stereoselective.

  6. Radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in radiology; Strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuefner, M.A. [Dornbirn Hospital (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Brand, M.; Engert, C.; Uder, M. [Erlangen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schwab, S.A. [Radiologis, Oberasbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their damaging effect on biological tissues was observed. The determination of radiation exposure in diagnostic and interventional radiology is usually based on physical measurements or mathematical algorithms with standardized dose simulations. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a reliable and sensitive method for the quantification of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in blood lymphocytes. The detectable amount of these DNA damages correlates well with the dose received. However, the biological radiation damage depends not only on dose but also on other individual factors like radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity. Iodinated contrast agents can enhance the x-ray induced DNA damage level. After their induction DSB are quickly repaired. A protective effect of antioxidants has been postulated in experimental studies. This review explains the principle of the γ-H2AX technique and provides an overview on studies evaluating DSB in radiologic examinations.

  7. DNA double-strand breaks activate ATM independent of mitochondrial dysfunction in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalifa, Lidza; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Staversky, Rhonda J; Sia, Elaine A; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Excessive nuclear or mitochondrial DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased energy production, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although numerous cell signaling pathways are activated when cells are injured, the ataxia telangiectasia mutant (ATM) protein has emerged as a major regulator of the response to both mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Because mitochondrial dysfunction is often a response to excessive DNA damage, it has been difficult to determine whether nuclear and/or mitochondrial DNA DSBs activate ATM independent of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA DSBs were generated in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line by infecting with retroviruses expressing the restriction endonuclease PstI fused to a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) or nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and a hemagglutinin antigen epitope tag (HA). Expression of MTS-PstI-HA or NLS-PstI-HA activated the DNA damage response defined by phosphorylation of ATM, the tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53), KRAB-associated protein (KAP)-1, and structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC)-1. Phosphorylated ATM and SMC1 were detected in nuclear fractions, whereas phosphorylated TP53 and KAP1 were detected in both mitochondrial and nuclear fractions. PstI also enhanced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and inhibited cell growth. This response to DNA damage occurred in the absence of detectable mitochondrial dysfunction and excess production of ROS. These findings reveal that DNA DSBs are sufficient to activate ATM independent of mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that the activated form of ATM and some of its substrates are restricted to the nuclear compartment, regardless of the site of DNA damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Time-Structured Data to Estimate Evolutionary Rates of Double-Stranded DNA Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Cadhla; Kitchen, Andrew; Shapiro, Beth; Suchard, Marc A.; Holmes, Edward C.; Rambaut, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses are often described as evolving through long-term codivergent associations with their hosts, a pattern that is expected to be associated with low rates of nucleotide substitution. However, the hypothesis of codivergence between dsDNA viruses and their hosts has rarely been rigorously tested, even though the vast majority of nucleotide substitution rate estimates for dsDNA viruses are based upon this assumption. It is therefore important to estimate the evolutionary rates of dsDNA viruses independent of the assumption of host-virus codivergence. Here, we explore the use of temporally structured sequence data within a Bayesian framework to estimate the evolutionary rates for seven human dsDNA viruses, including variola virus (VARV) (the causative agent of smallpox) and herpes simplex virus-1. Our analyses reveal that although the VARV genome is likely to evolve at a rate of approximately 1 × 10−5 substitutions/site/year and hence approaching that of many RNA viruses, the evolutionary rates of many other dsDNA viruses remain problematic to estimate. Synthetic data sets were constructed to inform our interpretation of the substitution rates estimated for these dsDNA viruses and the analysis of these demonstrated that given a sequence data set of appropriate length and sampling depth, it is possible to use time-structured analyses to estimate the substitution rates of many dsDNA viruses independently from the assumption of host-virus codivergence. Finally, the discovery that some dsDNA viruses may evolve at rates approaching those of RNA viruses has important implications for our understanding of the long-term evolutionary history and emergence potential of this major group of viruses. PMID:20363828

  9. Two-Tailed Comet Assay (2T-Comet): Simultaneous Detection of DNA Single and Double Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    A modification of the original comet assay was developed for the simultaneous evaluation of DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in human spermatozoa. The two-dimensional perpendicular tail comet assay (2T-comet) combines non-denaturing and denaturant conditions to the same sperm nucleoid. In this case, the species-specific deproteinized sperm is first subjected to an electrophoretic field under non-denaturing conditions to mobilize isolated free discrete DNA fragments produced from DSBs; this is then followed by a second electrophoresis running perpendicular to the first one but under alkaline conditions to produce DNA denaturation, exposing SSBs on the same linear DNA chain or DNA fragments flanked by DSBs. This procedure results in a two dimensional comet tail emerging from the core where two types of original DNA affected molecule can be simultaneously discriminated. The 2T-comet is a fast, sensitive, and reliable procedure to distinguish between single and double strand DNA damage within the same cell. It is an innovative method for assessing sperm DNA integrity, which has important implications for human fertility and andrological pathology. This technique may be adapted to assess different DNA break types in other species and other cell types.

  10. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  11. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-05-12

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Zinc Finger Nuclease induced DNA double stranded breaks and rearrangements in MLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, To Uyen [Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States); Ho, Bay; Shih, Shyh-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States); Vaughan, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.vaughan@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► A Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) targeting a leukemogenic hot spot for rearrangement in MLL is created. ► The novel ZFN efficiently cleaves MLL exon 13. ► Despite MLL cleavage and evidence of mis-repair, no leukemogenic translocations were produced. ► MLL cleavage alone is insufficient to generate leukemogenic translocations. - Abstract: Radiation treatment or chemotherapy has been linked with a higher risk of secondary cancers such as therapy related Acute Myeloid Leukemia (tAML). Several of these cancers have been shown to be correlated to the introduction of double stranded breaks (DSB) and rearrangements within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. We used Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) to introduce precise cuts within MLL to examine how a single DNA DSB might lead to chromosomal rearrangements. A ZFN targeting exon 13 within the Breakpoint Cluster Region of MLL was transiently expressed in a human lymphoblast cell line originating from a CML patient. Although FISH analysis showed ZFN DSB at this region increased the rate of MLL fragmentation, we were unable to detect leukemogenic rearrangements or translocations via inverse PCR. Interestingly, gene fragmentation as well as small interstitial deletions, insertions and base substitutions increased with the inhibition of DNA-PK, suggesting repair of this particular DSB is linked to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although mis-repair of DSBs may be necessary for the initiation of leukemogenic translocations, a MLL targeted DNA break alone is insufficient.

  13. Structure of the replicative form of bacteriophage φX174 : VI. Studies on alkali-denatured double-stranded φX DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, P.H.; Knijnenburg, C.M.; Rotterdam, J. van; Cohen, J.A.; Jansz, H.S.

    1968-01-01

    Double-stranded φX DNA which accumulates after infection with bacteriophage φX174 in the presence of chloramphenicol consists mainly of twisted circular double-stranded DNA with no single-strand breaks (component I) and of circular double-stranded DNA, in which single-strand breaks are present

  14. DNA-PKcs structure suggests an allosteric mechanism modulating DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Bancinyane L; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Ascher, David B; Blundell, Tom L

    2017-02-03

    DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a central component of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), repairing DNA double-strand breaks that would otherwise lead to apoptosis or cancer. We have solved its structure in complex with the C-terminal peptide of Ku80 at 4.3 angstrom resolution using x-ray crystallography. We show that the 4128-amino acid structure comprises three large structural units: the N-terminal unit, the Circular Cradle, and the Head. Conformational differences between the two molecules in the asymmetric unit are correlated with changes in accessibility of the kinase active site, which are consistent with an allosteric mechanism to bring about kinase activation. The location of KU80ct194 in the vicinity of the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) binding site suggests competition with BRCA1, leading to pathway selection between NHEJ and homologous recombination. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Cyclic perylene diimide: Selective ligand for tetraplex DNA binding over double stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasimalla, Suresh; Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Fuminori; Kurose, Yui; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2017-12-15

    Synthesized cyclic perylene diimide, cPDI, showed the binding constant of 6.3 × 10 6  M -1 with binding number of n = 2 with TA-core as a tetraplex DNA in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 7.4) containing 100 mM KCl using Schatchard analysis and showed a higher preference for tetraplex DNA than for double stranded DNA with over 10 3 times. CD spectra showed that TA-core induced its antiparallel conformation upon addition of cPDI in the absence or presence of K + or Na + ions. The cPDI inhibits the telomerase activity with IC 50 of 0.3 µM using TRAP assay which is potential anti-cancer drug with low side effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of {gamma}-H2AX foci at DNA double-strand breaks sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilch, D.R.; Sedelnikova, O.A.; Redon, C. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Celeste, A.; Nussenzweig, A. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Experimental Immunology Branch, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bonner, W.M. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) is essential to the efficient recognition and (or) repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and many molecules, often thousands, of H2AX become rapidly phosphorylated at the site of each nascent DSB. An antibody to {gamma}-H2AX reveals that this highly amplified process generates nuclear foci. The phosphorylation site is a serine four residues from the C-terminus which has been evolutionarily conserved in organisms from giardia intestinalis to humans. Mice and yeast lacking the conserved serine residue demonstrate a variety of defects in DNA DSB processing. H2AX{sup {delta}}{sup /{delta}} mice are smaller, sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in class switch recombination and spermatogenesis while cells from the mice demonstrate substantially increased numbers of genomic defects. {gamma}-H2AX foci formation is a sensitive biological dosimeter and presents new and exciting opportunities to understand important biological processes, human diseases, and individual variations in radiation sensitivity. These potentialities demonstrate the importance of understanding the parameters and functions of {gamma}-H2AX formation. (author)

  17. Effects of heavy ions on inactivation and DNA double strand breaks in Deinococcus radiodurans R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H.; Schäfer, M.; Schmitz, C.; Bücker, H.

    1994-10-01

    Inactivation and double strand break (dsb) induction after heavy ion irradiation were studied in stationary phase cells of the highly radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. There is evidence that the radiation sensitivity of this bacterium is nearly independent on energy in the range of up to 15 MeV/u for lighter ions (Ar). The responses to dsb induction for charged particles show direct relationship between increasing radiation dose and residual intact DNA.

  18. Effects of heavy ions on inactivation and DNA double strand breaks in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H; Schafer, M; Schmitz, C; Bucker, H

    1994-10-01

    Inactivation and double strand break (dsb) induction after heavy ion irradiation were studied in stationary phase cells of the highly radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans R1. There is evidence that the radiation sensitivity of this bacterium is nearly independent on energy in the range of up to 15 MeV/u for lighter ions (Ar). The responses to dsb induction for charged particles show direct relationship between increasing radiation dose and residual intact DNA.

  19. Multinuclear non-heme iron complexes for double-strand DNA cleavage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; van den Berg, Tieme A.; de Bruijn, A. Dowine; Feringa, Ben L.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the antitumor drug BLM is believed to be related to the ability of the corresponding iron complex (Fe-BLM) to engage in oxidative double-strand DNA cleavage. The iron complex of the ligand N4Py (Fe-N4Py; N4Py - N,N-bis(2-pyridyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine has proven to be a

  20. Blocking single-stranded transferred DNA conversion to double-stranded intermediates by overexpression of yeast DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Levy, Avner; Dafny, Raz; Tzfira, Tzvi

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivers its single-stranded transferred DNA (T-strand) into the host cell nucleus, where it can be converted into double-stranded molecules. Various studies have revealed that double-stranded transfer DNA (T-DNA) intermediates can serve as substrates by as yet uncharacterized integration machinery. Nevertheless, the possibility that T-strands are themselves substrates for integration cannot be ruled out. We attempted to block the conversion of T-strands into double-stranded intermediates prior to integration in order to further investigate the route taken by T-DNA molecules on their way to integration. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants that overexpress three yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein subunits of DNA REPLICATION FACTOR A (RFA) were produced. In yeast, these subunits (RFA1-RFA3) function as a complex that can bind single-stranded DNA molecules, promoting the repair of genomic double strand breaks. Overexpression of the RFA complex in tobacco resulted in decreased T-DNA expression, as determined by infection with A. tumefaciens cells carrying the β-glucuronidase intron reporter gene. Gene expression was not blocked when the reporter gene was delivered by microbombardment. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-assisted localization studies indicated that the three-protein complex was predominantly nuclear, thus indicating its function within the plant cell nucleus, possibly by binding naked T-strands and blocking their conversion into double-stranded intermediates. This notion was further supported by the inhibitory effect of RFA expression on the cell-to-cell movement of Bean dwarf mosaic virus, a single-stranded DNA virus. The observation that RFA complex plants dramatically inhibited the transient expression level of T-DNA and only reduced T-DNA integration by 50% suggests that double-stranded T-DNA intermediates, as well as single-stranded T-DNA, play significant roles in the integration process. © 2015

  1. Methylation-sensitive enrichment of minor DNA alleles using a double-strand DNA-specific nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibin; Song, Chen; Ladas, Ioannis; Fitarelli-Kiehl, Mariana; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2017-04-07

    Aberrant methylation changes, often present in a minor allelic fraction in clinical samples such as plasma-circulating DNA (cfDNA), are potentially powerful prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human disease including cancer. We report on a novel, highly-multiplexed approach to facilitate analysis of clinically useful methylation changes in minor DNA populations. Methylation Specific Nuclease-assisted Minor-allele Enrichment (MS-NaME) employs a double-strand-specific DNA nuclease (DSN) to remove excess DNA with normal methylation patterns. The technique utilizes oligonucleotide-probes that direct DSN activity to multiple targets in bisulfite-treated DNA, simultaneously. Oligonucleotide probes targeting unmethylated sequences generate local double stranded regions resulting to digestion of unmethylated targets, and leaving methylated targets intact; and vice versa. Subsequent amplification of the targeted regions results in enrichment of the targeted methylated or unmethylated minority-epigenetic-alleles. We validate MS-NaME by demonstrating enrichment of RARb2, ATM, MGMT and GSTP1 promoters in multiplexed MS-NaME reactions (177-plex) using dilutions of methylated/unmethylated DNA and in DNA from clinical lung cancer samples and matched normal tissue. MS-NaME is a highly scalable single-step approach performed at the genomic DNA level in solution that combines with most downstream detection technologies including Sanger sequencing, methylation-sensitive-high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) and methylation-specific-Taqman-based-digital-PCR (digital Methylight) to boost detection of low-level aberrant methylation-changes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. The role of DNA double-strand breaks in spontaneous homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettier, Gaëlle; Feng, Q.; Mayolo, A.A. de

    2006-01-01

    spontaneous mitotic HR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by DNA lesions other than DSBs. Specifically, we describe a class of rad52 mutants that are fully proficient in inter- and intra-chromosomal mitotic HR, yet at the same time fail to repair DNA DSBs. The conclusions are drawn from genetic analyses...... of meiosis and result from the induction of a large number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By analogy, it is generally believed that the rare spontaneous mitotic HR events are due to repair of DNA DSBs that accidentally occur during mitotic growth. Here we provide the first direct evidence that most...

  3. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1 and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR, ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo.

  4. ATM-deficient human fibroblast cells are resistant to low levels of DNA double-strand break induced apoptosis and subsequently undergo drug-induced premature senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun; Jo, Yong Hwa; Cho, Chang Hoon; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Baik, Hyung Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kyung-Sik, E-mail: sky9999@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-T cells were not hypersensitive to low levels of DNA DSBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-T cells have enhanced Akt but defect in activation of p53 and apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-T cells underwent premature senescence after DNA damage accumulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemotherapeutic effect in cancer therapy may be associated with premature senescence. -- Abstract: DNA DSBs are induced by IR or radiomimetic drugs such as doxorubicin. It has been indicated that cells from ataxia-telangiectasia patients are highly sensitive to radiation due to defects in DNA repair, but whether they have impairment in apoptosis has not been fully elucidated. A-T cells showed increased sensitivity to high levels of DNA damage, however, they were more resistant to low doses. Normal cells treated with combination of KU55933, a specific ATM kinase inhibitor, and doxorubicin showed increased resistance as they do in a similar manner to A-T cells. A-T cells have higher viability but more DNA breaks, in addition, the activations of p53 and apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were deficient, but Akt expression was enhanced. A-T cells subsequently underwent premature senescence after treatment with a low dose of doxorubicin, which was confirmed by G2 accumulation, senescent morphology, and SA-{beta}-gal positive until 15 days repair incubation. Finally, A-T cells are radio-resistant at low doses due to its defectiveness in detecting DNA damage and apoptosis, but the accumulation of DNA damage leads cells to premature senescence.

  5. Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are potentially lethal DNA lesions that can be repaired by either homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). We show that DSBs induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are efficiently processed for HR and bound by Rfa1 during G1, while endonuclease......-induced breaks are recognized by Rfa1 only after the cell enters S phase. This difference is dependent on the DNA end-binding Yku70/Yku80 complex. Cell-cycle regulation is also observed in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Specifically, the 9-1-1 complex is required in G1 cells to recruit the Ddc2 checkpoint...

  6. Inhibition of APOBEC3G activity impedes double-stranded DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ponnandy; Shandilya, Shivender M D; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Nagler, Adi; Schiffer, Celia A; Kotler, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) was first described as an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor, acting by directly deaminating reverse transcripts of the viral genome. HIV-1 Vif neutralizes the activity of A3G, primarily by mediating degradation of A3G to establish effective infection in host target cells. Lymphoma cells, which express high amounts of A3G, can restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. Interestingly, these cells are more stable in the face of treatments that result in double-stranded DNA damage, such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapies. Previously, we showed that the Vif-derived peptide (Vif25-39) efficiently inhibits A3G deamination, and increases the sensitivity of lymphoma cells to ionizing radiation. In the current study, we show that additional peptides derived from Vif, A3G, and APOBEC3F, which contain the LYYF motif, inhibit deamination activity. Each residue in the Vif25-39 sequence moderately contributes to the inhibitory effect, whereas replacing a single residue in the LYYF motif completely abrogates inhibition of deamination. Treatment of A3G-expressing lymphoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation with the new inhibitory peptides reduces double-strand break repair after irradiation. Incubation of cultured irradiated lymphoma cells with peptides that inhibit double-strand break repair halts their propagation. These results suggest that A3G may be a potential therapeutic target that is amenable to peptide and peptidomimetic inhibition. © 2015 FEBS.

  7. Acalypha wilkesiana extracts induce apoptosis by causing single strand and double strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S W; Ting, K N; Bradshaw, T D; Zeenathul, N A; Wiart, C; Khoo, T J; Lim, K H; Loh, H S

    2011-11-18

    The seeds of Acalypha wilkesiana have been used empirically by traditional healers in Southwest Nigeria together with other plants as a powder mixture to treat patients with breast tumours and inflammation. There is an increasing interest among researchers in searching for new anticancer drugs from natural resources, particularly plants. This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of Acalypha wilkesiana extracts and the characteristics of DNA damage against brain and lung cancer cells. The antiproliferative activity of Acalypha wilkesiana extracts (ethyl acetate, hexane, and ethanol) was examined on human glioma (U87MG), human lung carcinoma (A549), and human lung fibroblast (MRC5) cells. Cell viability MTT assay revealed that ethyl acetate extract of the plant possessed significant antiproliferative effects against both U87MG (GI(50)=28.03 ± 6.44 μg/ml) and A549 (GI(50)=89.63 ± 2.12 μg/ml) cells (p valueMRC5 cells (GI(50)>300 μg/ml). The ethanol extract showed no antiproliferative effects on any cell line examined. Haematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay confirmed that plant extract-treated cells underwent apoptosis and not necrosis. SCGE comet assays confirmed that plant extracts caused both single strand (SSB) and double strand (DSB) DNA breaks that led to the execution of apoptosis. The extracts (especially ethyl acetate and hexane) of Acalypha wilkesiana possess valuable cytotoxic effects that trigger apoptosis in U87MG and A549 cancer cells through induction of DNA SSBs and DSBs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interference in DNA replication can cause mitotic chromosomal breakage unassociated with double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Fujita

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis of mitotic chromosomes is used to detect mutagenic chemical compounds and to estimate the dose of ionizing radiation to be administered. It has long been believed that chromosomal breaks are always associated with double-strand breaks (DSBs. We here provide compelling evidence against this canonical theory. We employed a genetic approach using two cell lines, chicken DT40 and human Nalm-6. We measured the number of chromosomal breaks induced by three replication-blocking agents (aphidicolin, 5-fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea in DSB-repair-proficient wild-type cells and cells deficient in both homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining (the two major DSB-repair pathways. Exposure of cells to the three replication-blocking agents for at least two cell cycles resulted in comparable numbers of chromosomal breaks for RAD54(-/-/KU70(-/- DT40 clones and wild-type cells. Likewise, the numbers of chromosomal breaks induced in RAD54(-/-/LIG4(-/- Nalm-6 clones and wild-type cells were also comparable. These data indicate that the replication-blocking agents can cause chromosomal breaks unassociated with DSBs. In contrast with DSB-repair-deficient cells, chicken DT40 cells deficient in PIF1 or ATRIP, which molecules contribute to the completion of DNA replication, displayed higher numbers of mitotic chromosomal breaks induced by aphidicolin than did wild-type cells, suggesting that single-strand gaps left unreplicated may result in mitotic chromosomal breaks.

  9. An alternative pathway for Alu retrotransposition suggests a role in DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanta, Deepa; Sen, Shurjo K; Huang, Charles T; Conlin, Erin M; Rhodes, Ryan M; Batzer, Mark A

    2009-03-01

    The Alu family is a highly successful group of non-LTR retrotransposons ubiquitously found in primate genomes. Similar to the L1 retrotransposon family, Alu elements integrate primarily through an endonuclease-dependent mechanism termed target site-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Recent studies have suggested that, in addition to TPRT, L1 elements occasionally utilize an alternative endonuclease-independent pathway for genomic integration. To determine whether an analogous mechanism exists for Alu elements, we have analyzed three publicly available primate genomes (human, chimpanzee and rhesus macaque) for endonuclease-independent recently integrated or lineage specific Alu insertions. We recovered twenty-three examples of such insertions and show that these insertions are recognizably different from classical TPRT-mediated Alu element integration. We suggest a role for this process in DNA double-strand break repair and present evidence to suggest its association with intra-chromosomal translocations, in-vitro RNA recombination (IVRR), and synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA).

  10. Regulation of hetDNA Length during Mitotic Double-Strand Break Repair in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoge; Hum, Yee Fang; Lehner, Kevin; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2017-08-17

    Heteroduplex DNA (hetDNA) is a key molecular intermediate during the repair of mitotic double-strand breaks by homologous recombination, but its relationship to 5' end resection and/or 3' end extension is poorly understood. In the current study, we examined how perturbations in these processes affect the hetDNA profile associated with repair of a defined double-strand break (DSB) by the synthesis-dependent strand-annealing (SDSA) pathway. Loss of either the Exo1 or Sgs1 long-range resection pathway significantly shortened hetDNA, suggesting that these pathways normally collaborate during DSB repair. In addition, altering the processivity or proofreading activity of DNA polymerase δ shortened hetDNA length or reduced break-adjacent mismatch removal, respectively, demonstrating that this is the primary polymerase that extends both 3' ends. Data are most consistent with the extent of DNA synthesis from the invading end being the primary determinant of hetDNA length during SDSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Boric Acid Reduces the Formation of DNA Double Strand Breaks and Accelerates Wound Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepedelen, Burcu Erbaykent; Soya, Elif; Korkmaz, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Boron is absorbed by the digestive and respiratory system, and it was considered that it is converted to boric acid (BA), which was distributed to all tissues above 90 %. The biochemical essentiality of boron element is caused by boric acid because it affects the activity of several enzymes involved in the metabolism. DNA damage repair mechanisms and oxidative stress regulation is quite important in the transition stage from normal to cancerous cells; thus, this study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of boric acid on DNA damage and wound healing in human epithelial cell line. For this purpose, the amount of DNA damage occurred with irinotecan (CPT-11), etoposide (ETP), doxorubicin (Doxo), and H2O2 was determined by immunofluorescence through phosphorylation of H2AX((Ser139)) and pATM((Ser1981)) in the absence and presence of BA. Moreover, the effect of BA on wound healing has been investigated in epithelial cells treated with these agents. Our results demonstrated that H2AX((Ser139)) foci numbers were significantly decreased in the presence of BA while wound healing was accelerated by BA compared to that in the control and only drug-treated cells. Eventually, the results indicate that BA reduced the formation of DNA double strand breaks caused by agents as well as improving the wound healing process. Therefore, we suggest that boric acid has important therapeutical effectiveness and may be used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress and wound healing process plays an important role.

  12. SCAI promotes DNA double-strand break repair in distinct chromosomal contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rebecca Kring; Mund, Andreas; Poulsen, Sara Lund

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose accurate repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genome integrity and is strongly influenced by the local chromatin environment. Here, we identify SCAI (suppressor of cancer...... in repressive chromatin environments. Moreover, we establish an important role of SCAI in meiotic recombination, as SCAI deficiency in mice leads to germ cell loss and subfertility associated with impaired retention of the DMC1 recombinase on meiotic chromosomes. Collectively, our findings uncover SCAI...

  13. The effects of metal ion contaminants on the double stranded DNA helix and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophanides, T; Anastassopoulou, J

    2017-08-24

    Mineral metal ions are essential for the maintenance of the reactions that regulate homeostasis and the functions of our body. It is known that the regulation of the neurodegenerative system depends directly on life metal ions, such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mo, Cu, Co, Zn, Cr, Mn, while the toxic metals Cd, Pb, Hg, etc disturb homeostasis, leading to diseases. Particularly significant is the effect of toxic metals on the double stranded forms of DNA and conformations. It was found that the toxic metal ions by reacting specifically with the nucleic bases and electrostatically with the negatively phosphate groups of the DNA backbone cause changes in the structure of the DNA double helix, leading to breaks of single or double strands. Accumulation of these defects affects the protecting systems of the body and induces mutations, eventually leading to serious diseases. There are many metal ions, such as Cr, Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, which by binding directly to DNA molecule or by developing oxidative stress increase the instability of DNA, promoting epigenetic changes that lead to DNA damage. Toxic metal ions induce indirect DNA damage and influence the gene stability by inactivating encoding proteins or by changing the redox potential and the signaling of metalloenzymes.

  14. Interaction of the Bacteriophage φ 29 Protein p6 with Double-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ignacio; Serrano, Manuel; Lazaro, Jose M.; Salas, Margarita; Hermoso, Jose M.

    1988-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage φ 29 protein p6 binds to double-stranded DNA, but not to single-stranded DNA, as determined by a gel retardation assay. The nature of the interaction was further studied by DNase I ``footprinting'' experiments. Protein p6 binds to fragments containing the right or left terminal sequences of φ 29 DNA, producing a characteristic pattern of hypersensitive bands spaced about 24 nucleotides apart along most of the fragment, flanking protected regions. Binding of protein p6 to an internal φ 29 DNA fragment was also observed, but the footprint pattern was more salt sensitive than that obtained with the terminal φ 29 DNA fragments. By electron microscopy, protein p6 was shown to cover the DNA, totally or partially, from one end. In addition, binding of protein p6 to relaxed circular DNA induced positive supercoiling, indicating that a topological change in the DNA occurred.

  15. Molecular Effects of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on the Double-Stranded DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was toinvestigate the sterilization potential of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and interactions of this technology with double-stranded DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP techniques. Materials and Methods The plasma jet was produced through a high voltage sinusoidal power supplyusing a mixture of argon and oxygen gases with theflow rate of 1 L/min. Escherichia coli cells and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA fragments were amplified by T7 universal primer through the PCR technique and treated with argon/oxygen APPJ at different exposure times. The data were analyzed by the agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SSCP and renewed PCR techniques. Results According to the results of the study, the APPJ could serve as an effective instrument for sterilization at > 30 sec discharge. The destruction of DNA was detectable by different techniques after 120 sec from APPJ discharge. Conclusion Our findings revealed that the active species of plasma can lead to cell death. These species may break or nick the dsDNA, exchange DNA nucleotides, and lead to transition and transversion mutations. These mutagenesis effects of APPJ might be the reason of microorganism cell death after the treatment in addition to other destructive effects of APPJ on macromolecules.

  16. A Single Nucleotide Resolution Model for Large-Scale Simulations of Double Stranded DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Fosado, Y A G; Allan, J; Brackley, C; Henrich, O; Marenduzzo, D

    2016-01-01

    The computational modelling of DNA is becoming crucial in light of new advances in DNA nanotechnology, single-molecule experiments and in vivo DNA tampering. Here we present a mesoscopic model for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) at the single nucleotide level which retains the characteristic helical structure, while being able to simulate large molecules -- up to a million base pairs -- for time-scales which are relevant to physiological processes. This is made possible by an efficient and highly-parallelised implementation of the model which we discuss here. We compare the behaviour of our model with single molecule experiments where dsDNA is manipulated by external forces or torques. We also present some results on the kinetics of denaturation of linear DNA.

  17. How quantum entanglement in DNA synchronizes double-strand breakage by type II restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, P; Dunston, G; Lindesay, J

    2016-02-21

    Macroscopic quantum effects in living systems have been studied widely in pursuit of fundamental explanations for biological energy transport and sensing. While it is known that type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, induce DNA double-strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, the mechanism by which simultaneous cutting is coordinated between the catalytic centers remains unclear. We propose a quantum mechanical model for collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix, where dipole-dipole oscillations are quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the enzyme. Zero-point modes of coherent oscillations would provide the energy required for double-strand breakage. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise by the enzyme's displacement of water surrounding the DNA recognition sequence. The enzyme thus serves as a decoherence shield. Palindromic mirror symmetry of the enzyme-DNA complex should conserve parity, because symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the complex is violated or when physiological parameters are perturbed from optima. Persistent correlations in DNA across longer spatial separations-a possible signature of quantum entanglement-may be explained by such a mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RECQL4 Promotes DNA End Resection in Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Huiming; Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Keijzers, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The RecQ helicase RECQL4, mutated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, regulates genome stability, aging, and cancer. Here, we identify a crucial role for RECQL4 in DNA end resection, which is the initial and an essential step of homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR...... interacts with CtIP via its N-terminal domain and promotes CtIP recruitment to the MRN complex at DSBs. Moreover, inactivation of RECQL4's helicase activity impairs DNA end processing and HR-dependent DSBR without affecting its interaction with MRE11 and CtIP, suggesting an important role for RECQL4's......). Depletion of RECQL4 severely reduces HR-mediated repair and 5' end resection in vivo. RECQL4 physically interacts with MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), which senses DSBs and initiates DNA end resection with CtIP. The MRE11 exonuclease regulates the retention of RECQL4 at laser-induced DSBs. RECQL4 also directly...

  19. Secondary structure of double-stranded DNA under stretching: Elucidation of the stretched form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaloum, M.; Beker, A.-F.; Muller, P.

    2011-03-01

    Almost two decades ago, measurements of force versus extension on isolated double-stranded DNA molecules revealed a force plateau. This unusual stretching phenomenon in DNA suggests that the long molecules may be extended from the usual B form into a new conformation. Different models have been proposed to describe the nature of DNA in its stretched form, S-DNA. Using atomic force microscopy combined with a molecular combing method, we identified the structure of λ-phage DNA for different stretching values. We provide strong evidence for the existence of a first-order transition between B form and S form. Beyond a certain extension of the natural length, DNA molecules adopt a new double-helix conformation characterized by a diameter of 1.2 nm and a helical pitch of 18 nm.

  20. Single- and double-strand photocleavage of DNA by YO, YOYO and TOTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, B; Tuite, E

    1996-03-15

    Photocleavage of dsDNA by the fluorescent DNA stains oxazole yellow (YO), its dimer YOYO) and the dimer TOTO of thiazole orange (TO) has been investigated as a function of binding ratio. On visible illumination, both YO and YOYO cause single-strand cleavage, with an efficiency that varies with the dye/DNA binding ratio in a manner which can be rationalized in terms of free dye being an inefficient photocleavage reagent and externally bound dye being more efficient than intercalated dye. Moreover, the photocleavage mechanism changes with binding mode. Photocleavage by externally bound dye is, at least partly, oxygen dependent with scavenger studies implicating singlet oxygen as the activated oxygen intermediate. Photocleavage by intercalated dye is essentially oxygen-independent but can be inhibited by moderate concentrations of beta- mercaptoethanol--direct attack on the phosphoribose backbone is a possible mechanism. TOTO causes single-strand cleavage approximately five times less efficiently than YOYO. No direct double-strand breaks (dsb) are detected with YO or YOYO, but in both cases single-strand breaks (ssb) are observed to accumulate to eventually produce double-strand cleavage. With intercalated YO the accumulation occurs in a manner consistent with random generation of strand lesions, while with bisintercalated YOYO the yield of double-strand cleavage (per ssb) is 5-fold higher. A contributing factor is the slow dissociation of the bis-intercalated dimer, which allows for repeated strand-attack at the same binding site, but the observation that the dsb/ssb yield is considerably lower for externally bound than for bis-intercalated YOYO at low dye/DNA ratios indicates that the binding geometry and/or the cleavage mechanism are also important for the high dsb-efficiency. In fact, double-strand cleavage yields with bis-intercalated YOYO are higher than those predicted by simple models, implying a greater than statistical probability for a second cleavage event

  1. Ago2 facilitates Rad51 recruitment and DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Min; Wei, Wei; Li, Ming Hua

    2014-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions and pose a major threat to genome stability if not properly repaired. We and others have previously shown that a class of DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) is produced from sequences around DSB sites. DiRNAs are associated with Argonaute...... cells. Interestingly, we show that Ago2 forms a complex with Rad51 and that the interaction is enhanced in cells treated with ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that Rad51 accumulation at DSB sites and HR repair depend on catalytic activity and small RNA-binding capability of Ago2. In contrast, DSB...

  2. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in double-strand DNA break repair and cancer promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

    2013-06-15

    High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions was identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs, and clustered mutations. Cancer Res; 73(12); 3494-8. ©2013 AACR. ©2013 AACR.

  3. RNF4 is required for DNA double-strand break repair in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyas, R; Kumar, R; Clermont, F

    2013-01-01

    , and that Rnf4-deficient cells and mice exhibit increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, we show that Rnf4 targets SUMOylated MDC1 and SUMOylated BRCA1, and is required for the loading of Rad51, an enzyme required for HR repair, onto sites of DNA damage. Similarly to inactivating mutations......Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) cause genetic instability that leads to malignant transformation or cell death. Cells respond to DSBs with the ordered recruitment of signaling and repair proteins to the sites of DNA lesions. Coordinated protein SUMOylation and ubiquitylation have crucial...... for both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining repair. To establish a link between Rnf4 and the DNA damage response (DDR) in vivo, we generated an Rnf4 allelic series in mice. We show that Rnf4-deficiency causes persistent ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and signaling...

  4. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zengquan; Zhou Guangming; Wang Jufang; He Jing; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Cai Xichen; Tao Huang; Dang Bingrong; Han Guangwu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Gao Qingxiang [Lanzhou Univ. (China)

    1997-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B{sub 16} induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B{sub 16}. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau {proportional_to}85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  5. TRF2 is required for repair of nontelomeric DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhiyong; Seluanov, Andrei; Jiang, Ying; Gorbunova, Vera

    2007-08-07

    TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2) is an essential component of the telomeric cap, where it forms and stabilizes the T-loop junctions. TRF2 forms the T-loops by stimulating strand invasion of the 3' overhang into duplex DNA. TRF2 also has been shown to localize to nontelomeric DNA double-strand breaks, but its functional role in DNA repair has not been examined. Here, we present evidence that TRF2 is involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of nontelomeric double-strand breaks. Depletion of TRF2 strongly inhibited HR and delayed the formation of Rad51 foci after gamma-irradiation, whereas overexpression of TRF2 stimulated HR. Depletion of TRF2 had no effect on nonhomologous end-joining, and overexpression of TRF2 inhibited nonhomologous end-joining. We propose, based on our results and on the ability of TRF2 to mediate strand invasion, that TRF2 plays an essential role in HR by facilitating the formation of early recombination intermediates.

  6. Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2010-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most cytotoxic types of DNA damage, which if left unrepaired can lead to mutations or gross chromosomal aberrations, and promote the onset of diseases associated with genomic instability such as cancer. One of the most discernible hallmarks...... of the cellular response to DSBs is the accumulation and local concentration of a plethora of DNA damage signaling and repair proteins in the vicinity of the lesion, initiated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of H2AX (¿-H2AX) and culminating in the generation of distinct nuclear compartments, so-called Ionizing...... of such DNA repair foci still remains limited. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries on the mechanisms that govern the formation of IRIF, and discuss the implications of such findings in light of our understanding of the physiological importance of these structures....

  7. A paper-based device for double-stranded DNA detection with Zif268

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daohong

    2017-05-01

    Here, a small analytical device was fabricated on both nitrocellulose membrane and filter paper, for the detection of biotinylated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from 1 nM. Zif268 was utilized for capturing the target DNA, which was a zinc finger protein that recognized only a dsDNA with specific sequence. Therefore, this detection platform could be utilized for PCR result detection, with the well-designed primers (interpolate both biotin and Zif268 binding sequence). The result of the assay could be recorded by a camera-phone, and analyzed with software. The whole assay finished within 1 hour. Due to the easy fabrication, operation and disposal of this device, this method can be employed in point-of-care detection or on-site monitoring.

  8. [Bacterial infections as seen from the eukaryotic genome: DNA double strand breaks, inflammation and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemercier, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies report that infection by pathogenic bacteria alters the host genome, producing highly hazardous DNA double strand breaks for the eukaryotic cell. Even when DNA repair occurs, it often leaves "scars" on chromosomes that might generate genomic instability at the next cell division. Chronic intestinal inflammation promotes the expansion of genotoxic bacteria in the intestinal microbiote which in turn triggers tumor formation and colon carcinomas. Bacteria act at the level of the host DNA repair machinery. They also highjack the host cell cycle to allow themselves time for replication in an appropriate reservoir. However, except in the case of bacteria carrying the CDT nuclease, the molecular mechanisms responsible for DNA lesions are not well understood, even if reactive oxygen species released during infection make good candidates. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  9. Epigenetic modifications in double-strand break DNA damage signaling and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Dorine; Truman, Andrew W; Kron, Stephen J; Côté, Jacques

    2010-09-15

    Factors involved in the cellular response to double-strand break (DSB) DNA damage have been identified as potential therapeutic targets that would greatly sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy and genotoxic chemotherapy. These targets could disable the repair machinery and/or reinstate normal cell-cycle checkpoint leading to growth arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. It is now clear that a major aspect of the DNA damage response occurs through specific interactions with chromatin structure and its modulation. It implicates highly dynamic posttranslational modifications of histones that are critical for DNA damage recognition and/or signaling, repair of the lesion, and release of cell-cycle arrest. Therefore, drugs that target the enzymes responsible for these modifications, or the protein modules reading them, have very high therapeutic potential. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the different chromatin modifications and their roles in each step of eukaryotic DSB DNA damage response. ©2010 AACR.

  10. Protection against {sup 131}I-induced Double Strand DNA Breaks in Thyroid Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershman, J.M.; Okunyan, A.; Cannon, S.; Hogen, V. [Endocrinology, UCLA-VA, Los Angeles (United States); Rivina, Y. [Radiation Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Radioiodine-131 (I{sup 131}) released from nuclear reactor accidents has dramatically increased the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in exposed individuals, especially young children. The accepted measure for prevention of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is potassium iodide tablets that contain 100 mg iodide taken daily to block thyroid uptake of I{sup 131}. The deposition of ionizing radiation in cells results in double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) at fragile sites, and this early event can generate oncogenic rearrangements that eventually cause the cancer. We have developed a thyroid cell model to quantify the mitogenic effect of I{sup 131}. I{sup 131} causes double strand DNA breaks in FRTL-5 cells detected by 53BP1 or gamma H2AX and had no effect on cells that do not transport iodide. Perchlorate, iodide, and thiocyanate protect against DSB induced by I{sup 131}. Preincubation with the anion or radioprotective compounds prevents DSB; delayed addition of the anion is much less effective. These data provide a basis for studies of radioprotection against DSB induced by I{sup 131} in animals in order to refine the prevention of thyroid cancer resulting from nuclear fallout

  11. Strand displacement and duplex invasion into double-stranded DNA by pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohländer, Peggy R; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2015-09-21

    The so-called acpcPNA system bears a peptide backbone consisting of 4'-substituted proline units with (2'R,4'R) configuration in an alternating combination with (2S)-amino-cyclopentane-(1S)-carboxylic acids. acpcPNA forms exceptionally stable hybrids with complementary DNA. We demonstrate herein (i) strand displacements by single-stranded DNA from acpcPNA-DNA hybrids, and by acpcPNA strands from DNA duplexes, and (ii) strand invasions by acpcPNA into double-stranded DNA. These processes were studied in vitro using synthetic oligonucleotides and by means of our concept of wavelength-shifting fluorescent nucleic acid probes, including fluorescence lifetime measurements that allow quantifying energy transfer efficiencies. The strand displacements of preannealed 14mer acpcPNA-7mer DNA hybrids consecutively by 10mer and 14mer DNA strands occur with rather slow kinetics but yield high fluorescence color ratios (blue : yellow or blue : red), fluorescence intensity enhancements, and energy transfer efficiencies. Furthermore, 14mer acpcPNA strands are able to invade into 30mer double-stranded DNA, remarkably with quantitative efficiency in all studied cases. These processes can also be quantified by means of fluorescence. This remarkable behavior corroborates the extraordinary versatile properties of acpcPNA. In contrast to conventional PNA systems which require 3 or more equivalents PNA, only 1.5 equivalents acpcPNA are sufficient to get efficient double duplex invasion. Invasions also take place even in the presence of 250 mM NaCl which represents an ionic strength nearly twice as high as the physiological ion concentration. These remarkable results corroborate the extraordinary properties of acpcPNA, and thus acpcPNA represents an eligible tool for biological analytics and antigene applications.

  12. Effect of pressure on thermal stability of g-quadruplex DNA and double-stranded DNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shuntaro; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-10-29

    Pressure is a thermodynamic parameter that can induce structural changes in biomolecules due to a volumetric decrease. Although most proteins are denatured by pressure over 100 MPa because they have the large cavities inside their structures, the double-stranded structure of DNA is stabilized or destabilized only marginally depending on the sequence and salt conditions. The thermal stability of the G-quadruplex DNA structure, an important non-canonical structure that likely impacts gene expression in cells, remarkably decreases with increasing pressure. Volumetric analysis revealed that human telomeric DNA changed by more than 50 cm3 mol-1 during the transition from a random coil to a quadruplex form. This value is approximately ten times larger than that for duplex DNA under similar conditions. The volumetric analysis also suggested that the formation of G-quadruplex DNA involves significant hydration changes. The presence of a cosolute such as poly(ethylene glycol) largely repressed the pressure effect on the stability of G-quadruplex due to alteration in stabilities of the interactions with hydrating water. This review discusses the importance of local perturbations of pressure on DNA structures involved in regulation of gene expression and highlights the potential for application of high-pressure chemistry in nucleic acid-based nanotechnology.

  13. Effect of Pressure on Thermal Stability of G-Quadruplex DNA and Double-Stranded DNA Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuntaro Takahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressure is a thermodynamic parameter that can induce structural changes in biomolecules due to a volumetric decrease. Although most proteins are denatured by pressure over 100 MPa because they have the large cavities inside their structures, the double-stranded structure of DNA is stabilized or destabilized only marginally depending on the sequence and salt conditions. The thermal stability of the G-quadruplex DNA structure, an important non-canonical structure that likely impacts gene expression in cells, remarkably decreases with increasing pressure. Volumetric analysis revealed that human telomeric DNA changed by more than 50 cm3 mol−1 during the transition from a random coil to a quadruplex form. This value is approximately ten times larger than that for duplex DNA under similar conditions. The volumetric analysis also suggested that the formation of G-quadruplex DNA involves significant hydration changes. The presence of a cosolute such as poly(ethylene glycol largely repressed the pressure effect on the stability of G-quadruplex due to alteration in stabilities of the interactions with hydrating water. This review discusses the importance of local perturbations of pressure on DNA structures involved in regulation of gene expression and highlights the potential for application of high-pressure chemistry in nucleic acid-based nanotechnology.

  14. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny; Jeff Sekelsky

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess th...

  15. Phenotypic Analysis of ATM Protein Kinase in DNA Double-Strand Break Formation and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Elisabeth; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation. However, all phenotypes share progressive neurodegeneration and marked predisposition to malignancies at the organismal level and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chromosome aberrations at the cellular level. Expression and localization of the ATM protein can be determined via western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy; however, detection of subtle alterations such as resulting from amino acid exchanges rather than truncating mutations requires functional testing. Previous studies on the role of ATM in DSB repair, which connects with radiosensitivity and chromosomal stability, gave at first sight contradictory results. To systematically explore the effects of clinically relevant ATM mutations on DSB repair, we engaged a series of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from AT patients and controls. To examine DSB repair both in a quantitative and qualitative manners, we used an EGFP-based assay comprising different substrates for distinct DSB repair mechanisms. In this way, we demonstrated that particular signaling defects caused by individual ATM mutations led to specific DSB repair phenotypes. To explore the impact of ATM on carcinogenic chromosomal aberrations, we monitored chromosomal breakage at a breakpoint cluster region hotspot within the MLL gene that has been associated with therapy-related leukemia. PCR-based MLL-breakage analysis of HeLa cells

  16. Simulating Molecular Interactions of Carbon Nanoparticles with a Double-Stranded DNA Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular interactions between carbon nanoparticles (CNPs and a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA fragment were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Six types of CNPs including fullerenes (C60 and C70, (8,0 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT, (8,0 double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT, graphene quantum dot (GQD, and graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD were studied. Analysis of the best geometry indicates that the dsDNA fragment can bind to CNPs through pi-stacking and T-shape. Moreover, C60, DWNT, and GOQD bind to the dsDNA molecules at the minor groove of the nucleotide, and C70, SWNT, and GQD bind to the dsDNA molecules at the hydrophobic ends. Estimated interaction energy implies that van der Waals force may mainly contribute to the mechanisms for the dsDNA-C60, dsDNA-C70, and dsDNA-SWNT interactions and electrostatic force may contribute considerably to the dsDNA-DWNT, dsDNA-GQD, and dsDNA-GOQD interactions. On the basis of the results from large-scale MD simulations, it was found that the presence of the dsDNA enhances the dispersion of C60, C70, and SWNT in water and has a slight impact on DWNT, GQD, and GOQD.

  17. Ab initio bubble-driven denaturation of double-stranded DNA: Self-mechanical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetche, Victor K

    2016-07-21

    Among the different theoretical models of the open-site-driven DNA-denaturation found in the literature, very few interests are actually paid to the fundamental unzipping process of the double-stranded DNA within the vicinity of its ground state condensate. In this paper, we address an alternative to better understand the process of denaturation of such a macromolecule by investigating the onset of its dynamics around its equilibrium state. We show that from the initiation of the transcription bubble by the promoter to the termination state, the open-states of the strands evolve dynamically while generating some localized waveguide channels with elastic scattering properties. We properly discuss the nonlinear dynamics of these structures within the viewpoint of the self-mechanical theory while inferring to the physical structure of the findings and their potential issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Translocation frequency of double-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A. W.; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Keyser, Ulrich F.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are single-molecule sensors that measure changes in ionic current as charged polymers such as DNA pass through. Here, we present comprehensive experiments on the length, voltage, and salt dependence of the frequency of double-stranded DNA translocations through conical quartz nanopores with mean opening diameter 15 nm. We observe an entropic barrier-limited, length-dependent translocation frequency at 4M LiCl salt concentration and a drift-dominated, length-independent translocation frequency at 1M KCl salt concentration. These observations are described by a unifying convection-diffusion equation, which includes the contribution of an entropic barrier for polymer entry. PMID:26986356

  19. Nuclease-resistant double-stranded DNA controls or standards for hepatitis B virus nucleic acid amplification assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Sien

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identical blood samples tested using different kits can give markedly different hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA levels, which can cause difficulty in the interpretation of viral load. A universal double-stranded DNA control or standard that can be used in all commercial HBV DNA nucleic acid amplification assay kits is urgently needed. By aligning all HBV genotypes (A-H, we found that the surface antigen gene and precore-core gene regions of HBV are the most conserved regions among the different HBV genotypes. We constructed a chimeric fragment by overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction and obtained a 1,349-bp HBVC+S fragment. We then packaged the fragment into lambda phages using a traditional lambda phage cloning procedure. Results The obtained armored DNA was resistant to DNase I digestion and was stable, noninfectious to humans, and could be easily extracted using commercial kits. More importantly, the armored DNA may be used with all HBV DNA nucleic acid amplification assay kits. Conclusions The lambda phage packaging system can be used as an excellent expression platform for armored DNA. The obtained armored DNA possessed all characteristics of an excellent positive control or standard. In addition, this armored DNA is likely to be appropriate for all commercial HBV DNA nucleic acid amplification detection kits. Thus, the constructed armored DNA can probably be used as a universal positive control or standard in HBV DNA assays.

  20. The kinetics of YOYO-1 intercalation into single molecules of double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Marcel; Dryden, David T F

    2010-12-10

    The cyanine dye, YOYO-1, has frequently been used in single DNA molecule imaging work to stain double-stranded DNA as it fluoresces strongly when bound. The binding of YOYO-1 lengthens the DNA due to bis-intercalation. We have investigated the kinetics of binding, via this increase in DNA length, for single, hydrodynamically-stretched molecules of lambda DNA observed via Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. The rate and degree of lengthening in 40mM NaHCO(3) (pH 8.0) buffer depend upon the free dye concentration with the reaction taking several minutes to reach completion even in relatively high, 40nM, concentrations of YOYO-1. In the absence of overstretching of the DNA molecule, we determine the second order rate constant to be 3.8±0.7×10(5)s(-1)M(-1), the dissociation constant to be 12.1±3.4nM and the maximum DNA molecule extension to be 36±4%. The intercalation time constant (inverse of the pseudo-first order rate constant), τ, decreased from 309 to 62s as YOYO-1 levels increased from 10 to 40nM. The kinetics of binding help with interpretation of the behavior of DNA-YOYO-1 complexes when overstretched and establish defined conditions for the preparation of DNA-YOYO-1 complexes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient RNA-DNA Hybrids Are Required for Efficient Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohle, Corina; Tesorero, Rafael; Schermann, Géza; Dobrev, Nikolay; Sinning, Irmgard; Fischer, Tamás

    2016-11-03

    RNA-DNA hybrids are a major internal cause of DNA damage within cells, and their degradation by RNase H enzymes is important for maintaining genomic stability. Here, we identified an unexpected role for RNA-DNA hybrids and RNase H enzymes in DNA repair. Using a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) system in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we showed that RNA-DNA hybrids form as part of the homologous-recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair process and that RNase H enzymes are essential for their degradation and efficient completion of DNA repair. Deleting RNase H stabilizes RNA-DNA hybrids around DSB sites and strongly impairs recruitment of the ssDNA-binding RPA complex. In contrast, overexpressing RNase H1 destabilizes these hybrids, leading to excessive strand resection and RPA recruitment and to severe loss of repeat regions around DSBs. Our study challenges the existing model of HR-mediated DSB repair and reveals a surprising role for RNA-DNA hybrids in maintaining genomic stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the mobility of DNA double-strand break-containing chromosome domains in living Mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Przemek M.; Stap, Jan; Hoebe, Ron A.; van Oven, Carel H.; Kanaar, Roland; Aten, Jacob A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most dangerous types of DNA damage. Unrepaired, DSBs may lead to cell death, and when misrejoined, they can result in potentially carcinogenic chromosome rearrangements. The induction of DSBs and their repair take place in a chromatin microenvironment.

  3. The processing of double-stranded DNA breaks for recombinational repair by helicase-nuclease complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeeles, Joseph T P; Dillingham, Mark S

    2010-03-02

    Double-stranded DNA breaks are prepared for recombinational repair by nucleolytic digestion to form single-stranded DNA overhangs that are substrates for RecA/Rad51-mediated strand exchange. This processing can be achieved through the activities of multiple helicases and nucleases. In bacteria, the function is mainly provided by a stable multi-protein complex of which there are two structural classes; AddAB- and RecBCD-type enzymes. These helicase-nucleases are of special interest with respect to DNA helicase mechanism because they are exceptionally powerful DNA translocation motors, and because they serve as model systems for both single molecule studies and for understanding how DNA helicases can be coupled to other protein machinery. This review discusses recent developments in our understanding of the AddAB and RecBCD complexes, focussing on their distinctive strategies for processing DNA ends. We also discuss the extent to which bacterial DNA end resection mechanisms may parallel those used in eukaryotic cells. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of DNA double-strand breaks in spontaneous homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Lettier

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is a source of genomic instability and the loss of heterozygosity in mitotic cells. Since these events pose a severe health risk, it is important to understand the molecular events that cause spontaneous HR. In eukaryotes, high levels of HR are a normal feature of meiosis and result from the induction of a large number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. By analogy, it is generally believed that the rare spontaneous mitotic HR events are due to repair of DNA DSBs that accidentally occur during mitotic growth. Here we provide the first direct evidence that most spontaneous mitotic HR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by DNA lesions other than DSBs. Specifically, we describe a class of rad52 mutants that are fully proficient in inter- and intra-chromosomal mitotic HR, yet at the same time fail to repair DNA DSBs. The conclusions are drawn from genetic analyses, evaluation of the consequences of DSB repair failure at the DNA level, and examination of the cellular re-localization of Rad51 and mutant Rad52 proteins after introduction of specific DSBs. In further support of our conclusions, we show that, as in wild-type strains, UV-irradiation induces HR in these rad52 mutants, supporting the view that DNA nicks and single-stranded gaps, rather than DSBs, are major sources of spontaneous HR in mitotic yeast cells.

  5. The Role of Long Non Coding RNAs in the Repair of DNA Double Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatpour, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2017-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are abrasions caused in both strands of the DNA duplex following exposure to both exogenous and endogenous conditions. Such abrasions have deleterious effect in cells leading to genome rearrangements and cell death. A number of repair systems including homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) have been evolved to minimize the fatal effects of these lesions in cell. The role of protein coding genes in regulation of these pathways has been assessed previously. However, a number of recent studies have focused on evaluation of non-coding RNAs participation in DNA repair. We performed a computerized search of the Medline/ Pubmed databases with key words: DNA repair, homologous recombination, non-homologues end joining and long non-coding RNA (LncRNA). The existing data highlight the role of long non-coding RNAs in DSB repair as well as dysregulation in their expression which would lead to pathological conditions such as cancer. The specific mechanism of their contribution in DNA repair pathways has been elucidated for a few of them. LncRNAs participate in several steps of DNA repair pathways and regulate the expression of key components of these pathways including p53 tumor suppressor gene.

  6. Thermodynamics for the Formation of Double-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Akiko; Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, the thermodynamics are described for the formation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids. This treatment is applied to the exchange reaction of sodium cholate (SC) molecules on SWNTs and the ds-DNAs d(A)20 -d(T)20 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB decoy. UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy with temperature variations was used for analyzing the exchange reaction on the SWNTs with four different chiralities: (n,m)=(8,3), (6,5), (7,5), and (8,6). Single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs), including d(A)20 and d(T)20, are also used for comparison. The d(A)20-d(T)20 shows a drastic change in its thermodynamic parameters around the melting temperature (Tm ) of the DNA oligomer. No such Tm dependency was measured, owing to high Tm in the NF-κB decoy DNA and no Tm in the ss-DNA. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. DNA Double Strand Breaks Occur Independent of AID in Hypermutating Ig Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Jacobs

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM and class switch recombination (CSR take place in B cells of the germinal center (GC and are associated with DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs. Transcription favors the generation of DNA-DSBs in the V-regions and switch regions of Ig genes. Both SHM and CSR are controlled by the Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID, an enzyme exclusively expressed in B cells of the GC. Because AID is capable of deaminating deoxy-cytidine (dC to deoxy-uracil (dU, it might directly induce nicks (single strand DNA breaks and also DNA-DSBs via a U-DNA glycosylase mediated base excision repair pathway ('DNA-substrate model'. Alternatively, AID could function like its closest homologue Apobec-1 as a catalytic subunit of a RNA editing holoenzyme ('RNA-substrate model'. To determine whether AID lies upstream or downstream of the DNA lesions found in hypermutating Ig genes, we have analysed the Vλ locus of AID proficient and AID deficient GC B cells for the presence of DNA-DSBs. Although rearranged Vλ genes are preferred targets of SHM we find that AID-proficient and -deficient Vλ1/2-expressing GC B cells display a similar frequency, distribution and sequence preference of DNA-DSBs in rearranged and germline Vλ genes, favoring the idea that AID acts downstream of the DNA lesions to mediate error prone processing.

  8. Induction of linear tracks of DNA double-strand breaks by alpha-particle irradiation of cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, Jan; Krawczyk, Przemek M.; van Oven, Carel H.; Barendsen, Gerrit W.; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland; Aten, Jacob A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how cells maintain genome integrity when challenged with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is of major importance, particularly since the discovery of multiple links of DSBs with genome instability and cancer-predisposition disorders(1,2). Ionizing radiation is the agent of choice to

  9. The ubiquitin-selective segregase VCP/p97 orchestrates the response to DNA double-strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meerang, Mayura; Ritz, Danilo; Paliwal, Shreya

    2011-01-01

    Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) cause genetic instability that leads to malignant transformation or cell death. Cells respond to DSBs with the ordered recruitment of signalling and repair proteins to the site of lesion. Protein modification with ubiquitin is crucial for the signalling...

  10. Fumarase is involved in DNA double-strand break resection through a functional interaction with Sae2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leshets, Michael; Ramamurthy, Dharanidharan; Lisby, Michael

    2018-01-01

    One of the most severe forms of DNA damage is the double-strand break (DSB). Failure to properly repair the damage can cause mutation, gross chromosomal rearrangements and lead to the development of cancer. In eukaryotes, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are the...

  11. Arabidopsis DNA ligase IV is induced by gamma-irradiation and interacts with an Arabidopsis homologue of the double strand break repair protein XRCC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C E; Waterworth, W M; Jiang, Q; Bray, C M

    2000-10-01

    Rejoining of single- and double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced in DNA during replication, recombination, and DNA damage is catalysed by DNA ligase enzymes. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligase enzymes, each having distinct roles in cellular metabolism. Double-strand breaks in DNA, which can occur spontaneously in the cell or be induced experimentally by gamma-irradiation, represent one of the most serious threats to genomic integrity. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) rather than homologous recombination is the major pathway for repair of DSBs in organisms with complex genomes, including humans and plants. DNA ligase IV in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans catalyses the final step in the NHEJ pathway of DSB repair. In this study we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue (AtLIG4) of human and S. cerevisiae DNA ligase IV which is shown to encode an ATP-dependent DNA ligase with a theoretical molecular mass of 138 kDa and 48% similarity in amino-acid sequence to the human DNA ligase IV. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated a strong interaction between A. thaliana DNA ligase IV and the A. thaliana homologue of the human DNA ligase IV-binding protein XRCC4. This interaction is shown to be mediated via the tandem BRCA C-terminal domains of A. thaliana DNA ligase IV protein. Expression of AtLIG4 is induced by gamma-irradiation but not by UVB irradiation, consistent with an in vivo role for the A. thaliana DNA ligase IV in DSB repair.

  12. Covalent incorporation of methyl red dyes into double-stranded DNA for their ordered clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashida, Hiromu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Baba, Seiki; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kawai, Gota; Asanuma, Hiroyuki; Komiyama, Makoto

    2006-01-11

    An ordered dye cluster of Methyl Reds was formed in double-stranded DNA by hybridizing two complementary DNA-dye conjugates, each involving a Methyl Red moiety on a threoninol linker and a 1,3-propanediol spacer arranged alternately in the middle of the DNA sequence. In the duplex, Methyl Reds from each strand were axially stacked antiparallel to each other, as determined from NMR analysis. This clustering of Methyl Reds induced distinct changes in both UV/Vis and CD spectra. Single-stranded DNA-Methyl Red conjugates on D-threoninol linkers and (1,3-propanediol) spacers exhibited broad absorption spectra with lambda(max) at around 480 nm, and almost no CD was observed at around the absorption maximum of Methyl Red. However, as Methyl Reds were clustered by hybridization, lambda(max) shifted towards shorter wavelengths with respect to its monomeric transition. This hypsochromic shift increased as the number of Methyl Red molecules increased. Furthermore, a positive couplet was also strongly induced here. These dye clusters are H-aggregates, in which molecular excitons are coupled. The positive couplet demonstrates that the clusters on D-threoninol form a right-handed helix. In contrast, the induced CD became much weaker with Methyl Red on L-threoninol, which intrinsically prefers counterclockwise winding. Thus, mutual orientation of the stacked dye molecules was controlled by the chirality of the linker.

  13. E4 ligase-specific ubiquitination hubs coordinate DNA double-strand-break repair and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Leena; Schell, Michael; Pokrzywa, Wojciech; Kevei, Éva; Gartner, Anton; Schumacher, Björn; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Multiple protein ubiquitination events at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) regulate damage recognition, signaling and repair. It has remained poorly understood how the repair process of DSBs is coordinated with the apoptotic response. Here, we identified the E4 ubiquitin ligase UFD-2 as a mediator of DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, after initiation of homologous recombination by RAD-51, UFD-2 forms foci that contain substrate-processivity factors including the ubiquitin-selective segregase CDC-48 (p97), the deubiquitination enzyme ATX-3 (Ataxin-3) and the proteasome. In the absence of UFD-2, RAD-51 foci persist, and DNA damage-induced apoptosis is prevented. In contrast, UFD-2 foci are retained until recombination intermediates are removed by the Holliday-junction-processing enzymes GEN-1, MUS-81 or XPF-1. Formation of UFD-2 foci also requires proapoptotic CEP-1 (p53) signaling. Our findings establish a central role of UFD-2 in the coordination between the DNA-repair process and the apoptotic response.

  14. Deletion-bias in DNA double-strand break repair differentially contributes to plant genome shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Giang T H; Cao, Hieu X; Reiss, Bernd; Schubert, Ingo

    2017-06-01

    In order to prevent genome instability, cells need to be protected by a number of repair mechanisms, including DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. The extent to which DSB repair, biased towards deletions or insertions, contributes to evolutionary diversification of genome size is still under debate. We analyzed mutation spectra in Arabidopsis thaliana and in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by PacBio sequencing of three DSB-targeted loci each, uncovering repair via gene conversion, single strand annealing (SSA) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Furthermore, phylogenomic comparisons between A. thaliana and two related species were used to detect naturally occurring deletions during Arabidopsis evolution. Arabidopsis thaliana revealed significantly more and larger deletions after DSB repair than barley, and barley displayed more and larger insertions. Arabidopsis displayed a clear net loss of DNA after DSB repair, mainly via SSA and NHEJ. Barley revealed a very weak net loss of DNA, apparently due to less active break-end resection and easier copying of template sequences into breaks. Comparative phylogenomics revealed several footprints of SSA in the A. thaliana genome. Quantitative assessment of DNA gain and loss through DSB repair processes suggests deletion-biased DSB repair causing ongoing genome shrinking in A. thaliana, whereas genome size in barley remains nearly constant. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 is not involved in DNA double-strand break recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernet Marie

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytotoxicity and the rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks induced by γ-rays, H2O2 and neocarzinostatin, were investigated in normal and PARP-1 knockout mouse 3T3 fibroblasts to determine the role of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 in DNA double-strand break repair. Results PARP-1-/- were considerably more sensitive than PARP-1+/+ 3T3s to induced cell kill by γ-rays and H2O2. However, the two cell lines did not show any significant difference in the susceptibility to neocarzinostatin below 1.5 nM drug. Restoration of PARP-1 expression in PARP-1-/- 3T3s by retroviral transfection of the full PARP-1 cDNA did not induce any change in neocarzinostatin response. Moreover the incidence and the rejoining kinetics of neocarzinostatin-induced DNA double-strand breaks were identical in PARP-1+/+ and PARP-1-/- 3T3s. Poly(ADP-ribose synthesis following γ-rays and H2O2 was observed in PARP-1-proficient cells only. In contrast neocarzinostatin, even at supra-lethal concentration, was unable to initiate PARP-1 activation yet it induced H2AX histone phosphorylation in both PARP1+/+ and PARP-1-/- 3T3s as efficiently as γ-rays and H2O2. Conclusions The results show that PARP-1 is not a major determinant of DNA double-strand break recovery with either strand break rejoining or cell survival as an endpoint. Even though both PARP-1 and ATM activation are major determinants of the cell response to γ-rays and H2O2, data suggest that PARP-1-dependent poly(ADP-ribose synthesis and ATM-dependent H2AX phosphorylation, are not inter-related in the repair pathway of neocarzinostatin-induced DNA double-strand breaks.

  16. Non-homologous end-joining protein expression screen from radiosensitive cancer patients yields a novel DNA double strand break repair phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael J; Goh, Su Kak; McKay, Jeremy N; Chao, Michael; McKay, Timothy M

    2017-03-01

    Clinical radiosensitivity is a significant impediment to tumour control and cure, in that it restricts the total doses which can safely be delivered to the whole radiotherapy population, within the tissue tolerance of potentially radiosensitive (RS) individuals. Understanding its causes could lead to personalization of radiotherapy. We screened tissues from a unique bank of RS cancer patients for expression defects in major DNA double-strand break repair proteins, using Western blot analysis and subsequently reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We hypothesized that abnormalities in expression of these proteins may explain the radiosensitivity of some of our cancer patients. The cells from one patient showed a reproducibly consistent expression reduction in two complex-forming DNA double-strand break repair protein components (DNA Ligase IV and XRCC4). We also showed a corresponding reduction in both gene products at the mRNA level. Additionally, the mRNA inducibility by ionizing radiation was increased for one of the proteins in the patient's cells. We confirmed the likely functional significance of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) expression abnormalities with a DNA double strand break (DNA DSB) repair assay. We have identified a novel biological phenotype linked to clinical radiosensitivity. This is important in that very few molecular defects are known in human radiotherapy subjects. Such knowledge may contribute to the understanding of radiation response mechanisms in cancer patients and to personalization of radiotherapy.

  17. Elevated Subclinical Double-Stranded DNA Antibodies and Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J.; Prince, Lisa K.; Baker, Thomas P.; Papadopoulos, Patricia; Edison, Jess; Abbott, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Elevated anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody and C-reactive protein are associated with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Progression of quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody in patients with PLN has not been compared with that in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN before diagnosis. The temporal relationship between anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein elevation has also not been evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (established in 1985) study compared longitudinal prediagnostic quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein levels in 23 patients with biopsy-proven PLN (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1993–2009) with levels in 21 controls with SLE but without LN matched for patient age, sex, race, and age of serum sample. The oldest (median, 2601 days; 25%, 1245 days, 75%, 3075 days), the second to last (368; 212, 635 days), and the last (180; 135, 477 days) serum sample before diagnosis were analyzed. Results More patients with PLN had an elevated anti-dsDNA antibody level than did the matched controls at any point (78% versus 5%; P4 years (33% versus 0%; P=0.04) before diagnosis. A rate of increase >1 IU/ml per year (70% versus 0%; P<0.001) was most specific for PLN. The anti-dsDNA antibody levels increased before C-reactive protein did in most patients with an antecedent elevation (92% versus 8%; P<0.001). Conclusions Elevated anti-dsDNA antibody usually precedes both clinical and subclinical evidence of proliferative LN, which suggests direct pathogenicity. Absolute anti-dsDNA antibody level and rate of increase could better establish risk of future PLN in patients with SLE. PMID:23833315

  18. Fine-tuning the ubiquitin code at DNA double-strand breaks: deubiquitinating enzymes at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCitterio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification broadly implicated in cellular functions. Signaling processes mediated by ubiquitin are crucial for the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, one of the most dangerous types of DNA lesions. In particular, the DSB response critically relies on active ubiquitination by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases at the chromatin, which is essential for proper DSB signaling and repair. How this pathway is fine-tuned and what the functional consequences are of its deregulation for genome integrity and tissue homeostasis are subject of intense investigation. One important regulatory mechanism is by reversal of substrate ubiquitination through the activity of specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs, as supported by the implication of a growing number of DUBs in DNA damage response (DDR processes. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of how ubiquitin-mediated signaling at DSBs is controlled by deubiquitinating enzymes, with main focus on DUBs targeting histone H2A and on their recent implication in stem cell biology and cancer.

  19. 3′-Terminated Overhangs Regulate DNA Double-Strand Break Processing in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Đermić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Double-strand breaks (DSBs are lethal DNA lesions, which are repaired by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. To study DSB processing in vivo, we induced DSBs into the E. coli chromosome by γ-irradiation and measured chromosomal degradation. We show that the DNA degradation is regulated by RecA protein concentration and its rate of association with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. RecA decreased DNA degradation in wild-type, recB, and recD strains, indicating that it is a general phenomenon in E. coli. On the other hand, DNA degradation was greatly reduced and unaffected by RecA in the recB1080 mutant (which produces long overhangs and in a strain devoid of four exonucleases that degrade a 3′ tail (ssExos. 3′–5′ ssExos deficiency is epistatic to RecA deficiency concerning DNA degradation, suggesting that bound RecA is shielding the 3′ tail from degradation by 3′–5′ ssExos. Since 3′ tail preservation is common to all these situations, we infer that RecA polymerization constitutes a subset of mechanisms for preserving the integrity of 3′ tails emanating from DSBs, along with 3′ tail’s massive length, or prevention of their degradation by inactivation of 3′–5′ ssExos. Thus, we conclude that 3′ overhangs are crucial in controlling the extent of DSB processing in E. coli. This study suggests a regulatory mechanism for DSB processing in E. coli, wherein 3′ tails impose a negative feedback loop on DSB processing reactions, specifically on helicase reloading onto dsDNA ends.

  20. Quantitative measurement of hydroxyl radical induced DNA double-strand breaks and the effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meihong; Yang, Yao; Yang, Guoliang

    2006-07-24

    Reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl or superoxide radicals, can be generated by exogenous agents as well as from normal cellular metabolism. Those radicals are known to induce various lesions in DNA, including strand breaks and base modifications. These lesions have been implicated in a variety of diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders and others. To assess these oxidative DNA damages and to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image DNA molecules exposed to hydroxyl radicals generated via Fenton chemistry. AFM images showed that the circular DNA molecules became linear after incubation with hydroxyl radicals, indicating the development of double-strand breaks. The occurrence of the double-strand breaks was found to depend on the concentration of the hydroxyl radicals and the duration of the reaction. Under the conditions of the experiments, NAC was found to exacerbate the free radical-induced DNA damage.

  1. Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulat, Tanja; Keta, Olitija; Korićanac, Lela; Žakula, Jelena; Petrović, Ivan; Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra [University of Belgrade, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Todorović, Danijela, E-mail: dtodorovic@medf.kg.ac.rs [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2016-03-15

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (γH2AX). Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of γH2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, as opposed to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis, by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of γH2AX. This paper is based on two issues: the determination of which technique should be applied concerning the radiation dose, and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes. HTB140 melanoma cells were exposed to γ-rays, in the dose range from 1 to 16 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA level were analyzed at different time intervals after irradiation by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunochemically stained cells were visualized with two types of microscopes: AxioVision (Zeiss, Germany) microscope, comprising an ApoTome software, and AxioImagerA1 microscope (Zeiss, Germany). Obtained results show that the level of γH2AX is time and dose dependent. Immunofluorescence microscopy provided better detection of DSBs for lower irradiation doses, while Western blot analysis was more reliable for higher irradiation doses. AxioVision microscope containing ApoTome software was more suitable for the detection of γH2AX foci. (author)

  2. The Heterochromatic Barrier to DNA Double Strand Break Repair: How to Get the Entry Visa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Goodarzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, a deep understanding of pathways that repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB has been gained from biochemical, structural, biophysical and cellular studies. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR represent the two major DSB repair pathways, and both processes are now well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the chromatin environment at a DSB significantly impacts upon DSB repair and that, moreover, dramatic modifications arise in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. Chromatin is broadly divided into open, transcriptionally active, euchromatin (EC and highly compacted, transcriptionally inert, heterochromatin (HC, although these represent extremes of a spectrum. The HC superstructure restricts both DSB repair and damage response signaling. Moreover, DSBs within HC (HC-DSBs are rapidly relocalized to the EC-HC interface. The damage response protein kinase, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, is required for HC-DSB repair but is dispensable for the relocalization of HC-DSBs. It has been proposed that ATM signaling enhances HC relaxation in the DSB vicinity and that this is a prerequisite for HC-DSB repair. Hence, ATM is essential for repair of HC-DSBs. Here, we discuss how HC impacts upon the response to DSBs and how ATM overcomes the barrier that HC poses to repair.

  3. Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANJA BULAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (γH2AX. Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of γH2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, as opposed to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis, by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of γH2AX. This paper is based on two issues: the determination of which technique should be applied concerning the radiation dose, and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes. HTB140 melanoma cells were exposed to γ-rays, in the dose range from 1 to 16 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA level were analyzed at different time intervals after irradiation by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunochemically stained cells were visualized with two types of microscopes: AxioVision (Zeiss, Germany microscope, comprising an ApoTome software, and AxioImagerA1 microscope (Zeiss, Germany. Obtained results show that the level of γH2AX is time and dose dependent. Immunofluorescence microscopy provided better detection of DSBs for lower irradiation doses, while Western blot analysis was more reliable for higher irradiation doses. AxioVision microscope containing ApoTome software was more suitable for the detection of γH2AX foci.

  4. DNA Double Strand Break Repair and its Association with Inherited Predispositions to Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rodney J

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mutations in BRCA1 account for the majority of familial aggregations of early onset breast and ovarian cancer (~70% and about 1/5 of all early onset breast cancer families; in contrast, mutations in BRCA2 account for a smaller proportion of breast/ovarian cancer families and a similar proportion of early onset breast cancer families. BRCA2 has also been shown to be associated with a much more pleiotropic disease spectrum compared to BRCA1. Since the identification of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 investigations into the functions of these genes have revealed that both are associated with the maintenance of genomic integrity via their apparent roles in cellular response to DNA damage, especially their involvement in the process of double strand DNA break repair. This review will focus on the specific roles of both genes and how functional differences may account for the diverse clinical findings observed between families that harbour BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

  5. Elucidaton of DNA methylation changes in response to ionizng radiation induced double strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrlitz, Maren Linda

    2014-07-04

    would be an effect of overexpression or be indicative of a possible function in these nuclear subcompartments is yet to be elucidated. Additionally, by using flow cytometry analysis, exposure to IR and concomitant overexpression of TET2CD-GFP strongly induced 5hmC formation, therefore suggesting a function of TET2 in response to irradiation. Recruitment analysis showed that the TET2 catalytic domain was recruited to UV laser-induced but not X-rays- or heavy ion-induced damage sites. Endogenous TET2, which was analyzed in high TET2 expressing human fibroblasts, was recruited to damage sites after irradiation with heavy ions or X-rays. As 5hmC is the direct product of the catalytic activity of TET enzymes, local 5hmC formation and abundance at damage sites was investigated. It was observed that 5hmC accumulated at heavy ion- as well as X-ray-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In addition, investigating 5hmC foci over time after irradiation with X-rays revealed that 5hmC formation and kinetics is similar to that of γH2AX foci, whereby every 5hmC focus co-localized with γH2AX. However, this did not hold true for all γH2AX foci, whose total number was always higher than that of 5hmC. Furthermore, 5hmC (and γH2AX) foci formation was almost unaffected by the inhibition of DNA-PKcs' enzymatic activity. Conversely, 5hmC and γH2AX foci persistence was significantly delayed after DNA-PKcs inhibition. Results obtained in this thesis show that DNA methylation changes (5hmC formation) take place within the time frame of one replication cycle after exposure to IR and that these changes can be observed at sites of DSBs. 5hmC at DSBs might be formed by the oxidative function of TET2, which was shown to be recruited to DSBs. However, involvement of the other TET enzymes in 5hmC production cannot be excluded. Therefore, these results suggest a role of 5hmC in the response to IR induced DSBs, whereby the here presented data suggest that the fast, radiation induced

  6. Cisplatin enhances the formation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks by hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Sanche, Léon; Hunting, Darel J

    2013-03-01

    The synergistic interaction of cisplatin with ionizing radiation is the clinical rationale for the treatment of several cancers including head and neck, cervical and lung cancer. The underlying molecular mechanism of the synergy has not yet been identified, although both DNA damage and repair processes are likely involved. Here, we investigate the indirect effect of γ rays on strand break formation in a supercoiled plasmid DNA (pGEM-3Zf-) covalently modified by cisplatin. The yields of single- and double-strand breaks were determined by irradiation of DNA and cisplatin/DNA samples with (60)Co γ rays under four different scavenging conditions to examine the involvement of hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals in inducing the DNA damage. At 5 mM tris in an N2 atmosphere, the presence of an average of two cisplatins per plasmid increased the yields of single- and double-strand breaks by factors of 1.9 and 2.2, respectively, relative to the irradiated unmodified DNA samples. Given that each plasmid of 3,200 base pairs contained an average of two cisplatins, this represents an increase in radiosensitivity of 3,200-fold on a per base pair basis. When hydrated electrons were scavenged by saturating the samples with N2O, these enhancement factors decreased to 1.5 and 1.2, respectively, for single- and double-strand breaks. When hydroxyl radicals were scavenged using 200 mM tris, the respective enhancement factors were 1.2 and 1.6 for single- and double-strand breaks, respectively. Furthermore, no enhancement in DNA damage by cisplatin was observed after scavenging both hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons. These findings show that hydrated electrons can induce both single- and double-strand breaks in the platinated DNA, but not in unmodified DNA. In addition, cisplatin modification is clearly an extremely efficient means of increasing the formation of both single- and double-strand breaks by the hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals created by ionizing

  7. Hypermutability of damaged single-strand DNA formed at double-strand breaks and uncapped telomeres in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Sterling, Joan; Storici, Francesca; Resnick, Michael A; Gordenin, Dmitry A

    2008-11-01

    The major DNA repair pathways operate on damage in double-strand DNA because they use the intact strand as a template after damage removal. Therefore, lesions in transient single-strand stretches of chromosomal DNA are expected to be especially threatening to genome stability. To test this hypothesis, we designed systems in budding yeast that could generate many kilobases of persistent single-strand DNA next to double-strand breaks or uncapped telomeres. The systems allowed controlled restoration to the double-strand state after applying DNA damage. We found that lesions induced by UV-light and methyl methanesulfonate can be tolerated in long single-strand regions and are hypermutagenic. The hypermutability required PCNA monoubiquitination and was largely attributable to translesion synthesis by the error-prone DNA polymerase zeta. In support of multiple lesions in single-strand DNA being a source of hypermutability, analysis of the UV-induced mutants revealed strong strand-specific bias and unexpectedly high frequency of alleles with widely separated multiple mutations scattered over several kilobases. Hypermutability and multiple mutations associated with lesions in transient stretches of long single-strand DNA may be a source of carcinogenesis and provide selective advantage in adaptive evolution.

  8. The Double-Stranded DNA Virosphere as a Modular Hierarchical Network of Gene Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virus genomes are prone to extensive gene loss, gain, and exchange and share no universal genes. Therefore, in a broad-scale study of virus evolution, gene and genome network analyses can complement traditional phylogenetics. We performed an exhaustive comparative analysis of the genomes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses by using the bipartite network approach and found a robust hierarchical modularity in the dsDNA virosphere. Bipartite networks consist of two classes of nodes, with nodes in one class, in this case genomes, being connected via nodes of the second class, in this case genes. Such a network can be partitioned into modules that combine nodes from both classes. The bipartite network of dsDNA viruses includes 19 modules that form 5 major and 3 minor supermodules. Of these modules, 11 include tailed bacteriophages, reflecting the diversity of this largest group of viruses. The module analysis quantitatively validates and refines previously proposed nontrivial evolutionary relationships. An expansive supermodule combines the large and giant viruses of the putative order “Megavirales” with diverse moderate-sized viruses and related mobile elements. All viruses in this supermodule share a distinct morphogenetic tool kit with a double jelly roll major capsid protein. Herpesviruses and tailed bacteriophages comprise another supermodule, held together by a distinct set of morphogenetic proteins centered on the HK97-like major capsid protein. Together, these two supermodules cover the great majority of currently known dsDNA viruses. We formally identify a set of 14 viral hallmark genes that comprise the hubs of the network and account for most of the intermodule connections. PMID:27486193

  9. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent protein kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCord, Ronald A; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao

    2009-01-01

    The Sir2 chromatin regulatory factor links maintenance of genomic stability to life span extension in yeast. The mammalian Sir2 family member SIRT6 has been proposed to have analogous functions, because SIRT6-deficiency leads to shortened life span and an aging-like degenerative phenotype in mice......, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA......-PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor...

  10. Microhomology-mediated end joining is the principal mediator of double-strand break repair during mitochondrial DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadi, Satish Kumar; Sebastian, Robin; Dahal, Sumedha; Babu, Ravi K; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are associated with various mitochondrial disorders. The deletions identified in humans are flanked by short, directly repeated mitochondrial DNA sequences; however, the mechanism of such DNA rearrangements has yet to be elucidated. In contrast to nuclear DNA (nDNA), mtDNA is more exposed to oxidative damage, which may result in double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although DSB repair in nDNA is well studied, repair mechanisms in mitochondria are not characterized. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms of DSB repair in mitochondria using in vitro and ex vivo assays. Whereas classical NHEJ (C-NHEJ) is undetectable, microhomology-mediated alternative NHEJ efficiently repairs DSBs in mitochondria. Of interest, robust microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) was observed with DNA substrates bearing 5-, 8-, 10-, 13-, 16-, 19-, and 22-nt microhomology. Furthermore, MMEJ efficiency was enhanced with an increase in the length of homology. Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and protein inhibition assays suggest the involvement of CtIP, FEN1, MRE11, and PARP1 in mitochondrial MMEJ. Knockdown studies, in conjunction with other experiments, demonstrated that DNA ligase III, but not ligase IV or ligase I, is primarily responsible for the final sealing of DSBs during mitochondrial MMEJ. These observations highlight the central role of MMEJ in maintenance of mammalian mitochondrial genome integrity and is likely relevant for deletions observed in many human mitochondrial disorders. © 2016 Tadi et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Rheostatic Control of Cas9-Mediated DNA Double Strand Break (DSB) Generation and Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John C; Stephany, Jason J; Wei, Cindy T; Fowler, Douglas M; Maly, Dustin J

    2018-02-16

    We recently reported two novel tools for precisely controlling and quantifying Cas9 activity: a chemically inducible Cas9 variant (ciCas9) that can be rapidly activated by small molecules and a ddPCR assay for time-resolved measurement of DNA double strand breaks (DSB-ddPCR). Here, we further demonstrate the potential of ciCas9 to function as a tunable rheostat for Cas9 function. We show that a new highly potent and selective small molecule activator paired with a more tightly regulated ciCas9 variant expands the range of accessible Cas9 activity levels. We subsequently demonstrate that ciCas9 activity levels can be dose-dependently tuned with a small molecule activator, facilitating rheostatic time-course experiments. These studies provide the first insight into how Cas9-mediated DSB levels correlate with overall editing efficiency. Thus, we demonstrate that ciCas9 and our DSB-ddPCR assay permit the time-resolved study of Cas9 DSB generation and genome editing kinetics at a wide range of Cas9 activity levels.

  12. IDN2 Interacts with RPA and Facilitates DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Homologous Recombination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Ba, Zhaoqing; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Wei, Wei; Li, Lanxia; Kong, Fansi; Li, Yan; Chai, Jijie; Pontes, Olga; Qi, Yijun

    2017-03-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. We previously showed that DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) facilitate homologous recombination-mediated DSB repair in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we show that INVOLVED IN DE NOVO2 (IDN2), a double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in small RNA-directed DNA methylation, is required for DSB repair in Arabidopsis. We find that IDN2 interacts with the heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA) complex. Depletion of IDN2 or the diRNA binding ARGONAUTE2 leads to increased accumulation of RPA at DSB sites and mislocalization of the recombination factor RAD51. These findings support a model in which IDN2 interacts with RPA and facilitates the release of RPA from single-stranded DNA tails and subsequent recruitment of RAD51 at DSB sites to promote DSB repair. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA double-strand break repair is impaired in presenescent Syrian hamster fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovjeva, Ljudmila; Firsanov, Denis; Vasilishina, Anastasia; Chagin, Vadim; Pleskach, Nadezhda; Kropotov, Andrey; Svetlova, Maria

    2015-10-12

    Studies of DNA damage response are critical for the comprehensive understanding of age-related changes in cells, tissues and organisms. Syrian hamster cells halt proliferation and become presenescent after several passages in standard conditions of cultivation due to what is known as "culture stress". Using proliferating young and non-dividing presenescent cells in primary cultures of Syrian hamster fibroblasts, we defined their response to the action of radiomimetic drug bleomycin (BL) that induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The effect of the drug was estimated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy using the antibody to phosphorylated histone H2AX (gH2AX), which is generally accepted as a DSB marker. At all stages of the cell cycle, both presenescent and young cells demonstrated variability of the number of gH2AX foci per nucleus. gH2AX focus induction was found to be independent from BL-hydrolase expression. Some differences in DSB repair process between BL-treated young and presenescent Syrian hamster cells were observed: (1) the kinetics of gH2AX focus loss in G0 fibroblasts of young culture was faster than in cells that prematurely stopped dividing; (2) presenescent cells were characterized by a slower recruitment of DSB repair proteins 53BP1, phospho-DNA-PK and phospho-ATM to gH2AX focal sites, while the rate of phosphorylated ATM/ATR substrate accumulation was the same as that in young cells. Our results demonstrate an impairment of DSB repair in prematurely aged Syrian hamster fibroblasts in comparison with young fibroblasts, suggesting age-related differences in response to BL therapy.

  14. Regulation of repair pathway choice at two-ended DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Atsushi

    2017-10-01

    A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is considered to be a critical DNA lesion because its misrepair can cause severe mutations, such as deletions or chromosomal translocations. For the precise repair of DSBs, the repair pathway that is optimal for the particular circumstance needs to be selected. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) functions in G1/S/G2 phase, while homologous recombination (HR) becomes active only in S/G2 phase after DNA replication. DSB end structure is another factor affecting the repair pathway. For example, one-ended DSBs in S phase are mainly repaired by HR due to the lack of a partner DSB end for NHEJ. In contrast, two-ended DSBs, which are mainly induced by ionizing radiation, are repaired by either NHEJ or HR in G2 cells. Under the current model in terms of DSB repair pathway usage in G2 phase, NHEJ repairs ∼70% of two-ended DSBs, whereas HR repairs only ∼30%. Recent studies propose that NHEJ factors can bind all the DSB ends and are then either used to progress that pathway of DSB repair, or the repair proceeds by HR. In addition, molecular regulation by BRCA1 and 53BP1 has also been proposed. At DSB sites, BRCA1 functions to alleviate the 53BP1 barrier to resection by promoting 53BP1 dephosphorylation, followed by RIF1 release and 53BP1 repositioning. This timely 53BP1 repositioning may be important for the establishment of a chromatin environment that promotes the recruitment of EXO1 for resection in HR. This review summarizes current knowledge on factors regulating DSB repair pathway choice in terms of spatiotemporal regulation by focusing on the repair events at two-ended DSBs in G2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MO-AB-BRA-04: Radiation Measurements with a DNA Double-Strand-Break Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeidat, M; Cline, K; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, CS; Lee, SE; Shim, EY; Kirby, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation, but none of them directly measures the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. Methods: The dosimeter has DNA strands, which are labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein. The biotin attaches these strands to magnetic beads. We suspended the DNA dosimeter in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as it matches the internal environment of the body. We placed small volumes (50µL) of the DNA dosimeter into tubes and irradiated these samples in a water-equivalent plastic phantom with several doses (three samples per dose). After irradiating the samples, a magnet was placed against the tubes. The fluorescein attached to broken DNA strands was extracted (called the supernatant) and placed into a different tube. The fluorescein on the unbroken strands remained attached to the beads in the tube and was re-suspended with 50µL of PBS. A fluorescence reader was used to measure the fluorescence for both the re-suspended beads and supernatant. To prove that we are measuring DSB, we tested dosimeter response with two different lengths of attached DNA strands (1 and 4 kilo-base pair). Results: The probability of DSB at the dose levels of 5, 10, 25, and 50 Gy were 0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.19, respectively, while the coefficients of variation were 0.14, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. The 4 kilo-base-pair dosimeter produced 5.3 times the response of the 1 kilo-base-pair dosimeter. Conclusion: The DNA dosimeter yields a measurable response to dose that scales with the DNA strand length. The goal now is to refine the dosimeter fabrication to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation for the lower doses. This work was supported in part by Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan) and CPRIT (RP140105)

  16. DNA double-strand break repair: a theoretical framework and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Philip J; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A; Chapman, S Jon

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed as a result of genotoxic insults, such as exogenous ionizing radiation, and are among the most serious types of DNA damage. One of the earliest molecular responses following DSB formation is the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, giving rise to γH2AX. Many copies of γH2AX are generated at DSBs and can be detected in vitro as foci using well-established immuno-histochemical methods. It has previously been shown that anti-γH2AX antibodies, modified by the addition of the cell-penetrating peptide TAT and a fluorescent or radionuclide label, can be used to visualize and quantify DSBs in vivo. Moreover, when labelled with a high amount of the short-range, Auger electron-emitting radioisotope, (111)In, the amount of DNA damage within a cell can be increased, leading to cell death. In this report, we develop a mathematical model that describes how molecular processes at individual sites of DNA damage give rise to quantifiable foci. Equations that describe stochastic mean behaviours at individual DSB sites are derived and parametrized using population-scale, time-series measurements from two different cancer cell lines. The model is used to examine two case studies in which the introduction of an antibody (anti-γH2AX-TAT) that targets a key component in the DSB repair pathway influences system behaviour. We investigate: (i) how the interaction between anti-γH2AX-TAT and γH2AX effects the kinetics of H2AX phosphorylation and DSB repair and (ii) model behaviour when the anti-γH2AX antibody is labelled with Auger electron-emitting (111)In and can thus instigate additional DNA damage. This work supports the conclusion that DSB kinetics are largely unaffected by the introduction of the anti-γH2AX antibody, a result that has been validated experimentally, and hence the hypothesis that the use of anti-γH2AX antibody to quantify DSBs does not violate the image tracer principle. Moreover, it provides a novel model of DNA damage

  17. Do Exogenous DNA Double-Strand Breaks Change Incomplete Synapsis and Chiasma Localization in the Grasshopper Stethophyma grossum?

    OpenAIRE

    Calvente, Adela; Santos, Juan Luis; Rufas, Julio S.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination occurs as a programmed event that initiates by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that give rise to the formation of crossovers that are observed as chiasmata. Chiasmata are essential for the accurate chromosome segregation and the generation of new combinations of parental alleles. Some treatments that provoke exogenous DSBs also lead to alterations in the recombination pattern of some species in which full homologous synapsis is achieved at pachytene. We ...

  18. Self double-stranded (ds)DNA induces IL-1β production from human monocytes by activating NLRP3 inflammasome in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Sun; Kang, Youna; Lee, Naeun; Wahl, Elizabeth R; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Ki Soo; Lazova, Rossitza; Kang, Insoo

    2013-02-15

    The pathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the autoimmune response against self nuclear Ags, including dsDNA. The increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β has been found in the cutaneous lesion and PBMCs from lupus patients, suggesting a potential involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of lupus. IL-1β is produced primarily by innate immune cells such as monocytes and can promote a Th17 cell response, which is increased in lupus. IL-1β production requires cleaving pro-IL-β into IL-1β by the caspase-1-associated multiprotein complex called inflammasomes. In this study we show that self dsDNA induces IL-1β production from human monocytes dependent on serum or purified IgG containing anti-dsDNA Abs by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and K(+) efflux were involved in this activation. Knocking down the NLRP3 or inhibiting caspase-1, ROS, and K(+) efflux decreased IL-1β production. Supernatants from monocytes treated with a combination of self dsDNA and anti-dsDNA Ab(+) serum promoted IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells in an IL-1β-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights in lupus pathogenesis by demonstrating that self dsDNA together with its autoantibodies induces IL-1β production from human monocytes by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through inducing ROS synthesis and K(+) efflux, leading to the increased Th17 cell response.

  19. Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa [Montreal Children’s Hospital, Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Audemard, Eric [McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian [Montreal Children’s Hospital, Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rak, Janusz, E-mail: janusz.rak@mcgill.ca [Montreal Children’s Hospital, Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • Oncogenic H-ras stimulates emission of extracellular vesicles containing double-stranded DNA. • Vesicle-associated extracellular DNA contains mutant N-ras sequences. • Vesicles mediate intercellular transfer of mutant H-ras DNA to normal fibroblasts where it remains for several weeks. • Fibroblasts exposed to vesicles containing H-ras DNA exhibit increased proliferation. - Abstract: Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30 days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

  20. Molecular Process Producing Oncogene Fusion in Lung Cancer Cells by Illegitimate Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Seki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of oncogenes by fusion to partner genes, caused by chromosome translocation and inversion, is a critical genetic event driving lung carcinogenesis. Fusions of the tyrosine kinase genes ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase, ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1, or RET (rearranged during transfection occur in 1%–5% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs and their products constitute therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitory drugs. Interestingly, ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions occur preferentially in LADCs of never- and light-smokers, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms that cause these rearrangements are smoking-independent. In this study, using previously reported next generation LADC genome sequencing data of the breakpoint junction structures of chromosome rearrangements that cause oncogenic fusions in human cancer cells, we employed the structures of breakpoint junctions of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions in 41 LADC cases as “traces” to deduce the molecular processes of chromosome rearrangements caused by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and illegitimate joining. We found that gene fusion was produced by illegitimate repair of DSBs at unspecified sites in genomic regions of a few kb through DNA synthesis-dependent or -independent end-joining pathways, according to DSB type. This information will assist in the understanding of how oncogene fusions are generated and which etiological factors trigger them.

  1. Replication independent DNA double-strand break retention may prevent genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornthanakasem Wichai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global hypomethylation and genomic instability are cardinal features of cancers. Recently, we established a method for the detection of DNA methylation levels at sites close to endogenous DNA double strand breaks (EDSBs, and found that those sites have a higher level of methylation than the rest of the genome. Interestingly, the most significant differences between EDSBs and genomes were observed when cells were cultured in the absence of serum. DNA methylation levels on each genomic location are different. Therefore, there are more replication-independent EDSBs (RIND-EDSBs located in methylated genomic regions. Moreover, methylated and unmethylated RIND-EDSBs are differentially processed. Euchromatins respond rapidly to DSBs induced by irradiation with the phosphorylation of H2AX, γ-H2AX, and these initiate the DSB repair process. During G0, most DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end-joining repair (NHEJ, mediated by at least two distinct pathways; the Ku-mediated and the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM-mediated. The ATM-mediated pathway is more precise. Here we explored how cells process methylated RIND-EDSBs and if RIND-EDSBs play a role in global hypomethylation-induced genomic instability. Results We observed a significant number of methylated RIND-EDSBs that are retained within deacetylated chromatin and free from an immediate cellular response to DSBs, the γ-H2AX. When cells were treated with tricostatin A (TSA and the histones became hyperacetylated, the amount of γ-H2AX-bound DNA increased and the retained RIND-EDSBs were rapidly repaired. When NHEJ was simultaneously inhibited in TSA-treated cells, more EDSBs were detected. Without TSA, a sporadic increase in unmethylated RIND-EDSBs could be observed when Ku-mediated NHEJ was inhibited. Finally, a remarkable increase in RIND-EDSB methylation levels was observed when cells were depleted of ATM, but not of Ku86 and RAD51. Conclusions Methylated RIND-EDSBs are

  2. Parp1-XRCC1 and the repair of DNA double strand breaks in mouse round spermatids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Emad A. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Boer, Peter de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Philippens, Marielle E.P.; Kal, Henk B. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooij, Dirk G. de, E-mail: d.g.derooij@uu.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-05

    The repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in male germ cells is slower and differently regulated compared to that in somatic cells. Round spermatids show DSB repair and are radioresistant to apoptosis induction. Mutation induction studies using ionizing irradiation, indicated a high frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) in the next generation. Since they are in a G1 comparable stage of the cell cycle, haploid spermatids are expected to repair DSBs by the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ). However, immunohistochemical evidence indicates that not all components of the classical NHEJ pathway are available since the presence of DNA-PKcs cannot be shown. Here, we demonstrate that round spermatids, as well as most other types of male germ cells express both Parp1 and XRCC1. Therefore, we have determined whether the alternative Parp1/XRCC1 dependent NHEJ pathway is active in these nuclei and also have tested for classical NHEJ activity by a genetic method. To evaluate DSB repair in SCID mice, deficient for DNA-PKcs, and to study the involvement of the Parp1/XRCC1 dependent NHEJ pathway in round spermatids, the loss of {gamma}-H2AX foci after irradiation has been determined in nucleus spreads of round spermatids of SCID mice and in nucleus spreads and histological sections of Parp1-inhibited mice and their respective controls. Results show that around half of the breaks in randomly selected round spermatids are repaired between 1 and 8 h after irradiation. The repair of 16% of the induced DSBs requires DNA-PKcs and 21% Parp1. Foci numbers in the Parp1-inhibited testes tend to be higher in spermatids of all epithelial stages reaching significance in stages I-III which indicates an active Parp1/XRCC1 pathway in round spermatids and a decreased repair capacity in later round spermatid stages. In Parp1-inhibited SCID mice only 14.5% of the breaks were repaired 8 h after irradiation indicating additivity of the two NHEJ pathways in round spermatids.

  3. End-joining repair of double-strand breaks in Drosophila melanogaster is largely DNA ligase IV independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mitch; Radut, Dora; Sekelsky, Jeff J

    2004-12-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks can occur by either nonhomologous end joining or homologous recombination. Most nonhomologous end joining requires a specialized ligase, DNA ligase IV (Lig4). In Drosophila melanogaster, double-strand breaks created by excision of a P element are usually repaired by a homologous recombination pathway called synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA). SDSA requires strand invasion mediated by DmRad51, the product of the spn-A gene. In spn-A mutants, repair proceeds through a nonconservative pathway involving the annealing of microhomologies found within the 17-nt overhangs produced by P excision. We report here that end joining of P-element breaks in the absence of DmRad51 does not require Drosophila LIG4. In wild-type flies, SDSA is sometimes incomplete, and repair is finished by an end-joining pathway that also appears to be independent of LIG4. Loss of LIG4 does not increase sensitivity to ionizing radiation in late-stage larvae, but lig4 spn-A double mutants do show heightened sensitivity relative to spn-A single mutants. Together, our results suggest that a LIG4-independent end-joining pathway is responsible for the majority of double-strand break repair in the absence of homologous recombination in flies.

  4. Variations in the Processing of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Along 60-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Currell, Frederick J. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Kacperek, Andrzej [Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Bebbington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Schettino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.schettino@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variations in induction and repair of DNA damage along the proton path, after a previous report on the increasing biological effectiveness along clinically modulated 60-MeV proton beams. Methods and Materials: Human skin fibroblast (AG01522) cells were irradiated along a monoenergetic and a modulated spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beam used for treating ocular melanoma at the Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Wirral, Liverpool, United Kingdom. The DNA damage response was studied using the 53BP1 foci formation assay. The linear energy transfer (LET) dependence was studied by irradiating the cells at depths corresponding to entrance, proximal, middle, and distal positions of SOBP and the entrance and peak position for the pristine beam. Results: A significant amount of persistent foci was observed at the distal end of the SOBP, suggesting complex residual DNA double-strand break damage induction corresponding to the highest LET values achievable by modulated proton beams. Unlike the directly irradiated, medium-sharing bystander cells did not show any significant increase in residual foci. Conclusions: The DNA damage response along the proton beam path was similar to the response of X rays, confirming the low-LET quality of the proton exposure. However, at the distal end of SOBP our data indicate an increased complexity of DNA lesions and slower repair kinetics. A lack of significant induction of 53BP1 foci in the bystander cells suggests a minor role of cell signaling for DNA damage under these conditions.

  5. The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Darius; Krupovic, Mart; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-06-02

    Genomic DNA replication is a complex process that involves multiple proteins. Cellular DNA replication systems are broadly classified into only two types, bacterial and archaeo-eukaryotic. In contrast, double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses feature a much broader diversity of DNA replication machineries. Viruses differ greatly in both completeness and composition of their sets of DNA replication proteins. In this study, we explored whether there are common patterns underlying this extreme diversity. We identified and analyzed all major functional groups of DNA replication proteins in all available proteomes of dsDNA viruses. Our results show that some proteins are common to viruses infecting all domains of life and likely represent components of the ancestral core set. These include B-family polymerases, SF3 helicases, archaeo-eukaryotic primases, clamps and clamp loaders of the archaeo-eukaryotic type, RNase H and ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We also discovered a clear correlation between genome size and self-sufficiency of viral DNA replication, the unanticipated dominance of replicative helicases and pervasive functional associations among certain groups of DNA replication proteins. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive view on the diversity and evolution of replication systems in the DNA virome and uncover fundamental principles underlying the orchestration of viral DNA replication. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Double-stranded RNA attenuates the barrier function of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bálint

    Full Text Available Circulating RNA may result from excessive cell damage or acute viral infection and can interact with vascular endothelial cells. Despite the obvious clinical implications associated with the presence of circulating RNA, its pathological effects on endothelial cells and the governing molecular mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. We analyzed the effects of double stranded RNA on primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs. The effect of natural and synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA on hPAECs was investigated using trans-endothelial electric resistance, molecule trafficking, calcium (Ca(2+ homeostasis, gene expression and proliferation studies. Furthermore, the morphology and mechanical changes of the cells caused by synthetic dsRNA was followed by in-situ atomic force microscopy, by vascular-endothelial cadherin and F-actin staining. Our results indicated that exposure of hPAECs to synthetic dsRNA led to functional deficits. This was reflected by morphological and mechanical changes and an increase in the permeability of the endothelial monolayer. hPAECs treated with synthetic dsRNA accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the proliferation rate of the cells in the presence of synthetic dsRNA was significantly decreased. Furthermore, we found that natural and synthetic dsRNA modulated Ca(2+ signaling in hPAECs by inhibiting the sarco-endoplasmic Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA which is involved in the regulation of the intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis and thus cell growth. Even upon synthetic dsRNA stimulation silencing of SERCA3 preserved the endothelial monolayer integrity. Our data identify novel mechanisms by which dsRNA can disrupt endothelial barrier function and these may be relevant in inflammatory processes.

  7. DNA double strand break (DSB) induction and cell survival in iodine-enhanced computed tomography (CT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Seth W.; Stewart, Robert D.; Jenkins, Peter A.; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-08-01

    A multi-scale Monte Carlo model is proposed to assess the dosimetric and biological impact of iodine-based contrast agents commonly used in computed tomography. As presented, the model integrates the general purpose MCNP6 code system for larger-scale radiation transport and dose assessment with the Monte Carlo damage simulation to determine the sub-cellular characteristics and spatial distribution of initial DNA damage. The repair-misrepair-fixation model is then used to relate DNA double strand break (DSB) induction to reproductive cell death. Comparisons of measured and modeled changes in reproductive cell survival for ultrasoft characteristic k-shell x-rays (0.25-4.55 keV) up to orthovoltage (200-500 kVp) x-rays indicate that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for DSB induction is within a few percent of the RBE for cell survival. Because of the very short range of secondary electrons produced by low energy x-ray interactions with contrast agents, the concentration and subcellular distribution of iodine within and near cellular targets have a significant impact on the estimated absorbed dose and number of DSB produced in the cell nucleus. For some plausible models of the cell-level distribution of contrast agent, the model predicts an increase in RBE-weighted dose (RWD) for the endpoint of DSB induction of 1.22-1.40 for a 5-10 mg ml-1 iodine concentration in blood compared to an RWD increase of 1.07  ±  0.19 from a recent clinical trial. The modeled RWD of 2.58  ±  0.03 is also in good agreement with the measured RWD of 2.3  ±  0.5 for an iodine concentration of 50 mg ml-1 relative to no iodine. The good agreement between modeled and measured DSB and cell survival estimates provides some confidence that the presented model can be used to accurately assess biological dose for other concentrations of the same or different contrast agents.

  8. Evaluation of the neutral comet assay for detection of alpha-particle induced DNA-double-strand-breaks; Evaluation des Comet Assays bei neutralem pH zur Detektion von α-Partikel induzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbruechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Daniela

    2010-10-20

    Aim of this study was to differentiate DNA-double-strand-breaks from DNA-single-strand-breaks on a single cell level, using the comet assay after α- and γ-irradiation. Americium-241 was used as a alpha-irradiation-source, Caesium-137 was used for γ-irradiation. Because of technical problems with both the neutral and alkaline comet assay after irradiation of gastric cancer cells and human lymphocytes, no definite differentiation of DNA-damage was possible.

  9. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret R Adams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  10. Nitric oxide mediated DNA double strand breaks induced in proliferating bystander cells after {alpha}-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Shaopeng [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-02-03

    Low-dose {alpha}-particle exposures comprise 55% of the environmental dose to the human population and have been shown to induce bystander responses. Previous studies showed that bystander effect could induce stimulated cell growth or genotoxicity, such as excessive DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), micronuclei (MN), mutation and decreased cell viability, in the bystander cell population. In the present study, the stimulated cell growth, detected with flow cytometry (FCM), and the increased MN and DSB, detected with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) immunofluorescence, were observed simultaneously in the bystander cell population, which were co-cultured with cells irradiated by low-dose {alpha}-particles (1-10 cGy) in a mixed system. Further studies indicated that nitric oxide (NO) and transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) played very important roles in mediating cell proliferation and inducing MN and DSB in the bystander population through treatments with NO scavenger and TGF-{beta}1 antibody. Low-concentrations of NO, generated by spermidine, were proved to induce cell proliferation, DSB and MN simultaneously. The proliferation or shortened cell cycle in bystander cells gave them insufficient time to repair DSBs. The increased cell division might increase the probability of carcinogenesis in bystander cells since cell proliferation increased the probability of mutation from the mis-repaired or un-repaired DSBs.

  11. The Moss Physcomitrella patens Is Hyperresistant to DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by γ-Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yokota

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the moss Physcomitrella patens cells are more resistant to ionizing radiation than animal cells. Protoplasts derived from P. patens protonemata were irradiated with γ-rays of 50–1000 gray (Gy. Clonogenicity of the protoplasts decreased in a γ-ray dose-dependent manner. The dose that decreased clonogenicity by half (LD50 was 277 Gy, which indicated that the moss protoplasts were 200-times more radioresistant than human cells. To investigate the mechanism of radioresistance in P. patens, we irradiated protoplasts on ice and initial double-strand break (DSB yields were measured using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay. Induced DSBs linearly increased dependent on the γ-ray dose and the DSB yield per Gb DNA per Gy was 2.2. The DSB yield in P. patens was half to one-third of those reported in mammals and yeasts, indicating that DSBs are difficult to induce in P. patens. The DSB yield per cell per LD50 dose in P. patens was 311, which is three- to six-times higher than those in mammals and yeasts, implying that P. patens is hyperresistant to DSBs. Physcomitrella patens is indicated to possess unique mechanisms to inhibit DSB induction and provide resistance to high numbers of DSBs.

  12. Processing by MRE11 is involved in the sensitivity of subtelomeric regions to DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Keiko; Han, Limei; Miller, Douglas; Murnane, John P

    2015-09-18

    The caps on the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, keep the ends of chromosomes from appearing as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevent chromosome fusion. However, subtelomeric regions are sensitive to DSBs, which in normal cells is responsible for ionizing radiation-induced cell senescence and protection against oncogene-induced replication stress, but promotes chromosome instability in cancer cells that lack cell cycle checkpoints. We have previously reported that I-SceI endonuclease-induced DSBs near telomeres in a human cancer cell line are much more likely to generate large deletions and gross chromosome rearrangements (GCRs) than interstitial DSBs, but found no difference in the frequency of I-SceI-induced small deletions at interstitial and subtelomeric DSBs. We now show that inhibition of MRE11 3'-5' exonuclease activity with Mirin reduces the frequency of large deletions and GCRs at both interstitial and subtelomeric DSBs, but has little effect on the frequency of small deletions. We conclude that large deletions and GCRs are due to excessive processing of DSBs, while most small deletions occur during classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ). The sensitivity of subtelomeric regions to DSBs is therefore because they are prone to undergo excessive processing, and not because of a deficiency in C-NHEJ in subtelomeric regions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. AUNIP/C1orf135 directs DNA double-strand breaks towards the homologous recombination repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiangman; Chen, Hongxia; Han, Jinhua; He, Hanqing; Huen, Michael S Y; Feng, Xin-Hua; Liu, Ting; Huang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired by either homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Here, we identify AUNIP/C1orf135, a largely uncharacterized protein, as a key determinant of DSB repair pathway choice. AUNIP physically interacts with CtIP and is required for efficient CtIP accumulation at DSBs. AUNIP possesses intrinsic DNA-binding ability with a strong preference for DNA substrates that mimic structures generated at stalled replication forks. This ability to bind DNA is necessary for the recruitment of AUNIP and its binding partner CtIP to DSBs, which in turn drives CtIP-dependent DNA-end resection and HR repair. Accordingly, loss of AUNIP or ablation of its ability to bind to DNA results in cell hypersensitivity toward a variety of DSB-inducing agents, particularly those that induce replication-associated DSBs. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which DSBs are recognized and channeled to the HR repair pathway.DNA double strand breaks can be repaired by homology-independent or homology-directed mechanisms. The choice between these pathways is a key event for genomic stability maintenance. Here the authors identify and characterize AUNIP, as a factor involved in tilting the balance towards homology repair.

  14. New insights on single-stranded versus double-stranded DNA library preparation for ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Carøe, Christian; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    An innovative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library preparation method has sparked great interest among ancient DNA (aDNA) researchers, especially after reports of endogenous DNA content increases >20-fold in some samples. To investigate the behavior of this method, we generated ssDNA and conventio...

  15. Analysis of guanine oxidation products in double-stranded DNA and proposed guanine oxidation pathways in single-stranded, double-stranded or quadruplex DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morikawa, Masayuki; Kino, Katsuhito; Oyoshi, Takanori; Suzuki, Masayo; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    .... In a previous study using 6-mer DNA d(TGGGGT), which is the shortest oligomer capable of forming quadruplex structures, we demonstrated that guanine oxidation products of quadruplex DNA differ from those of single-stranded DNA...

  16. Evidence that single-stranded DNA breaks are a normal feature of koala sperm chromatin, while double-stranded DNA breaks are indicative of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Yeng Peng; López-Fernández, Carmen; Arroyo, F; Johnston, Stephen D; Holt, William V; Gosalvez, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we have used single and double comet assays to differentiate between single- and double-stranded DNA damage in an effort to refine the interpretation of DNA damage in mature koala spermatozoa. We have also investigated the likelihood that single-stranded DNA breakage is part of the natural spermiogenic process in koalas, where its function would be the generation of structural bends in the DNA molecule so that appropriate packaging and compaction can occur. Koala spermatozoa were examined using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) and comet assays to investigate non-orthodox double-stranded DNA. Comet assays were conducted under 1) neutral conditions; and 2) neutral followed by alkaline conditions (double comet assay); the latter technique enabled simultaneous visualisation of both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks. Following the SCDt, there was a continuum of nuclear morphotypes, ranging from no apparent DNA fragmentation to those with highly dispersed and degraded chromatin. Dispersion morphotypes were mirrored by a similar diversity of comet morphologies that could be further differentiated using the double comet assay. The majority of koala spermatozoa had nuclei with DNA abasic-like residues that produced single-tailed comets following the double comet assay. The ubiquity of these residues suggests that constitutive alkali-labile sites are part of the structural configuration of the koala sperm nucleus. Spermatozoa with 'true' DNA fragmentation exhibited a continuum of comet morphologies, ranging from a more severe form of alkaline-susceptible DNA with a diffuse single tail to nuclei that exhibited both single- and double-stranded breaks with two comet tails.

  17. DNA ligase 1 deficient plants display severe growth defects and delayed repair of both DNA single and double strand breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Clifford M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligase enzymes catalyse the joining of adjacent polynucleotides and as such play important roles in DNA replication and repair pathways. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligases with distinct roles in DNA metabolism, with clear differences in the functions of DNA ligase orthologues between animals, yeast and plants. DNA ligase 1, present in all eukaryotes, plays critical roles in both DNA repair and replication and is indispensable for cell viability. Results Knockout mutants of atlig1 are lethal. Therefore, RNAi lines with reduced levels of AtLIG1 were generated to allow the roles and importance of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in DNA metabolism to be elucidated. Viable plants were fertile but displayed a severely stunted and stressed growth phenotype. Cell size was reduced in the silenced lines, whilst flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase of cells in S-phase in atlig1-RNAi lines relative to wild type plants. Comet assay analysis of isolated nuclei showed atlig1-RNAi lines displayed slower repair of single strand breaks (SSBs and also double strand breaks (DSBs, implicating AtLIG1 in repair of both these lesions. Conclusion Reduced levels of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in the silenced lines are sufficient to support plant development but result in retarded growth and reduced cell size, which may reflect roles for AtLIG1 in both replication and repair. The finding that DNA ligase 1 plays an important role in DSB repair in addition to its known function in SSB repair, demonstrates the existence of a previously uncharacterised novel pathway, independent of the conserved NHEJ. These results indicate that DNA ligase 1 functions in both DNA replication and in repair of both ss and dsDNA strand breaks in higher plants.

  18. Simple Elastic Network Models for Exhaustive Analysis of Long Double-Stranded DNA Dynamics with Sequence Geometry Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Isami, Shuhei; Nishimori, Hiraku; Awazu, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Simple elastic network models of DNA were developed to reveal the structure-dynamics relationships for several nucleotide sequences. First, we propose a simple all-atom elastic network model of DNA that can explain the profiles of temperature factors for several crystal structures of DNA. Second, we propose a coarse-grained elastic network model of DNA, where each nucleotide is described only by one node. This model could effectively reproduce the detailed dynamics obtained with the all-atom elastic network model according to the sequence-dependent geometry. Through normal-mode analysis for the coarse-grained elastic network model, we exhaustively analyzed the dynamic features of a large number of long DNA sequences, approximately $\\sim 150$ bp in length. These analyses revealed positive correlations between the nucleosome-forming abilities and the inter-strand fluctuation strength of double-stranded DNA for several DNA sequences.

  19. Simple Elastic Network Models for Exhaustive Analysis of Long Double-Stranded DNA Dynamics with Sequence Geometry Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Isami

    Full Text Available Simple elastic network models of DNA were developed to reveal the structure-dynamics relationships for several nucleotide sequences. First, we propose a simple all-atom elastic network model of DNA that can explain the profiles of temperature factors for several crystal structures of DNA. Second, we propose a coarse-grained elastic network model of DNA, where each nucleotide is described only by one node. This model could effectively reproduce the detailed dynamics obtained with the all-atom elastic network model according to the sequence-dependent geometry. Through normal-mode analysis for the coarse-grained elastic network model, we exhaustively analyzed the dynamic features of a large number of long DNA sequences, approximately ∼150 bp in length. These analyses revealed positive correlations between the nucleosome-forming abilities and the inter-strand fluctuation strength of double-stranded DNA for several DNA sequences.

  20. Radiation-induced DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Modulations by Treatments with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extracts: A Cancer Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boonsirichai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation brings deleterious effects upon human cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damages. Antioxidants have been shown to confer protective effects on irradiated normal cells. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a widely used nutritional supplement with antioxidant activities. This report showed that antioxidant-containing supplements, in addition to protecting normal cells, could protect cancer cells against genotoxic effects of gamma radiation. -H2AX immunofluorescent foci were utilized as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were irradiated with 2-8 Gy gamma radiation. A linear relationship between the formation of -H2AX foci and radiation dose was observed with an average of 10 foci per cell per Gy. A 30-minute pretreatment of the cells with either the aqueous or the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves could partially protect the cells from radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. A pretreatment with 500 µg/mL aqueous extract reduced the number of foci formed by 15% when assayed at 30 minutes post-irradiation. The ethanolic extract was more effective; 500 µg/mL of its concentration reduced the number of foci among irradiated cells by 30%. The results indicated that irradiated cancer cells responded similarly to nutritional supplements containing antioxidants as irradiated normal cells. These natural antioxidants could confer protective effects upon cancer cells against gamma radiation

  1. Granulocytes affect double-strand break repair assays in primary human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Sandrine; Bhatia, Ravi; Bhatia, Smita; O'Connor, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Patients who develop therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia after autologous-hematopoietic stem cell (aHCT) transplant show lower expression levels of DNA repair genes in their pre-aHCT CD34+ cells. To investigate whether this leads to functional differences in DNA repair abilities measurable in patients, we adapted two plasmid-based host-cell reactivation assays for use in primary lymphocytes. Prior to applying these assays to patients who underwent aHCT, we wanted first to verify whether sample preparation affected repair measurements, as patient samples were simply depleted of erythrocytes (with hetastarch) prior to freezing, which is not the classical way to prepare lymphocytes prior to DNA repair experiments (with a density gradient). We show here that lymphocytes from healthy donors freshly prepared with hetastarch show systematically a higher level of double-strand break repair as compared to when prepared with a density gradient, but that most of this difference disappears after samples were frozen. Several observations points to granulocytes as the source for this effect of sample preparation on repair: 1) removal of granulocytes makes the effect disappear, 2) DSB repair measurements for the same individual correlate to the percentage of granulocytes in the sample and 3) nucleofection in presence of granulocytes increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neighboring lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner (R2 of 0.95). These results indicate that co-purified granulocytes, possibly through the release of ROS at time of transfection, can lead to an enhanced repair in lymphocytes that obfuscates any evaluation of inter individual differences in repair as measured by host-cell reactivation. As a result, hetastarch-prepared samples are likely unsuitable for the assessment of DSB repair in primary cells with that type of assay. Granulocyte contamination that exists after a density gradient preparation, although much more limited, could

  2. Non-redundant Functions of ATM and DNA-PKcs in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Caron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs elicit the so-called DNA damage response (DDR, largely relying on ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs, two members of the PI3K-like kinase family, whose respective functions during the sequential steps of the DDR remains controversial. Using the DIvA system (DSB inducible via AsiSI combined with high-resolution mapping and advanced microscopy, we uncovered that both ATM and DNA-PKcs spread in cis on a confined region surrounding DSBs, independently of the pathway used for repair. However, once recruited, these kinases exhibit non-overlapping functions on end joining and γH2AX domain establishment. More specifically, we found that ATM is required to ensure the association of multiple DSBs within “repair foci.” Our results suggest that ATM acts not only on chromatin marks but also on higher-order chromatin organization to ensure repair accuracy and survival.

  3. Rad50 zinc hook is important for the Mre11 complex to bind chromosomal DNA double-stranded breaks and initiate various DNA damage responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Shi, Linda Z; Truong, Lan N; Lu, Chi-Sheng; Razavian, Niema; Li, Yongjiang; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Berns, Michael W; Wu, Xiaohua

    2012-09-14

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays critical roles in checkpoint activation and double-stranded break (DSB) repair. The Rad50 zinc hook domain mediates zinc-dependent intercomplex associations of MRN, which is important for DNA tethering. Studies in yeast suggest that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is essential for MRN functions, but its role in mammalian cells is not clear. We demonstrated that the human Rad50 hook mutants are severely defective in various DNA damage responses including ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) activation, homologous recombination, sensitivity to IR, and activation of the ATR pathway. By using live cell imaging, we observed that the Rad50 hook mutants fail to be recruited to chromosomal DSBs, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the severe defects observed for the Rad50 hook mutants. In vitro analysis showed that Zn(2+) promotes wild type but not the hook mutant of MR to bind double-stranded DNA. In vivo, the Rad50 hook mutants are defective in being recruited to chromosomal DSBs in both H2AX-proficient and -deficient cells, suggesting that the Rad50 hook mutants are impaired in direct binding to chromosomal DSB ends. We propose that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is important for the initial binding of MRN to DSBs, leading to ATM activation to phosphorylate H2AX, which recruits more MRN to the DSB-flanking chromosomal regions. Our studies reveal a critical role for the Rad50 zinc hook domain in establishing and maintaining MRN recruitment to chromosomal DSBs and suggest an important mechanism of how the Rad50 zinc hook domain contributes to DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

  4. Rad50 Zinc Hook Is Important for the Mre11 Complex to Bind Chromosomal DNA Double-stranded Breaks and Initiate Various DNA Damage Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Shi, Linda Z.; Truong, Lan N.; Lu, Chi-Sheng; Razavian, Niema; Li, Yongjiang; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Berns, Michael W.; Wu, Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays critical roles in checkpoint activation and double-stranded break (DSB) repair. The Rad50 zinc hook domain mediates zinc-dependent intercomplex associations of MRN, which is important for DNA tethering. Studies in yeast suggest that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is essential for MRN functions, but its role in mammalian cells is not clear. We demonstrated that the human Rad50 hook mutants are severely defective in various DNA damage responses including ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) activation, homologous recombination, sensitivity to IR, and activation of the ATR pathway. By using live cell imaging, we observed that the Rad50 hook mutants fail to be recruited to chromosomal DSBs, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the severe defects observed for the Rad50 hook mutants. In vitro analysis showed that Zn2+ promotes wild type but not the hook mutant of MR to bind double-stranded DNA. In vivo, the Rad50 hook mutants are defective in being recruited to chromosomal DSBs in both H2AX-proficient and -deficient cells, suggesting that the Rad50 hook mutants are impaired in direct binding to chromosomal DSB ends. We propose that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is important for the initial binding of MRN to DSBs, leading to ATM activation to phosphorylate H2AX, which recruits more MRN to the DSB-flanking chromosomal regions. Our studies reveal a critical role for the Rad50 zinc hook domain in establishing and maintaining MRN recruitment to chromosomal DSBs and suggest an important mechanism of how the Rad50 zinc hook domain contributes to DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:22833675

  5. The interaction of the A and A* proteins of bacteriophage phi X174 with single-stranded and double-stranded phi X DNA in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ende, A.; Langeveld, S. A.; van Arkel, G. A.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The binding of the bacteriophage phi X 174-coded A and A* proteins to single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded (dsDNA ) phi X DNA was studied by electron microscopy. The interaction of the A* protein with ssDNA and dsDNA was also studied by sedimentation velocity centrifugation. It was shown that

  6. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Maynou, J.; Gawecka, J.E.; Benet, J.; Ward, W.S.

    2013-01-01

    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestim...

  7. Double-stranded RNA binding by the human cytomegalovirus PKR antagonist TRS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierle, Craig J; Semmens, Kathryn M; Geballe, Adam P

    2013-07-20

    Protein Kinase R (PKR) inhibits translation initiation following double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding and thereby represses viral replication. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes two noncanonical dsRNA binding proteins, IRS1 and TRS1, and the expression of at least one of these PKR antagonists is essential for HCMV replication. In this study, we investigated the role of dsRNA binding by TRS1 in PKR inhibition. We found that purified TRS1 binds specifically to dsRNA with an affinity lower than that of PKR. Point mutants in the TRS1 dsRNA binding domain that were deficient in rescuing the replication of vaccinia virus lacking its PKR antagonist E3L were unable to bind to dsRNA but retained the ability bind to PKR. Thus TRS1 binding to dsRNA and to PKR are separable. Overall, our results are most consistent with a model in which TRS1 binds simultaneously to both dsRNA and PKR to inhibit PKR activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Real Estate in the DNA Damage Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Ligases Home in on DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantuma, Nico P; Pfeiffer, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO are intimately connected with the cellular response to various types of DNA damage. A striking feature is the local accumulation of these proteinaceous post-translational modifications in the direct vicinity to DNA double-strand breaks, which plays a critical role in the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci. The functional significance of these modifications is the coordinated recruitment and removal of proteins involved in DNA damage signaling and repair in a timely manner. The central orchestrators of these processes are the ubiquitin and SUMO ligases that are responsible for accurately tagging a broad array of chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins thereby changing their behavior or destination. Despite many differences in the mode of action of these enzymes, they share some striking features that are of direct relevance for their function in the DNA damage response. In this review, we outline the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the recruitment of ubiquitin and SUMO ligases and discuss the importance of chromatin proximity in this process.

  9. The Deubiquitylating Enzyme USP4 Cooperates with CtIP in DNA Double-Strand Break End Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA end resection is a highly regulated and critical step in DNA double-stranded break (DSB repair. In higher eukaryotes, DSB resection is initiated by the collaborative action of CtIP and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN complex. Here, we find that the deubiquitylating enzyme USP4 directly participates in DSB resection and homologous recombination (HR. USP4 confers resistance to DNA damage-inducing agents. Mechanistically, USP4 interacts with CtIP and MRN via a specific, conserved region and the catalytic domain of USP4, respectively, and regulates CtIP recruitment to sites of DNA damage. We also find that USP4 autodeubiquitylation is essential for its HR functions. Collectively, our findings identify USP4 as a key regulator of DNA DSB end resection.

  10. Quantifying DNA double-strand breaks induced by site-specific endonucleases in living cells by ligation-mediated purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Catherine; Aymard, François; Caron, Pierre; Daburon, Virginie; Courilleau, Céline; Canitrot, Yvan; Legube, Gaëlle; Trouche, Didier

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the management and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) rely on the study of targeted DSBs that have been induced in living cells by the controlled activity of site-specific endonucleases, usually recombinant restriction enzymes. Here we describe a protocol for quantifying these endonuclease-induced DSBs; this quantification is essential to an interpretation of how DSBs are managed and repaired. A biotinylated double-stranded oligonucleotide is ligated to enzyme-cleaved genomic DNA, allowing the purification of the cleaved DNA on streptavidin beads. The extent of cleavage is then quantified either by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at a given site or at multiple sites by genome-wide techniques (e.g., microarrays or high-throughput sequencing). This technique, named ligation-mediated purification, can be performed in 2 d. It is more accurate and sensitive than existing alternative methods, and it is compatible with genome-wide analysis. It allows the amount of endonuclease-mediated breaks to be precisely compared between two conditions or across the genome, thereby giving insight into the influence of a given factor or of various chromatin contexts on local repair parameters.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity in Rats and Monkeys of coDbait: A Therapeutic Double-stranded DNA Oligonucleotide Conjugated to Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schlegel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased DNA repair activity in cancer cells is one of their primary mechanisms of resistance to current radio- and chemotherapies. The molecule coDbait is the first candidate in a new class of drugs that target the double-strand DNA break repair pathways with the aim of overcoming these resistances. coDbait is a 32-base pair (bp double-stranded DNA molecule with a cholesterol moiety covalently attached to its 5′-end to facilitate its cellular uptake. We report here the preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicology studies of subcutaneous coDbait administration in rodents and monkeys. Maximum plasma concentration occurred between 2 to 4 hours in rats and at 4 hours in monkeys. Increase in mean AUC0–24h was linear with dose reaching 0.5 mg·h/ml for the highest dose injected (32 mg for both rats and monkeys. No sex-related differences in maximum concentration (Cmax nor AUC0–24h were observed. We extrapolated these pharmacokinetic results to humans as the subcutaneous route has been selected for evaluation in clinical trials. Tri-weekly administration of coDbait (from 8 to 32 mg per dose for 4 weeks was overall well tolerated in rats and monkeys as no morbidity/mortality nor changes in clinical chemistry and histopathology parameters considered to be adverse effects have been observed.

  12. Molecular Basis for DNA Double-Strand Break Annealing and Primer Extension by an NHEJ DNA Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C. Brissett

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is one of the major DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathways. The mechanisms by which breaks are competently brought together and extended during NHEJ is poorly understood. As polymerases extend DNA in a 5′-3′ direction by nucleotide addition to a primer, it is unclear how NHEJ polymerases fill in break termini containing 3′ overhangs that lack a primer strand. Here, we describe, at the molecular level, how prokaryotic NHEJ polymerases configure a primer-template substrate by annealing the 3′ overhanging strands from opposing breaks, forming a gapped intermediate that can be extended in trans. We identify structural elements that facilitate docking of the 3′ ends in the active sites of adjacent polymerases and reveal how the termini act as primers for extension of the annealed break, thus explaining how such DSBs are extended in trans. This study clarifies how polymerases couple break-synapsis to catalysis, providing a molecular mechanism to explain how primer extension is achieved on DNA breaks.

  13. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-04-03

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate) can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Zapotoczny and Sekelsky.

  14. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells.

  15. The Caenorhabditis elegans WRN helicase promotes double-strand DNA break repair by mediating end resection and checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jin-Sun; Koo, Hyeon-Sook

    2017-07-01

    The protein associated with Werner syndrome (WRN), is involved in DNA repair, checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. To better understand the involvement of WRN in double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair, we analyzed the combinatorial role of WRN-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans WRN helicase, in conjunction with EXO-1 and DNA-2 nucleases. We found that WRN-1 cooperates with DNA-2 to resect DSB ends in a pathway acting in parallel to EXO-1. The wrn-1 mutants show an aberrant accumulation of replication protein A (RPA) and RAD-51, and the same pattern of accumulation is also observed in checkpoint-defective strains. We conclude that WRN-1 plays a conserved role in the resection of DSB ends and mediates checkpoint signaling, thereby influencing levels of RPA and RAD-51. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Repair on the go: E. coli maintains a high proliferation rate while repairing a chronic DNA double-strand break.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Darmon

    Full Text Available DNA damage checkpoints exist to promote cell survival and the faithful inheritance of genetic information. It is thought that one function of such checkpoints is to ensure that cell division does not occur before DNA damage is repaired. However, in unicellular organisms, rapid cell multiplication confers a powerful selective advantage, leading to a dilemma. Is the activation of a DNA damage checkpoint compatible with rapid cell multiplication? By uncoupling the initiation of DNA replication from cell division, the Escherichia coli cell cycle offers a solution to this dilemma. Here, we show that a DNA double-strand break, which occurs once per replication cycle, induces the SOS response. This SOS induction is needed for cell survival due to a requirement for an elevated level of expression of the RecA protein. Cell division is delayed, leading to an increase in average cell length but with no detectable consequence on mutagenesis and little effect on growth rate and viability. The increase in cell length caused by chronic DNA double-strand break repair comprises three components: two types of increase in the unit cell size, one independent of SfiA and SlmA, the other dependent of the presence of SfiA and the absence of SlmA, and a filamentation component that is dependent on the presence of either SfiA or SlmA. These results imply that chronic checkpoint induction in E. coli is compatible with rapid cell multiplication. Therefore, under conditions of chronic low-level DNA damage, the SOS checkpoint operates seamlessly in a cell cycle where the initiation of DNA replication is uncoupled from cell division.

  17. DNA and protein binding, double-strand DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of the antibacterial drug nalidixic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rangasamy; Ganeshpandian, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Palaniandavar, Mallayan; Muruganantham, Amsaveni; Ghosh, Swapan K; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-09-01

    The water soluble mixed ligand complexes [Cu(nal)(diimine)(H 2 O)](ClO 4 ) 1-4, where H(nal) is nalidixic acid and diimine is 2,2'-bipyridine (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (2), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3), and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4), have been isolated. The coordination geometry around Cu(II) in 1 and that in the Density Functional Theory optimized structures of 1-4 has been assessed as square pyramidal. The trend in DNA binding constants (K b ) determined using absorption spectral titration (K b : 1, 0.79±0.1DNA base pair. In contrast, 3 and 4 are involved in intimate hydrophobic interaction with DNA through the methyl substituents on phen ring, which is supported by viscosity and protein binding studies. DNA docking studies imply that 4 is involved preferentially in DNA major groove binding while 1-3 in minor groove binding and that all the complexes, upon removing the axially coordinated water molecule, bind in the major groove. Interestingly, 3 and 4 display prominent double-strand DNA cleavage while 1 and 2 effect only single-strand DNA cleavage in the absence of an activator. The complexes 3 and 4 show cytotoxicity higher than 1 and 2 against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7). The complex 4 induces apoptotic mode of cell death in cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of folic acid supplementation on single- and double-stranded RNA degradation in human colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Bjelakovic, Bojko; Jevtoci-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Langerholc, Tomaz; Jonovic, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Sufficient intake of folic acid is necessary for normal embryogenesis, fetal, and neonatal development. Folic acid facilitates nucleic acid internalization, and protects cellular DNA from nuclease degradation. Human milk contains enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, and antibodies, along with macrophages, that protect against infections and allergies. However, little to no information is available on the effects of folic acid supplementation on degradation of nucleic acids in human milk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the RNase activity (free and inhibitor-bound) in colostrum and mature milk, following folic acid supplementation. The study design included a total of 59 women, 27 of whom received 400 μg of folic acid daily periconceptionally and after. Folic acid supplementation increased the free RNase and polyadenylase activity following lactation. However, the increased RNase activity was not due to de novo enzyme synthesis, as the inhibitor-bound (latent) RNase activity was significantly lower and disappeared after one month. Folic acid reduced RNase activity by using double-stranded RNA as substrate. Data suggests that folic acid supplementation may improve viral RNAs degradation and mRNA degradation, but not dsRNA degradation, preserving in this way the antiviral defense.

  19. Probability of double-strand breaks in genome-sized DNA by {gamma}-ray decreases markedly as the DNA concentration increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwaki, Takafumi [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Mori, Toshiaki [Radiation Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kenichi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2013-05-07

    By use of the single-molecule observation, we count the number of DNA double-strand breaks caused by {gamma}-ray irradiation with genome-sized DNA molecules (166 kbp). We find that P{sub 1}, the number of double-strand breaks (DSBs) per base pair per unit Gy, is nearly inversely proportional to the DNA concentration above a certain threshold DNA concentration. The inverse relationship implies that the total number of DSBs remains essentially constant. We give a theoretical interpretation of our experimental results in terms of attack of reactive species upon DNA molecules, indicating the significance of the characteristics of genome-sized giant DNA as semiflexible polymers for the efficiency of DSBs.

  20. Mechanism of elimination of phosphorylated histone H2AX from chromatin after repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlova, M.P., E-mail: svetlma@mail.ru [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Tikhoretsky ave., 194064 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Solovjeva, L.V.; Tomilin, N.V. [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Tikhoretsky ave., 194064 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-01

    Covalent modifications of histones in chromatin play an important role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and DNA repair. Formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA is followed by the rapid local phosphorylation of the C-terminal serine in the replacement histone H2AX in megabase chromatin domains around DSBs and formation of discrete nuclear foci called {gamma}H2AX foci. This epigenetic modification of chromatin represents the 'histone code' for DNA damage signaling and repair and has been extensively studied during last decade. It is known that after DSB rejoining {gamma}H2AX foci are eliminated from the nucleus, but molecular mechanism of this elimination remains to be established. However, {gamma}H2AX elimination can serve as a useful marker of DSB repair in normal cells and tissues. In this paper the available data on kinetics and possible mechanisms of {gamma}H2AX elimination are reviewed.

  1. Combined Triplex/Duplex Invasion of Double-Stranded DNA by "Tail-Clamp" Peptide Nucleic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Larsen, H. J.; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    as determined by T-m measurements. Binding to double-stranded (ds) DNA occurred by combined triplex and duplex invasion as analyzed by permanganate probing. Furthermore, C-50 measurements revealed that tail-clamp PNAs consistently bound the dsDNA target more efficiently, and kinetics experiments revealed......"Tail-clamp" PNAs composed of a short (hexamer) homopyrimidine triplex forming domain and a (decamer) mixed sequence duplex forming extension have been designed. Tail-clamp PNAs display significantly increased binding to single-stranded DNA compared with PNAs lacking a duplex-forming extension...... that this was due to a dramatically reduced dissociation rate of such complexes. Increasing the PNA net charge also increased binding efficiency, but unexpectedly, this increase was much more pronounced for tailless-clamp PNAs than for tail-clamp PNAs. Finally, shortening the tail-clamp PNA triplex invasion moiety...

  2. Contribution of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 genotypes to oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-06-01

    The DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is thought to play a major role in double-strand break repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Very possibly, defective double-strand break repair of cells can lead to carcinogenesis. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to reveal the contribution of XRCC3 genotypes to individual oral cancer susceptibility. In this hospital-based research, the association of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539, rs28903081 genotypes with oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped. The results showed that there was significant differential distribution among oral cancer and controls in the genotypic (p=0.001428) and allelic (p=0.0013) frequencies of XRCC3 rs861539. As for the other polymorphisms, there was no difference between case and control groups. In gene-lifestyle interaction analysis, we have provided the first evidence showing that there is an obvious joint effect of XRCC3 rs861539 genotype with individual areca chewing habits on oral cancer risk. In conclusion, the T allele of XRCC3 rs861539, which has an interaction with areca chewing habit in oral carcinogenesis, may be an early marker for oral cancer in Taiwanese. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Ku70 and Ku80 homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for a role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Katsunori; Adachi, Yugo; Chiba, Keiko; Oguchi, Keiko; Takahashi, Hideo

    2002-03-01

    In higher organisms such as mammals and plants, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) rather than by homologous recombination. The NHEJ pathway is mediated by Ku, a heterodimer of approximately 70 and 80 kDa subunits, which contributes to various aspects of the metabolism of DNA ends in eukaryotic cells. On the basis of their predicted sequence similarity to human Ku70 and Ku80, cDNAs encoding the first plant homologues of these proteins (AtKu70 and AtKu80, respectively) have now been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. AtKu70 and AtKu80 share 28.6 and 22.5% amino acid sequence identity with human Ku70 and Ku80, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that AtKu70 and AtKu80 form a heterodimer, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed that this heterodimer binds to double-stranded telomeric and non-telomeric DNA sequences, but not to single-stranded DNA. The AtKu heterodimer also possesses single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activities. Reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction revealed that AtKu70 and AtKu80 genes are expressed widely but at low levels in plant tissues. The expression of these two genes in cultured cells was markedly increased in response to the generation of DSBs by bleomycin or methylmethane sulfonate. These results suggest that the evolutionarily conserved Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer functions in DSB repair by the NHEJ pathway in A. thaliana.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mhr1 can bind Xho I-induced mitochondrial DNA double-strand breaks in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Kanchanjunga; Robinson, Lucy C; Tatchell, Kelly; Harrison, Lynn

    2017-10-12

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintaining mtDNA integrity, but little is known about the proteins involved in mtDNA DSB repair. Here, we utilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model to identify proteins involved in mtDNA DSB repair. We show that Mhr1, a protein known to possess homologous DNA pairing activity in vitro, binds to mtDNA DSBs in vivo, indicating its involvement in mtDNA DSB repair. Our data also indicate that Yku80, a protein previously implicated in mtDNA DSB repair, does not compete with Mhr1 for binding to mtDNA DSBs. In fact, C-terminally tagged Yku80 could not be detected in yeast mitochondrial extracts. Therefore, we conclude that Mhr1, but not Yku80, is a potential mtDNA DSB repair factor in yeast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide mapping of nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences links DNA replication origins to chromosomal double-strand break formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenglez, Sandrine; Hermand, Damien; Decottignies, Anabelle

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) threaten genome integrity and repair of these lesions is often mutagenic. How and where DSBs are formed is a major question conveniently addressed in simple model organisms like yeast. NUMTs, nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, are present in most eukaryotic genomes and probably result from the capture of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments into chromosomal breaks. NUMT formation is ongoing and was reported to cause de novo human genetic diseases. Study of NUMTs is likely to contribute to the understanding of naturally occurring chromosomal breaks. We show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe NUMTs are exclusively located in noncoding regions with no preference for gene promoters and, when located into promoters, do not affect gene transcription level. Strikingly, most noncoding regions comprising NUMTs are also associated with a DNA replication origin (ORI). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that chromosomal NUMTs are probably not acting as ORI on their own but that mtDNA insertions occurred directly next to ORIs, suggesting that these loci may be prone to DSB formation. Accordingly, induction of excessive DNA replication origin firing, a phenomenon often associated with human tumor formation, resulted in frequent nucleotide deletion events within ORI3001 subtelomeric chromosomal locus, illustrating a novel aspect of DNA replication-driven genomic instability. How mtDNA is fragmented is another important issue that we addressed by sequencing experimentally induced NUMTs. This highlighted regions of S. pombe mtDNA prone to breaking. Together with an analysis of human NUMTs, we propose that these fragile sites in mtDNA may correspond to replication pause sites. PMID:20688779

  6. Depletion of the bloom syndrome helicase stimulates homology-dependent repair at double-strand breaks in human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibin; Smith, Krissy; Waldman, Barbara Criscuolo; Waldman, Alan S

    2011-04-03

    Mutation of BLM helicase causes Blooms syndrome, a disorder associated with genome instability, high levels of sister chromatid exchanges, and cancer predisposition. To study the influence of BLM on double-strand break (DSB) repair in human chromosomes, we stably transfected a normal human cell line with a DNA substrate that contained a thymidine kinase (tk)-neo fusion gene disrupted by the recognition site for endonuclease I-SceI. The substrate also contained a closely linked functional tk gene to serve as a recombination partner for the tk-neo fusion gene. We derived two cell lines each containing a single integrated copy of the DNA substrate. In these cell lines, a DSB was introduced within the tk-neo fusion gene by expression of I-SceI. DSB repair events that occurred via homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) were recovered by selection for G418-resistant clones. DSB repair was examined under conditions of either normal BLM expression or reduced BLM expression brought about by RNA interference. We report that BLM knockdown in both cell lines specifically increased the frequency of HR events that produced deletions by crossovers or single-strand annealing while leaving the frequency of gene conversions unchanged or reduced. We observed no change in the accuracy of individual HR events and no substantial alteration of the nature of individual NHEJ events when BLM expression was reduced. Our work provides the first direct evidence that BLM influences DSB repair pathway choice in human chromosomes and suggests that BLM deficiency can engender genomic instability by provoking an increased frequency of HR events of a potentially deleterious nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance Characteristics of Different Anti-Double-Stranded DNA Antibody Assays in the Monitoring of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mahler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to evaluate different anti-double-stranded DNA assays for their performance characteristics in monitoring disease activity fluctuations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods. 36 active SLE patients were followed monthly. At each study visit (total n=371, blood was collected and disease activity was scored using the SELENA-SLEDAI (excluding anti-dsDNA or complement components and by a physician’s global assessment (PGA. Four anti-dsDNA tests were compared. Linear mixed-effects models with random intercept and fixed slopes were used to evaluate the relationship between the longitudinal fluctuations of disease activity and anti-dsDNA titers. Results. At enrollment, positivity for QUANTA Lite and high-avidity anti-dsDNA assay was both 64% and significantly lower than anti-dsDNA positivity by QUANTA Flash (83% and CLIFT (96%. Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated that the change in clinical SELENA-SLEDAI scores was associated with the titers of all anti-dsDNA with QUANTA Flash yielding the highest marginal R2 (0.15; p<0.01. QUANTA Flash was the only anti-dsDNA assay significantly associated with the change in PGA (marginal R2=0.05; p<0.01. Conclusion. These data indicate that anti-dsDNA antibodies determined by QUANTA Flash have a value in monitoring SLE disease activity.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Second-Generation Invader Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) for Mixed-Sequence Recognition of Double-Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sau, Sujay P; Madsen, Andreas S; Podbevsek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The development of synthetic agents that recognize double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is a long-standing goal that is inspired by the promise for tools that detect, regulate, and modify genes. Progress has been made with triplex-forming oligonucleotides, peptide nucleic acids, and polyamides...

  9. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori, E-mail: fukumoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto, E-mail: nyama@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  10. Probing the Potential Role of Non-B DNA Structures at Yeast Meiosis-Specific DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Rucha; Khan, Krishnendu; Joshi, Mamata V; Hosur, Ramakrishna V; Muniyappa, K

    2017-05-23

    A plethora of evidence suggests that different types of DNA quadruplexes are widely present in the genome of all organisms. The existence of a growing number of proteins that selectively bind and/or process these structures underscores their biological relevance. Moreover, G-quadruplex DNA has been implicated in the alignment of four sister chromatids by forming parallel guanine quadruplexes during meiosis; however, the underlying mechanism is not well defined. Here we show that a G/C-rich motif associated with a meiosis-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae folds into G-quadruplex, and the C-rich sequence complementary to the G-rich sequence forms an i-motif. The presence of G-quadruplex or i-motif structures upstream of the green fluorescent protein-coding sequence markedly reduces the levels of gfp mRNA expression in S. cerevisiae cells, with a concomitant decrease in green fluorescent protein abundance, and blocks primer extension by DNA polymerase, thereby demonstrating the functional significance of these structures. Surprisingly, although S. cerevisiae Hop1, a component of synaptonemal complex axial/lateral elements, exhibits strong affinity to G-quadruplex DNA, it displays a much weaker affinity for the i-motif structure. However, the Hop1 C-terminal but not the N-terminal domain possesses strong i-motif binding activity, implying that the C-terminal domain has a distinct substrate specificity. Additionally, we found that Hop1 promotes intermolecular pairing between G/C-rich DNA segments associated with a meiosis-specific DSB site. Our results support the idea that the G/C-rich motifs associated with meiosis-specific DSBs fold into intramolecular G-quadruplex and i-motif structures, both in vitro and in vivo, thus revealing an important link between non-B form DNA structures and Hop1 in meiotic chromosome synapsis and recombination. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation effect of double strand DNA on the self-assembly of N-terminal domain of Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Shi, Enxian; Zhao, Yaqin; Yang, Binsheng

    2017-12-05

    Centrin is a member of the EF-hand super family of calcium-binding proteins, which can behave as a part of damage detector initiated the initiation of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Its self-assembly plays a causative role in fiber contraction associated with the cell division cycle and ciliogenesis. To explore the possible role of DNA in the process of centrin self-assembly, the aggregation properties of N-terminal domain of Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (N-EoCen) in the presence of DNA with or without metal ions are investigated. It is verified that metal ions, such as Ca2+ and Tb3+, can bind to N-EoCen with 2:1 stoichiometry by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Importantly, this study reports that double strand DNA (dsDNA) is capable of binding N-EoCen, changing conformation of protein and modulating centrin aggregation, as demonstrated by extensive biophysical assays. Interestingly, the open conformation of protein induced by metal ions may be favour of the interaction of protein with dsDNA. Nevertheless, the randomly coiled single strand DNA (ssDNA) is completely inefficient to the aggregation regulation. Furthermore, results reveal that hydrophobic site could play important role in the process. This finding may link to the potent roles of centrin in the NER process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of intra-molecular flexibility on the elastic property of double-stranded DNA film on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Zheng; Meng, Wei-Lie; Tang, Heng-Song; Zhang, Neng-Hui

    2017-05-01

    DNA film self-assembled or nanografted on a substrate, as a kind of soft matter, consists of fixed DNA chains endowed with negative charges and an aqueous solution full of cations, anions and water molecules. Their thermal/electrical/mechanical properties are closely related to the complex biodetection signals in nano-/micro-scale biosensors and other new genome technologies. This makes it important to properly characterize these properties. In this paper, the effect of flexible micro-scale configurations on the elastic moduli of DNA films is investigated. First, illuminated by Qiu’s sphere model, an alternative bead-chain model in terms of the Yukawa potential is presented for flexible intra-DNA configurations to describe interactions between DNA fragments. The effective charges of coarse-grained DNA beads could be derived, in which the empirical parameters are identified by curve fitting with Qiu’s experimental data. Second, the updated mesoscopic bead-chain model and the thought experiment of a continuum compression bar are used to compare the elastic moduli of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) films prepared by self-assembling and nanografting techniques. Configurational sampling is achieved via Monte Carlo simulation. Our predictions quantitatively or qualitatively agree well with the relevant experiments on the effective charge of dsDNA from low to moderate monovalent counterion concentration, immobilization deflection of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or dsDNA microcantilever with the variation of salt concentration, and elastic modulus of ssDNA film in the air. The results reveal that different solution environment stimulates the diverse mechanical properties of dsDNA film on a substrate, and the end effect (i.e. terminal group effect) makes self-assembling dsDNA film stiffer in the sense of the same average packing density.

  13. In Vitro Expansion of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alters DNA Double Strand Break Repair of Etoposide Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are of interest for use in diverse cellular therapies. Ex vivo expansion of MSCs intended for transplantation must result in generation of cells that maintain fidelity of critical functions. Previous investigations have identified genetic and phenotypic alterations of MSCs with in vitro passage, but little is known regarding how culturing influences the ability of MSCs to repair double strand DNA breaks (DSBs, the most severe of DNA lesions. To investigate the response to DSB stress with passage in vitro, primary human MSCs were exposed to etoposide (VP16 at various passages with subsequent evaluation of cellular damage responses and DNA repair. Passage number did not affect susceptibility to VP16 or the incidence and repair kinetics of DSBs. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ transcripts showed little alteration with VP16 exposure or passage; however, homologous recombination (HR transcripts were reduced following VP16 exposure with this decrease amplified as MSCs were passaged in vitro. Functional evaluations of NHEJ and HR showed that MSCs were unable to activate NHEJ repair following VP16 stress in cells after successive passage. These results indicate that ex vivo expansion of MSCs alters their ability to perform DSB repair, a necessary function for cells intended for transplantation.

  14. Adaptation of the neutral bacterial comet assay to assess antimicrobial-mediated DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLANKY, DIPESH; HAYDEL, SHELLEY E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism of action of a natural antibacterial clay mineral mixture, designated CB, by investigating the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Escherichia coli. To quantify DNA damage upon exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds, we modified a bacterial neutral comet assay, which primarily associates the general length of an electrophoresed chromosome, or comet, with the degree of DSB-associated DNA damage. To appropriately account for antimicrobial-mediated strand fragmentation, suitable control reactions consisting of exposures to water, ethanol, kanamycin, and bleomycin were developed and optimized for the assay. Bacterial exposure to the CB clay resulted in significantly longer comet lengths, compared to water and kanamycin exposures, suggesting that the induction of DNA DSBs contributes to the killing activity of this antibacterial clay mineral mixture. The comet assay protocol described herein provides a general technique for evaluating soluble antimicrobial-derived DNA damage and for comparing DNA fragmentation between experimental and control assays. PMID:22940101

  15. A Structure-Activity Analysis for Probing the Mechanism of Processive Double-Stranded DNA Digestion by λ Exonuclease Trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinlei; Smith, Christopher E; Zhang, Jinjin; McCabe, Kimberly A; Fu, Jun; Bell, Charles E

    2015-10-06

    λ exonuclease (λexo) is an ATP-independent 5'-to-3' exonuclease that binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ends and processively digests the 5'-strand into mononucleotides. The crystal structure of λexo revealed that the enzyme forms a ring-shaped homotrimer with a central funnel-shaped channel for tracking along the DNA. On the basis of this structure, it was proposed that dsDNA enters the open end of the channel, the 5'-strand is digested at one of the three active sites, and the 3'-strand passes through the narrow end of the channel to emerge out the back. This model was largely confirmed by the structure of the λexo-DNA complex, which further revealed that the enzyme unwinds the DNA by 2 bp prior to cleavage, to thread the 5'-end of the DNA into the active site. On the basis of this structure, an "electrostatic ratchet" model was proposed, in which the enzyme uses a hydrophobic wedge to insert into the base pairs to unwind the DNA, a two-metal mechanism for nucleotide hydrolysis, a positively charged pocket to bind to the terminal 5'-phosphate generated after each round of cleavage, and an arginine residue (Arg-45) to bind to the minor groove of the downstream end of the DNA. To test this model, in this study we have determined the effects of 11 structure-based mutations in λexo on DNA binding and exonuclease activities in vitro, and on DNA recombination in vivo. The results are largely consistent with the model for the mechanism that was proposed on the basis of the structure and provide new insights into the roles of particular residues of the protein in promoting the reaction. In particular, a key role for Arg-45 in DNA binding is revealed.

  16. SETD2 is required for DNA double-strand break repair and activation of the p53-mediated checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sílvia; Vítor, Alexandra C; Sridhara, Sreerama C; Martins, Filipa B; Raposo, Ana C; Desterro, Joana M P; Ferreira, João; de Almeida, Sérgio F

    2014-05-06

    Histone modifications establish the chromatin states that coordinate the DNA damage response. In this study, we show that SETD2, the enzyme that trimethylates histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me3), is required for ATM activation upon DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, we find that SETD2 is necessary for homologous recombination repair of DSBs by promoting the formation of RAD51 presynaptic filaments. In agreement, SETD2-mutant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells displayed impaired DNA damage signaling. However, despite the persistence of DNA lesions, SETD2-deficient cells failed to activate p53, a master guardian of the genome rarely mutated in ccRCC and showed decreased cell survival after DNA damage. We propose that this novel SETD2-dependent role provides a chromatin bookmarking instrument that facilitates signaling and repair of DSBs. In ccRCC, loss of SETD2 may afford an alternative mechanism for the inactivation of the p53-mediated checkpoint without the need for additional genetic mutations in TP53.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02482.001. Copyright © 2014, Carvalho et al.

  17. Site-specific ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B in response to DNA double strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimova, Alina; Ura, Seiji; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Wang, Hong-Yu; Pears, Catherine J; Lakin, Nicholas D

    2017-03-02

    ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) modify proteins with single units or polymers of ADP-ribose to regulate DNA repair. However, the substrates for these enzymes are ill-defined. For example, although histones are modified by ARTs, the sites on these proteins ADP-ribosylated following DNA damage and the ARTs that catalyse these events are unknown. This, in part, is due to the lack of a eukaryotic model that contains ARTs, in addition to histone genes that can be manipulated to assess ADP-ribosylation events in vivo. Here we exploit the model Dictyostelium to identify site-specific histone ADP-ribosylation events in vivo and define the ARTs that mediate these modifications. Dictyostelium histones are modified in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in vivo by the ARTs Adprt1a and Adprt2. Adprt1a is a mono-ART that modifies H2BE18 in vitro, although disruption of this site allows ADP-ribosylation at H2BE19. Although redundancy between H2BE18 and H2BE19 ADP-ribosylation is also apparent following DSBs in vivo, by generating a strain with mutations at E18/E19 in the h2b locus we demonstrate these are the principal sites modified by Adprt1a/Adprt2. This identifies DNA damage induced histone mono-ADP-ribosylation sites by specific ARTs in vivo, providing a unique platform to assess how histone ADP-ribosylation regulates DNA repair.

  18. DNA double-strand braks serve as a major factor for the expression of Arabidopsis Argonaute 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Beom; Chung, Moon Soo; Lee, Gun Woong; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Argonaute 2 (AtAGO2) is a well characterized effector protein in Arabidopsis for its functionalities associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB)-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) and for its inducible expression upon γ-irradiation. However, its transcriptional regulation depending on the recovery time after the irradiation and on the specific response to DSBs has been poorly understood. We analyzed the 1,313 bp promoter sequence of the AtAGO2 gene (1.3kb{sub pro}) to characterize the transcriptional regulation of AtAGO2 at various recovery times after γ-irradiation. A stable transformant harboring 1.3kbpro fused with GUS gene showed that the AtAGO2 is highly expressed in response to γ-irradiation, after which the expression of the gene is gradually decreased until 5 days of DNA damage recovery. We also confrm that the AtAGO2 expression patterns are similar to that of γ-irradiation after the treatments of radiomimetic genotoxins (bleomycin and zeocin). However, methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C, which are associated with the inhibition of DNA replication, do not induce the expression of the AtAGO2, suggesting that the expression of the AtAGO2 is closely related with DNA DSBs rather than DNA replication.

  19. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  20. Two different routes for double-stranded DNA transfer in natural and artificial transformation of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongchang

    2016-02-26

    Escherichia coli is naturally transformable, independent on the conserved DNA uptake machinery for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) integration. The transfer of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during natural transformation of E. coli is regulated by the alternative sigma factor σ(S). However, it remains mysterious how dsDNA transfers across the membranes and how σ(S) regulates natural transformation of E. coli. Here, I screened for σ(S)-regulated genes for dsDNA transfer in E. coli. The screening identified the σ(S)-regulated genes ydcS and ydcV, both locate on the putative ABC transporter ydcSTUV operon. Considering that ydcS and ydcV are predicted to encode a periplasmic protein and an inner membrane protein for substrate binding and translocation respectively, I propose that they may mediate dsDNA translocation across the inner membrane during natural transformation. In chemical transformation of E. coli, ydcS was but ydcV was not required. Thus, YdcV should not be the channel for dsDNA translocation in artificial transformation. Together with the previous observation that the outer membrane porin OmpA mediates dsDNA transfer across the outer membrane in chemical transformation but not in natural transformation, I conclude that dsDNA transfers across the two membranes through different routes in natural and artificial transformation of E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feasibility of measuring radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks and their repair by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in freshly isolated cells from the mouse RIF-1 tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Konings, AWT; Kampinga, HH

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the technical feasibility of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as a predictive assay for the radioresponsiveness of tumors. Induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in a freshly prepared cell suspension from a RIF-1 tumor (irradiated ex vivo) was compared

  2. Degradation of double-stranded RNA by human pancreatic ribonuclease: crucial role of noncatalytic basic amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Salvatore; Naddeo, Mariarosaria; Russo, Aniello; D'Alessio, Giuseppe

    2003-09-02

    Under physiological salt conditions double-stranded (ds) RNA is resistant to the action of most mammalian extracellular ribonucleases (RNases). However, some pancreatic-type RNases are able to degrade dsRNA under conditions in which the activity of bovine RNase A, the prototype of the RNase superfamily, is essentially undetectable. Human pancreatic ribonuclease (HP-RNase) is the most powerful enzyme to degrade dsRNA within the tetrapod RNase superfamily, being 500-fold more active than the orthologous bovine enzyme on this substrate. HP-RNase has basic amino acids at positions where RNase A shows instead neutral residues. We found by modeling that some of these basic charges are located on the periphery of the substrate binding site. To verify the role of these residues in the cleavage of dsRNA, we prepared four variants of HP-RNase: R4A, G38D, K102A, and the triple mutant R4A/G38D/K102A. The overall structure and active site conformation of the variants were not significantly affected by the amino acid substitutions, as deduced from CD spectra and activity on single-stranded RNA substrates. The kinetic parameters of the mutants with double-helical poly(A).poly(U) as a substrate were determined, as well as their helix-destabilizing action on a synthetic DNA substrate. The results obtained indicate that the potent activity of HP-RNase on dsRNA is related to the presence of noncatalytic basic residues which cooperatively contribute to the binding and destabilization of the double-helical RNA molecule. These data and the wide distribution of the enzyme in different organs and body fluids suggest that HP-RNase has evolved to perform both digestive and nondigestive physiological functions.

  3. Ubiquitin-specific protease 5 is required for the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakajima

    Full Text Available During the DNA damage response (DDR, ubiquitination plays an important role in the recruitment and regulation of repair proteins. However, little is known about elimination of the ubiquitination signal after repair is completed. Here we show that the ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is involved in the elimination of the ubiquitin signal from damaged sites and is required for efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. Depletion of USP5 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents, produces DSBs, causes delayed disappearance of γH2AX foci after Bleocin treatment, and influences DSB repair efficiency in the homologous recombination pathway but not in the non-homologous end joining pathway. USP5 co-localizes to DSBs induced by laser micro-irradiation in a RAD18-dependent manner. Importantly, polyubiquitin chains at sites of DNA damage remained for longer periods in USP5-depleted cells. Our results show that disassembly of polyubiquitin chains by USP5 at sites of damage is important for efficient DSB repair.

  4. More efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks in skeletal muscle stem cells compared to their committed progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Vahidi Ferdousi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of genome integrity in adult stem cells results in accelerated tissue aging and is possibly cancerogenic. Adult stem cells in different tissues appear to react robustly to DNA damage. We report that adult skeletal stem (satellite cells do not primarily respond to radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs via differentiation and exhibit less apoptosis compared to other myogenic cells. Satellite cells repair these DNA lesions more efficiently than their committed progeny. Importantly, non-proliferating satellite cells and post-mitotic nuclei in the fiber exhibit dramatically distinct repair efficiencies. Altogether, reduction of the repair capacity appears to be more a function of differentiation than of the proliferation status of the muscle cell. Notably, satellite cells retain a high efficiency of DSB repair also when isolated from the natural niche. Finally, we show that repair of DSB substrates is not only very efficient but, surprisingly, also very accurate in satellite cells and that accurate repair depends on the key non-homologous end-joining factor DNA-PKcs.

  5. Analysis and classification of DNA-binding sites in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA-binding proteins using protein information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Lida; Zhou, Xionghui

    2014-08-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) and double-stranded DNA-binding proteins (DSBs) play different roles in biological processes when they bind to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). However, the underlying binding mechanisms of SSBs and DSBs have not yet been fully understood. Here, the authors firstly constructed two groups of ssDNA and dsDNA specific binding sites from two non-redundant sets of SSBs and DSBs. They further analysed the relationship between the two classes of binding sites and a newly proposed set of features (residue charge distribution, secondary structure and spatial shape). To assess and utilise the predictive power of these features, they trained a classification model using support vector machine to make predictions about the ssDNA and the dsDNA binding sites. The author's analysis and prediction results indicated that the two classes of binding sites can be distinguishable by the three types of features, and the final classifier using all the features achieved satisfactory performance. In conclusion, the proposed features will deepen their understanding of the specificity of proteins which bind to ssDNA or dsDNA.

  6. Defective resection at DNA double-strand breaks leads to de novo telomere formation and enhances gene targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Hyun Chung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA at double-strand break (DSB ends is essential in repair by homologous recombination and is mediated by DNA helicases and nucleases. Here we estimated the length of ssDNA generated during DSB repair and analyzed the consequences of elimination of processive resection pathways mediated by Sgs1 helicase and Exo1 nuclease on DSB repair fidelity. In wild-type cells during allelic gene conversion, an average of 2-4 kb of ssDNA accumulates at each side of the break. Longer ssDNA is formed during ectopic recombination or break-induced replication (BIR, reflecting much slower repair kinetics. This relatively extensive resection may help determine sequences involved in homology search and prevent recombination within short DNA repeats next to the break. In sgs1Delta exo1Delta mutants that form only very short ssDNA, allelic gene conversion decreases 5-fold and DSBs are repaired by BIR or de novo telomere formation resulting in loss of heterozygosity. The absence of the telomerase inhibitor, PIF1, increases de novo telomere pathway usage to about 50%. Accumulation of Cdc13, a protein recruiting telomerase, at the break site increases in sgs1Delta exo1Delta, and the requirement of the Ku complex for new telomere formation is partially bypassed. In contrast to this decreased and alternative DSB repair, the efficiency and accuracy of gene targeting increases dramatically in sgs1Delta exo1Delta cells, suggesting that transformed DNA is very stable in these mutants. Altogether these data establish a new role for processive resection in the fidelity of DSB repair.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Red1 protein exhibits nonhomologous DNA end-joining activity and potentiates Hop1-promoted pairing of double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Rucha; Ghodke, Indrajeet; Muniyappa, K

    2017-08-18

    Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of various SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-selective DNA-binding protein exhibiting high affinity for the Holliday junction and promoting DNA bridging, condensation, and pairing between double-stranded DNA molecules. However, the exact mode of action of Red1 remains unclear, although it is known to interact with Hop1 and to suppress the spore viability defects of hop1 mutant alleles. Here, we report the purification and functional characterization of the full-length Red1 protein. Our results revealed that Red1 forms a stable complex with Hop1 in vitro and provided quantitative insights into their physical interactions. Mechanistically, Red1 preferentially associated with the Holliday junction and 3-way junction rather than with single- or double-stranded DNA with overhangs. Although Hop1 and Red1 exhibited similar binding affinities toward several DNA substrates, the two proteins displayed some significant differences. Notably, Red1, by itself, lacked DNA-pairing ability; however, it potentiated Hop1-promoted intermolecular pairing between double-stranded DNA molecules. Moreover, Red1 exhibited nonhomologous DNA end-joining activity, thus revealing an unexpected role for Red1 in recombination-based DNA repair. Collectively, this study presents the first direct insights into Red1's mode of action and into the mechanism underlying its role in chromosome synapsis and recombination. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Crosstalk of DNA double-strand break repair pathways in PARP inhibitor treatment of BRCA1/2-mutated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Shigeaki; Nakanishi, Akira; Miki, Yoshio

    2018-02-10

    Germ-line mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 or 2 (BRCA1 or BRCA2) significantly increase cancer risk in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Both genes function in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair process. Therefore, the DNA-repair defect characteristic in cancer cells brings therapeutic advantage for Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor-induced synthetic lethality. The PARP inhibitor-based therapeutics initially causes cancer lethality but acquired resistance mechanisms have been found and need to be elucidated. In particular, it is essential to understand the mechanism of DNA damage and repair to PARP inhibitor treatment in detail. Further investigations have shown the roles of BRCA1/2 and its associations to other molecules in the DSB repair system. Notably, the repair pathway chosen in BRCA1-deficient cells could be entirely different from that in BRCA2-deficient cells after PARP inhibitor treatment. This review describes synthetic lethality and acquired resistance mechanisms to PARP inhibitor via the DSB repair pathway and subsequent repair process. In addition, recent knowledge of resistance mechanisms is discussed. Our model should contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation of rpn4 impairs nonhomologous end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Ju

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proteasome homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by a negative feedback circuit in which the transcription factor Rpn4 induces the proteasome genes and is rapidly degraded by the assembled proteasome. The integrity of the Rpn4-proteasome feedback loop is critical for cell viability under stressed conditions. We have demonstrated that inhibition of Rpn4 degradation sensitizes cells to DNA damage, particularly in response to high doses of DNA damaging agents. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using yeast genetics and biochemical approach we show that inhibition of Rpn4 degradation displays a synthetic growth defect with deletion of the MEC1 checkpoint gene and sensitizes several checkpoint mutants to DNA damage. In addition, inhibition of Rpn4 degradation leads to a defect in repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ. The expression levels of several key NHEJ genes are downregulated and the recruitment of Yku70 to a DSB is reduced by inhibition of Rpn4 degradation. We find that Rpn4 and the proteasome are recruited to a DSB, suggesting their direct participation in NHEJ. Inhibition of Rpn4 degradation may result in a concomitant delay of release of Rpn4 and the proteasome from a DSB. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first evidence for the role of proteasomal degradation of Rpn4 in NHEJ.

  10. DNA Double-strand Breaks Induced byFractionated Neutron Beam Irradiation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Yokomizo, Natsuya; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2017-04-01

    To use the 53BP1 foci assay to detect DNA double-strand breaks induced by fractionated neutron beam irradiation of normal cells. The Kyoto University Research Reactor heavy-water facility and gamma-ray irradiation system were used as experimental radiation sources. After fixation of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with 3.6% formalin, immunofluorescence staining was performed. Number and size of foci were analyzed using ImageJ software. Fractionated neutron irradiation induced 25% fewer 53BP1 foci than single irradiation at the same dose. By contrast, gamma irradiation induced 30% fewer 53BP1 foci than single irradiation at the same dose. Fractionated neutron irradiation induced larger foci than gamma irradiation, raising the possibility that persistent unrepaired DNA damage was amplified due to the high linear energy transfer component in the neutron beam. Unrepaired cluster DNA damage was more prevalent after fractionated neutron irradiation than after gamma irradiation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. BRCA1 requirement for the fidelity of plasmid DNA double-strand break repair in cultured breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric G; Fares, Hanna; Dixon, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility protein 1 (BRCA1) protects our cells from genomic instability in part by facilitating the efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). BRCA1 promotes the error-free repair of DSBs through homologous recombination and is also implicated in the regulation of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) repair fidelity. Here, we investigate the role of BRCA1 in NHEJ repair mutagenesis following a DSB. We examined the frequency of microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) and the fidelity of DSB repair relative to BRCA1 protein levels in both control and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. In addition to altered BRCA1 protein levels, we tested the effects of cellular exposure to mirin, an inhibitor of meiotic recombination enzyme 11 (Mre11) 3'-5'-exonuclease activity. Knockdown or loss of BRCA1 protein resulted in an increased frequency of overall plasmid DNA mutagenesis and MMEJ following a DSB. Inhibition of Mre11-exonuclease activity with mirin significantly decreased the occurrence of MMEJ, but did not considerably affect the overall mutagenic frequency of plasmid DSB repair. The results suggest that BRCA1 protects DNA from mutagenesis during nonhomologous DSB repair in plasmid-based assays. The increased frequency of DSB mutagenesis and MMEJ repair in the absence of BRCA1 suggests a potential mechanism for carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. AvrXa27 binding influences unwinding of the double-stranded DNA in the UPT box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Junpeng; Liu, Nanv; Wei, Qi; Xi, Xuguang; Fu, Jing

    2017-03-04

    Transcription-Activator Like (TAL) effectors, delivered by Xanthomonas pathogens bind specifically to UP-regulated by TAL effectors (UPT) box of the host gene promoter to arouse disease or trigger defense response. This type of protein-DNA interaction model has been applied in site-directed genome editing. However, the off-target effects of TAL have severely hindered the development of this promising technology. To better exploit the specific interaction and to deeper understand the TAL-induced host transcription rewiring, the binding between the central repeat region (CRR) of the TAL effector AvrXa27 and its UPT box variants was studied by kinetics analysis and TAL-blocked helicase unwinding assay. The results revealed that while AvrXa27 exhibited the highest affinity to the wild type UPT box, it could also bind to mutated UPT box variants, implying the possibility of non-specific interactions. Furthermore, some of these non-specific combinations restricted the helicase-elicited double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) separation to a greater extent. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of TAL transcriptional activation and are beneficial to TAL-mediated genome modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic identification of histone post-translational modifications and proteins enriched at a DNA double-strand break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Byrum, Stephanie; Fowler, Faith C; Pal, Sangita; Tackett, Alan J; Tyler, Jessica K

    2017-11-02

    Here, we use ChAP-MS (chromatin affinity purification with mass spectrometry), for the affinity purification of a sequence-specific single-copy endogenous chromosomal locus containing a DNA double-strand break (DSB). We found multiple new histone post-translational modifications enriched on chromatin bearing a DSB from budding yeast. One of these, methylation of histone H3 on lysine 125, has not previously been reported. Among over 100 novel proteins enriched at a DSB were the phosphatase Sit4, the RNA pol II degradation factor Def1, the mRNA export protein Yra1 and the HECT E3 ligase Tom1. Each of these proteins was required for resistance to radiomimetics, and many were required for resistance to heat, which we show here to cause a defect in DSB repair in yeast. Yra1 and Def1 were required for DSB repair per se, while Sit4 was required for rapid inactivation of the DNA damage checkpoint after DSB repair. Thus, our unbiased proteomics approach has led to the unexpected discovery of novel roles for these and other proteins in the DNA damage response. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Altered Hematopoiesis in Mice Lacking DNA Polymerase μ Is Due to Inefficient Double-Strand Break Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Daniel; Escudero, Beatriz; Ligos, José Manuel; Segovia, Jose Carlos; Estrada, Juan Camilo; Terrados, Gloria; Blanco, Luis; Samper, Enrique; Bernad, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase mu (Polμ) is an error-prone, DNA-directed DNA polymerase that participates in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. In vivo, Polμ deficiency results in impaired Vκ-Jκ recombination and altered somatic hypermutation and centroblast development. In Polμ−/− mice, hematopoietic development was defective in several peripheral and bone marrow (BM) cell populations, with about a 40% decrease in BM cell number that affected several hematopoietic lineages. Hematopoietic progenitors were reduced both in number and in expansion potential. The observed phenotype correlates with a reduced efficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in hematopoietic tissue. Whole-body γ-irradiation revealed that Polμ also plays a role in DSB repair in non-hematopoietic tissues. Our results show that Polμ function is required for physiological hematopoietic development with an important role in maintaining early progenitor cell homeostasis and genetic stability in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues. PMID:19229323

  15. Iodination as a probe for small regions of disrupted secondary structure in double-stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Nes, Ingolf F.; Wells, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    , if they existed within an otherwise helical DNA fragment 789 base pairs long. Iodination studies were performed on superhelical SV40 DNA and on linear plac DNA. Analysis of the relative amount of iodine in restriction endonuclease fragments of these DNAs revealed the absence of localized single-stranded regions....

  16. Increased sister chromatid cohesion and DNA damage response factor localization at an enzyme-induced DNA double-strand break in vertebrate cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Helen; Morrison, Ciaran G.

    2009-01-01

    The response to DNA damage in vertebrate cells involves successive recruitment of DNA signalling and repair factors. We used light microscopy to monitor the genetic dependencies of such localization to a single, induced DNA double strand break (DSB) in vertebrate cells. We used an inducible version of the rare-cutting I-SceI endonuclease to cut a chromosomally integrated I-SceI site beside a Tet operator array that was visualized by binding a Tet repressor-GFP fusion. Formation of ?-H2AX foci...

  17. Direct evidence for sequence-dependent attraction between double-stranded DNA controlled by methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jejoong; Kim, Hajin; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Ha, Taekjip

    2016-03-01

    Although proteins mediate highly ordered DNA organization in vivo, theoretical studies suggest that homologous DNA duplexes can preferentially associate with one another even in the absence of proteins. Here we combine molecular dynamics simulations with single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments to examine the interactions between duplex DNA in the presence of spermine, a biological polycation. We find that AT-rich DNA duplexes associate more strongly than GC-rich duplexes, regardless of the sequence homology. Methyl groups of thymine acts as a steric block, relocating spermine from major grooves to interhelical regions, thereby increasing DNA-DNA attraction. Indeed, methylation of cytosines makes attraction between GC-rich DNA as strong as that between AT-rich DNA. Recent genome-wide chromosome organization studies showed that remote contact frequencies are higher for AT-rich and methylated DNA, suggesting that direct DNA-DNA interactions that we report here may play a role in the chromosome organization and gene regulation.

  18. A C-terminal Myb extension domain defines a novel family of double-strand telomeric DNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamysheva, Zemfira N; Surovtseva, Yulia V; Vespa, Laurent; Shakirov, Eugene V; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2004-11-12

    Little is known about the protein composition of plant telomeres. We queried the Arabidopsis thaliana genome data base in search of genes with similarity to the human telomere proteins hTRF1 and hTRF2. hTRF1/hTRF2 are distinguished by the presence of a single Myb-like domain in their C terminus that is required for telomeric DNA binding in vitro. Twelve Arabidopsis genes fitting this criterion, dubbed TRF-like (TRFL), fell into two distinct gene families. Notably, TRFL family 1 possessed a highly conserved region C-terminal to the Myb domain called Myb-extension (Myb-ext) that is absent in TRFL family 2 and hTRF1/hTRF2. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that recombinant proteins from TRFL family 1, but not those from family 2, formed homodimers and heterodimers in vitro. DNA binding studies with isolated C-terminal fragments from TRFL family 1 proteins, but not family 2, showed specific binding to double-stranded plant telomeric DNA in vitro. Removal of the Myb-ext domain from TRFL1, a family 1 member, abolished DNA binding. However, when the Myb-ext domain was introduced into the corresponding region in TRFL3, a family 2 member, telomeric DNA binding was observed. Thus, Myb-ext is required for binding plant telomeric DNA and defines a novel class of proteins in Arabidopsis.

  19. Optical Tweezers Analysis of Double-Stranded DNA Denaturation in the Presence of Urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunli; Li, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Urea is a kind of denaturant prone to form hydrogen bonds with the electronegative centers of the nitrogenous bases, threatening the stability of hydrogen bonds between DNA base pairs. In this paper, the stability and stiffness of DNA double helix influenced by urea are investigated at single-molecule level using optical tweezers. Experimental results show that DNA's double helix stability and stiffness both decrease with increasing urea concentration. In addition, the re-forming of ruptured hydrogen bonds between the base pairs is blocked by urea as the tension on DNA is released.

  20. Inactivation of nuclear GSK3β by Ser(389) phosphorylation promotes lymphocyte fitness during DNA double-strand break response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tina M; Delgado, Pilar; Chen, Liang; Salas, Beatriz; Krementsov, Dimitry; Fernandez, Miriam; Vernia, Santiago; Davis, Roger J; Heimann, Ruth; Teuscher, Cory; Krangel, Michael S; Ramiro, Almudena R; Rincón, Mercedes

    2016-01-29

    Variable, diversity and joining (V(D)J) recombination and immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) are key processes in adaptive immune responses that naturally generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and trigger a DNA repair response. It is unclear whether this response is associated with distinct survival signals that protect T and B cells. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a constitutively active kinase known to promote cell death. Here we show that phosphorylation of GSK3β on Ser(389) by p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) is induced selectively by DSBs through ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) as a unique mechanism to attenuate the activity of nuclear GSK3β and promote survival of cells undergoing DSBs. Inability to inactivate GSK3β through Ser(389) phosphorylation in Ser(389)Ala knockin mice causes a decrease in the fitness of cells undergoing V(D)J recombination and CSR. Preselection-Tcrβ repertoire is impaired and antigen-specific IgG antibody responses following immunization are blunted in Ser(389)GSK3β knockin mice. Thus, GSK3β emerges as an important modulator of the adaptive immune response.

  1. Improving DNA double-strand repair inhibitor KU55933 therapeutic index in cancer radiotherapy using nanoparticle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi; Lara, Haydee; Wagner, Kyle T.; Saripalli, Srinivas; Hyder, Syed Nabeel; Foote, Michael; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina; Caster, Joseph M.; Zhang, Longzhen; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-11-01

    Radiotherapy is a key component of cancer treatment. Because of its importance, there has been high interest in developing agents and strategies to further improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. DNA double-strand repair inhibitors (DSBRIs) are among the most promising agents to improve radiotherapy. However, their clinical translation has been limited by their potential toxicity to normal tissue. Recent advances in nanomedicine offer an opportunity to overcome this limitation. In this study, we aim to demonstrate the proof of principle by developing and evaluating nanoparticle (NP) formulations of KU55933, a DSBRI. We engineered a NP formulation of KU55933 using nanoprecipitation method with different lipid polymer nanoparticle formulation. NP KU55933 using PLGA formulation has the best loading efficacy as well as prolonged drug release profile. We demonstrated that NP KU55933 is a potent radiosensitizer in vitro using clonogenic assay and is more effective as a radiosensitizer than free KU55933 in vivo using mouse xenograft models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Western blots and immunofluorescence showed NP KU55933 exhibited more prolonged inhibition of DNA repair pathway. In addition, NP KU55933 leads to lower skin toxicity than KU55933. Our study supports further investigations using NP to deliver DSBRIs to improve cancer radiotherapy treatment.

  2. In vitro selection of oligonucleotides that bind double-stranded DNA in the presence of triplex-stabilizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayel, Elodie; Escudé, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    A SELEX approach has been developed in order to select oligonucleotides that bind double-stranded DNA in the presence of a triplex-stabilizing agent, and was applied to a target sequence containing an oligopurine-oligopyrimidine stretch. After only seven rounds of selection, the process led to the identification of oligonucleotides that were able to form triple helices within the antiparallel motif. Inspection of the selected sequences revealed that, contrary to GC base pair which were always recognized by guanines, recognition of AT base pair could be achieved by either adenine or thymine, depending on the sequence context. While thymines are strongly preferred for several positions, some others can accommodate the presence of adenines. These results contribute to set the rules for designing oligonucleotides that form stable triple helices in the presence of triplex-stabilizing agents at physiological pH. They set the basis for further experiments regarding extension of potential target sequences for triple-helix formation or recognition of ligand-DNA complexes.

  3. Quantitative Genome-Wide Measurements of Meiotic DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Protein Binding in S. pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppa, Randy W; Fowler, Kyle R; Smith, Gerald R

    2017-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is especially well suited for studying meiosis in molecular detail. Experiments with S. pombe strains that undergo a nearly synchronous meiosis-at variable temperatures-have elucidated the mechanisms of meiotic progression and the proteins that are involved. For example, studies focused on the initiation of meiotic recombination by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) have proven exceptionally informative. In meiosis, some regions of DNA have more frequent DSBs than the surrounding regions. These DSB hotspots can be visualized by Southern blot hybridization of restriction fragments ranging from kilobases (kb) to megabases (Mb) in size. More recently, the benefits of genome-wide analysis to map the distribution and frequency of meiotic DSBs have been attained, with resolution down to the nucleotide level. Infrequent, non-hotspot DSBs previously not detectable have been observed, creating a better understanding of how recombination is regulated. Additional genome-wide analyses have shown proteins that bind specifically to DSB hotspots, providing insight into how the DSB initiation complex functions. We describe here detailed methods for achieving these results.

  4. Small Rad51 and Dmc1 Complexes Often Co-occupy Both Ends of a Meiotic DNA Double Strand Break.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Scott Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eukaryotic RecA-like proteins Rad51 and Dmc1 cooperate during meiosis to promote recombination between homologous chromosomes by repairing programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. Previous studies showed that Rad51 and Dmc1 form partially overlapping co-foci. Here we show these Rad51-Dmc1 co-foci are often arranged in pairs separated by distances of up to 400 nm. Paired co-foci remain prevalent when DSBs are dramatically reduced or when strand exchange or synapsis is blocked. Super-resolution dSTORM microscopy reveals that individual foci observed by conventional light microscopy are often composed of two or more substructures. The data support a model in which the two tracts of ssDNA formed by a single DSB separate from one another by distances of up to 400 nm, with both tracts often bound by one or more short (about 100 nt Rad51 filaments and also by one or more short Dmc1 filaments.

  5. DNA double-strand breaks, recombination and synapsis: the timing of meiosis differs in grasshoppers and flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Alberto; Santos, Juan L; Page, Jesús; Parra, M Teresa; Calvente, Adela; Cifuentes, Marta; Gómez, Rocío; Lira, Renee; Suja, José A; Rufas, Julio S

    2004-04-01

    The temporal and functional relationships between DNA events of meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation are a matter of discussion within the meiotic field. To analyse this subject in grasshoppers, organisms that have been considered as models for meiotic studies for many years, we have studied the localization of phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which marks the sites of double-strand breaks (DSBs), in combination with localization of cohesin SMC3 and recombinase Rad51. We show that the loss of gamma-H2AX staining is spatially and temporally linked to synapsis, and that in grasshoppers the initiation of recombination, produced as a consequence of DSB formation, precedes synapsis. This result supports the idea that grasshoppers display a pairing pathway that is not present in other insects such as Drosophila melanogaster, but is similar to those reported in yeast, mouse and Arabidopsis. In addition, we have observed the presence of gamma-H2AX in the X chromosome from zygotene to late pachytene, indicating that the function of H2AX phosphorylation during grasshopper spermatogenesis is not restricted to the formation of gamma-H2AX foci at DNA DSBs.

  6. Enzymatic collapse of artificial polymer composite material containing double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Amoo, Mariko

    2008-06-01

    Large amounts of DNA-enriched biomaterials, such as salmon milts and shellfish gonads, are discarded as industrial waste around the world. Therefore, the utilizations of DNA with the specific function are important for the biomaterial science and the curce technology. We could convert the discarded DNA to an enzymatic collapsible material by the addition of DNA to the artificial polymer material, such as nylon. Although these DNA-artificial polymer composite materials were stable in water, these materials indicated the collapsibility at the DNA-hydrolyzed enzyme, such as Micrococcal nuclease, condition. Additionally, these collapsibilities under enzyme condition were controlled by the number of imino groups in the components of the artificial polymer. Furthermore, these composite materials could create the fiber form with a highly ordered molecular orientation by the reaction at the liquid/liquid interface. The DNA-artificial polymer composite materials may have the potential utility as a novel bio-, medical-, and environmental materials with the enzymatic collapsibility and degradability.

  7. Fine-tuning alkyne cycloadditions: Insights into photochemistry responsible for the double-strand DNA cleavage via structural perturbations in diaryl alkyne conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Alabugin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid molecules combining photoactivated aryl acetylenes and a dicationic lysine moiety cause the most efficient double-strand (ds DNA cleavage known to date for a small molecule. In order to test the connection between the alkylating ability and the DNA-damaging properties of these compounds, we investigated the photoreactivity of three isomeric aryl–tetrafluoropyridinyl (TFP alkynes with amide substituents in different positions (o-, m-, and p- toward a model π-system. Reactions with 1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-CHD were used to probe the alkylating properties of the triplet excited states in these three isomers whilst Stern–Volmer quenching experiments were used to investigate the kinetics of photoinduced electron transfer (PET. The three analogous isomeric lysine conjugates cleaved DNA with different efficiencies (34, 15, and 0% of ds DNA cleavage for p-, m-, and o-substituted lysine conjugates, respectively consistent with the alkylating ability of the respective acetamides. The significant protecting effect of the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers to DNA cleavage was shown only with m-lysine conjugate. All three isomeric lysine conjugates inhibited human melanoma cell growth under photoactivation: The p-conjugate had the lowest CC50 (50% cell cytotoxicity value of 1.49 × 10−7 M.

  8. The enzyme and the cDNA sequence of a thermolabile and double-strand specific DNase from Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge W Nilsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously isolated a thermolabile nuclease specific for double-stranded DNA from industrial processing water of Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis and developed an application of the enzyme in removal of contaminating DNA in PCR-related technologies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 43 kDa nuclease with a high specific activity of hydrolysing linear as well as circular forms of DNA was purified from hepatopancreas of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis. The enzyme displayed a substrate preference that was shifted from exclusively double-stranded DNA in the presence of magnesium to also encompass significant activity against single-stranded DNA when calcium was added. No activity against RNA was detected. Although originating from a cold-environment animal, the shrimp DNase has only minor low-temperature activity. Still, the enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by moderate heating with a half-life of 1 min at 65 degrees C. The purified protein was partly sequenced and derived oligonucleotides were used to prime amplification of the encoding cDNA. This cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a 404 amino acid protein containing a signal peptide. By sequence similarity the enzyme is predicted to belong to a family of DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases even though this shrimp DNase lacks RNase activity and is highly double-strand specific in some respects. These features are in agreement with those previously established for endonucleases classified as similar to the Kamchatka crab duplex-specific nuclease (Par_DSN. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Northern shrimp nuclease resembles the Par_DSN-like nucleases and displays a more distant relationship to the Serratia family of nucleases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shrimp nuclease contains enzyme activity that may be controlled by temperature or buffer compositions. The double-stranded DNA specificity, as well as the thermolabile feature

  9. A Monte Carlo Study of Knots in Long Double-Stranded DNA Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieger, Florian C; Virnau, Peter

    2016-01-01

    .... The analysis is motivated by the emergence of DNA nanopore sequencing technology, as knots are a potential cause of erroneous nucleotide reads in nanopore sequencing devices and may severely limit...

  10. Effect of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces on the Stability of Double-Stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Robert M; Pfaendtner, Jim; Jayaraman, Arthi

    2015-06-08

    DNA hybridization is the foundation for numerous technologies like DNA origami and DNA sensing/microarrays. Using molecular simulations, enhanced-sampling methods, and free-energy calculations, we show the effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces on DNA hybridization. Hydrophilic surfaces compete with terminal bases' H-bonds but stabilize central base stacking. Hydrophobic surfaces strengthen terminal H-bonds but destabilize central base stacking. Regardless of surface chemistry, for terminal bases, melting proceeds through breaking H-bonds, followed by unstacking from the neighboring base. For central bases in bulk or near hydrophobic surfaces, melting proceeds by disruption of H-bonds, followed by unstacking, whereas on hydrophilic surfaces, unstacking from one neighboring base precedes complete disruption of the H-bonds, followed by unstacking from the second neighboring base. Kinetic barriers to melting and hybridization show that the central bases melt rapidly near hydrophobic surfaces, which can accelerate conformational searching and thereby accelerate folding into the desired conformation.

  11. FBH1 co-operates with MUS81 in inducing DNA double-strand breaks and cell death following replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Chu, Wai Kit; Haahr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The molecular events occurring following the disruption of DNA replication forks are poorly characterized, despite extensive use of replication inhibitors such as hydroxyurea in the treatment of malignancies. Here, we identify a key role for the FBH1 helicase in mediating DNA double-strand break...... formation following replication inhibition. We show that FBH1-deficient cells are resistant to killing by hydroxyurea, and exhibit impaired activation of the pro-apoptotic factor p53, consistent with decreased DNA double-strand break formation. Similar findings were obtained in murine ES cells carrying...... disrupted alleles of Fbh1. We also show that FBH1 through its helicase activity co-operates with the MUS81 nuclease in promoting the endonucleolytic DNA cleavage following prolonged replication stress. Accordingly, MUS81 and EME1-depleted cells show increased resistance to the cytotoxic effects...

  12. A Unique HMG-Box Domain of Mouse Maelstrom Binds Structured RNA but Not Double Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzor, Pavol; Bortvin, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Piwi-interacting piRNAs are a major and essential class of small RNAs in the animal germ cells with a prominent role in transposon control. Efficient piRNA biogenesis and function require a cohort of proteins conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Here we studied Maelstrom (MAEL), which is essential for piRNA biogenesis and germ cell differentiation in flies and mice. MAEL contains a high mobility group (HMG)-box domain and a Maelstrom-specific domain with a presumptive RNase H-fold. We employed a combination of sequence analyses, structural and biochemical approaches to evaluate and compare nucleic acid binding of mouse MAEL HMG-box to that of canonical HMG-box domain proteins (SRY and HMGB1a). MAEL HMG-box failed to bind double-stranded (ds)DNA but bound to structured RNA. We also identified important roles of a novel cluster of arginine residues in MAEL HMG-box in these interactions. Cumulatively, our results suggest that the MAEL HMG-box domain may contribute to MAEL function in selective processing of retrotransposon RNA into piRNAs. In this regard, a cellular role of MAEL HMG-box domain is reminiscent of that of HMGB1 as a sentinel of immunogenic nucleic acids in the innate immune response. PMID:25807393

  13. A unique HMG-box domain of mouse Maelstrom binds structured RNA but not double stranded DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Genzor

    Full Text Available Piwi-interacting piRNAs are a major and essential class of small RNAs in the animal germ cells with a prominent role in transposon control. Efficient piRNA biogenesis and function require a cohort of proteins conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Here we studied Maelstrom (MAEL, which is essential for piRNA biogenesis and germ cell differentiation in flies and mice. MAEL contains a high mobility group (HMG-box domain and a Maelstrom-specific domain with a presumptive RNase H-fold. We employed a combination of sequence analyses, structural and biochemical approaches to evaluate and compare nucleic acid binding of mouse MAEL HMG-box to that of canonical HMG-box domain proteins (SRY and HMGB1a. MAEL HMG-box failed to bind double-stranded (dsDNA but bound to structured RNA. We also identified important roles of a novel cluster of arginine residues in MAEL HMG-box in these interactions. Cumulatively, our results suggest that the MAEL HMG-box domain may contribute to MAEL function in selective processing of retrotransposon RNA into piRNAs. In this regard, a cellular role of MAEL HMG-box domain is reminiscent of that of HMGB1 as a sentinel of immunogenic nucleic acids in the innate immune response.

  14. Do Exogenous DNA Double-Strand Breaks Change Incomplete Synapsis and Chiasma Localization in the Grasshopper Stethophyma grossum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Adela; Santos, Juan Luis; Rufas, Julio S

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination occurs as a programmed event that initiates by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that give rise to the formation of crossovers that are observed as chiasmata. Chiasmata are essential for the accurate chromosome segregation and the generation of new combinations of parental alleles. Some treatments that provoke exogenous DSBs also lead to alterations in the recombination pattern of some species in which full homologous synapsis is achieved at pachytene. We have carried out a similar approach in males of the grasshopper Stethophyma grossum, whose homologues show incomplete synapsis and proximal chiasma localization. After irradiating males with γ rays we have studied the distribution of both the histone variant γ-H2AX and the recombinase RAD51. These proteins are cytological markers of DSBs at early prophase I. We have inferred synaptonemal complex (SC) formation via identification of SMC3 and RAD 21 cohesin subunits. Whereas thick and thin SMC3 filaments would correspond to synapsed and unsynapsed regions, the presence of RAD21 is only restricted to synapsed regions. Results show that irradiated spermatocytes maintain restricted synapsis between homologues. However, the frequency and distribution of chiasmata in metaphase I bivalents is slightly changed and quadrivalents were also observed. These results could be related to the singular nuclear polarization displayed by the spermatocytes of this species.

  15. Do Exogenous DNA Double-Strand Breaks Change Incomplete Synapsis and Chiasma Localization in the Grasshopper Stethophyma grossum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Calvente

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination occurs as a programmed event that initiates by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs that give rise to the formation of crossovers that are observed as chiasmata. Chiasmata are essential for the accurate chromosome segregation and the generation of new combinations of parental alleles. Some treatments that provoke exogenous DSBs also lead to alterations in the recombination pattern of some species in which full homologous synapsis is achieved at pachytene. We have carried out a similar approach in males of the grasshopper Stethophyma grossum, whose homologues show incomplete synapsis and proximal chiasma localization. After irradiating males with γ rays we have studied the distribution of both the histone variant γ-H2AX and the recombinase RAD51. These proteins are cytological markers of DSBs at early prophase I. We have inferred synaptonemal complex (SC formation via identification of SMC3 and RAD 21 cohesin subunits. Whereas thick and thin SMC3 filaments would correspond to synapsed and unsynapsed regions, the presence of RAD21 is only restricted to synapsed regions. Results show that irradiated spermatocytes maintain restricted synapsis between homologues. However, the frequency and distribution of chiasmata in metaphase I bivalents is slightly changed and quadrivalents were also observed. These results could be related to the singular nuclear polarization displayed by the spermatocytes of this species.

  16. Relationship between internal dosimetry and DNA double strand breaks in lymphocytes after radionuclide therapy; Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Dosimetrie und DNA Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten nach Radionuklidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta

    2015-09-30

    In radionuclide therapy radiopharmaceuticals are administered mostly systemically. Primarily, beta-emitters are used because of their short range in tissue. As a result the radiopharmaceutical distributes within the human body and accumulates in organs and target structures. Thus, the body is irradiated internally, in contrast to external irradiation in radiotherapy. The pattern of the activity distribution within the human body is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the amount of activity and its accumulation in organs or tissues is essential for the calculation of the absorbed dose which defines the energy deposited in the body by ionizing radiation. During internal or external irradiation, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation which does not only destroy the malignant cells but also damages healthy tissue and cells. This is mainly caused by direct and indirect interaction of the radiation with the DNA which damages the DNA structure. Most frequently, there are single strand breaks and base damages. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are rare; nevertheless, they are the most critical lesions for cells as repairing the damage is difficult. Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA could cause mutations, chromosomal aberrations or lead to cell death. The formation of a DNA DSB in nuclear chromatin results in the rapid phosphorylation of the histone H2 variant H2AX, then called gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, DSBs also recruit the damage sensor 53BP1 to the chromatin surrounding the DSBs, which leads to 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX co-localization in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. By immunofluorescence staining with gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 antibodies those biomarkers can be addressed by microscopically visible DNA damage protein foci, this is also known as the DNA damage focus assay. With progression of DSB repair, gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci disappear. It is assumed that one focus corresponds to one DSB. Therefore, the number of foci per

  17. Reduced contribution of thermally-labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation after exposure to neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Wu, Wenqi; Stuschke, Martin; Bockisch, Andreas; Iliakis, George

    2012-12-01

    In cells exposed to ionizing radiation, double-strand breaks (DSBs) form within clustered damage sites from lesions disrupting the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. It is commonly assumed that DSBs form promptly and are immediately detected and processed by the cellular DNA damage response apparatus. However, DSBs also form by delayed chemical conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions (TLSL) to breaks. We recently reported that conversion of thermally-labile sugar lesions to breaks occurs in cells maintained at physiological temperatures. Here, we investigate the influence of radiation quality on the formation of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs. We show that, although the yields of total DSBs are very similar after exposure to neutrons and X rays, the yields of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs from neutrons are decreased in comparison to that from X rays. Thus, the yields of prompt DSBs for neutrons are greater than for X rays. Notably, after neutron irradiation the decreased yield of thermally-labile sugar lesion dependent DSBs is strongly cell line dependent, likely reflecting subtle differences in DNA organization. We propose that the higher ionization density of neutrons generates with higher probability prompt DSBs within ionization clusters and renders the ensuing chemical evolution of thermally-labile sugar lesions inconsequential to DNA integrity. Modification of thermally-labile sugar lesion evolution may define novel radiation protection strategies aiming at decreasing DSB formation by chemically preserving thermally-labile sugar lesions until other DSB contributing lesions within the clustered damage site are removed by non-DSB repair pathways.

  18. DNA double strand breaks but not interstrand crosslinks prevent progress through meiosis in fully grown mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Shan Yuen

    Full Text Available There is some interest in how mammalian oocytes respond to different types of DNA damage because of the increasing expectation of fertility preservation in women undergoing chemotherapy. Double strand breaks (DSBs induced by ionizing radiation and agents such as neocarzinostatin (NCS, and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by alkylating agents such as mitomycin C (MMC, are toxic DNA lesions that need to be repaired for cell survival. Here we examined the effects of NCS and MMC treatment on oocytes collected from antral follicles in mice, because potentially such oocytes are readily collected from ovaries and do not need to be in vitro grown to achieve meiotic competency. We found that oocytes were sensitive to NCS, such that this ionizing radiation mimetic blocked meiosis I and caused fragmented DNA. In contrast, MMC had no impact on the completion of either meiosis I or II, even at extremely high doses. However, oocytes treated with MMC did show γ-H2AX foci and following their in vitro maturation and parthenogenetic activation the development of the subsequent embryos was severely compromised. Addition of MMC to 1-cell embryos caused a similarly poor level of development, demonstrating oocytes have eventual sensitivity to this ICL-inducing agent but this does not occur during their meiotic division. In oocytes, the association of Fanconi Anemia protein, FANCD2, with sites of ICL lesions was not apparent until entry into the embryonic cell cycle. In conclusion, meiotic maturation of oocytes is sensitive to DSBs but not ICLs. The ability of oocytes to tolerate severe ICL damage and yet complete meiosis, means that this type of DNA lesion goes unrepaired in oocytes but impacts on subsequent embryo quality.

  19. Sequence-Dependent Thymine Dimer Formation and Photoreversal Rates in Double-Stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Yu Kay; Forties, Robert A.; Liu, Xin; Poirier, Michael G.; Kohler, Bern

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (TT-CPD) formation was studied at 23 thymine-thymine base steps in two 247-base pair DNA sequences irradiated at 254 nm. Damage was assayed site-specifically and simultaneously on both the forward and reverse strands by detecting emission from distinguishable fluorescent labels at the 5’-termini of fragments cleaved at CPD sites by T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase and separated by gel electrophoresis. The total DNA strand length of n...

  20. DNA double-strand breaks: A potential causative factor for mammalian aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Li (Han); J.R. Mitchell (James); P. Hasty (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAging is a pleiotropic and stochastic process influenced by both genetics and environment. As a result the fundamental underlying causes of aging are controversial and likely diverse. Genome maintenance and in particular the repair of DNA damage is critical to ensure longevity needed for

  1. High-affinity triplex targeting of double stranded DNA using chemically modified peptide nucleic acid oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads E; Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    substitution, in combination with (oligo)lysine or 9-aminoacridine conjugation, homopyrimidine PNA oligomers bind complementary dsDNA targets via triplex formation with (sub)nanomolar affinities (at pH 7.2, 150 mM Na(+)). Binding affinity can be modulated more than 1000-fold by changes in pH, PNA oligomer...

  2. The ubiquitin- and SUMO-dependent signaling response to DNA double-strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2011-01-01

    of this ubiquitin-dependent chromatin response, but its molecular basis is currently unclear. Here, we discuss recent insights into how ubiquitin- and SUMO-dependent signaling processes cooperate to orchestrate protein interactions with sites of DNA damage to facilitate DSB repair....

  3. Efficient double-strand cleavage of DNA mediated by Zn(II)-based artificial nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Liping; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jinlei; Yan, Shiping

    2011-05-28

    Two water-soluble zinc complexes, [Zn(L)Cl(2)] (1) and [Zn(2)(L)(2)(μ-C(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)]·(ClO(4))(2)·CH(3)OH (2) (L = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)methylamine), were prepared to serve as nuclease mimics. The complexes were characterized by X-ray, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy as well as ESI-MS. The electrospray mass spectrum of 2 in solution indicates that dinuclear ion [Zn(2)(L)(2)(μ-C(2)O(4))(ClO(4))](+) (3) is the active species. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy studies show that the complexes partially intercalate to CT-DNA. In the absence of reducing agent, supercoiled plasmid DNA cleavage by the complexes 1 and 3 was performed and the hydrolytic mechanism was demonstrated by adding standard radical scavengers.

  4. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  5. Hyperthermia does not affect rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks in a cell-free assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsberger, P R; Iliakis, G

    2000-03-01

    Heat radiosensitization is poorly understood but is believed to be caused by an inhibition in the repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions. This inhibition in DNA repair may be caused either by direct heat inactivation of repair enzymes, or by heat-induced protein denaturation that leads to their precipitation onto nuclear chromatin structures, generating a barrier that prevents repair enzymes from reaching the damage sites. A previously described (Ganguly and Iliakis, Int J Radiat Biol 1995, 68, 447-457) cell-free assay was introduced to evaluate rejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) in heated (45.5 degrees C, 20 min) nuclei prepared from A549 cells, in reactions assembled with extracts of non-heated and non-irradiated HeLa cells. The assay allowed the functional evaluation of the effect of precipitated nuclear protein on dsb rejoining. By combining heated nuclei with extracts of non-heated cells the assay avoided complications that would otherwise arise when intact cells are studied, where both nuclear structures and repair factors are heated and therefore potentially altered. It was observed that exposure of A549 cells to 45.5 degrees C for 20 min caused a 50% increase in the relative protein content of isolated nuclei but had no effect on the in vitro rejoining of dsb. In agreement with earlier reports, a greatly reduced rate of dsb rejoining was observed either in intact A549 or HeLa cells after exposure to heat. The results indicate that an increased retention of proteins in heated nuclei is not necessarily associated with an inhibition of dsb rejoining. While the in vitro system may only reproduce certain aspects of the in vivo conditions, the results suggest that protein accretion as a mechanism of heat radiosensitization requires further testing using functional assays.

  6. MeHg Developing Exposure Causes DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Elicits Cell Cycle Arrest in Spinal Cord Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury (MeHg is well documented; however, the developmental neurotoxicity in spinal cord is still not fully understood. Here we investigated whether MeHg affects the spinal cord layers development. Chicken embryos at E3 were treated in ovo with 0.1 μg MeHg/50 μL saline solution and analyzed at E10. Thus, we performed immunostaining using anti-γ-H2A.X to recognize DNA double-strand breaks and antiphosphohistone H3, anti-p21, and anti-cyclin E to identify cells in proliferation and cell cycle proteins. Also, to identify neuronal cells, we used anti-NeuN and anti-βIII-tubulin antibodies. After the MeHg treatment, we observed the increase on γ-H2A.X in response to DNA damage. MeHg caused a decrease in the proliferating cells and in the thickness of spinal cord layers. Moreover, we verified that MeHg induced an increase in the number of p21-positive cells but did not change the cyclin E-positive cells. A significantly high number of TUNEL-positive cells indicating DNA fragmentation were observed in MeHg-treated embryos. Regarding the neuronal differentiation, MeHg induced a decrease in NeuN expression and did not change the expression of βIII-tubulin. These results showed that in ovo MeHg exposure alters spinal cord development by disturbing the cell proliferation and death, also interfering in early neuronal differentiation.

  7. Cascade of chromosomal rearrangements caused by a heterogeneous T-DNA integration supports the double-stranded break repair model for T-DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Huang, Jilei

    2017-06-01

    Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be integrated into the plant genome. The double-stranded break repair (DSBR) pathway is a major model for T-DNA integration. From this model, we expect that two ends of a T-DNA molecule would invade into a single DNA double-stranded break (DSB) or independent DSBs in the plant genome. We call the later phenomenon a heterogeneous T-DNA integration, which has never been observed. In this work, we demonstrated it in an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant seb19. To resolve the chromosomal structural changes caused by T-DNA integration at both the nucleotide and chromosome levels, we performed inverse PCR, genome resequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and linkage analysis. We found, in seb19, a single T-DNA connected two different chromosomal loci and caused complex chromosomal rearrangements. The specific break-junction pattern in seb19 is consistent with the result of heterogeneous T-DNA integration but not of recombination between two T-DNA insertions. We demonstrated that, in seb19, heterogeneous T-DNA integration evoked a cascade of incorrect repair of seven DSBs on chromosomes 4 and 5, and then produced translocation, inversion, duplication and deletion. Heterogeneous T-DNA integration supports the DSBR model and suggests that two ends of a T-DNA molecule could be integrated into the plant genome independently. Our results also show a new origin of chromosomal abnormalities. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sequence-dependent thymine dimer formation and photoreversal rates in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yu Kay; Forties, Robert A; Liu, Xin; Poirier, Michael G; Kohler, Bern

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics of thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (TT-CPD) formation was studied at 23 thymine-thymine base steps in two 247-base pair DNA sequences irradiated at 254 nm. Damage was assayed site-specifically and simultaneously on both the forward and reverse strands by detecting emission from distinguishable fluorescent labels at the 5'-termini of fragments cleaved at CPD sites by T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase and separated by gel electrophoresis. The total DNA strand length of nearly 1000 bases made it possible to monitor damage at all 9 tetrads of the type XTTY, where X and Y are non-thymine bases. TT-CPD yields for different tetrads were found to vary by as much as an order of magnitude, but similar yields were observed at all instances of a given tetrad. Kinetic analysis of CPD formation at 23 distinct sites reveals that both the formation and reversal photoreactions depend sensitively on the identity of the nearest-neighbour bases on the 5' and the 3' side of a photoreactive TT base step. The lowest formation and reversal rates occur when two purine bases flank a TT step, while the highest formation and reversal rates are observed for tetrads with at least one flanking C. Overall, the results show that the probabilities of CPD formation and photoreversal depend principally on interactions with nearest-neighbour bases.

  9. Optimization of Neutral Comet Assay for studying DNA double-strand breaks in pea and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an adaptation of the Comet assay under neutral conditions for mono- and dicotyledonous plants pea (Pisum sativum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Modifications concern lysis and electrophoresis steps, respectively. Electrophoresis was carried out varying the intensity of the electric field. A linear relationship between the percentages of DNA in the tail from control background with alteration of intensity was found. Trypan blue dye exclusion test was used in order to determine the intactness of nuclear membrane of the isolated nuclei from both plant model systems. Assessment was conducted on non-irradiated and irradiated nuclei on a monolayer with three doses of UVC. It was found that the share of intact nuclei (trypan blue negative ones is about 95% in controls. Gradual dose-related increase of damaged nuclei was observed in both species, reaching statistical significance only at the higher dose applied.

  10. Writers, Readers, and Erasers of Histone Ubiquitylation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeenk, Godelieve; Mailand, Niels

    2016-01-01

    for a range of genome caretaker proteins and their associated factors. These DNA damage-induced chromatin ubiquitylation marks provide an essential component of a histone code for DSB repair that is controlled by multifaceted regulatory circuits, underscoring its importance for genome stability maintenance...... accurate lesion repair and restoration of genome integrity. In vertebrate cells, ubiquitin-dependent modifications of histones adjacent to DSBs by RNF8, RNF168, and other ubiquitin ligases have a key role in promoting the assembly of repair protein complexes, serving as direct recruitment platforms....... In this review, we provide a comprehensive account of how DSB-induced histone ubiquitylation is sensed, decoded and modulated by an elaborate array of repair factors and regulators. We discuss how these mechanisms impact DSB repair pathway choice and functionality for optimal protection of genome integrity...

  11. 75 FR 62820 - Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... consequence pathogens and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to human, animal, or plant... described in public comments as ``genes that can be intentionally abused,'' ``risk- associated'' genes, or..., including pathogens that could threaten public health, agriculture, plants, animals, the environment, or...

  12. Priming with a double-stranded DNA virus alters Brassica rapa seed architecture and facilitates a defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalischuk, Melanie L; Johnson, Dan; Kawchuk, Lawrence M

    2015-02-25

    Abiotic and biotic stresses alter genome stability and physiology of plants. Under some stressful situations, a state of stress tolerance can be passed on to the offspring rendering them more suitable to stressful events than their parents. In plants, the exploration of transgenerational response has remained exclusive to model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we expand transgenerational research to include Brassica rapa, a close relative to economically important plant canola (Brassica napus), as it is exposed to the biotic stress of a double-stranded DNA virus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Parent plants exposed to a low dose of 50ng purified CaMV virions just prior to the bolting stage produced significantly larger seeds than mock inoculated and healthy treatments. The progeny from these large seeds displayed resistance to the pathogen stress applied in the parental generation. Differences in defense pathways involving fatty acids, and primary and secondary metabolites were detected by de novo transcriptome sequencing of CaMV challenged progeny exhibiting different levels of resistance. Our study highlights biological and cellular processes that may be linked to the growth and yield of economically important B. rapa, in a transgenerational manner. Although much remains unknown as to the mechanisms behind transgenerational inheritance, our work shows a disease resistance response that persists for several weeks and is associated with an increase in seed size. Evidence suggests that a number of changes involved in the persistent stress adaption are reflected in the transcriptome. The results from this study demonstrate that treating B. rapa with dsDNA virus within a critical time frame and with a specified amount of infectious pathogen produces economically important agricultural plants with superior coping strategies for growing in unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-04: Measurement of Stereotactic Output Factors with DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, K; Obeidat, M; Stathakis, S; Kabat, C; Markovic, M; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, C; Lee, S; Shim, E; Kirby, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy treatment is specified by radiation dose prescriptions, but biological DNA damage actually controls treatment effectiveness. It is impractical to directly measure dose in the clinic, so we measure quantities, such as collected charge, and calculate the relationship to dose. At small fields, such as those in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), charged-particle equilibrium (CPE) breaks down and the accuracy of the measurement for delivered dose decreases. By measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) directly, we believe treatment accuracy could improve by providing a more meaningful measurement. Methods: A DNA dosimeter, consisting of magnetic streptavidin beads attached to 4 kilobase pair DNA strands labeled with biotin and fluorescein amidite (FAM) on opposing ends, was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Twenty µL samples were placed in plastic micro-capillary tubes inside a water tank setup and irradiated with 10 cm, 3 cm, 1.25 cm, 0.75 cm, and 0.5 cm radiation field sizes, where the three smallest sizes were cones. After irradiation, the dosimeters were mechanically separated into beads (intact DNA) and supernatant (broken DNA/FAM) using a magnet. The fluorescence was read and the probability of DSB was calculated. This was used to calculate the output factor for an SRS beam and compared to that measured using a diode detector. Results: The output factors relative to a 10 cm field were 0.89±0.07, 0.76±0.08, 0.59±0.04, and 0.78±0.12 for the field sizes of 3 cm, 1.25 cm, 0.75 cm, and 0.5 cm, respectively. Some of the diode measurements do not fall within these uncertainties. Conclusion: This was the first attempt to measure output factors in a water tank with the DNA dosimeter. Although differences compared to the diode were observed, the uncertainty analysis ignored systematic errors. For future work, we will repeat this experiment to quantify and correct systematic errors, such as those caused by positional alignment and sample

  14. ZTF-8 interacts with the 9-1-1 complex and is required for DNA damage response and double-strand break repair in the C. elegans germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Min Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in DNA repair genes are linked to tumor progression. Furthermore, failure in either activating a DNA damage checkpoint or repairing programmed meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs can impair chromosome segregation. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis for DNA damage response (DDR and DSB repair (DSBR within the germline is highly important. Here we define ZTF-8, a previously uncharacterized protein conserved from worms to humans, as a novel factor involved in the repair of both mitotic and meiotic DSBs as well as in meiotic DNA damage checkpoint activation in the C. elegans germline. ztf-8 mutants exhibit specific sensitivity to γ-irradiation and hydroxyurea, mitotic nuclear arrest at S-phase accompanied by activation of the ATL-1 and CHK-1 DNA damage checkpoint kinases, as well as accumulation of both mitotic and meiotic recombination intermediates, indicating that ZTF-8 functions in DSBR. However, impaired meiotic DSBR progression partially fails to trigger the CEP-1/p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint in late pachytene, also supporting a role for ZTF-8 in meiotic DDR. ZTF-8 partially co-localizes with the 9-1-1 DDR complex and interacts with MRT-2/Rad1, a component of this complex. The human RHINO protein rescues the phenotypes observed in ztf-8 mutants, suggesting functional conservation across species. We propose that ZTF-8 is involved in promoting repair at stalled replication forks and meiotic DSBs by transducing DNA damage checkpoint signaling via the 9-1-1 pathway. Our findings define a conserved function for ZTF-8/RHINO in promoting genomic stability in the germline.

  15. Single- and double-strand breaks induced in plasmid DNA irradiated by ultra-soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayard, B.; Touati, A.; Sage, E.; Abel, F.; Champion, C.; Chetoui, A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the molecular consequences of a carbon K photo-ionization located on DNA, dry pBS plasmid samples were irradiated with ultra-soft X-rays at energies below and above the carbon K-threshold (E_K=278 eV). Single- and double-strand breaks (ssb and dsb) were quantified after resolution of the three plasmid forms (supercoiled, relaxed circular, linear) by gel electrophoresis. A factor of 1.2 was found between the doses required at 250 eV and 380 eV to induce the same number of dsb per plasmid. Dans le but d'étudier les conséquences à l'échelle moléculaire d'une photo- ionisation en couche K du carbone de l'ADN, des dépots de plasmides ont été irradiés à sec par des X ultra-mous d'énergies situées de part et d'autre du seuil d'ionisation en couche interne du carbone (E_K=278 eV). Les taux de cassures simple- et double-brin (ssb et dsb) ont été quantifiées après résolution des trois formes de plasmide (surenroulé, circulaire relaché, linéaire) par électrophorèse. Un facteur de 1.2 a été mesuré entre les doses nécessaires à 250 eV et 380 eV pour produire le même nombre de dsb par plasmide.

  16. Approach to the classical radiation biology. Ionizing radiation effects and repair mechanism of DNA double strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2000-09-01

    Split-dose recovery has been observed under a variety of experimental conditions in many cell systems and believed to be the recovery of sublethal damage (SLD). It is considered to be one of the most widespread and important cellular responses in clinical radiotherapy. To study the molecular mechanism of this recovery, we analyzed the knockout mutants KU70{sup -/-}, RAD54{sup -/-}, and KU70{sup -/-}/ RAD54{sup -/-} of the chicken B-cell line, DT40. Rad54 participates in the homologous recombinational (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), while Ku proteins are involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Split-dose recovery was observed in the parent DT40 and KU70{sup -/-} cells. Moreover the split-dose survival enhancement had all of the characteristics of SLD recovery that had been demonstrated earlier: e.g., the reappearance of the shoulder of the survival curve with dose fractionation; repair at 25degC; and inhibition by the antibiotic actinomycin D. These results strongly suggest that SLD recovery is due to DSB repair via or mediated by HR, and that these breaks constitute SLD. The tonicity-sensitive potentially lethal damage (PLD) recovery was also found only in DT40 and KU70 {sup -/-} cells. Delayed-plating PLD recovery may be controlled by NHEJ repair that works through the cell cycle. These results lead to the conclusion that the repair of DSBs could explain the classical operational recovery phenomena. We have also investigated RBE/LET using those mutants. (author)

  17. Mechanistic insight into the recognition of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA substrates by ABH2 and ABH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoen; Liu, Hongchuan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2010-11-01

    The human ABH2 and ABH3 proteins are functionally complementary in the oxidative demethylation of N(1)-methyl adenine (1-meA) and N(3)-methyl cytosine (3-meC) nucleotide bases. ABH3 displays higher activities with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro, whereas ABH2 acts as the primary housekeeping enzyme in mammals for effectively repairing endogenously formed alkylated lesions in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Structurally, their overall protein folding is quite similar, but the most significant differences occur in the nucleotide recognition lid and the β-hairpin motif. We present here a site-directed mutational analysis and motif-swapping study to gain mechanistic insight into DNA substrate selection by ABH2 and ABH3. A V101A-F102A double mutant notably reduced ABH2 activity in dsDNA, indicating that this hydrophobic region appears to be important for damage searching and repair. The phenylalanine finger F102 is found to be crucial for ssDNA selection and repair as well; however, V101 shows reduced demethylating activity for only ssDNA and not dsDNA. The ABH2 R110A mutant completely loses the methyl base repair activity, suggesting that R110 is likely to be involved in the base flipping process. E175 and F124 contribute to nucleotide base specific selection and stabilization in the active site for repair. Additionally, swapping the RED residues in ABH3 to equivalent VFG residues in ABH2 endows ABH3 with activity in dsDNA repair as efficient as wild-type ABH2. Surprisingly, by changing just a few residues, the ABH3 protein can have very different selectivity towards ssDNA or dsDNA. This result indicates that the RED motif most likely prevents ABH3 binding and repair of dsDNA. Consistently, swapped ABH3 cross-links with dsDNA very well, confirming the determining roles of these residues in the initial DNA strand recognition. Overall, this work has provided a detailed understanding of the structural features of the ssDNA and dsDNA preferences of ABH2 and ABH3.

  18. Hsp90α regulates ATM and NBN functions in sensing and repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Rosa; Antoccia, Antonio; Leone, Stefano; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90α) regulates cell proteostasis and mitigates the harmful effects of endogenous and exogenous stressors on the proteome. Indeed, the inhibition of Hsp90α ATPase activity affects the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). Although the interplay between Hsp90α and several DNA damage response (DDR) proteins has been reported, its role in the DDR is still unclear. Here, we show that ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and nibrin (NBN), but not 53BP1, RAD50, and MRE11, are Hsp90α clients as the Hsp90α inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) induces ATM and NBN polyubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in normal fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Hsp90α-ATM and Hsp90α-NBN complexes are present in unstressed and irradiated cells, allowing the maintenance of ATM and NBN stability that is required for the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex-dependent ATM activation and the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of both NBN and Hsp90α in response to IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hsp90α forms a complex also with ph-Ser1981-ATM following IR. Upon phosphorylation, NBN dissociates from Hsp90α and translocates at the DSBs, while phThr5/7-Hsp90α is not recruited at the damaged sites. The inhibition of Hsp90α affects nuclear localization of MRE11 and RAD50, impairs DDR signaling (e.g., BRCA1 and CHK2 phosphorylation), and slows down DSBs repair. Hsp90α inhibition does not affect DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity, which possibly phosphorylates Hsp90α and H2AX after IR. Notably, Hsp90α inhibition causes H2AX phosphorylation in proliferating cells, this possibly indicating replication stress events. Overall, present data shed light on the regulatory role of Hsp90α on the DDR, controlling ATM and NBN stability and influencing the DSBs signaling and repair. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. DNA double-strand break induction in Ku80-deficient CHO cells following Boron Neutron Capture Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masunaga Shinichiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR is based on irradiation of tumors after accumulation of boron compound. 10B captures neutrons and produces an alpha (4He particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus (7Li. These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET radiation and have marked biological effects. The purpose of this study is to verify that BNCR will increase cell killing and slow disappearance of repair protein-related foci to a greater extent in DNA repair-deficient cells than in wild-type cells. Methods Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells and a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair deficient mutant derivative, xrs-5 (Ku80 deficient CHO mutant cells, were irradiated by thermal neutrons. The quantity of DNA-DSBs following BNCR was evaluated by measuring the phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci using immunofluorescence intensity. Results Two hours after neutron irradiation, the number of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in the CHO-K1 cells was decreased to 36.5-42.8% of the levels seen 30 min after irradiation. In contrast, two hours after irradiation, foci levels in the xrs-5 cells were 58.4-69.5% of those observed 30 min after irradiation. The number of gamma-H2AX foci in xrs-5 cells at 60-120 min after BNCT correlated with the cell killing effect of BNCR. However, in CHO-K1 cells, the RBE (relative biological effectiveness estimated by the number of foci following BNCR was increased depending on the repair time and was not always correlated with the RBE of cytotoxicity. Conclusion Mutant xrs-5 cells show extreme sensitivity to ionizing radiation, because xrs-5 cells lack functional Ku-protein. Our results suggest that the DNA-DSBs induced by BNCR were not well repaired in the Ku80 deficient cells. The RBE following BNCR of radio-sensitive mutant cells was not increased but was lower than that of radio-resistant cells. These results suggest that gamma-ray resistant cells have

  20. mus309 mutation, defective in DNA double-strand break repair, affects intergenic but not intragenic meiotic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Petter

    2005-12-01

    The effect was investigated of the hypomorphic DNA double-strand break repair, notably synthesis-dependent strand annealing, deficient mutation mus309 on the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster on intergenic and intragenic meiotic recombination in the X chromosome. The results showed that the mutation significantly increases the frequency of intergenic crossing over in two of three gene intervals of the X chromosome studied. Interestingly the increase was most prevalent in the tip of the X chromosome where crossovers normally are least frequent per physical map unit length. In particular crossing over interference was also affected, indicating that the effect of the mus309 mutation involves preconditions of crossing over but not the event of crossing over itself. On the other hand, the results also show that most probably the mutation does not have any effect on intragenic recombination, i.e. gene conversion. These results are fully consistent with the present molecular models of meiotic crossing over initiated by double-strand breaks of DNA followed by formation of a single-end-invasion intermediate, or D-loop, which is subsequently processed to generate either crossover or non-crossover products involving formation of a double Holliday junction. In particular the results suggest that the mus309 gene is involved in resolution of the D-loop, thereby affecting the choice between double-strand-break repair (DSBR) and synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathways of meiotic recombination.

  1. Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Gruhn

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is sexually dimorphic in most mammalian species, including humans, but the basis for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events of double-strand break (DSB formation and synaptic initiation. Specifically, we utilized the DNA mismatch repair protein MLH1 as a marker of recombination events, the RecA homologue RAD51 as a surrogate for DSBs, and the synaptonemal complex proteins SYCP3 and/or SYCP1 to examine synapsis between homologs. Consistent with linkage studies, genome-wide recombination levels were higher in females than in males, and the placement of exchanges varied between the sexes. Subsequent analyses of DSBs and synaptic initiation sites indicated similar male:female differences, providing strong evidence that sex-specific differences in recombination rates are established at or before the formation of meiotic DSBs. We then asked whether these differences might be linked to variation in the organization of the meiotic axis and/or axis-associated DNA and, indeed, we observed striking male:female differences in synaptonemal complex (SC length and DNA loop size. Taken together, our observations suggest that sex specific differences in recombination in humans may derive from chromatin differences established prior to the onset of the recombination pathway.

  2. Rapid MCNP simulation of DNA double strand break (DSB) relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for photons, neutrons, and light ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert D; Streitmatter, Seth W; Argento, David C; Kirkby, Charles; Goorley, John T; Moffitt, Greg; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Sandison, George A

    2015-11-07

    To account for particle interactions in the extracellular (physical) environment, information from the cell-level Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) for DNA double strand break (DSB) induction has been integrated into the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) radiation transport code system. The effort to integrate these models is motivated by the need for a computationally efficient model to accurately predict particle relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in cell cultures and in vivo. To illustrate the approach and highlight the impact of the larger scale physical environment (e.g. establishing charged particle equilibrium), we examined the RBE for DSB induction (RBEDSB) of x-rays, (137)Cs γ-rays, neutrons and light ions relative to γ-rays from (60)Co in monolayer cell cultures at various depths in water. Under normoxic conditions, we found that (137)Cs γ-rays are about 1.7% more effective at creating DSB than γ-rays from (60)Co (RBEDSB  =  1.017) whereas 60-250 kV x-rays are 1.1 to 1.25 times more efficient at creating DSB than (60)Co. Under anoxic conditions, kV x-rays may have an RBEDSB up to 1.51 times as large as (60)Co γ-rays. Fission neutrons passing through monolayer cell cultures have an RBEDSB that ranges from 2.6 to 3.0 in normoxic cells, but may be as large as 9.93 for anoxic cells. For proton pencil beams, Monte Carlo simulations suggest an RBEDSB of about 1.2 at the tip of the Bragg peak and up to 1.6 a few mm beyond the Bragg peak. Bragg peak RBEDSB increases with decreasing oxygen concentration, which may create opportunities to apply proton dose painting to help address tumor hypoxia. Modeling of the particle RBE for DSB induction across multiple physical and biological scales has the potential to aid in the interpretation of laboratory experiments and provide useful information to advance the safety and effectiveness of hadron therapy in the treatment of cancer.

  3. Rad10 exhibits lesion-dependent genetic requirements for recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Destaye M; Karlin, Justin; González-Barrera, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    . Here we show that yeast strains expressing fluorescently labeled Rad10 protein (Rad10-YFP) form foci in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by a site-specific restriction enzyme, I-SceI or by ionizing radiation (IR). Additionally, for endonuclease-induced DSBs, Rad10-YFP localization to DSB......In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad1-Rad10 protein complex participates in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR). During HR, the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease cleaves 3' branches of DNA and aberrant 3' DNA ends that are refractory to other 3' processing enzymes...

  4. A differential autophagy-dependent response to DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from sporadic ALS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Wald-Altman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors that leads to neuromuscular degeneration and has pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal levels of mRNA expression for biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in the brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1G93A ALS mouse model. These observations support the idea that there is a pathophysiological relevance for the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSCs. Here, we demonstrate that ALS-hMSCs are also a useful patient-based model to study intrinsic cell molecular mechanisms of the disease. We investigated the ALS-hMSC response to oxidative DNA damage exerted by neocarzinostatin (NCS-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. We found that the ALS-hMSCs responded to this stress differently from cells taken from healthy controls (HC-hMSCs. Interestingly, we found that ALS-hMSC death in response to induction of DSBs was dependent on autophagy, which was initialized by an increase of phosphorylated (pAMPK, and blocked by the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MeA. ALS-hMSC death in response to DSBs was not apoptotic as it was caspase independent. This unique ALS-hMSC-specific response to DNA damage emphasizes the possibility that an intrinsic abnormal regulatory mechanism controlling autophagy initiation exists in ALS-patient-derived hMSCs. This mechanism may also be relevant to the most-affected tissues in ALS. Hence, our approach might open avenues for new personalized therapies for ALS.

  5. A differential autophagy-dependent response to DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from sporadic ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald-Altman, Shane; Pichinuk, Edward; Kakhlon, Or; Weil, Miguel

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors that leads to neuromuscular degeneration and has pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal levels of mRNA expression for biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in the brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the idea that there is a pathophysiological relevance for the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSCs). Here, we demonstrate that ALS-hMSCs are also a useful patient-based model to study intrinsic cell molecular mechanisms of the disease. We investigated the ALS-hMSC response to oxidative DNA damage exerted by neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We found that the ALS-hMSCs responded to this stress differently from cells taken from healthy controls (HC-hMSCs). Interestingly, we found that ALS-hMSC death in response to induction of DSBs was dependent on autophagy, which was initialized by an increase of phosphorylated (p)AMPK, and blocked by the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MeA). ALS-hMSC death in response to DSBs was not apoptotic as it was caspase independent. This unique ALS-hMSC-specific response to DNA damage emphasizes the possibility that an intrinsic abnormal regulatory mechanism controlling autophagy initiation exists in ALS-patient-derived hMSCs. This mechanism may also be relevant to the most-affected tissues in ALS. Hence, our approach might open avenues for new personalized therapies for ALS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. The complexity of DNA double strand break is a crucial factor for activating ATR signaling pathway for G2/M checkpoint regulation regardless of ATM function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lian; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Miura, Masahiko; Cui, Xing; Liu, Cuihua; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yajima, Hirohiko; Yu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice following ionizing radiation (IR) is currently an appealing research topic, which is still largely unclear. Our recent paper indicated that the complexity of DSBs is a critical factor that enhances DNA end resection. It has been well accepted that the RPA-coated single strand DNA produced by resection is a signaling structure for ATR activation. Therefore, taking advantage of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to effectively produce complex DSBs, we investigated how the complexity of DSB influences the function of ATR pathway on the G2/M checkpoint regulation. Human skin fibroblast cells with or without ATM were irradiated with X rays or heavy ion particles, and dual-parameter flow cytometry was used to quantitatively assess the mitotic entry at early period post radiation by detecting the cells positive for phosphor histone H3. In ATM-deficient cells, ATR pathway played a pivotal role and functioned in a dose- and LET-dependent way to regulate the early G2/M arrest even as low as 0.2Gy for heavy ion radiation, which indicated that ATR pathway could be rapidly activated and functioned in an ATM-independent, but DSB complexity-dependent manner following exposure to IR. Furthermore, ATR pathway also functioned more efficiently in ATM-proficient cells to block G2 to M transition at early period of particle radiation exposure. Accordingly, in contrast to ATM inhibitor, ATR inhibitor had a more effective radiosensitizing effect on survival fraction following heavy ion beams as compared with X ray radiation. Taken together, our results reveal that the complexity of DSBs is a crucial factor for the activation of ATR pathway for G2/M checkpoint regulation, and ATM-dependent end resection is not essential for the activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of DNA double-strand breaks induced by intravascular iodinated contrast media following in vitro irradiation and in vivo, during paediatric cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Richard; McFadden, Sonyia L; Horn, Simon; Prise, Kevin M; Doyle, Philip; Hughes, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac catheterizations may result in the administration of substantial amounts of iodinated contrast media and ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of iodinated contrast media in combination with in vitro and in vivo X-ray radiation on lymphocyte DNA. Six concentrations of iodine (15, 17.5, 30, 35, 45, and 52.5 mg of iodine per mL blood) represented volumes of iodinated contrast media used in the clinical setting. Blood obtained from healthy volunteers was mixed with iodinated contrast media and exposed to radiation doses commonly used in paediatric cardiac catheterizations (0 mGy, 70 mGy, 140 mGy, 250 mGy and 450 mGy). Control samples contained no iodine. For in vivo experimentation, pre and post blood samples were collected from children undergoing cardiac catheterization, receiving iodine concentrations of up to 51 mg of iodine per mL blood and radiation doses of up to 400 mGy. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to assess γH2AX-foci induction, which corresponded to the number of DNA double-strand breaks. The presence of iodine in vitro resulted in significant increases of DNA double-strand breaks beyond that induced by radiation for ≥ 17.5 mg/mL iodine to blood. The in vivo effects of contrast media on children undergoing cardiac catheterization resulted in a 19% increase in DNA double-strand breaks in children receiving an average concentration of 19 mg/mL iodine to blood. A larger investigation is required to provide further information of the potential benefit of lowering the amount of iodinated contrast media received during X-ray radiation investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Influence of different iodinated contrast media on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks after in vitro X-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinzer, Christoph K W; Danova, Daniela; Kleb, Beate; Klose, Klaus J; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine differences in DNA double-strand break induction in peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro X-ray irradiation between iodinated contrast agents. Four different iodinated X-ray contrast agents--three of them with two different iodine concentrations--and mannitol (negative control; concentration of 150 mg mannitol per ml blood) were pipetted into blood samples so that there was a concentration of 0, 7.5 or 15 mg of iodine per ml blood in the samples. Negative controls without contrast medium (0 mg of iodine per ml blood) were also processed for every irradiation dose. The tubes were exposed to 0, 20 or 500 mGy in vitro X-ray irradiation. After that, the lymphocytes were separated by using density-gradient centrifugation. Fluorescence microscopy was applied to determine the average number of γH2AX-foci per lymphocyte in the presence or absence of different contrast media or mannitol. Differences in the number of γH2AX-foci were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference test. Iodinated contrast agents led to a statistically significant increase in DNA double-strand breaks after in vitro irradiation. This effect increased statistically significant with rising radiation dose and appeared independent of the contrast agent used (iopromid, iodixanol, iomeprol, iopamidol). A statistically significant difference in DNA damage between the different tested contrast agents was not found. Therefore, the increase in DNA double-strand breaks depends solely on the amount of iodine applied. For evaluation of clinical consequences, our findings could be tested in further animal studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics dynamics simulation of A-DNA double strands irradiated by ultra-low-energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngaojampa, C.; Nimmanpipug, P. [Computer Simulation and Modeling Laboratory (CSML), Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.t [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Lee, V.S., E-mail: vannajan@gmail.co [Computer Simulation and Modeling Laboratory (CSML), Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In order to promote understanding of the fundamentals of ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA, molecular dynamics simulations using combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics of poly-AT and poly-GC A-DNA double strands irradiated by <200 eV carbon ions were performed to investigate the molecular implications of mutation bias. The simulations were focused on the responses of the DNA backbones and nitrogenous bases to irradiation. Analyses of the root mean square displacements of the backbones and non-hydrogen atoms of base rings of the simulated DNA structure after irradiation revealed a potential preference of DNA double strand separation, dependent on the irradiating energy. The results show that for the backbones, the large difference in the displacement between poly-GC and poly-AT in the initial time period could be the reason for the backbone breakage; for the nitrogenous base pairs, A-T is 30% more sensitive or vulnerable to ion irradiation than G-C, demonstrating a preferential, instead of random, effect of irradiation-induced mutation.

  10. De novo-engineered transcription activator-like effector (TALE) hybrid nuclease with novel DNA binding specificity creates double-strand breaks

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-01-24

    Site-specific and rare cutting nucleases are valuable tools for genome engineering. The generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) promotes homologous recombination in eukaryotes and can facilitate gene targeting, additions, deletions, and inactivation. Zinc finger nucleases have been used to generate DSBs and subsequently, for genome editing but with low efficiency and reproducibility. The transcription activator-like family of type III effectors (TALEs) contains a central domain of tandem repeats that could be engineered to bind specific DNA targets. Here, we report the generation of a Hax3-based hybrid TALE nuclease with a user-selected DNA binding specificity. We show that the engineered TALE nuclease can bind to its target sequence in vitro and that the homodimeric TALE nuclease can cleave double-stranded DNA in vitro if the DNA binding sites have the proper spacing and orientation. Transient expression assays in tobacco leaves suggest that the hybrid nuclease creates DSB in its target sequence, which is subsequently repaired by nonhomologous end-joining repair. Taken together, our data show the feasibility of engineering TALE-based hybrid nucleases capable of generating site-specific DSBs and the great potential for site-specific genome modification in plants and eukaryotes in general.

  11. Non-homologous end joining is the responsible pathway for the repair of fludarabine-induced DNA double strand breaks in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Nebel, Marcelo de [Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R. Castex, Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mnebel@hematologia.anm.edu.ar; Larripa, Irene; Gonzalez-Cid, Marcela [Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R. Castex, Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-11-10

    Fludarabine (FLU), an analogue of adenosine, interferes with DNA synthesis and inhibits the chain elongation leading to replication arrest and DNA double strand break (DSB) formation. Mammalian cells use two main pathways of DSB repair to maintain genomic stability: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the repair pathways employed in the restoration of DSB formed following replication arrest induced by FLU in mammalian cells. Replication inhibition was induced in human lymphocytes and fibroblasts by FLU. DSB occurred in a dose-dependent manner on early/middle S-phase cells, as detected by {gamma}H2AX foci formation. To test whether conservative HR participates in FLU-induced DSB repair, we measured the kinetics of Rad51 nuclear foci formation in human fibroblasts. There was no significant induction of Rad51 foci after FLU treatment. To further confirm these results, we analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in both human cells. We did not find increased frequencies of SCE after FLU treatment. To assess the participation of NHEJ pathway in the repair of FLU-induced damage, we used two chemical inhibitors of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), vanillin and wortmannin. Human fibroblasts pretreated with DNA-PKcs inhibitors showed increased levels of chromosome breakages and became more sensitive to cell death. An active role of NHEJ pathway was also suggested from the analysis of Chinese hamster cell lines. XR-C1 (DNA-PKcs-deficient) and XR-V15B (Ku80-deficient) cells showed hypersensitivity to FLU as evidenced by the increased frequency of chromosome aberrations, decreased mitotic index and impaired survival rates. In contrast, CL-V4B (Rad51C-deficient) and V-C8 (Brca2-deficient) cell lines displayed a FLU-resistant phenotype. Together, our results suggest a major role for NHEJ repair in the preservation of genome integrity against FLU

  12. Ganglioside GQ1b enhances anti-double-stranded DNA antibody and IgG production of PBMCs from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, N; Watanabe, S

    2000-03-01

    Previously, we reported that ganglioside GQ1b greatly enhanced spontaneous immunoglobulin production in vitro by PBMCs from normal human subjects. We examined in vitro effects of GQ1b on anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody production by PBMCs from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PBMCs from patients with SLE were cultured with GQ1b. IgG anti-dsDNA antibody, total IgG, and cytokine amounts in the culture supernatants and protein kinase C (PKC) activity of T cells were measured by using ELISA. GQ1b enhanced both anti-dsDNA and total IgG production of PBMCs from patients with SLE who were seropositive for anti-dsDNA. Among the seropositive patients, the active patients were more responsive to GQ1b in anti-dsDNA production than the inactive patients. GQ1b also enhanced total IgG production of PBMCs from patients with SLE who were seronegative for anti-dsDNA but did not induce their anti-dsDNA production. In contrast to PBMCs, GQ1b did not affect the antibody production either of purified CD5(+) or of CD5(-) B cells. Anti-IL-6 or anti-IL-10 antibody each partially blocked the GQ1b-induced enhancement of antibody production in PBMCs, and the addition of both antibodies completely blocked the enhancement. GQ1b increased IL-6 and IL-10 production of T cells. The supernatant from GQ1b-treated T cells enhanced antibody production both of CD5(+) and of CD5(-) B cells to a greater extent than that from medium-treated T cells. Exogenous IL-6 and IL-10 additively increased the antibody production both of CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. GQ1b-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-10 production of T cells were both blocked by PKC inhibitors, calphostin C and staurosporine. GQ1b enhanced PKC activity of T cells. These results suggest that GQ1b may polyclonally increase the production of IgG, including IgG anti-dsDNA antibody, in PBMCs from patients with SLE by promoting IL-6 and IL-10 production of T cells through the enhancement of their PKC activity.

  13. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP44 counteracts the DNA double-strand break response mediated by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anna; Lukas, Claudia; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Protein recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relies on ubiquitylation of the surrounding chromatin by the RING finger ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Flux through this pathway is opposed by several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), including OTUB1 and USP3. By analyzing the effect...... considerable functional redundancy among cellular DUBs that restrict ubiquitin-dependent protein assembly at DSBs. Our findings implicate USP44 in negative regulation of the RNF8/RNF168 pathway and illustrate the usefulness of DUB overexpression screens for identification of antagonizers of ubiquitin...

  14. Synthesis of 5-[3-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)aminopropyn-1-yl]uracil derivative that recognizes Ade-Thy base pairs in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Masaki, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Takashi; Ohkubo, Akihiro; Seio, Kohji; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    5-[3-(2-Aminopyrimidin-4-yl)aminopropyn-1-yl]uracil (Ura(Pyr)) was designed as a new nucleobase to recognize Ade-Thy base pair in double-stranded DNA. We successfully synthesized the dexoynucleoside phosphoramidite having Ura(Pyr) and incorporated it into triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). Melting temperature analysis revealed that introduction of Ura(Pyr) into TFOs could effectively stabilize their triplex structures without loss of base recognition capabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor Y; Koch, Catrin Bauréus; Terenius, Olle; Roxström-Lindquist, Katarina; Malmgren, Lars O G; H Sommer, Wolfgang; Salford, Leif G; Persson, Bertil R R

    2006-05-01

    We investigated whether exposure of rat brain to microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) induces DNA breaks, changes in chromatin conformation and in gene expression. An exposure installation was used based on a test mobile phone employing a GSM signal at 915 MHz, all standard modulations included, output power level in pulses 2 W, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.4 mW/g. Rats were exposed or sham exposed to MWs during 2 h. After exposure, cell suspensions were prepared from brain samples, as well as from spleen and thymus. For analysis of gene expression patterns, total RNA was extracted from cerebellum. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Effects of MW exposure were observed on neither conformation of chromatin nor DNA DSBs. Gene expression profiles were obtained by Affymetrix U34 GeneChips representing 8800 rat genes and analyzed with the Affymetrix Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 software. In cerebellum from all exposed animals, 11 genes were upregulated in a range of 1.34-2.74 fold and one gene was downregulated 0.48-fold (P detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNA on gold and silver nanoparticles: Investigating some important parameters in bio-sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhari, Nahid; Abbasian, Sara; Moshaii, Ahmad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNAs on colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles has been studied by measuring the resistance of the nanoparticles, surrounded by various oligonucleotides, against salt induced aggregation. It is shown that both single and double stranded DNAs can be adsorbed on the metal nanoparticles and the adsorption strength is determined by the interaction between various bases of DNA and the nanoparticles. By changing the salt concentration, the difference between adsorption of various DNA strands on the nanoparticles can be specified. The results indicate that a key parameter in success of a sensing assay of DNA hybridization is the salt concentration which should be greater than a minimum threshold depending on the nanoparticles characteristics. We have also investigated the interaction mechanism between various DNA bases with the metal nanoparticles. For both gold and silver nanoparticles, adenine has the highest and thymine has the lowest attachment to the nanoparticles. From surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) data of various bases in the presence of gold nanoparticles, the probable interaction points in the bases with the nanoparticles have been determined, which are mainly the nitrogen sites of these oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; Gawecka, J E; Benet, J; Ward, W S

    2014-04-01

    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestimates the epididymal SCF breaks because the broken DNA ends remain attached to the nuclear matrix, causing the DNA to remain associated with the dispersion halo, and the Comet tails to be weak. Therefore, we term these hidden dsDNA breaks. When the Comet assay was modified to include an additional incubation with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) after the conventional lysis, thereby solubilizing the nuclear matrix, the broken DNA was released from the matrix, which resulted in a reduction of the sperm head halo and an increase in the Comet tail length, exposing the hidden dsDNA breaks. Conversely, SCF-induced vas deferens sperm had small halos and long tails with the conventional neutral Comet assay, suggesting that the broken DNA ends were not tethered to the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that the attachment to the nuclear matrix is crucial for the religation of SCF-induced DNA breaks in sperm. Our data suggest that the neutral Comet assay identifies only dsDNA breaks that are released from the nuclear matrix and that the addition of an SDS treatment can reveal these hidden dsDNA breaks.

  18. LncRNA lnc-RI regulates homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks by stabilizing RAD51 mRNA as a competitive endogenous RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liping; Wang, Qi; Liu, Ruixue; Chen, Zhongmin; Zhang, Xueqing; Zhou, Pingkun; Wang, Zhidong

    2017-12-04

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is critical for the maintenance of genome stability. The current models of the mechanism of DSB repair are based on studies of DNA repair proteins. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as new regulatory molecules, with diverse functions in biological processes. In the present study, we found that expression of the ionizing radiation-inducible lncRNA, lnc-RI, was correlate negatively with micronucleus frequencies in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Knockdown of lnc-RI significantly increased spontaneous DSBs levels, which was confirmed to be associated with the decreased efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) repair of DSBs. The expression of RAD51, a key recombinase in the HR pathway, decreased sharply in lnc-RI-depressed cells. In a further investigation, we demonstrated that miR-193a-3p could bind with both lnc-RI and RAD51 mRNA and depressed the expression of lnc-RI and RAD51 mRNA. Lnc-RI acted as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to stabilize RAD51 mRNA via competitive binding with miR-193a-3p and release of its inhibition of RAD51 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the role of lnc-RI in regulating HR repair of DSBs. The feedback loop established in the current study suggests that lnc-RI is critical for the maintenance of genomic stability. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Single-molecule manipulation of double-stranded DNA using optical tweezers: interaction studies of DNA with RecA and YOYO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennink, M L; Schärer, O D; Kanaar, R; Sakata-Sogawa, K; Schins, J M; Kanger, J S; de Grooth, B G; Greve, J

    1999-07-01

    By using optical tweezers and a specially designed flow cell with an integrated glass micropipette, we constructed a setup similar to that of Smith et al. (Science 271:795-799, 1996) in which an individual double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule can be captured between two polystyrene beads. The first bead is immobilized by the optical tweezers and the second by the micropipette. Movement of the micropipette allows manipulation and stretching of the DNA molecule, and the force exerted on it can be monitored simultaneously with the optical tweezers. We used this setup to study elongation of dsDNA by RecA protein and YOYO-1 dye molecules. We found that the stability of the different DNA-ligand complexes and their binding kinetics were quite different. The length of the DNA molecule was extended by 45% when RecA protein was added. Interestingly, the speed of elongation was dependent on the external force applied to the DNA molecule. In experiments in which YOYO-1 was added, a 10-20% extension of the DNA molecule length was observed. Moreover, these experiments showed that a change in the applied external force results in a time-dependent structural change of the DNA-YOYO-1 complex, with a time constant of approximately 35 s (1/e2). Because the setup provides an oriented DNA molecule, we determined the orientation of the transition dipole moment of YOYO-1 within DNA by using fluorescence polarization. The angle of the transition dipole moment with respect to the helical axis of the DNA molecule was 69 degrees +/- 3.

  20. JNK Phosphorylates SIRT6 to Stimulate DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Response to Oxidative Stress by Recruiting PARP1 to DNA Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Van Meter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of damage caused by oxidative stress has been linked to aging and to the etiology of numerous age-related diseases. The longevity gene, sirtuin 6 (SIRT6, promotes genome stability by facilitating DNA repair, especially under oxidative stress conditions. Here we uncover the mechanism by which SIRT6 is activated by oxidative stress to promote DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. We show that the stress-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, phosphorylates SIRT6 on serine 10 in response to oxidative stress. This post-translational modification facilitates the mobilization of SIRT6 to DNA damage sites and is required for efficient recruitment of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 to DNA break sites and for efficient repair of DSBs. Our results demonstrate a post-translational mechanism regulating SIRT6, and they provide the link between oxidative stress signaling and DNA repair pathways that may be critical for hormetic response and longevity assurance.

  1. A major role of the RecFOR pathway in DNA double-strand-break repair through ESDSA in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Bentchikou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Deinococcus radiodurans, the extreme resistance to DNA-shattering treatments such as ionizing radiation or desiccation is correlated with its ability to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of chromosomal fragments. The rapid reconstitution of an intact genome is thought to occur through an extended synthesis-dependent strand annealing process (ESDSA followed by DNA recombination. Here, we investigated the role of key components of the RecF pathway in ESDSA in this organism naturally devoid of RecB and RecC proteins. We demonstrate that inactivation of RecJ exonuclease results in cell lethality, indicating that this protein plays a key role in genome maintenance. Cells devoid of RecF, RecO, or RecR proteins also display greatly impaired growth and an important lethal sectoring as bacteria devoid of RecA protein. Other aspects of the phenotype of recFOR knock-out mutants paralleled that of a DeltarecA mutant: DeltarecFOR mutants are extremely radiosensitive and show a slow assembly of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments, not accompanied by DNA synthesis, and reduced DNA degradation. Cells devoid of RecQ, the major helicase implicated in repair through the RecF pathway in E. coli, are resistant to gamma-irradiation and have a wild-type DNA repair capacity as also shown for cells devoid of the RecD helicase; in contrast, DeltauvrD mutants show a markedly decreased radioresistance, an increased latent period in the kinetics of DNA double-strand-break repair, and a slow rate of fragment assembly correlated with a slow rate of DNA synthesis. Combining RecQ or RecD deficiency with UvrD deficiency did not significantly accentuate the phenotype of DeltauvrD mutants. In conclusion, RecFOR proteins are essential for DNA double-strand-break repair through ESDSA whereas RecJ protein is essential for cell viability and UvrD helicase might be involved in the processing of double stranded DNA ends and/or in the DNA synthesis step of ESDSA.

  2. To nick or not to nick: comparison of I-SceI single- and double-strand break-induced recombination in yeast and human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha S Katz

    Full Text Available Genetic modification of a chromosomal locus to replace an existing dysfunctional allele with a corrected sequence can be accomplished through targeted gene correction using the cell's homologous recombination (HR machinery. Gene targeting is stimulated by generation of a DNA double-strand break (DSB at or near the site of correction, but repair of the break via non-homologous end-joining without using the homologous template can lead to deleterious genomic changes such as in/del mutations, or chromosomal rearrangements. By contrast, generation of a DNA single-strand break (SSB, or nick, can stimulate gene correction without the problems of DSB repair because the uncut DNA strand acts as a template to permit healing without alteration of genetic material. Here, we examine the ability of a nicking variant of the I-SceI endonuclease (K223I I-SceI to stimulate gene targeting in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293 cells. K223I I-SceI is proficient in both yeast and human cells and promotes gene correction up to 12-fold. We show that K223I I-SceI-driven recombination follows a different mechanism than wild-type I-SceI-driven recombination, thus indicating that the initial DNA break that stimulates recombination is not a low-level DSB but a nick. We also demonstrate that K223I I-SceI efficiently elevates gene targeting at loci distant from the break site in yeast cells. These findings establish the capability of the I-SceI nickase to enhance recombination in yeast and human cells, strengthening the notion that nicking enzymes could be effective tools in gene correction strategies for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, and gene therapy.

  3. To Nick or Not to Nick: Comparison of I-SceI Single- and Double-Strand Break-Induced Recombination in Yeast and Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Samantha S.; Gimble, Frederick S.; Storici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of a chromosomal locus to replace an existing dysfunctional allele with a corrected sequence can be accomplished through targeted gene correction using the cell's homologous recombination (HR) machinery. Gene targeting is stimulated by generation of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) at or near the site of correction, but repair of the break via non-homologous end-joining without using the homologous template can lead to deleterious genomic changes such as in/del mutations, or chromosomal rearrangements. By contrast, generation of a DNA single-strand break (SSB), or nick, can stimulate gene correction without the problems of DSB repair because the uncut DNA strand acts as a template to permit healing without alteration of genetic material. Here, we examine the ability of a nicking variant of the I-SceI endonuclease (K223I I-SceI) to stimulate gene targeting in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. K223I I-SceI is proficient in both yeast and human cells and promotes gene correction up to 12-fold. We show that K223I I-SceI-driven recombination follows a different mechanism than wild-type I-SceI-driven recombination, thus indicating that the initial DNA break that stimulates recombination is not a low-level DSB but a nick. We also demonstrate that K223I I-SceI efficiently elevates gene targeting at loci distant from the break site in yeast cells. These findings establish the capability of the I-SceI nickase to enhance recombination in yeast and human cells, strengthening the notion that nicking enzymes could be effective tools in gene correction strategies for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, and gene therapy. PMID:24558436

  4. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  5. A Major Role of the RecFOR Pathway in DNA Double-Strand-Break Repair through ESDSA in Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentchikou, Esma; Servant, Pascale; Coste, Geneviève; Sommer, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In Deinococcus radiodurans, the extreme resistance to DNA–shattering treatments such as ionizing radiation or desiccation is correlated with its ability to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of chromosomal fragments. The rapid reconstitution of an intact genome is thought to occur through an extended synthesis-dependent strand annealing process (ESDSA) followed by DNA recombination. Here, we investigated the role of key components of the RecF pathway in ESDSA in this organism naturally devoid of RecB and RecC proteins. We demonstrate that inactivation of RecJ exonuclease results in cell lethality, indicating that this protein plays a key role in genome maintenance. Cells devoid of RecF, RecO, or RecR proteins also display greatly impaired growth and an important lethal sectoring as bacteria devoid of RecA protein. Other aspects of the phenotype of recFOR knock-out mutants paralleled that of a ΔrecA mutant: ΔrecFOR mutants are extremely radiosensitive and show a slow assembly of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments, not accompanied by DNA synthesis, and reduced DNA degradation. Cells devoid of RecQ, the major helicase implicated in repair through the RecF pathway in E. coli, are resistant to γ-irradiation and have a wild-type DNA repair capacity as also shown for cells devoid of the RecD helicase; in contrast, ΔuvrD mutants show a markedly decreased radioresistance, an increased latent period in the kinetics of DNA double-strand-break repair, and a slow rate of fragment assembly correlated with a slow rate of DNA synthesis. Combining RecQ or RecD deficiency with UvrD deficiency did not significantly accentuate the phenotype of ΔuvrD mutants. In conclusion, RecFOR proteins are essential for DNA double-strand-break repair through ESDSA whereas RecJ protein is essential for cell viability and UvrD helicase might be involved in the processing of double stranded DNA ends and/or in the DNA synthesis step of ESDSA. PMID:20090937

  6. Double strand breaks can initiate gene silencing and SIRT1-dependent onset of DNA methylation in an exogenous promoter CpG island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M O'Hagan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to inducers of DNA base oxidation and single and double strand breaks contribute to tumorigenesis. In addition to the genetic changes caused by this DNA damage, such tumors often contain epigenetically silenced genes with aberrant promoter region CpG island DNA hypermethylation. We herein explore the relationships between such DNA damage and epigenetic gene silencing using an experimental model in which we induce a defined double strand break in an exogenous promoter construct of the E-cadherin CpG island, which is frequently aberrantly DNA hypermethylated in epithelial cancers. Following the onset of repair of the break, we observe recruitment to the site of damage of key proteins involved in establishing and maintaining transcriptional repression, namely SIRT1, EZH2, DNMT1, and DNMT3B, and the appearance of the silencing histone modifications, hypoacetyl H4K16, H3K9me2 and me3, and H3K27me3. Although in most cells selected after the break, DNA repair occurs faithfully with preservation of activity of the promoter, a small percentage of the plated cells demonstrate induction of heritable silencing. The chromatin around the break site in such a silent clone is enriched for most of the above silent chromatin proteins and histone marks, and the region harbors the appearance of increasing DNA methylation in the CpG island of the promoter. During the acute break, SIRT1 appears to be required for the transient recruitment of DNMT3B and subsequent methylation of the promoter in the silent clones. Taken together, our data suggest that normal repair of a DNA break can occasionally cause heritable silencing of a CpG island-containing promoter by recruitment of proteins involved in silencing. Furthermore, with contribution of the stress-related protein SIRT1, the break can lead to the onset of aberrant CpG island DNA methylation, which is frequently associated with tight gene silencing in cancer.

  7. The telomeric protein TRF2 is critical for the protection of A549 cells from both telomere erosion and DNA double-strand breaks driven by salvicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Miao, Ze-Hong; Ding, Jian

    2008-03-01

    Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) has been increasingly recognized to be involved in DNA damage response and telomere maintenance. Our previous report found that salvicine (SAL), a novel topoisomerase II poison, elicited DNA double-strand breaks and telomere erosion in separate experimental systems. However, it remains to be clarified whether they share a common response to these two events and in particular whether TRF2 is involved in this process. In this study, we found that SAL concurrently induced DNA double-strand breaks, telomeric DNA damage, and telomere erosion in lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was unexpected to find that SAL led to disruption of TRF2, independently of either its transcription or proteasome-mediated degradation. By overexpressing the full-length trf2 gene and transfecting TRF2 small interfering RNAs, we showed that TRF2 protein protected both telomeric and genomic DNA from the SAL-elicited events. It is noteworthy that although both the Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and the ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases responded to the SAL-induced DNA damages, only ATR was essential for the telomere erosion. The study also showed that the activated ATR augmented the SAL-triggered TRF2 disruption, whereas TRF2 reduction in turn enhanced ATR function. All of these findings suggest the emerging significance of TRF2 protecting both telomeric DNA and genomic DNA on the one hand and reveal the mutual modulation between ATR and TRF2 in sensing DNA damage signaling during cancer development on the other hand.

  8. Double-strand break repair: are Rad51/RecA--DNA joints barriers to DNA replication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A

    2001-06-01

    The central step of homologous recombination is the DNA strand exchange reaction catalyzed by bacterial RecA or eukaryotic Rad51. Besides Rad51-mediated synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), DNA ends can promote replication in Escherichia coli (recombination-dependent replication, RDR) and yeast (break-induced replication, BIR). However, what causes a DNA end to be repaired via SDSA or via BIR/RDR? I propose that Rad51/RecA--DNA plectonemic joints act as barriers to DNA replication and that BIR/RDR is only possible when the DNA polymerase that synthesizes DNA from the invading 3' end does not encounter RecA/Rad51--DNA joints in its path.

  9. Increased sister chromatid cohesion and DNA damage response factor localization at an enzyme-induced DNA double-strand break in vertebrate cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dodson, Helen

    2009-10-01

    The response to DNA damage in vertebrate cells involves successive recruitment of DNA signalling and repair factors. We used light microscopy to monitor the genetic dependencies of such localization to a single, induced DNA double strand break (DSB) in vertebrate cells. We used an inducible version of the rare-cutting I-SceI endonuclease to cut a chromosomally integrated I-SceI site beside a Tet operator array that was visualized by binding a Tet repressor-GFP fusion. Formation of gamma-H2AX foci at a single DSB was independent of ATM or Ku70. ATM-deficient cells showed normal kinetics of 53Bp1 recruitment to DSBs, but Rad51 localization was retarded. 53Bp1 and Rad51 foci formation at a single DSB was greatly reduced in H2AX-null DT40 cells. We also observed decreased inter-sister chromatid distances after DSB induction, suggesting that cohesin loading at DSBs causes elevated sister chromatid cohesion. Loss of ATM reduced DSB-induced cohesion, consistent with cohesin being an ATM target in the DSB response. These data show that the same genetic pathways control how cells respond to single DSBs and to multiple lesions induced by whole-cell DNA damage.

  10. Influence of Different Antioxidants on X-Ray Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs Using γ-H2AX Immunofluorescence Microscopy in a Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brand

    Full Text Available Radiation exposure occurs in X-ray guided interventional procedures or computed tomography (CT and γ-H2AX-foci are recognized to represent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs as a biomarker for radiation induced damage. Antioxidants may reduce the induction of γ-H2AX-foci by binding free radicals. The aim of this study was to establish a dose-effect relationship and a time-effect relationship for the individual antioxidants on DSBs in human blood lymphocytes.Blood samples from volunteers were irradiated with 10 mGy before and after pre-incubation with different antioxidants (zinc, trolox, lipoic acid, ß-carotene, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC and Q 10. Thereby, different pre-incubation times, concentrations and combinations of drugs were evaluated. For assessment of DSBs, lymphocytes were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX.For zinc, trolox and lipoic acid regardless of concentration or pre-incubation time, no significant decrease of γ-H2AX-foci was found. However, ß-carotene (15%, selenium (14%, vitamin E (12%, vitamin C (25%, NAC (43% and Q 10 (18% led to a significant reduction of γ-H2AX-foci at a pre-incubation time of 1 hour. The combination of different antioxidants did not have an additive effect.Antioxidants administered prior to irradiation demonstrated the potential to reduce γ-H2AX-foci in blood lymphocytes.

  11. Influence of Different Antioxidants on X-Ray Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) Using γ-H2AX Immunofluorescence Microscopy in a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael; Sommer, Matthias; Ellmann, Stephan; Wuest, Wolfgang; May, Matthias S.; Eller, Achim; Vogt, Sabine; Lell, Michael M.; Kuefner, Michael A.; Uder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure occurs in X-ray guided interventional procedures or computed tomography (CT) and γ-H2AX-foci are recognized to represent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as a biomarker for radiation induced damage. Antioxidants may reduce the induction of γ-H2AX-foci by binding free radicals. The aim of this study was to establish a dose-effect relationship and a time-effect relationship for the individual antioxidants on DSBs in human blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods Blood samples from volunteers were irradiated with 10 mGy before and after pre-incubation with different antioxidants (zinc, trolox, lipoic acid, ß-carotene, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Q 10). Thereby, different pre-incubation times, concentrations and combinations of drugs were evaluated. For assessment of DSBs, lymphocytes were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX. Results For zinc, trolox and lipoic acid regardless of concentration or pre-incubation time, no significant decrease of γ-H2AX-foci was found. However, ß-carotene (15%), selenium (14%), vitamin E (12%), vitamin C (25%), NAC (43%) and Q 10 (18%) led to a significant reduction of γ-H2AX-foci at a pre-incubation time of 1 hour. The combination of different antioxidants did not have an additive effect. Conclusion Antioxidants administered prior to irradiation demonstrated the potential to reduce γ-H2AX-foci in blood lymphocytes. PMID:25996998

  12. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration of a transgene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furukawa, T.; Angelis, Karel; Britt, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, MAY 27 (2015) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06595S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA polymerase * DNA repair * Non homologous end joining Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  13. In what extent classic radiation biology can be understand at the molecular level? Biological effects of ionizing radiation and repair mechanism of double strand breaks of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    2000-09-01

    This review revealed that classic radiation biology phenomena not based on substantial concept, such as lethal damage, sublethal damage, potentially lethal damage, recoveries from them, variation of radiation sensitivity due to cell cycle, RBE/LET relationships and mathematical expression of survival curve, can be described only at the levels of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and its repair mechanism. Authors investigated chicken cells with DSB repair-defect, analyzed the molecular mechanisms of 'Elkind recovery' where cell survival rates are higher after fractionated irradiation than after single irradiation at a fixed dose, and showed that the phenomenon was derived from the cell revival resulting from homologous recombination repair of DSB yielded on homologous chromosome DNA. Investigations using HIMAC also revealed the molecular mechanisms of RBE/LET in those cells. Findings indicate that biological effects of ionizing radiation can be described at the molecular level.(K.H.)

  14. Analysis of restriction enzyme-induced DNA double-strand breaks in Chinese hamster ovary cells by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: implications for chromosome damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, D D; Phillips, J W; Columna, E A; Winegar, R A; Morgan, W F

    1991-11-01

    Restriction enzymes can be electroporated into mammalian cells, and the induced DNA double-strand breaks can lead to aberrations in metaphase chromosomes. Chinese hamster ovary cells were electroporated with PstI, which generates 3' cohesive-end breaks, PvuII, which generates blunt-end breaks, or XbaI, which generates 5' cohesive-end breaks. Although all three restriction enzymes induced similar numbers of aberrant metaphase cells, PvuII was dramatically more effective at inducing both exchange-type and deletion-type chromosome aberrations. Our cytogenetic studies also indicated that enzymes are active within cells for only a short time. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate (i) how long it takes for enzymes to cleave DNA after electroporation into cells, (ii) how long enzymes are active in the cells, and (iii) how the DNA double-strand breaks induced are related to the aberrations observed in metaphase chromosomes. At the same concentrations used in the cytogenetic studies, all enzymes were active within 10 min of electroporation. PstI and PvuII showed a distinct peak in break formation at 20 min, whereas XbaI showed a gradual increase in break frequency over time. Another increase in the number of breaks observed with all three enzymes at 2 and 3 h after electroporation was probably due to nonspecific DNA degradation in a subpopulation of enzyme-damaged cells that lysed after enzyme exposure. Break frequency and chromosome aberration frequency were inversely related: The blunt-end cutter PvuII gave rise to the most aberrations but the fewest breaks, suggesting that it is the type of break rather than the break frequency that is important for chromosome aberration formation.

  15. CRISPR-CAS9 D10A nickase target-specific fluorescent labeling of double strand DNA for whole genome mapping and structural variation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Jennifer; Sibert, Justin; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yonggang; Hu, Wenhui; Riethman, Harold; Xiao, Ming

    2016-01-29

    We have developed a new, sequence-specific DNA labeling strategy that will dramatically improve DNA mapping in complex and structurally variant genomic regions, as well as facilitate high-throughput automated whole-genome mapping. The method uses the Cas9 D10A protein, which contains a nuclease disabling mutation in one of the two nuclease domains of Cas9, to create a guide RNA-directed DNA nick in the context of an in vitro-assembled CRISPR-CAS9-DNA complex. Fluorescent nucleotides are then incorporated adjacent to the nicking site with a DNA polymerase to label the guide RNA-determined target sequences. This labeling strategy is very powerful in targeting repetitive sequences as well as in barcoding genomic regions and structural variants not amenable to current labeling methods that rely on uneven distributions of restriction site motifs in the DNA. Importantly, it renders the labeled double-stranded DNA available in long intact stretches for high-throughput analysis in nanochannel arrays as well as for lower throughput targeted analysis of labeled DNA regions using alternative methods for stretching and imaging the labeled long DNA molecules. Thus, this method will dramatically improve both automated high-throughput genome-wide mapping as well as targeted analyses of complex regions containing repetitive and structurally variant DNA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  17. Efficient double-stranded DNA cleavage by artificial zinc-finger nucleases composed of one zinc-finger protein and a single-chain FokI dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Takashi; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2009-03-25

    Zinc-finger-FokI nucleases (ZFNs) are useful for manipulating genomic DNA, but two ZFNs are required to cleave one site of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which limits the choice of targets. To refine ZFN technology, we constructed artificial zinc-finger nucleases containing an artificial zinc-finger protein (AZP) and a single-chain FokI dimer with nine different peptide linkers between two FokI molecules (designated AZP-scFokI). DNA cleavage assays revealed that the AZP-scFokI variant possessing the longest peptide linker cleaved dsDNA with equal or greater reactivity than the corresponding AZP-FokI dimer. The DNA cleavage pattern of AZP-scFokI suggests that the enhanced dsDNA cleavage was due to increased formation of FokI dimer in AZP-scFokI. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AZP-scFokI site-specifically cleaved its target DNA due to the AZP moiety discriminating one base pair difference. Thus, a single AZP-scFokI molecule is able to cleave dsDNA efficiently and site-specifically, and enhances the usefulness of the ZFN approach.

  18. In vitro model for DNA double-strand break repair analysis in breast cancer reveals cell type-specific associations with age and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Miriam; Kaufmann, Julia; Stahl, Andreea; Gundelach, Theresa; Janni, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Isabell; Keimling, Marlen; Hampp, Stephanie; Ihle, Michaela; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    Dysfunction of homologous recombination is a common denominator of changes associated with breast cancer-predisposing mutations. In our previous work, we identified a functional signature in peripheral blood lymphocytes from women who were predisposed that indicated a shift from homologous recombination to alternative, error-prone DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. To capture both hereditary and nonhereditary factors, we newly established a protocol for isolation and ex vivo analysis of epithelial cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition cells (EMTs), and fibroblasts from breast cancer specimens (147 patients). By applying a fluorescence-based test system, we analyzed the error-prone DSB repair pathway microhomology-mediated end joining in these tumor-derived cell types and peripheral blood lymphocytes. In parallel, we investigated DNA lesion processing by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of histone H2AX phosphorylated on Ser139 focus after radiomimetic treatment. Our study reveals elevated histone H2AX phosphorylated on Ser139 damage removal in epithelial cells, not EMTs, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor sensitivities, which suggested a DSB repair pathway shift with increasing patient age. Of interest, we found elevated microhomology-mediated end joining in EMTs, not epithelial cells, from patients who received a treatment recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy, that is, those with high-risk tumors. Our discoveries of altered DSB repair activities in cells may serve as a method to further classify breast cancer to predict responsiveness to adjuvant chemotherapy and/or therapeutics that target DSB repair-dysfunctional tumors.-Deniz, M., Kaufmann, J., Stahl, A., Gundelach, T., Janni, W., Hoffmann, I., Keimling, M., Hampp, S., Ihle, M., Wiesmüller, L. In vitro model for DNA double-strand break repair analysis in breast cancer reveals cell type-specific associations with age and prognosis. © FASEB.

  19. ATP binding and hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 are differentially modulated by mismatch and double-strand break repair DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Charanya; Eichmiller, Robin; Wang, Bangchen; Williams, Gregory M; Bianco, Piero R; Surtees, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msh2-Msh3-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) recognizes and targets insertion/deletion loops for repair. Msh2-Msh3 is also required for 3' non-homologous tail removal (3'NHTR) in double-strand break repair. In both pathways, Msh2-Msh3 binds double-strand/single-strand junctions and initiates repair in an ATP-dependent manner. However, we recently demonstrated that the two pathways have distinct requirements with respect to Msh2-Msh3 activities. We identified a set of aromatic residues in the nucleotide binding pocket (FLY motif) of Msh3 that, when mutated, disrupted MMR, but left 3'NHTR largely intact. One of these mutations, msh3Y942A, was predicted to disrupt the nucleotide sandwich and allow altered positioning of ATP within the pocket. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the differential requirements for ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the two pathways, we characterized Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-msh3Y942A ATP binding and hydrolysis activities in the presence of MMR and 3'NHTR DNA substrates. We observed distinct, substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover by Msh2-Msh3, indicating that the MMR and 3'NHTR DNA substrates differentially modify the ATP binding/hydrolysis activities of Msh2-Msh3. Msh2-msh3Y942A retained the ability to bind DNA and ATP but exhibited altered ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover. We propose that both ATP and structure-specific repair substrates cooperate to direct Msh2-Msh3-mediated repair and suggest an explanation for the msh3Y942A separation-of-function phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ATP binding and hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 are differentially modulated by Mismatch and Double-strand Break Repair DNA substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Charanya; Eichmiller, Robin; Wang, Bangchen; Williams, Gregory M.; Bianco, Piero R.; Surtees, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msh2-Msh3-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) recognizes and targets insertion/deletion loops for repair. Msh2-Msh3 is also required for 3′ non-homologous tail removal (3′NHTR) in double-strand break repair. In both pathways, Msh2-Msh3 binds double-strand/single-strand junctions and initiates repair in an ATP-dependent manner. However, we recently demonstrated that the two pathways have distinct requirements with respect to Msh2-Msh3 activities. We identified a set of aromatic residues in the nucleotide binding pocket (FLY motif) of Msh3 that, when mutated, disrupted MMR, but left 3′ NHTR largely intact. One of these mutations, msh3Y942A, was predicted to disrupt the nucleotide sandwich and allow altered positioning of ATP within the pocket. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the differential requirements for ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the two pathways, we characterized Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-msh3Y942A ATP binding and hydrolysis activities in the presence of MMR and 3′ NHTR DNA substrates. We observed distinct, substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover by Msh2-Msh3, indicating that the MMR and 3′ NHTR DNA substrates differentially modify the ATP binding/hydrolysis activities of Msh2-Msh3. Msh2-msh3Y942A retained the ability to bind DNA and ATP but exhibited altered ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover. We propose that both ATP and structure-specific repair substrates cooperate to direct Msh2-Msh3-mediated repair and suggest an explanation for the msh3Y942A separation-of-function phenotype. PMID:24746922

  1. Co-Infections by Double-Stranded DNA Viruses after Ex Vivo T Cell-Depleted, CD34(+) Selected Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Ting; Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Yeon Joo; Burack, Daniel; Nichols, Paige; Maloy, Molly; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Giralt, Sergio A; Jakubowski, Ann A; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A

    2017-10-01

    Recipients of ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk of infection by double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses. We report rates of dsDNA viremia, end-organ disease (EOD), infection-related mortality, and overall survival (OS) in a contemporary cohort of adult TCD HCT recipients routinely monitored for cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus (ADV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Healthcare utilization in the first 6 months post-HCT was compared between patients with dsDNA viremia versus no viremia. This was an observational study of adult patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome who received CD34(+) selected, peripheral blood HCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from March 2012 through December 2014. Patients were prospectively monitored by quantitative PCR assays for CMV, ADV, HHV6, and EBV in whole blood or plasma. The cumulative incidence of viremia(s) at day +180, EOD at 1 year, and OS at 1 year were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test among patient with and without viremia/EOD. Standardized incidence ratios were used to compare overall length of hospital stay (LOS), number of readmissions after HCT, and length of readmissions through day +180. Of 156 patients, 96 (62%) were CMV recipient seropositive. Forty-two patients received grafts from matched related (27%), 86 from matched unrelated (55%), and 28 from mismatched (18%) donors. Overall, 132 patients (85%) had ≥1 viremia and 52 (33%) ≥2 viremias by day +180. The cumulative incidences for CMV, HHV6, ADV, and EBV viremia were 44%, 61%, 7%, and 16%, respectively, with median times of onset 28 days (interquartile range [IQR], 25 to 33), 33 days (IQR, 25 to 47), 60 days (IQR, 19 to 84), and 79 days (IQR, 54 to 106) post-HCT, respectively. Twenty-eight patients (18%) developed EOD by dsDNA viruses at 1 year post-HCT. Treatment for CMV accounted for 91% total antiviral treatment-days. Compared

  2. Homologous recombination contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Faria; Seidler, Sara B.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2010-06-29

    To test the contribution of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) in repairing DNA damaged sites induced by high-energy iron ions, we used: (1) HRR-deficient rodent cells carrying a deletion in the RAD51D gene and (2) syngeneic human cells impaired for HRR by RAD51D or RAD51 knockdown using RNA interference. We show that in response to iron ions, HRR contributes to cell survival in rodent cells, and that HRR-deficiency abrogates RAD51 foci formation. Complementation of the HRR defect by human RAD51D rescues both enhanced cytotoxicity and RAD51 foci formation. For human cells irradiated with iron ions, cell survival is decreased, and, in p53 mutant cells, the levels of mutagenesis are increased when HRR is impaired. Human cells synchronized in S phase exhibit more pronounced resistance to iron ions as compared with cells in G1 phase, and this increase in radioresistance is diminished by RAD51 knockdown. These results implicate a role for RAD51-mediated DNA repair (i.e. HRR) in removing a fraction of clustered lesions induced by charged particle irradiation. Our results are the first to directly show the requirement for an intact HRR pathway in human cells in ensuring DNA repair and cell survival in response to high-energy high LET radiation.

  3. MRE11–RAD50–NBS1 is a critical regulator of FANCD2 stability and function during DNA double-strand break repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Céline; Coulombe, Yan; Delannoy, Mathieu; Vignard, Julien; Grossi, Simona; Brodeur, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Amélie; Gautier, Jean; Stasiak, Alicja Z; Stasiak, Andrzej; Constantinou, Angelos; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Monoubiquitination of the Fanconi anaemia protein FANCD2 is a key event leading to repair of interstrand cross-links. It was reported earlier that FANCD2 co-localizes with NBS1. However, the functional connection between FANCD2 and MRE11 is poorly understood. In this study, we show that inhibition of MRE11, NBS1 or RAD50 leads to a destabilization of FANCD2. FANCD2 accumulated from mid-S to G2 phase within sites containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates, or at sites of DNA damage, such as those created by restriction endonucleases and laser irradiation. Purified FANCD2, a ring-like particle by electron microscopy, preferentially bound ssDNA over various DNA substrates. Inhibition of MRE11 nuclease activity by Mirin decreased the number of FANCD2 foci formed in vivo. We propose that FANCD2 binds to ssDNA arising from MRE11-processed DNA double-strand breaks. Our data establish MRN as a crucial regulator of FANCD2 stability and function in the DNA damage response. PMID:19609304

  4. Distribution of double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation at the level of single DNA molecules examined by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psonka-Antonczyk, K; Elsässer, Th; Gudowska-Nowak, E; Taucher-Scholz, G

    2009-09-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most critical radiation-induced lesions, because they result in the fragmentation of the DNA molecule and because a single unrepaired DSB may lead to cell death. We present the results of radiation-induced fragmentation of plasmid DNA analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to allow the visualization of individual DNA molecules. Linear PhiX174 plasmid DNA was exposed to a wide range of doses of low-LET X rays and high-LET carbon, nickel and uranium ions. The induced DNA fragments were detected and measured based on the recorded AFM images and fragment length distributions were derived for each radiation type and dose. The results show a dose- and radiation type-dependent DNA fragmentation with a significantly larger fraction of short fragments produced by high-LET radiation compared to X rays. This can be considered as experimental evidence of DSB clustering due to inhomogeneous energy deposition at the level of the plasmid DNA molecule. Additionally, the experimentally derived fragment profiles were compared and found to be in agreement with the prediction of a model simulating the fragmentation of DNA molecules induced by radiation.

  5. Analysis of gene repair tracts from Cas9/gRNA double-stranded breaks in the human CFTR gene

    OpenAIRE

    Hollywood, Jennifer A.; Lee, Ciaran M.; Scallan, Martina F.; Harrison, Patrick T.

    2016-01-01

    To maximise the efficiency of template-dependent gene editing, most studies describe programmable and/or RNA-guided endonucleases that make a double-stranded break at, or close to, the target sequence to be modified. The rationale for this design strategy is that most gene repair tracts will be very short. Here, we describe a CRISPR Cas9/gRNA selection-free strategy which uses deep sequencing to characterise repair tracts from a donor plasmid containing seven nucleotide differences across a 2...

  6. Direct Comparison of Amino Acid and Salt Interactions with Double-Stranded and Single-Stranded DNA from Explicit-Solvent Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Casey T; Campbell, Brady A; Elcock, Adrian H

    2017-04-11

    Given the ubiquitous nature of protein-DNA interactions, it is important to understand the interaction thermodynamics of individual amino acid side chains for DNA. One way to assess these preferences is to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Here we report MD simulations of 20 amino acid side chain analogs interacting simultaneously with both a 70-base-pair double-stranded DNA and with a 70-nucleotide single-stranded DNA. The relative preferences of the amino acid side chains for dsDNA and ssDNA match well with values deduced from crystallographic analyses of protein-DNA complexes. The estimated apparent free energies of interaction for ssDNA, on the other hand, correlate well with previous simulation values reported for interactions with isolated nucleobases, and with experimental values reported for interactions with guanosine. Comparisons of the interactions with dsDNA and ssDNA indicate that, with the exception of the positively charged side chains, all types of amino acid side chain interact more favorably with ssDNA, with intercalation of aromatic and aliphatic side chains being especially notable. Analysis of the data on a base-by-base basis indicates that positively charged side chains, as well as sodium ions, preferentially bind to cytosine in ssDNA, and that negatively charged side chains, and chloride ions, preferentially bind to guanine in ssDNA. These latter observations provide a novel explanation for the lower salt dependence of DNA duplex stability in GC-rich sequences relative to AT-rich sequences.

  7. Electrophoretic mobility of semi-flexible double-stranded DNA in defect-controlled polymer networks: Mechanism investigation and role of structural parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairulina, Kateryna; Li, Xiang; Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Ung-il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-06-01

    Our previous studies have reported an empirical model, which explains the electrophoretic mobility (μ) of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as a combination of a basic migration term (Rouse-like or reptation) and entropy loss term in polymer gels with ideal network structure. However, this case is of exception, considering a large amount of heterogeneity in the conventional polymer gels. In this study, we systematically tune the heterogeneity in the polymer gels and study the migration of dsDNA in these gels. Our experimental data well agree with the model found for ideal networks. The basic migration mechanism (Rouse-like or reptation) persists perfectly in the conventional heterogeneous polymer gel system, while the entropy loss term continuously changes with increase in the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we found that in the limit where dsDNA is shorter than dsDNA persistence length, the entropy loss term may be related to the collisional motions between DNA fragments and the cross-links.

  8. AZD1775 induces toxicity through double-stranded DNA breaks independently of chemotherapeutic agents in p53-mutated colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter John; Littlejohns, Anna Tiffany; Gaunt, Hannah Jane; Prasad, K Raj; Beech, David John; Burke, Dermot Anthony

    2017-01-01

    AZD1775 is a small molecule WEE1 inhibitor used in combination with DNA-damaging agents to cause premature mitosis and cell death in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here we sought to determine the mechanism of action of AZD1775 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in light of recent findings that AZD1775 can cause double-stranded DNA (DS-DNA) breaks. AZD1775 significantly improved the cytotoxicity of 5-FU in a p53-mutated colorectal cancer cell line (HT29 cells), decreasing the IC 50 from 9.3 μM to 3.5 μM. Flow cytometry showed a significant increase in the mitotic marker pHH3 (3.4% vs. 56.2%) and DS-DNA break marker γH2AX (5.1% vs. 50.7%) for combination therapy compared with 5-FU alone. Combination therapy also increased the amount of caspase-3 dependent apoptosis compared with 5-FU alone (4% vs. 13%). The addition of exogenous nucleosides to combination therapy significantly rescued the increased DS-DNA breaks and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis almost to the levels of 5-FU monotherapy. In conclusion, AZD1775 enhances 5-FU cytotoxicity through increased DS-DNA breaks, not premature mitosis, in p53-mutated colorectal cancer cells. This finding is important for designers of future clinical trials when considering the optimal timing and duration of AZD1775 treatment.

  9. Elevated presence of retrotransposons at sites of DNA double strand break repair in mouse models of metabolic oxidative stress and MYC-induced lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, Lynne D.; Felix, Klaus; Janz, Siegfried

    2004-04-14

    The chromosomally integrated shuttle vector pUR288 contains a lacZ reporter gene to study mutagenesis in vivo. We used pUR288 to compare patterns of genomic instability in two mouse models, lymphoma resulting from deregulated c-MYC expression ({lambda}-MYC), and endogenous oxidative stress caused by partial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We found previously that spontaneous mutations in both models were predominantly genomic rearrangements of lacZ with mouse sequences, while most mutations in controls were point mutations. Here, we characterized the fine structure of 68 lacZ/mouse rearrangements from {lambda}-MYC lymphomas and G6PD deficient mice by sequencing breakpoint junctions and determining the origin of recombining mouse sequences. Fifty-eight of 68 (85%) recombination partners were identified. The structure of rearrangements from both {lambda}-MYC and G6PD deficient mice were remarkably alike. Intra-chromosomal deletions and inversions were common, occurring in 41% (24/58) of rearrangements, while 59% (34/58) were random translocations between lacZ and other chromosomes. Signatures of double strand break repair by nonhomologous end joining were observed at breakpoint junctions; 37% (25/68) contained 1-4 bp microhomologies, while the remaining breakpoints had no sequence homology. Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons, which constitute {approx}10% of the mouse genome, were present at 25% (17/68) of breakpoints, suggesting their participation in rearrangements. The similarity in the structure of rearrangements is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic rearrangements in {lambda}-MYC lymphomas and G6PD deficient mice result from the same mechanism, mutagenic repair of DNA double strand breaks arising from oxidative damage.

  10. Frequent and efficient use of the sister chromatid for DNA double-strand break repair during budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Goldfarb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombination between homologous chromosomes of different parental origin (homologs is necessary for their accurate segregation during meiosis. It has been suggested that meiotic inter-homolog recombination is promoted by a barrier to inter-sister-chromatid recombination, imposed by meiosis-specific components of the chromosome axis. Consistent with this, measures of Holliday junction-containing recombination intermediates (joint molecules [JMs] show a strong bias towards inter-homolog and against inter-sister JMs. However, recombination between sister chromatids also has an important role in meiosis. The genomes of diploid organisms in natural populations are highly polymorphic for insertions and deletions, and meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs that form within such polymorphic regions must be repaired by inter-sister recombination. Efforts to study inter-sister recombination during meiosis, in particular to determine recombination frequencies and mechanisms, have been constrained by the inability to monitor the products of inter-sister recombination. We present here molecular-level studies of inter-sister recombination during budding yeast meiosis. We examined events initiated by DSBs in regions that lack corresponding sequences on the homolog, and show that these DSBs are efficiently repaired by inter-sister recombination. This occurs with the same timing as inter-homolog recombination, but with reduced (2- to 3-fold yields of JMs. Loss of the meiotic-chromosome-axis-associated kinase Mek1 accelerates inter-sister DSB repair and markedly increases inter-sister JM frequencies. Furthermore, inter-sister JMs formed in mek1Δ mutants are preferentially lost, while inter-homolog JMs are maintained. These findings indicate that inter-sister recombination occurs frequently during budding yeast meiosis, with the possibility that up to one-third of all recombination events occur between sister chromatids. We suggest that a Mek1-dependent reduction in

  11. The binding of lupus-derived autoantibodies to the C-terminal peptide (83-119) of the major SmD1 autoantigen can be mediated by double-stranded DNA and nucleosomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieker, J.W.C.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Riemekasten, G.; Berden, J.H.M.; Vlag, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the binding of lupus-derived autoantibodies, double-stranded DNA and nucleosomes to the positively charged C-terminal SmD1(residues 83-119) peptide and the full-length SmD protein. METHODS: The binding of lupus-derived monoclonal antibodies, sera from patients with systemic

  12. A solid-state 23Na NMR study of monovalent cation binding to double-stranded DNA at low relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alan; Yan, Zhimin; Huang, Yining; Wu, Gang

    2008-04-01

    We report a solid-state (23)Na NMR study of monovalent cation (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+) and NH(4) (+)) binding to double-stranded calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) at low relative humidity, ca 0-10%. Results from (23)Na--(31)P rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR experiments firmly establish that, at low relative humidity, monovalent cations are directly bound to the phosphate group of CT DNA and are partially dehydrated. On the basis of solid-state (23)Na NMR titration experiments, we obtain quantitative thermodynamic parameters concerning the cation-binding affinity for the phosphate group of CT DNA. The free energy difference (DeltaG degrees ) between M(+) and Na(+) ions is as follows: Li(+) (-1.0 kcal mol(-1)), K(+) (7.2 kcal mol(-1)), NH(4) (+) (1.0 kcal mol(-1)), Rb(+) (4.5 kcal mol(-1)) and Cs(+) (1.5 kcal mol(-1)). These results suggest that, at low relative humidity, the binding affinity of monovalent cations for the phosphate group of CT DNA follows the order: Li(+) > Na(+) > NH(4) (+) > Cs(+) > Rb(+) > K(+). This sequence is drastically different from that observed for CT DNA in solution. This discrepancy is attributed to the different modes of cation binding in dry and wet states of DNA. In the wet state of DNA, cations are fully hydrated. Our results suggest that the free energy balance between direct cation-phosphate contact and dehydration interactions is important. The reported experimental results on relative ion-binding affinity for the DNA backbone may be used for testing theoretical treatment of cation-phosphate interactions in DNA. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Crystal Structure of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 Protein Revealed Ca[superscript 2+]-dependent Double-stranded DNA Binding Activity

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    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (NWU)

    2012-05-22

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 {angstrom} tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is {approx}26 {angstrom} wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an {alpha}/{beta} domain and an {alpha}-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca{sup 2+} was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca{sup 2+} ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca{sup 2+} ions.

  14. Crystal structure of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 protein revealed Ca2+-dependent double-stranded DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    2011-09-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 Å tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is ∼26 Å wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an α/β domain and an α-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca(2+) was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca(2+) ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca(2+) ions.

  15. Regulation of 53BP1 protein stability by RNF8 and RNF168 is important for efficient DNA double-strand break repair.

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    Yiheng Hu

    Full Text Available 53BP1 regulates DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. In functional assays for specific DSB repair pathways, we found that 53BP1 was important in the conservative non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ pathway, and this activity was dependent upon RNF8 and RNF168. We observed that 53BP1 protein was diffusely abundant in nuclei, and upon ionizing radiation, 53BP1 was everywhere degraded except at DNA damage sites. Depletion of RNF8 or RNF168 blocked the degradation of the diffusely localized nuclear 53BP1, and ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF did not form. Furthermore, when 53BP1 degradation was inhibited, a subset of 53BP1 was bound to DNA damage sites but bulk, unbound 53BP1 remained in the nucleoplasm, and localization of its downstream effector RIF1 at DSBs was abolished. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for responding to DSB that upon ionizing radiation, 53BP1 was divided into two populations, ensuring functional DSB repair: damage site-bound 53BP1 whose binding signal is known to be generated by RNF8 and RNF168; and unbound bulk 53BP1 whose ensuing degradation is regulated by RNF8 and RNF168.

  16. Temperature and electrolyte optimization of the α-hemolysin latch sensing zone for detection of base modification in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert P; Fleming, Aaron M; Jin, Qian; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2014-08-19

    The latch region of the wild-type protein pore α-hemolysin (α-HL) constitutes a sensing zone for individual abasic sites (and furan analogs) in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The presence of an abasic site or furan within a DNA duplex, electrophoretically captured in the α-HL vestibule and positioned at the latch region, can be detected based on the current blockage prior to duplex unzipping. We investigated variations in blockage current as a function of temperature (12-35°C) and KCl concentration (0.15-1.0 M) to understand the origin of the current signature and to optimize conditions for identifying the base modification. In 1 M KCl solution, substitution of a furan for a cytosine base in the latch region results in an ∼ 8 kJ mol(-1) decrease in the activation energy for ion transport through the protein pore. This corresponds to a readily measured ∼ 2 pA increase in current at room temperature. Optimal resolution for detecting the presence of a furan in the latch region is achieved at lower KCl concentrations, where the noise in the measured blockage current is significantly lower. The noise associated with the blockage current also depends on the stability of the duplex (as measured from the melting temperature), where a greater noise in the measured blockage current is observed for less stable duplexes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical study of the interaction between a high-valent manganese porphyrin oxyl-(hydroxo)-Mn(IV)-TMPyP and double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Philippe; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Meunier, Bernard

    2003-05-01

    Cationic porphyrin derivatives such as meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridinium)porphyrin, TMPyP, have been shown to interact with double-stranded DNA. The manganese derivative, Mn(III)-TMPyP, activated by an oxygen donor like potassium monopersulfate, provides an efficient DNA-cleaving system. Previous experimental work1 has shown that DNA cleavage by the Mn(III)-TMPyP/KHSO(5) system was due to an oxidative attack, within the minor groove of B-DNA, at the C5' or C1' carbons of deoxyribose units. The aim of this study was to use molecular modeling to elucidate the specificity of the interactions between the transient active species oxyl-Mn(IV)-TMPyP and the DNA target. Geometric parameters, charges, and force field constants consistent with the AMBER 98 force field were calculated by DFT methods. Molecular modeling (mechanics and dynamic simulations) were performed for oxyl-(hydroxo)-Mn(IV)-TMPyP bound in the minor groove of the dodecamer d(5'-TCGTCAAACCGC)-d(5'-GCGGTTTGACGA). Geometry, interactions, and binding energy of the metalloporphyrin located at the A.T triplet region of the dodecamer were analyzed. These studies show no significant structural change of the DNA structure upon ligand binding. Mobility of the metalloporphyrin in the minor groove was restrained by the formation of a hydrogen bond between the hydroxo ligand trans to the metal-oxyl and a DNA phosphate, restricting the access of the oxyl group to the (pro-S) H atom at C5'. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 797-805, 2003

  18. Crystal structure of archaeal chromatin protein Alba2-double-stranded DNA complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri

    2012-03-23

    All thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea encode homologs of dimeric Alba (Sac10b) proteins that bind cooperatively at high density to DNA. Here, we report the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of an Alba2 (Ape10b2)-dsDNA complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1. A rectangular tube-like structure encompassing duplex DNA reveals the positively charged residues in the monomer-monomer interface of each dimer packing on either side of the bound dsDNA in successive minor grooves. The extended hairpin loop connecting strands β3 and β4 undergoes significant conformational changes upon DNA binding to accommodate the other Alba2 dimer during oligomerization. Mutational analysis of key interacting residues confirmed the specificity of Alba2-dsDNA interactions.

  19. Crystal Structure of Archaeal Chromatin Protein Alba2-Double-stranded DNA Complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri

    2012-01-01

    All thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea encode homologs of dimeric Alba (Sac10b) proteins that bind cooperatively at high density to DNA. Here, we report the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of an Alba2 (Ape10b2)-dsDNA complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1. A rectangular tube-like structure encompassing duplex DNA reveals the positively charged residues in the monomer-monomer interface of each dimer packing on either side of the bound dsDNA in successive minor grooves. The extended hairpin loop connecting strands β3 and β4 undergoes significant conformational changes upon DNA binding to accommodate the other Alba2 dimer during oligomerization. Mutational analysis of key interacting residues confirmed the specificity of Alba2-dsDNA interactions. PMID:22334696

  20. Sensitive electrochemical detection of DNA damage based on in situ double strand growth via hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Misha; Xu, Jinjin; Yang, Fan; Gu, Yifan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Ying; Li, Fengting

    2017-11-01

    Detection of DNA damage caused by ∙OH or radiation has led to rapidly growing interest in the fields of drug development, biochemistry, clinic diagnostics, and environmental evaluation. Electrochemical methods have been applied for DNA damage detection because of their fast and sensitive response. However, most of the electrochemical methods for DNA damage detection commonly require immobilization of the strands on the electrode surface. In the present work, sensitive electrochemical monitoring of DNA damage was realized successfully on the basis of in situ DNA chain growth by use of a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) technique. By use of [Ru(NH3)6](3+) as the signal probe and the Fenton reaction as the ∙OH generator, ultrasensitive detection of DNA damage induced by ∙OH was realized successfully through differential pulse voltammetry with a linear relationship of ∙OH concentration from 15 to 750 pM and a detection limit of 12 pM. Furthermore, environmental DNA-damaging UV light was tested as the lesion source to demonstrate the practicability and reliability of the proposed HCR-based amplified signal method for DNA damage detection. By integrating the HCR technique with an electrochemical method, we provide a promising alternative approach to extend the applications of electrochemical methods in bioanalytical detection of DNA damage. Graphical abstract Sensitive electrochemical monitoring of DNA damage has been realized successfully on the basis of in situ DNA chain growth by use of hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Detection of DNA damage caused by ∙OH was realized successfully through differential pulse voltammetry with a linear relationship of ∙OH concentration from 15 to 750 pM and a detection limit of 12 pM.

  1. Endogenous sequence patterns predispose the repair modes of CRISPR/Cas9-induced DNA double-stranded breaks in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Giang T H; Cao, Hieu X; Fauser, Friedrich; Reiss, Bernd; Puchta, Holger; Schubert, Ingo

    2017-10-01

    The possibility to predict the outcome of targeted DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair would be desirable for genome editing. Furthermore the consequences of mis-repair of potentially cell-lethal DSBs and the underlying pathways are not yet fully understood. Here we study the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-induced mutation spectra at three selected endogenous loci in Arabidopsis thaliana by deep sequencing of long amplicon libraries. Notably, we found sequence-dependent genomic features that affected the DNA repair outcome. Deletions of 1-bp to 1 kbp (all due to NHEJ) and deletions combined with insertions between 5-bp to >100 bp [caused by a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA)-like mechanism] occurred most frequently at all three loci. The appearance of single-stranded annealing events depends on the presence and distance between repeats flanking the DSB. The frequency and size of insertions is increased if a sequence with high similarity to the target site was available in cis. Most deletions were linked to pre-existing microhomology. Deletion and/or insertion mutations were blunt-end ligated or via de novo generated microhomology. While most mutation types and, to some degree, their predictability are comparable with animal systems, the broad range of deletion mutations seems to be a peculiar feature of the plant A. thaliana. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Anti-Double-Stranded DNA IgG Participates in Renal Fibrosis through Suppressing the Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Jie; Tong, Fang; Duan, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xingyin; Xia, Linlin; Li, Ke; Xia, Yumin

    2017-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) participates in renal fibrosis by downregulating Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-mediated cytokine signaling. Recently, it was found that anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) IgG induces the synthesis of profibrotic cytokines by renal cells. To explore the potential effect of anti-dsDNA IgG on SOCS1-mediated renal fibrosis, kidney tissues were collected from patients with lupus nephritis (LN) as well as MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. The SOCS1 expression was evaluated in tissue samples. In addition, SCID mice were injected with anti-dsDNA IgG, followed by evaluation of SOCS1 levels. Renal resident cells were cultured in vitro, receiving the stimulation of anti-dsDNA IgG and then the measurement of SOCS1, JAK2, STAT1α, and profibrotic cytokines. Moreover, the binding of anti-dsDNA IgG to SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) peptide was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance. We found that SOCS1 expression was inhibited, but JAK2/STAT1 activation was prominent in the kidney tissues of patients with LN, MRL/lpr mice, or anti-dsDNA IgG-injected SCID mice. The cultured renal cells also showed SOCS1 downregulation, JAK2/STAT1 activation, and profibrotic cytokine promotion upon anti-dsDNA IgG stimulation. Surprisingly, anti-dsDNA IgG showed high affinity to KIR peptide and competed with JAK2 loop for KIR. Additionally, a DNA-mimicking peptide (ALW) blocked the binding of anti-dsDNA IgG to KIR, and even partially abrogated the activation of JAK2/STAT1α signals and the expression of profibrotic cytokines in SCID mice. In conclusion, anti-dsDNA IgG downregulates SOCS1 expression, activates JAK2/STAT1 signals, and contributes to renal fibrosis; its peptide blockade may restore the SOCS1 inhibitory effect on the production of profibrotic cytokine, and finally ameliorate renal fibrosis in LN.

  3. Recruitment of Rad51 and Rad52 to short telomeres triggers a Mec1-mediated hypersensitivity to double-stranded DNA breaks in senescent budding yeast.

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    Yi-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Telomere maintenance is required for chromosome stability, and telomeres are typically replicated by the action of telomerase. In both mammalian tumor and yeast cells that lack telomerase, telomeres are maintained by an alternative recombination mechanism. Here we demonstrated that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae type I survivors derived from telomerase-deficient cells were hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Assays to track telomere lengths and drug sensitivity of telomerase-deficient cells from spore colonies to survivors suggested a correlation between telomere shortening and bleomycin sensitivity. Our genetic studies demonstrated that this sensitivity depends on Mec1, which signals checkpoint activation, leading to prolonged cell-cycle arrest in senescent budding yeasts. Moreover, we also observed that when cells equipped with short telomeres, recruitments of homologous recombination proteins, Rad51 and Rad52, were reduced at an HO-endonuclease-catalyzed double-strand break (DSB, while their associations were increased at chromosome ends. These results suggested that the sensitive phenotype may be attributed to the sequestration of repair proteins to compromised telomeres, thus limiting the repair capacity at bona fide DSB sites.

  4. Mitosis, double strand break repair, and telomeres: a view from the end: how telomeres and the DNA damage response cooperate during mitosis to maintain genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    Double strand break (DSB) repair is suppressed during mitosis because RNF8 and downstream DNA damage response (DDR) factors, including 53BP1, do not localize to mitotic chromatin. Discovery of the mitotic kinase-dependent mechanism that inhibits DSB repair during cell division was recently reported. It was shown that restoring mitotic DSB repair was detrimental, resulting in repair dependent genome instability and covalent telomere fusions. The telomere DDR that occurs naturally during cellular aging and in cancer is known to be refractory to G2/M checkpoint activation. Such DDR-positive telomeres, and those that occur as part of the telomere-dependent prolonged mitotic arrest checkpoint, normally pass through mitosis without covalent ligation, but result in cell growth arrest in G1 phase. The discovery that suppressing DSB repair during mitosis may function primarily to protect DDR-positive telomeres from fusing during cell division reinforces the unique cooperation between telomeres and the DDR to mediate tumor suppression. © 2014 The Author. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks: I. A mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleei, Reza; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2013-05-01

    This article presents a biochemical kinetic model for the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway. The model is part of a theoretical framework to encompass all cellular DSB repair pathways. The NHEJ model was developed by taking into consideration the biological characteristics of the repair processes in the absence of homologous recombination (HR), the major alternative pathway for DSB repair. The model considers fast and slow components of the repair kinetics resulting in a set of differential equations that were solved numerically. In the absence of available published data for reaction rate constants for the repair proteins involved in NHEJ, we propose reaction rate constants for the solution of the equations. We assume as a first approximation that the reaction rate constants are applicable to mammalian cells under same conditions. The model was tested by comparing measured and simulated DSB repair kinetics obtained with HR-deficient cell lines irradiated by X rays in the dose range of 20-80 Gy. Measured data for initial protein recruitment to a DSB were used to independently estimate rate constants for Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). We show here based on the model of DSB repair described in this article, application of the model in the accompanying article (Taleei et al., Radiat. Res. 179, 540-548, 2013) and by simulation of repair times for each individual DSB produced by individual tracks of electrons, that the complexity of damage may explain the slow kinetics of DNA DSB repair.

  6. Ratiometric Quantum Dot-Ligand System Made by Phase Transfer for Visual Detection of Double-Stranded DNA and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqian; Ye, Mingfu; Ge, Qinyu; Qu, Xiaojun; Guo, Qingsheng; Hu, Xianyun; Sun, Qingjiang

    2016-02-02

    We have developed a proof-of-concept quantum dot-ligand (QD-L) system for visual selective detection of nucleic acids, in combination with a ratiometric fluorescence technique. This system comprises a dual-emission QDs nanohybrid formed by embedding a red-emission QD (rQD) in a silica nanoparticle and electrostatically assembling green-emission QDs (gQDs) onto the silica surface, as the signal displaying unit, and a hydrophobic compound, dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz), attached onto the gQDs surface via phase transfer, as the ligand as well as fluorescence quencher of gQDs. This system is successfully used for quantification of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Because of its avid binding with dppz, dsDNA can break up the QD-L system, displacing the dppz ligand from the gQDs surface and restoring the gQDs emission. Since the red emission of embedded rQDs stays constant, variations of the dual-emission intensity ratios display continuous color changes from orange to bright green, which can be clearly observed by the naked eye. More importantly, this system is advantageous in terms of specificity over a QD ionic conjugate, because the electrical neutrality of dppz excludes its nonspecific electrostatic association with dsDNA. The QD-L system also is capable of detecting single-nucleotide polymorphism, exhibiting sequence-specific ratiometric fluorescence as a QD-bioconjugate does, but possessing the obvious advantage in terms of low cost, with the avoidance of modification, labeling, and purification processes. Therefore, the QD-L system provides an extremely simple but general strategy for detecting nucleic acids in a facile, sensitive, and specific manner.

  7. Annealing of Complementary DNA Sequences During Double-Strand Break Repair in Drosophila Is Mediated by the Ortholog of SMARCAL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsclaw, Julie Korda; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) pose a serious threat to genomic integrity. If unrepaired, they can lead to chromosome fragmentation and cell death. If repaired incorrectly, they can cause mutations and chromosome rearrangements. DSBs are repaired using end-joining or homology-directed repair strategies, with the predominant form of homology-directed repair being synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA). SDSA is the first defense against genomic rearrangements and information loss during DSB repair, making it a vital component of cell health and an attractive target for chemotherapeutic development. SDSA has also been proposed to be the primary mechanism for integration of large insertions during genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9. Despite the central role for SDSA in genome stability, little is known about the defining step: annealing. We hypothesized that annealing during SDSA is performed by the annealing helicase SMARCAL1, which can anneal RPA-coated single DNA strands during replication-associated DNA damage repair. We used unique genetic tools in Drosophila melanogaster to test whether the fly ortholog of SMARCAL1, Marcal1, mediates annealing during SDSA. Repair that requires annealing is significantly reduced in Marcal1 null mutants in both synthesis-dependent and synthesis-independent (single-strand annealing) assays. Elimination of the ATP-binding activity of Marcal1 also reduced annealing-dependent repair, suggesting that the annealing activity requires translocation along DNA. Unlike the null mutant, however, the ATP-binding defect mutant showed reduced end joining, shedding light on the interaction between SDSA and end-joining pathways. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Role of Fanconi Anemia FANCG in Preventing Double-Strand Breakage and Chromosomal Rearrangement during DNA Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebbs, R S; Hinz, J M; Yamada, N A; Wilson, J B; Jones, N J; Salazar, E P; Thomas, C B; Jones, I M; Thompson, L H

    2003-10-04

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins overlap with those of homologous recombination through FANCD1/BRCA2, but the biochemical functions of other FA proteins are unknown. By constructing and characterizing a null fancg mutant of hamster CHO cells, we present several new insights for FA. The fancg cells show a broad sensitivity to genotoxic agents, not supporting the conventional concept of sensitivity to only DNA crosslinking agents. The aprt mutation rate is normal, but hprt mutations are reduced, which we ascribe to the lethality of large deletions. CAD and dhfr gene amplification rates are increased, implying excess chromosomal breakage during DNA replication, and suggesting amplification as a contributing factor to cancer-proneness in FA patients. In S-phase cells, both spontaneous and mutagen-induced Rad51 nuclear foci are elevated. These results support a model in which FancG protein helps to prevent collapse of replication forks by allowing translesion synthesis or lesion bypass through homologous recombination.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Double Stranded DNA Megavirus Infecting the Toxin-Producing Haptophyte Prymnesium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A. Wagstaff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing haptophyte that causes harmful algal blooms globally, leading to large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. For the model haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, it has been shown that large dsDNA viruses play an important role in regulating blooms and therefore biogeochemical cycling, but much less work has been done looking at viruses that infect P. parvum, or the role that these viruses may play in regulating harmful algal blooms. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a lytic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV collected from the site of a harmful P. parvum bloom. In subsequent experiments, this virus was shown to infect cultures of Prymnesium sp. and showed phylogenetic similarity to the extended Megaviridae family of algal viruses.

  10. Novel hydroxyethylcellulose-graft-poly acrylamide copolymer for separation of double-stranded DNA fragments by CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runmiao; Wang, Yanmei; Zhou, Dan

    2007-09-01

    A novel separation medium, hydroxyethylcellulose-graft-polyacrylamide (HEC-g-PAM) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), used for dsDNA separation by CE is presented. The separation performance of HEC-g-PAM, which has the same graft density and different graft length, has been investigated in Tris-boric acid-EDTA (TBE) buffer solvent mixtures. The temperature-dependent rheological behavior of HEC-g-PAM was also studied by steady-shear rheometry. The results showed that dsDNA fragments between 72 and 1353 bp was achieved with a 30 cm effective capillary length at 150 V/cm using this type of graft copolymer as a separation medium in bare fused-silica capillaries, and separation improvement is obtained in HEC-g-PAM compared with HEC and poly(dimethylacrylamide (PDMA).

  11. Confirming the 3D Solution Structure of a Short Double-Stranded DNA Sequence Using NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhayel, Rasha A.; Berners-Price, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    2D [superscript 1]H NOESY NMR spectroscopy is routinely used to give information on the closeness of hydrogen atoms through space. This work is based on a 2D [superscript 1]H NOESY NMR spectrum of a 12 base-pair DNA duplex. This 6-h laboratory workshop aims to provide advanced-level chemistry students with a basic, yet solid, understanding of how…

  12. Development of a graphene oxide-based assay for the sequence-specific detection of double-stranded DNA molecules.

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    Anna Maria Giuliodori

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO is a promising material for the development of cost-effective detection systems. In this work, we have devised a simple and rapid GO-based method for the sequence-specific identification of DNA molecules generated by PCR amplification. The csp genes of Escherichia coli, which share a high degree of sequence identity, were selected as paradigm DNA templates. All tested csp genes were amplified with unlabelled primers, which can be rapidly removed at the end of the PCR taking advantage of the preferential binding to GO of single-stranded versus duplex DNA molecules. The amplified DNAs (targets were heat-denatured and hybridized to a fluorescently-labelled single strand oligonucleotide (probe, which recognizes a region of the target DNAs displaying sequence variability. This interaction is extremely specific, taking place with high efficiency only when target and probe show perfect or near perfect matching. Upon GO addition, the unbound fraction of the probe was captured and its fluorescence quenched by the GO's molecular properties. On the other hand, the probe-target complexes remained in solution and emitted a fluorescent signal whose intensity was related to their degree of complementarity.

  13. Induction and reparation of double-strand DNA breaks in V79 cells continuously exposed to low dose-rate Y-radiation

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    Ozerov I.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the patterns of changes in the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB in mammalian cells continuously exposed to low dose-rate y- radiation. Material and methods. Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 were used in this study. The y- irradiation of cells at a dose rate of 0.1 mGy/min was performed using the «Gamma-Panorama» unit (Cs-137. The fluorescence immunoassay of the phosphorylated H2AX-histone (y-H2AX foci was used to investigate the DNA DSBs formation. Frequency of apoptotic cells was evaluated using «DNA halo» assay. 5 (6 — chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate was used to estimate the reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Results, it was showed that continuous low dose-rate irradiation of Chinese hamster V79 cells induces an increase of the y-H2AX foci number and ROS production rate at the early stages of exposure time (6-24 h, doses 3.6-14.4 cGy, while increasing exposition time and, therefore, the radiation dose (48-72 h, 28.8-43.2 cGy caused a decrease in these endpoints to almost the control level. There was observed no significant changes in the frequency of apoptotic cells. Conclusion. It is assumed that the processes causing the DSB amount changes in mammalian cells continuously exposed to low dose-rate y-radiation are associated with the development of oxidative stress and subsequent activation of cellular antioxidant defense systems.

  14. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells.

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    Lyne Khair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq. We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID.

  15. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization-derived monolithic anion exchangers for the fast separation of double-stranded DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbad, Said H; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2011-04-29

    Ring-opening metathesis polymerization- (ROMP) derived monoliths were prepared from 5-norborn-2-enemethyl bromide (NBE-CH(2)Br) and tris(5-norborn-2-enemethoxy)methylsilane ((NBE-CH(2)O)(3)SiCH(3)) within the confines of surface-silanized borosilicate columns (100×3 mm I.D.), applying Grubbs' first generation benzylidene-type catalyst [RuCl(2)(PCy(3))(2)(CHPh)]. Monoliths were converted into weak anion exchangers via reaction with diethyl amine. The resulting monolithic anion exchangers demonstrated a very good potential for the anion-exchange separation of nucleic acids applying a phosphate buffer (0.05 mol/L, pH 7) and NaCl (1.0 mol/L) as a gradient former. Fast and efficient separations, indicated by sharp and highly symmetric analyte peaks, were established. Except for the 267 and 298 base pair fragments, the eleven fragments of a ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest were baseline separated within ∼8 min. Nineteen fragments of a ds-pBR322 Hae III digest were separated within ∼12 min. There, only the 192 and 213 base pair fragments and the 458, 504 and 540 base pair fragments coeluted. A ds-pUC18 DNA Hae III digest was used as a control analyte in evaluating the influence of organic additives on the mobile phase such as methanol and acetonitrile on nucleic acid separation. Methanol, and even better, acetonitrile improved the separation efficiency and shortened the analysis time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in the Number of Double-Strand DNA Breaks in Chinese Hamster V79 Cells Exposed to γ-Radiation with Different Dose Rates

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    Andreyan N. Osipov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation of the induction of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs in the Chinese hamster V79 cells by γ-radiation at dose rates of 1, 10 and 400 mGy/min (doses ranged from 0.36 to 4.32 Gy was performed. The acute radiation exposure at a dose rate of 400 mGy/min resulted in the linear dose-dependent increase of the γ-H2AX foci formation. The dose-response curve for the acute exposure was well described by a linear function y = 1.22 + 19.7x, where “y” is an average number of γ-H2AX foci per a cell and “x” is the absorbed dose (Gy. The dose rate reduction down to 10 mGy/min lead to a decreased number of γ-H2AX foci, as well as to a change of the dose-response relationship. Thus, the foci number up to 1.44 Gy increased and reached the “plateau” area between 1.44 and 4.32 Gy. There was only a slight increase of the γ-H2AX foci number (up to 7 in cells after the protracted exposure (up to 72 h to ionizing radiation at a dose rate of 1 mGy/min. Similar effects of the varying dose rates were obtained when DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay. In general, our results show that the reduction of the radiation dose rate resulted in a significant decrease of DSBs per cell per an absorbed dose.

  17. Genetic variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of salivary gland carcinoma: a case-control study.

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    Li Xu

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB repair is the primary defense mechanism against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC. We hypothesized that genetic variants in DSB repair genes contribute to individual variation in susceptibility to SGC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study in which we analyzed 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 45 DSB repair genes in 352 SGC cases and 598 controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Rs3748522 in RAD52 and rs13180356 in XRCC4 were significantly associated with SGC after Bonferroni adjustment; ORs (95% CIs for the variant alleles of these SNPs were 1.71 (1.40-2.09, P = 1.70 × 10(-7 and 0.58 (0.45-0.74, P = 2.00 × 10(-5 respectively. The genetic effects were modulated by histological subtype. The association of RAD52-rs3748522 with SGC was strongest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.55-3.15, P = 1.25 × 10(-5, n = 74, and the association of XRCC4-rs13180356 with SGC was strongest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.91 × 10(-3, n = 123. Gene-level association analysis revealed one gene, PRKDC, with a marginally significant association with SGC risk in non-Hispanic whites. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the genetic effect of DSB repair genes on SGC risk. Our results indicate that genetic variants in the DSB repair pathways contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to SGC and show that the impact of genetic variants differs by histological subtype. Independent studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of the relative biological effectiveness for DNA double strand breaks from 300 MeV u-1 carbon-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. W.; Pan, C. Y.; Hsiao, Y. Y.; Chao, T. C.; Lee, C. C.; Tung, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 300 MeV u-1 carbon-ion beams at different depths in a cylindrical water phantom of 10 cm radius and 30 cm long. RBE values for the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a biological endpoint closely related to cell inactivation, are estimated for monoenergetic and energy-modulated carbon ion beams. Individual contributions to the RBE from primary ions and secondary nuclear fragments are simulated separately. These simulations are based on a multi-scale modelling approach by first applying the FLUKA (version 2011.2.17) transport code to estimate the absorbed doses and fluence energy spectra, then using the MCDS (version 3.10A) damage code for DSB yields. The approach is efficient since it separates the non-stochastic dosimetry problem from the stochastic DNA damage problem. The MCDS code predicts the major trends of the DSB yields from detailed track structure simulations. It is found that, as depth is increasing, RBE values increase slowly from the entrance depth to the plateau region and change substantially in the Bragg peak region. RBE values reach their maxima at the distal edge of the Bragg peak. Beyond this edge, contributions to RBE are entirely from nuclear fragments. Maximum RBE values at the distal edges of the Bragg peak and the spread-out Bragg peak are, respectively, 3.0 and 2.8. The present approach has the flexibility to weight RBE contributions from different DSB classes, i.e. DSB0, DSB+ and DSB++.

  19. Functional Analysis of BARD1 Missense Variants in Homology-Directed Repair of DNA Double Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cindy; Banerjee, Tapahsama; Gillespie, Jessica; Ceravolo, Amanda; Parvinsmith, Matthew R; Starita, Lea M; Fields, Stanley; Toland, Amanda E; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2015-12-01

    Genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) are often sequenced in search of mutations that are predictive of susceptibility to these cancer types, but the sequence results are frequently ambiguous because of the detection of missense substitutions for which the clinical impact is unknown. The BARD1 protein is the heterodimeric partner of BRCA1 and is included on clinical gene panels for testing for susceptibility to HBOC. Like BRCA1, it is required for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR). We measured the HDR function of 29 BARD1 missense variants, 27 culled from clinical test results and two synthetic variants. Twenty-three of the assayed variants were functional for HDR; of these, four are known neutral variants. Three variants showed intermediate function, and three others were defective in HDR. When mapped to BARD1 domains, residues crucial for HDR were located in the N- and C- termini of BARD1. In the BARD1 RING domain, critical residues mapped to the zinc-coordinating amino acids and to the BRCA1-BARD1 binding interface, highlighting the importance of interaction between BRCA1 and BARD1 for HDR activity. Based on these results, we propose that the HDR assay is a useful complement to genetic analyses to classify BARD1 variants of unknown clinical significance. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  20. Double stranded sperm DNA breaks, measured by Comet assay, are associated with unexplained recurrent miscarriage in couples without a female factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Amengual, Maria José; Prada, Elena; Cortés, Pilar; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sperm samples from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) couples have an increase in their sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), but no studies have been performed in order to identify differences between single stranded SDF (ssSDF) and double stranded SDF (dsSDF) in these patients. This could be relevant because the type of DNA damage could have different effects. Semen samples were classified attending their clinical status: 25 fertile donors and 20 RPL patients with at least two unexplained first trimester miscarriages. SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150) was performed to establish predictive threshold values. SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the presence of two subgroups within fertile donors. The values obtained were 21.10±9.13, 23.35±10.45 and 12.31±4.31, respectively, for fertile donors with low values for both ssSDF and dsSDF; 27.86±12.64, 80.69±12.67 and 12.43±5.22, for fertile donors with low ssSDF and high dsSDF; and 33.61±15.50, 84.64±11.28 and 19.28±6.05, for unexplained RPL patients, also showing a low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile. This latter profile was seen in 85% of unexplained RPL and 33% of fertile donors, suggesting that it may be associated to a male risk factor for undergoing RPL. ROC analysis regarding recurrent miscarriage set the cut-off value at 77.50% of dsDNA SDF. PFGE for low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile samples and positive controls treated with DNase, to induce dsDNA breaks, showed a more intense band of about 48 kb, which fits the toroid model of DNA compaction in sperm, pointing out that some nuclease activity may be affecting their sperm DNA in RPL patients. This work identifies a very specific SDF profile related to the paternal risk of having RPL.

  1. Double stranded sperm DNA breaks, measured by Comet assay, are associated with unexplained recurrent miscarriage in couples without a female factor.

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    Jordi Ribas-Maynou

    Full Text Available It is known that sperm samples from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL couples have an increase in their sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF, but no studies have been performed in order to identify differences between single stranded SDF (ssSDF and double stranded SDF (dsSDF in these patients. This could be relevant because the type of DNA damage could have different effects. Semen samples were classified attending their clinical status: 25 fertile donors and 20 RPL patients with at least two unexplained first trimester miscarriages. SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150 was performed to establish predictive threshold values. SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the presence of two subgroups within fertile donors. The values obtained were 21.10±9.13, 23.35±10.45 and 12.31±4.31, respectively, for fertile donors with low values for both ssSDF and dsSDF; 27.86±12.64, 80.69±12.67 and 12.43±5.22, for fertile donors with low ssSDF and high dsSDF; and 33.61±15.50, 84.64±11.28 and 19.28±6.05, for unexplained RPL patients, also showing a low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile. This latter profile was seen in 85% of unexplained RPL and 33% of fertile donors, suggesting that it may be associated to a male risk factor for undergoing RPL. ROC analysis regarding recurrent miscarriage set the cut-off value at 77.50% of dsDNA SDF. PFGE for low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile samples and positive controls treated with DNase, to induce dsDNA breaks, showed a more intense band of about 48 kb, which fits the toroid model of DNA compaction in sperm, pointing out that some nuclease activity may be affecting their sperm DNA in RPL patients. This work identifies a very specific SDF profile related to the paternal risk of having RPL.

  2. Double Stranded Sperm DNA Breaks, Measured by Comet Assay, Are Associated with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage in Couples without a Female Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; Amengual, Maria José; Prada, Elena; Cortés, Pilar; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sperm samples from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) couples have an increase in their sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), but no studies have been performed in order to identify differences between single stranded SDF (ssSDF) and double stranded SDF (dsSDF) in these patients. This could be relevant because the type of DNA damage could have different effects. Semen samples were classified attending their clinical status: 25 fertile donors and 20 RPL patients with at least two unexplained first trimester miscarriages. SDF was analysed using alkaline and neutral Comet assay, SCD test and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ROC analysis including data from 105 more infertile patients (n = 150) was performed to establish predictive threshold values. SDF for alkaline and neutral Comet, and the SCD test was analysed in these categories of individuals. Data revealed the presence of two subgroups within fertile donors. The values obtained were 21.10±9.13, 23.35±10.45 and 12.31±4.31, respectively, for fertile donors with low values for both ssSDF and dsSDF; 27.86±12.64, 80.69±12.67 and 12.43±5.22, for fertile donors with low ssSDF and high dsSDF; and 33.61±15.50, 84.64±11.28 and 19.28±6.05, for unexplained RPL patients, also showing a low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile. This latter profile was seen in 85% of unexplained RPL and 33% of fertile donors, suggesting that it may be associated to a male risk factor for undergoing RPL. ROC analysis regarding recurrent miscarriage set the cut-off value at 77.50% of dsDNA SDF. PFGE for low ssSDF and high dsSDF profile samples and positive controls treated with DNase, to induce dsDNA breaks, showed a more intense band of about 48 kb, which fits the toroid model of DNA compaction in sperm, pointing out that some nuclease activity may be affecting their sperm DNA in RPL patients. This work identifies a very specific SDF profile related to the paternal risk of having RPL. PMID:23028579

  3. Why double-stranded RNA resists condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Chen, Yujie; Drozdetski, Aleksander; Baker, Nathan; Pollack, Lois; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of multivalent cations to solutions containing double-stranded DNA leads to inter-DNA attraction and eventual condensation. Surprisingly, the condensation is suppressed in double-stranded RNA, which carries the same negative charge as DNA, but assumes a different double helical form. Here, we combine experiment and atomistic simulations to propose a mechanism that explains the variations in condensation of short (25 base-pairs) nucleic acid (NA) duplexes, from B-like form of homopolymeric DNA, to mixed sequence DNA, to DNA:RNA hybrid, to A-like RNA. Circular dichroism measurements suggest that duplex helical geometry is not the fundamental property that ultimately determines the observed differences in condensation. Instead, these differences are governed by the spatial variation of cobalt hexammine (CoHex) binding to NA. There are two major NA-CoHex binding modes—internal and external—distinguished by the proximity of bound CoHex to the helical axis. We find a significant difference, up to 5-fold, in the fraction of ions bound to the external surfaces of the different NA constructs studied. NA condensation propensity is determined by the fraction of CoHex ions in the external binding mode. PMID:25123663

  4. Phenolic promiscuity in the cell nucleus--epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate from green and black tea bind to model cell nuclear structures including histone proteins, double stranded DNA and telomeric quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikutis, Gediminas; Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; LeGresley, Adam; Islam, Tuhidul; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-02-01

    Flavanols from tea have been reported to accumulate in the cell nucleus in considerable concentrations. The nature of this phenomenon, which could provide novel approaches in understanding the well-known beneficial health effects of tea phenols, is investigated in this contribution. The interaction between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea and a selection of theaflavins from black tea with selected cell nuclear structures such as model histone proteins, double stranded DNA and quadruplex DNA was investigated using mass spectrometry, Circular Dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescent assays. The selected polyphenols were shown to display affinity to all of the selected cell nuclear structures, thereby demonstrating a degree of unexpected molecular promiscuity. Most interestingly theaflavin-digallate was shown to display the highest affinity to quadruplex DNA reported for any naturally occurring molecule reported so far. This finding has immediate implications in rationalising the chemopreventive effect of the tea beverage against cancer and possibly the role of tea phenolics as "life span essentials".

  5. Unzipping mechanism of the double-stranded DNA unwinding by a hexameric helicase: the effect of the 3' arm and the stability of the dsDNA on the unwinding activity of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletto, Roberto; Jezewska, Maria J; Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz

    2004-10-08

    The effect of two structural elements of a replication DNA fork substrate, the length of the 3' arm of the fork and the stability of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) part, on the kinetics of the dsDNA unwinding by the Escherichia coli hexameric helicase DnaB protein has been examined under single turnover conditions using the rapid quench-flow technique. The length of the 3' arm of the replication fork, i.e. the number of nucleotides in the arm, is a major structural factor that controls the unwinding rate and processivity of the helicase. The data show the existence of an optimal length of the 3' arm where there is the highest unwinding rate and processivity, indicating that during the unwinding process, the helicase transiently interacts with the 3' arm at a specific distance on the arm with respect to the duplex part of the DNA. Moreover, the area on the enzyme that engages in interactions has also a discrete size. For DNA substrates with the 3' arm containing 14, or less, nucleotide residues, the DnaB helicase becomes a completely distributive enzyme. However, the 3' arm is not a "specific activating cofactor" in the unwinding reaction. Rather, the 3' arm plays a role as a mechanical fulcrum for the enzyme, necessary to provide support for the advancing large helicase molecule on the opposite strand of the DNA. Binding of ATP is necessary to engage the 3' arm with the DnaB helicase, but it does not change the initial distribution of complexes of the enzyme with the DNA fork substrate. Stability of the dsDNA has a significant effect on the unwinding rate and processivity. The unwinding rate constant is a decreasing linear function of the fractional content of GC base-pairs in the dsDNA, indicating that the activation of the unwinding step is proportional to the stability of the nucleic acid.

  6. DNA double strand breaks as predictor of efficacy of the alpha-particle emitter Ac-225 and the electron emitter Lu-177 for somatostatin receptor targeted radiotherapy.

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    Franziska Graf

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Key biologic effects of the alpha-particle emitter Actinium-225 in comparison to the beta-particle emitter Lutetium-177 labeled somatostatin-analogue DOTATOC in vitro and in vivo were studied to evaluate the significance of γH2AX-foci formation. METHODS: To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE between the two isotopes (as - biological consequence of different ionisation-densities along a particle-track, somatostatin expressing AR42J cells were incubated with Ac-225-DOTATOC and Lu-177-DOTATOC up to 48 h and viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. DNA double strand breaks (DSB were quantified by immunofluorescence staining of γH2AX-foci. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vivo uptake of both radiolabeled somatostatin-analogues into subcutaneously growing AR42J tumors and the number of cells displaying γH2AX-foci were measured. Therapeutic efficacy was assayed by monitoring tumor growth after treatment with activities estimated from in vitro cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Ac-225-DOTATOC resulted in ED50 values of 14 kBq/ml after 48 h, whereas Lu-177-DOTATOC displayed ED50 values of 10 MBq/ml. The number of DSB grew with increasing concentration of Ac-225-DOTATOC and similarly with Lu-177-DOTATOC when applying a factor of 700-fold higher activity compared to Ac-225. Already 24 h after incubation with 2.5-10 kBq/ml, Ac-225-DOTATOC cell-cycle studies showed up to a 60% increase in the percentage of tumor cells in G2/M phase. After 72 h an apoptotic subG1 peak was also detectable. Tumor uptake for both radio peptides at 48 h was identical (7.5%ID/g, though the overall number of cells with γH2AX-foci was higher in tumors treated with 48 kBq Ac-225-DOTATOC compared to tumors treated with 30 MBq Lu-177-DOTATOC (35% vs. 21%. Tumors with a volume of 0.34 ml reached delayed exponential tumor growth after 25 days (44 kBq Ac-225-DOTATOC and after 21 days (34 MBq Lu-177-DOTATOC. CONCLUSION: γH2AX-foci formation, triggered

  7. Mechanistic Modeling of Dose and Dose Rate Dependences of Radiation-Induced DNA Double Strand Break Rejoining Kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available Mechanistic modeling of DNA double strand break (DSB rejoining is important for quantifying and medically exploiting radiation-induced cytotoxicity (e.g. in cancer radiotherapy. Most radiation-induced DSBs are quickly-rejoinable and are rejoined within the first 1-2 hours after irradiation. Others are slowly-rejoinable (persist for several hours, and yet others are essentially unrejoinable (persist for >24 hours. The dependences of DSB rejoining kinetics on radiation dose and dose rate remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that the fraction of slowly-rejoinable and/or unrejoinable DSBs increases with increasing dose/dose rate. This radiation-dependent (RD model was implemented using differential equations for three DSB classes: quickly-rejoinable, slowly-rejoinable and unrejoinable. Radiation converts quickly-rejoinable to slowly-rejoinable, and slowly-rejoinable to unrejoinable DSBs. We used large published data sets on DSB rejoining in yeast exposed to sparsely-ionizing (electrons and γ-rays, single or split-doses, high or low dose rates and densely-ionizing (α-particles radiation to compare the performances of the proposed RD formalism and the established two-lesion kinetic (TLK model. These yeast DSB rejoining data were measured within the radiation dose range relevant for clonogenic cell survival, whereas in mammalian cells DSB rejoining is usually measured only at supra-lethal doses for technical reasons. The RD model described both sparsely-ionizing and densely-ionizing radiation data much better than the TLK model: by 217 and 14 sample-size-adjusted Akaike information criterion units, respectively. This occurred because: the RD (but not the TLK model reproduced the observed upwardly-curving dose responses for slowly-rejoinable/unrejoinable DSBs at long times after irradiation; the RD model adequately described DSB yields at both high and low dose rates using one parameter set, whereas the TLK model overestimated low dose rate

  8. Initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA Fragmentation patterns depend on linear energy transfer in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Hase, Yoshihiro; Shikazono, Naoya; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    The ability of ion beams to kill or mutate plant cells is known to depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ions, although the mechanism of damage is poorly understood. In this study, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by a DNA fragment-size analysis in tobacco protoplasts irradiated with high-LET ions. Tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, as a model of single plant cells, were irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions having different LETs and with gamma rays. After irradiation, DNA fragments were separated into sizes between 1600 and 6.6 kbp by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Information on DNA fragmentation was obtained by staining the gels with SYBR Green I. Initial DSB yields were found to depend on LET, and the highest relative biological effectiveness (about 1.6) was obtained at 124 and 241 keV/microm carbon ions. High-LET carbon and neon ions induced short DNA fragments more efficiently than gamma rays. These results partially explain the large biological effects caused by high-LET ions in plants.

  9. Dual-probe electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the "Y" junction structure and restriction endonuclease assisted cyclic enzymatic amplification for detection of double-strand DNA of PML/RARα related fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Lei, Yun; Zhong, Guang-Xian; Zheng, Yan-Jie; Sun, Zhou-Liang; Peng, Hua-Ping; Chen, Wei; Liu, Ai-Lin; Chen, Yuan-Zhong; Lin, Xin-Hua

    2015-09-15

    Taking advantage of "Y" junction structure and restriction endonuclease assisted cyclic enzymatic amplification, a dual-probe electrochemical DNA (DE-DNA) biosensor was designed to detect double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) related gene. Two groups of detection probes were designed, and each group was composed of a biotinylated capture probe and an assisted probe. They were separately complementary with two strands of target dsDNA in order to prevent the reannealing of the two separate strands from target dsDNA. First, thiol functionalized capture probes (C1 and C2) were severally assembled onto two different gold electrodes, followed by hybridizing with target dsDNA (S1a-S1b) and assistant probes to form two Y-junction-structure ternary complexes. Subsequently, restriction sites on the ternary complexes were digested by Rsa I, which can release S1a, S1b and biotins from the electrode surfaces. Meanwhile, the released S1a and S1b can further hybridize with the unhybridized corresponding detection probes and then initiate another new hybridization-cleavage-separation cycle. Finally, the current signals were produced by the enzyme-catalyzed reaction of streptavidin-horse reddish peroxidase (streptavidin-HRP). The distinct difference in current signals between different sequences allowed detection of target dsDNA down to a low detection limit of 47 fM and presented excellent specificity with discriminating only a single-base mismatched dsDNA sequence. Moreover, this biosensor was also used for assay of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) samples with satisfactory results. According to the results, the power of the DE-DNA biosensor as a promising tool for the detection of APL and other diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Double strand break repair functions of histone H2AX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, Ralph, E-mail: rscully@bidmc.harvard.edu; Xie, Anyong

    2013-10-15

    Chromosomal double strand breaks provoke an extensive reaction in neighboring chromatin, characterized by phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 of its C-terminal tail (to form “γH2AX”). The γH2AX response contributes to the repair of double strand breaks encountered in a variety of different contexts, including those induced by ionizing radiation, physiologically programmed breaks that characterize normal immune cell development and the pathological exposure of DNA ends triggered by telomere dysfunction. γH2AX also participates in the evolutionarily conserved process of sister chromatid recombination, a homologous recombination pathway involved in the suppression of genomic instability during DNA replication and directly implicated in tumor suppression. At a biochemical level, the γH2AX response provides a compelling example of how the “histone code” is adapted to the regulation of double strand break repair. Here, we review progress in research aimed at understanding how γH2AX contributes to double strand break repair in mammalian cells.

  11. Synthetic double-stranded RNAs are adjuvants for the induction of T helper 1 and humoral immune responses to human papillomavirus in rhesus macaques.

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    Christiane Stahl-Hennig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands are being considered as adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, as in the design of vaccines. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytoidylic acid (poly I:C, a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, is recognized by TLR3 and other intracellular receptors. Poly ICLC is a poly I:C analogue, which has been stabilized against the serum nucleases that are present in the plasma of primates. Poly I:C(12U, another analogue, is less toxic but also less stable in vivo than poly I:C, and TLR3 is essential for its recognition. To study the effects of these compounds on the induction of protein-specific immune responses in an animal model relevant to humans, rhesus macaques were immunized subcutaneously (s.c. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH or human papillomavirus (HPV16 capsomeres with or without dsRNA or a control adjuvant, the TLR9 ligand CpG-C. All dsRNA compounds served as adjuvants for KLH-specific cellular immune responses, with the highest proliferative responses being observed with 2 mg/animal poly ICLC (p = 0.002 or 6 mg/animal poly I:C(12U (p = 0.001 when compared with immunization with KLH alone. Notably, poly ICLC -- but not CpG-C given at the same dose -- also helped to induce HPV16-specific Th1 immune responses while both adjuvants supported the induction of strong anti-HPV16 L1 antibody responses as determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. In contrast, control animals injected with HPV16 capsomeres alone did not develop substantial HPV16-specific immune responses. Injection of dsRNA led to increased numbers of cells producing the T cell-activating chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 as detected by in situ hybridization in draining lymph nodes 18 hours after injections, and to increased serum levels of CXCL10 (p = 0.01. This was paralleled by the reduced production of the homeostatic T cell-attracting chemokine CCL21. Thus, synthetic dsRNAs induce an innate chemokine response and act as adjuvants

  12. Interleukin-17 expression positively correlates with disease severity of lupus nephritis by increasing anti-double-stranded DNA antibody production in a lupus model induced by activated lymphocyte derived DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenke Wen

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis is one of the most serious manifestations and one of the strongest predictors of a poor outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Recent evidence implicated a potential role of interlukin-17 (IL-17 in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. However, the correlation between IL-17 expression level and the severity of lupus nephritis still remains incompletely understood. In this study, we found that serum IL-17 expression level was associated with the severity of lupus nephritis, which was evaluated by histopathology of kidney sections and urine protein. Of note, we showed that enforced expression of IL-17 using adenovirus construct that expresses IL-17 could enhance the severity of lupus nephritis, while blockade of IL-17 using neutralizing antibody resulted in decreased severity of lupus nephritis. Consistently, we observed an impaired induction of lupus nephritis in IL-17-deficient mice. Further, we revealed that IL-17 expression level was associated with immune complex deposition and complement activation in kidney. Of interest, we found that IL-17 was crucial for increasing anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody production in SLE. Our results suggested that IL-17 expression level positively correlated with the severity of lupus nephritis, at least in part, because of its contribution to anti-dsDNA antibody production. These findings provided a novel mechanism for how IL-17 expression level correlated with disease pathogenesis and suggested that management of IL-17 expression level was a potential and promising approach for treatment of lupus nephritis.

  13. Division-induced DNA double strand breaks in the chromosome terminus region of Escherichia coli lacking RecBCD DNA repair enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Kumar Sinha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marker frequency analysis of the Escherichia coli recB mutant chromosome has revealed a deficit of DNA in a specific zone of the terminus, centred on the dif/TerC region. Using fluorescence microscopy of a marked chromosomal site, we show that the dif region is lost after replication completion, at the time of cell division, in one daughter cell only, and that the phenomenon is transmitted to progeny. Analysis by marker frequency and microscopy shows that the position of DNA loss is not defined by the replication fork merging point since it still occurs in the dif/TerC region when the replication fork trap is displaced in strains harbouring ectopic Ter sites. Terminus DNA loss in the recB mutant is also independent of dimer resolution by XerCD at dif and of Topo IV action close to dif. It occurs in the terminus region, at the point of inversion of the GC skew, which is also the point of convergence of specific sequence motifs like KOPS and Chi sites, regardless of whether the convergence of GC skew is at dif (wild-type or a newly created sequence. In the absence of FtsK-driven DNA translocation, terminus DNA loss is less precisely targeted to the KOPS convergence sequence, but occurs at a similar frequency and follows the same pattern as in FtsK+ cells. Importantly, using ftsIts, ftsAts division mutants and cephalexin treated cells, we show that DNA loss of the dif region in the recB mutant is decreased by the inactivation of cell division. We propose that it results from septum-induced chromosome breakage, and largely contributes to the low viability of the recB mutant.

  14. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Khong Bee, E-mail: dmskkb@nccs.com.sg [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are

  15. Utility of γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, γH2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of γH2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy.

  16. Synthesis of Biotinylated Inositol Hexakisphosphate To Study DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and Affinity Capture of IP6-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chensong; Summerlin, Matthew; Bruzik, Karol S; Hanakahi, Leslyn

    2015-10-20

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a soluble inositol polyphosphate, which is abundant in mammalian cells. Despite the participation of IP6 in critical cellular functions, few IP6-binding proteins have been characterized. We report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of biotin-labeled IP6 (IP6-biotin), which has biotin attached at position 2 of the myo-inositol ring via an aminohexyl linker. Like natural IP6, IP6-biotin stimulated DNA ligation by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in vitro. The Ku protein is a required NHEJ factor that has been shown to bind IP6. We found that IP6-biotin could affinity capture Ku and other required NHEJ factors from human cell extracts, including the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4, and XLF. Direct binding studies with recombinant proteins show that Ku is the only NHEJ factor with affinity for IP6-biotin. DNA-PKcs, XLF, and the XRCC4:ligase IV complex interact with Ku in cell extracts and likely interact indirectly with IP6-biotin. IP6-biotin was used to tether streptavidin to Ku, which inhibited NHEJ in vitro. These proof-of-concept experiments suggest that molecules like IP6-biotin might be used to molecularly target biologically important proteins that bind IP6. IP6-biotin affinity capture experiments show that numerous proteins specifically bind IP6-biotin, including casein kinase 2, which is known to bind IP6, and nucleolin. Protein binding to IP6-biotin is selective, as IP3, IP4, and IP5 did not compete for binding of proteins to IP6-biotin. Our results document IP6-biotin as a useful tool for investigating the role of IP6 in biological systems.

  17. Restriction endonucleases from invasive Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause double-strand breaks and distort mitosis in epithelial cells during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyler, Linda; Engelbrecht, Mattias; Mata Forsberg, Manuel; Brehwens, Karl; Vare, Daniel; Vielfort, Katarina; Wojcik, Andrzej; Aro, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The host epithelium is both a barrier against, and the target for microbial infections. Maintaining regulated cell growth ensures an intact protective layer towards microbial-induced cellular damage. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections disrupt host cell cycle regulation machinery and the infection causes DNA double strand breaks that delay progression through the G2/M phase. We show that intracellular gonococci upregulate and release restriction endonucleases that enter the nucleus and damage human chromosomal DNA. Bacterial lysates containing restriction endonucleases were able to fragment genomic DNA as detected by PFGE. Lysates were also microinjected into the cytoplasm of cells in interphase and after 20 h, DNA double strand breaks were identified by 53BP1 staining. In addition, by using live-cell microscopy and NHS-ester stained live gonococci we visualized the subcellular location of the bacteria upon mitosis. Infected cells show dysregulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins MAD1 and MAD2, impaired and prolonged M-phase, nuclear swelling, micronuclei formation and chromosomal instability. These data highlight basic molecular functions of how gonococcal infections affect host cell cycle regulation, cause DNA double strand breaks and predispose cellular malignancies.

  18. OsSpo11-4, a rice homologue of the archaeal TopVIA protein, mediates double-strand DNA cleavage and interacts with OsTopVIB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jing An

    Full Text Available DNA topoisomerase VI from Archaea, a heterotetrameric complex composed of two TopVIA and two TopVIB subunits, is involved in altering DNA topology during replication, transcription and chromosome segregation by catalyzing DNA strand transfer through transient double-strand breaks. The sequenced yeast and animal genomes encode only one homologue of the archaeal TopVIA subunit, namely Spo11, and no homologue of the archaeal TopVIB subunit. In yeast, Spo11 is essential for initiating meiotic recombination and this function appears conserved among other eukaryotes. In contrast to yeast and animals, studies in Arabidopsis and rice have identified three Spo11/TopVIA homologues and one TopVIB homologue in plants. Here, we further identified two novel Spo11/TopVIA homologues (named OsSpo11-4 and OsSpo11-5, respectively that exist just in the monocot model plant Oryza sativa, indicating that at least five Spo11/TopVIA homologues are present in the rice genome. To reveal the biochemical function of the two novel Spo11/TopVIA homologues, we first examined the interactions among OsSpo11-1, OsSpo11-4, OsSpo11-5, and OsTopVIB by yeast two-hybrid assay. The results showed that OsSpo11-4 and OsTopVIB can self-interact strongly and among the 3 examined OsSpo11 proteins, only OsSpo11-4 interacted with OsTopVIB. Pull-down assay confirmed the interaction between OsSpo11-4 and OsTopVIB, which indicates that OsSpo11-4 may interact with OsTopVIB in vivo. Further in vitro enzymatic analysis revealed that among the above 4 proteins, only OsSpo11-4 exhibited double-strand DNA cleavage activity and its enzymatic activity appears dependent on Mg(2+ and independent of OsTopVIB, despite its interaction with OsTopVIB. We further analyzed the biological function of OsSpo11-4 by RNA interference and found that down-regulated expression of OsSpo11-4 led to defects in male meiosis, indicating OsSpo11-4 is required for meiosis.

  19. MTE1 Functions with MPH1 in Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimit, Askar; Kim, TaeHyung; Anand, Ranjith P; Meister, Sarah; Ou, Jiongwen; Haber, James E; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2016-05-01

    Double-strand DNA breaks occur upon exposure of cells to ionizing radiation and certain chemical agents or indirectly through replication fork collapse at DNA damage sites. If left unrepaired, double-strand breaks can cause genome instability and cell death, and their repair can result in loss of heterozygosity. In response to DNA damage, proteins involved in double-strand break repair by homologous recombination relocalize into discrete nuclear foci. We identified 29 proteins that colocalize with recombination repair protein Rad52 in response to DNA damage. Of particular interest, Ygr042w/Mte1, a protein of unknown function, showed robust colocalization with Rad52. Mte1 foci fail to form when the DNA helicase gene MPH1 is absent. Mte1 and Mph1 form a complex and are recruited to double-strand breaks in vivo in a mutually dependent manner. MTE1 is important for resolution of Rad52 foci during double-strand break repair and for suppressing break-induced replication. Together our data indicate that Mte1 functions with Mph1 in double-strand break repair. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Process for creating a double-stranded polyribonucleotide sequence with terminal overhang, as well as a process for creating a double-stranded polynucleotide construct and an application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, N.H.; Veenhuizen, P.

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for creating double-stranded RNA (16) having a terminal overhang. In accordance with the invention a DNA amplification is used for this purpose, followed by a transcription of the amplified DNA. When amplifying the DNA, primer pairs are used and care is taken that

  1. Up regulation of serum tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: relations with disease activity, antibodies to double -stranded DNA, nephritis and neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Mohamed H M; El-Gammasy, Tarek M A; Shaheen, Kareem Y A; El-Mezdawi, Ramzi A M; Youssef, Mervat S M

    2013-06-01

    Apoptosis is induced by binding of death receptor ligands, members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, to their cognate receptors. It is suggested that TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is involved in pathogenesis of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). This study aimed to assess TRAIL concentrations in sera of JSLE children and to determine their potential relationship with disease activity, anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) levels, neutropenia and renal involvement. Circulating levels of TRAIL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples obtained from 40 JSLE patients (20 with active and 20 with inactive disease) and 20 controls. The mean (SEM) serum TRAIL concentration in JSLE was 1750.7 (440.2) pg/mL. Serum TRAIL concentrations in patients were higher than those in controls (P nephritis compared to classes I and II nephritis (1970 [512] vs. 1330 [331] pg/mL; P lupus nephritis. © 2013 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Evidence based on studies of the mus309 mutant, deficient in DNA double-strand break repair, that meiotic crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster is a two-phase process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Petter

    2010-10-01

    The mus309 gene in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a RecQ helicase which is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and specifically in the choice between the different pathways of the repair. In a brood pattern analysis of mus309 and wild type females which either had or had not experienced a temperature shock, different parameters of meiotic crossing over including map distances and crossover interference in the X chromosome were measured. The results suggest that, like in other eukaryotes studied, the control of meiotic crossover formation also in D. melanogaster is a two-phase process. The first phase seems to be temperature shock sensitive, independent of the mus309 gene and coincidental with the premeiotic DNA synthesis, thus most likely representing the formation of DSBs. The second phase seems to be temperature shock tolerant, dependent on the mus309 gene, occurring during the meiotic prophase and most likely representing the choice made by the oocyte between the different pathways of the DSB repair. A hypothesis of the localization of chiasmata is also presented, combining the mechanisms of interference and the so-called centromere effect, and based on the balance between the SDSA and DSBR pathways of DSB repair.

  3. Efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks repair in breast cancer is decreased in carriers of the variant allele of the UBC9 gene c.73G>A polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec, Ewelina; Krupa, Renata; Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wasylecka, Maja; Dziki, Lukasz; Morawiec, Jan; Blasiak, Janusz; Wozniak, Katarzyna

    2010-12-10

    UBC9 (E2) SUMO conjugating enzyme plays an important role in the maintenance of genome stability and integrity. In the present work we examined the association between the c.73G>A (Val25Met) polymorphism of the UBC9 gene (rs11553473) and efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair (DRE) in breast cancer patients. We determined the level of endogenous (basal) and exogenous (induced by γ-irradiation) DSBs and efficacy of their repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 breast cancer patients and 70 healthy individuals. DNA damage and repair were studied by neutral comet assay. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by allele-specific PCR (ASO-PCR). We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. We observed a strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the variant allele carried genotypes in patients with elevated level of basal as well as induced DNA damage (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.27-20.0 and OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.81-15.7, respectively). We also found statistically significant (pA polymorphism of the UBC9 gene in breast cancer patients. Carriers of variant allele have decreased DNA DRE as compared to wild type genotype carriers. We did not find any association with the UBC9 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The variant allele of the UBC9 gene polymorphism was strongly inversely related to HER negative breast cancer patients (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.23). Our results suggest that the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene may affect DNA DSBs repair efficacy in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks repair in breast cancer is decreased in carriers of the variant allele of the UBC9 gene c.73G>A polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synowiec, Ewelina [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Krupa, Renata [Laboratory of DNA Repair, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland); Morawiec, Zbigniew; Wasylecka, Maja [Department of Surgical Oncology, N. Copernicus Hospital, Lodz (Poland); Dziki, Lukasz; Morawiec, Jan [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Blasiak, Janusz [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Wozniak, Katarzyna, E-mail: wozniak@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Laboratory of DNA Repair, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-12-10

    UBC9 (E2) SUMO conjugating enzyme plays an important role in the maintenance of genome stability and integrity. In the present work we examined the association between the c.73G>A (Val25Met) polymorphism of the UBC9 gene (rs11553473) and efficacy of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair (DRE) in breast cancer patients. We determined the level of endogenous (basal) and exogenous (induced by {gamma}-irradiation) DSBs and efficacy of their repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 breast cancer patients and 70 healthy individuals. DNA damage and repair were studied by neutral comet assay. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by allele-specific PCR (ASO-PCR). We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. We observed a strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the variant allele carried genotypes in patients with elevated level of basal as well as induced DNA damage (OR 6.74, 95% CI 2.27-20.0 and OR 5.33, 95% CI 1.81-15.7, respectively). We also found statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in DRE related to the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene in breast cancer patients. Carriers of variant allele have decreased DNA DRE as compared to wild type genotype carriers. We did not find any association with the UBC9 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The variant allele of the UBC9 gene polymorphism was strongly inversely related to HER negative breast cancer patients (OR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.23). Our results suggest that the c.73G>A polymorphism of the UBC9 gene may affect DNA DSBs repair efficacy in breast cancer patients.

  5. Assessment of anti-recombination and double-strand break-induced gene conversion in human cells by a chromosomal reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keqian; Wu, Xiling; Tompkins, Joshua D; Her, Chengtao

    2012-08-24

    Gene conversion is one of the frequent end results of homologous recombination, and it often underlies the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. Here, we have developed an integrated assay system that allows simultaneous examination of double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion events at the site of a DSB (proximal region) and at a surrounding region ~1 kb away from the break (distal region). Utilizing this assay system, we find that gene conversion events at the proximal and distal regions are relatively independent of one another. The results also indicate that synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) plays a major role in DSB-induced gene conversion. In addition, our current study has demonstrated that hMLH1 plays an essential role in anti-recombination and gene conversion. Specifically, the anti-recombination activity of hMLH1 is partially dependent on its interaction with hMRE11. Our data suggests that the role of hMLH1 and hMRE11 in the process of gene conversion is complex, and these proteins play different roles in DSB-induced proximal and distal gene conversions. In particular, the involvement of hMLH1 and hMRE11 in the distal gene conversion requires both hMSH2 and heteroduplex formation.

  6. Assessment of Anti-recombination and Double-strand Break-induced Gene Conversion in Human Cells by a Chromosomal Reporter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Keqian; Wu, Xiling; Tompkins, Joshua D.; Her, Chengtao

    2012-01-01

    Gene conversion is one of the frequent end results of homologous recombination, and it often underlies the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. Here, we have developed an integrated assay system that allows simultaneous examination of double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion events at the site of a DSB (proximal region) and at a surrounding region ∼1 kb away from the break (distal region). Utilizing this assay system, we find that gene conversion events at the proximal and distal regions are relatively independent of one another. The results also indicate that synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) plays a major role in DSB-induced gene conversion. In addition, our current study has demonstrated that hMLH1 plays an essential role in anti-recombination and gene conversion. Specifically, the anti-recombination activity of hMLH1 is partially dependent on its interaction with hMRE11. Our data suggests that the role of hMLH1 and hMRE11 in the process of gene conversion is complex, and these proteins play different roles in DSB-induced proximal and distal gene conversions. In particular, the involvement of hMLH1 and hMRE11 in the distal gene conversion requires both hMSH2 and heteroduplex formation. PMID:22773873

  7. Association of the Endobiont Double-Stranded RNA Virus LRV1 With Treatment Failure for Human Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaui, Vanessa; Lye, Lon-Fye; Akopyants, Natalia S; Zimic, Mirko; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Garcia, Lineth; Maes, Ilse; De Doncker, Simonne; Dobson, Deborah E; Arevalo, Jorge; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Beverley, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, caused in South America by Leishmania braziliensis, is difficult to cure by chemotherapy (primarily pentavalent antimonials [Sb(V)]). Treatment failure does not correlate well with resistance in vitro, and the factors responsible for treatment failure in patients are not well understood. Many isolates of L. braziliensis (>25%) contain a double-stranded RNA virus named Leishmaniavirus 1 (LRV1), which has also been reported in Leishmania guyanensis, for which an association with increased pathology, metastasis, and parasite replication was found in murine models. Here we probed the relationship of LRV1 to drug treatment success and disease in 97 L. braziliensis-infected patients from Peru and Bolivia. In vitro cultures were established, parasites were typed as L. braziliensis, and the presence of LRV1 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequence analysis. LRV1 was associated significantly with an increased risk of treatment failure (odds ratio, 3.99; P = .04). There was no significant association with intrinsic Sb(V) resistance among parasites, suggesting that treatment failure arises from LRV1-mediated effects on host metabolism and/or parasite survival. The association of LRV1 with clinical drug treatment failure could serve to guide more-effective treatment of tegumentary disease caused by L. braziliensis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Recognition of double-stranded DNA using energetically activated duplexes with interstrand zippers of 1-, 2-or 4-pyrenyl-functionalized O2 '-alkylated RNA monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Guenther, Dale C.

    2014-01-01

    and modifying genes. Invaders, i.e., energetically activated DNA duplexes with interstrand zipper arrangements of intercalator-functionalized nucleotides, are emerging as an attractive approach toward this goal. Here, we characterize and compare Invaders based on 1-, 2- and 4-pyrenyl-functionalized O2......'-alkylated uridine monomers X-Z by means of thermal denaturation experiments, optical spectroscopy, force-field simulations and recognition experiments using DNA hairpins as model targets. We demonstrate that Invaders with +1 interstrand zippers of X or Y monomers efficiently recognize mixed-sequence DNA......-modified Invaders show much lower dsDNA recognition efficiency. Thus, even very conservative changes in the chemical makeup of the intercalator-functionalized nucleotides used to activate Invader duplexes, affects dsDNA-recognition efficiency of the probes, which highlights the importance of systematic structure...

  9. The construction of a recombinant cDNA library representative of the poly(A)+ mRNA population from normal human lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, D; Crampton, J; Clarke, B; Williamson, R

    1980-01-01

    A recombinant library has been constructed using the plasmid pAT153 and double stranded cDNA prepared from normal human lymphocyte poly(A)+ RNA. Transformation conditions were optimized to yield approximately 200,000 recombinants per microgram of double stranded cDNA. Statistical analysis as well as sequence complexity analysis of the inserted sequences indicates that the cDNA library is representative of > 99% of the poly(A)+ RNA present in the normal human lymphocyte.

  10. Cytosolic Double-Stranded DNA as a Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Induces the Inflammatory Response in Rat Pancreatic Stellate Cells: A Plausible Mechanism for Tissue Injury-Associated Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of unknown causes. There are many triggers causing pancreatitis, such as alcohol, common bile duct stone, virus and congenital or acquired stenosis of main pancreatic duct, which often involve tissue injuries. Pancreatitis often occurs in sterile condition, where the dead/dying pancreatic parenchymal cells and the necrotic tissues derived from self-digested-pancreas were observed. However, the causal relationship between tissue injury and pancreatitis and how tissue injury could induce the inflammation of the pancreas were not elucidated fully until now. This study demonstrates that cytosolic double-stranded DNA increases the expression of several inflammatory genes (cytokines, chemokines, type I interferon, and major histocompatibility complex in rat pancreatic stellate cells. Furthermore, these increase accompanied the multiple signal molecules genes, such as interferon regulatory factors, nuclear factor-kappa B, low-molecular-weight protein 2, and transporter associated with antigen processing 1. We suggest that this phenomenon is a plausible mechanism that might explain how cell damage of the pancreas or tissue injury triggers acute, chronic, and autoimmune pancreatitis; it is potentially relevant to host immune responses induced during alcohol consumption or other causes.

  11. Unsuitability of lymphoblastoid cell lines as surrogate of cryopreserved isolated lymphocytes for the analysis of DNA double-strand break repair activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zijno, Andrea [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Porcedda, Paola [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Saini, Francesca [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Allione, Alessandra [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Garofalo, Bruno; Marcon, Francesca [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Guarrera, Simonetta [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Turinetto, Valentina; Minieri, Valentina [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Funaro, Ada [Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin (Italy); Crebelli, Riccardo [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Giachino, Claudia [Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin (Italy); Matullo, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.matullo@unito.it [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) Foundation, Villa Gualino, Turin (Italy); Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Turin (Italy)

    2010-02-03

    As first task of a comprehensive investigation on DNA repair genotype-phenotype correlations, the suitability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as surrogate of cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in DNA repair phenotypic assays was evaluated. To this aim the amount of DNA damage induced by {gamma}-rays and DNA repair capacity were evaluated in unstimulated (G{sub 0}) and mitogen-simulated (G{sub 2}) PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and in EBV-transformed LCL obtained from the same individuals. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations were the end-points investigated. The results obtained show higher basal frequencies of binucleated cells bearing micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) in LCL with respect to PBMC, suggesting that EBV transformation may be associated with chromosomal instability. After irradiation, higher levels of micronuclei were induced in G{sub 0}-treated PBMC compared to cycling LCL; conversely, NPB were more frequent in LCL than in PBMC. Moreover, higher levels of chromosomal aberrations were observed in G{sub 2}-treated PBMC compared to LCL. Concerning {gamma}-H2AX measurements, phosphorylation levels 1 h after treatment and dephosphorylation kinetics were basically similar in LCL and in PBMC. However, while Spearman's test showed a strong correlation between the results obtained in replicated experiments with PBMC, high inter-experimental variability and poor reproducibility was observed in the experiments performed with LCL, possibly due to the intrinsic instability of LCL. In summary, both the analysis of {gamma}-H2AX and the evaluation of chromosome damage highlighted a larger inter-experimental variability in the results obtained with LCL compared to PBMC. Noteworthy, the two set of results proved to lack any significant correlation at the individual level. These results indicate that LCL may be unsuitable for investigating genotype

  12. Nature and possible mechanisms of formation of potential mutations arising at emerging of thymine dimers after irradiation of double-stranded DNA by ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebneva, H. A.

    2003-01-01

    The mutagenesis under ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation is discussed. It is assumed, that the basic damages resulting in transitions, transversions, mutations of the frameshift and complex mutations are changes of the tautomeric state of the bases. The bases may be a part of dimers or may be not the dimer components. We consider such rare tautomeric states, which may influence the character of base pairing. A model of the formation of the above rare tautomeric forms of nucleotide bases under the UV-irradiation of the DNA is proposed. In the case of a radiation deexcitation of the DNA, which has absorbed the UV-quantum of the triplet energy level, there occur strong forced oscillations. They may result in changes of the lengths of hydrogen bonds between DNA bases. As a result, at H-bond shortening, the hydrogen atom may be almost in the center of H-bond. In the case of H-bond elongation, it may remain near the partner atom. Because of the H-bond breaking, during the formation of dimers, rare tautomeric forms of bases influencing the character of pairing can be realized. If a pair of the bases is not a part of dimer, then the only new stable configuration of the hydrogen atoms is the one that occurred at double-proton phototautomerism. It is shown that only those dimers are mutational, in which the change of a tautomeric state of the DNA bases have taken place. This is one of the differences between the proposed model and the standard one. The latter assumes, that from the point of view of ability of forming the mutations all the dimers are identical, and the DNA-polymerase is sometimes mistaken, incidentally building uncomplementary bases in. The consideration is only of qualitative character, it needs experimental verification, subsequent study by methods of quantum chemistry and theoretical physics. A list of problems to be studied in this respect is given.

  13. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Paugh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10(-16 for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.

  14. Double-strand breaks and the concept of short- and long-term epigenetic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Christian; Mah, Li-Jeen; Vasireddy, Raja S; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-04-01

    Double-strand breaks represent an extremely cytolethal form of DNA damage and thus pose a serious threat to the preservation of genetic and epigenetic information. Though it is well-known that double-strand breaks such as those generated by ionising radiation are among the principal causative factors behind mutations, chromosomal aberrations, genetic instability and carcinogenesis, significantly less is known about the epigenetic consequences of double-strand break formation and repair for carcinogenesis. Double-strand break repair is a highly coordinated process that requires the unravelling of the compacted chromatin structure to facilitate repair machinery access and then restoration of the original undamaged chromatin state. Recent experimental findings have pointed to a potential mechanism for double-strand break-induced epigenetic silencing. This review will discuss some of the key epigenetic regulatory processes involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair and how incomplete or incorrect restoration of chromatin structure can leave a DSB-induced epigenetic memory of damage with potentially pathological repercussions.

  15. DNA excision repair and double-strand break repair gene polymorphisms and the level of chromosome aberration in children with long-term exposure to radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Aleksey V; Sinitsky, Maxim Y; Druzhinin, Vladimir G; Volobaev, Valentin P; Minina, Varvara I; Asanov, Maxim A; Meyer, Alina V; Tolochko, Tatiana A; Kalyuzhnaya, Ekaterina E

    2016-08-01

    To study polymorphic variants of repair genes in people affected by long-term exposure to radon. The chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes was used as the biological marker of genotoxicity. Genotyping of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes (APE, XRCC1, OGG1, ADPRT, XpC, XpD, XpG, Lig4 and NBS1) was performed in children with long-term resident exposure to radon. Quantification of the aberrations was performed using light microscopy. The total frequency of aberrations was increased in carriers of the G/G genotype for the XpD gene (rs13181) polymorphism in recessive model confirmed by the results of ROC-analysis ('satisfactory predictor', AUC = 0.609). Single chromosome fragments frequency was increased in carriers of the G/G genotype in comparison with the T/T genotype. In respect to the total frequency of aberrations, the G/G genotype for the XpG gene (rs17655) polymorphism was also identified as a 'satisfactory predictor' (AUC = 0.605). Carriers of the T/C genotype for the ADPRT gene (rs1136410) polymorphism were characterized by an increased level of single fragments relative to the T/T genotype. The relationships with several types of cytogenetic damage suggest these three SNP (rs13181, rs17655 and rs1136410) may be considered radiosensitivity markers.

  16. Relative biological effectiveness of high linear energy transfer α-particles for the induction of DNA-double-strand breaks, chromosome aberrations and reproductive cell death in SW-1573 lung tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Nicolaas A P; Hovingh, Suzanne; Ten Cate, Rosemarie; Krawczyk, Przemek; Stap, Jan; Hoebe, Ron; Aten, Jacob; Barendsen, Gerrit W

    2012-03-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) of DNA repair-related proteins accumulated at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites have been suggested to be a powerful biodosimetric tool. However, the relationship between IRIF induction and biologically relevant endpoints, such as cell death and formation of chromosome rearrangements is less clear, especially for high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. It is thus not sufficiently established whether IRIF are valid indicators of biological effectiveness of the various radiation types. This question is more significant in light of the recent advancements in light ion-beam and radionuclide therapy. Dose-effect relationships were determined for the induction of DNA-DSBs, chromosome aberrations and reproductive cell death in cultured SW-1573 cells irradiated with γ-rays from a Cs-137 source or with α-particles from an Am-241 source. Values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the high LET α-particles were derived for these effects. DNA-DSB were detected by scoring of γ-H2AX foci, chromosome aberrations by fragments and translocations using premature chromosome condensation and cell survival by colony formation. Analysis of dose-effect relations was based on the linear-quadratic model. Except for the survival curves, for other effects no significant contribution was derived of the quadratic term in the range of doses up to 2 Gy of γ-rays. Calculated RBE values derived for the linear component of dose-effect relations for γ-H2AX foci, cell reproductive death, chromosome fragments and colour junctions are 1.0±0.3, 14.7±5.1, 15.3±5.9 and 13.3±6.0, respectively. RBE values calculated at a certain biological effect level are 1, 4, 13 and 13, respectively. The RBE values derived from the LQ model are preferred as they are based on clinically relevant doses. The results show that with low LET radiation only a small fraction of the numerous DNA-DSBs yield chromosome damage and reproductive cell death. It is

  17. Characterization of the binding of YO to [poly(dA-dT)]2 and [poly(dG-dC)]2, and of the fluorescent properties of YO and YOYO complexed with the polynucleotides and double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, A; Carlsson, C; Jonsson, M

    1995-08-01

    The interaction between the fluorescent dye YO (oxazole yellow) and the alternating polynucleotides [poly(dA-dT)]2 [the duplex of alternating poly(dA-dT)] and [poly(dG-dC)]2 [the duplex of alternating poly(dG-dC)] has been studied with optical spectroscopic techniques including absorbance, flow linear dichroism, CD, and fluorescence measurements. The principal features of the spectra are very similar for the two polynucleotide solutions, showing that YO binds quite similarly to AT and GC base pairs. From a strongly negative reduced linear dichroism (LDr) in the dye absorption band, an induced negative CD, and transfer of energy from the bases to bound YO, we conclude that at low mixing ratios YO is intercalated in both [poly(dA-dT)]2 and [poly(dG-dC)]2. At higher mixing ratios an external binding mode starts to contribute, evidenced from the appearance of an exciton CD. The conclusion that YO binds in a similar way to AT and GC base pairs should be valid also for the dimer YOYO since its YO units have been found to bind to double-stranded (dsDNA) in the same way as the YO monomer. The fluorescence properties of YO and YOYO complexed with DNA or the polynucleotides have been characterized by studying the dependence of fluorescence intensity on temperature, mixing ratio, and ionic strength. The fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetime of YO-DNA decrease strongly with increasing mixing ratio, whereas the fluorescence intensity of YOYO-DNA shows a weaker dependence, indicating that the quantum yield depends on the distance between the YO chromophores on the DNA chain. Further, the fluorescence intensity of YO depends on the base sequence; the quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime for YO complexed with [poly(dG-dC)]2 are about twice as large as for YO complexed with [poly(dA-dT)]2. Measurements of excitation spectra at different mixing ratios and different emission wavelengths indicate that the fluorescence of the externally bound chromophores is negligible

  18. The flexibility of low molecular weight double-stranded DNA as a function of length. I. Light scattering measurements and the estimation of persistence lengths from light scattering, sedimentation and viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, J E; Eisenberg, H

    1976-09-01

    In the preceding paper are described the isolation and physical characterization of seven narrowly disperse fractions of calf thymus DNA in the molecular weight range 0.3 to 1.3 X 10(6) daltons. Herein, we have determined by light scattering the molecular weights and root mean square radii of these fractions in a solvent comprising 0.2 M NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 2mM Na-PO4,pH7. Measurements were made in a modified Wippler-Scheibling photometer to a 20 degree lower limit of scattering angle on solutions rendered virtually dust-free by procedures described. The optical anisotropies of the DNA fractions were measured permitting the experimental molecular weights and root mean square radii to be corrected to their true values. From these values, with appropriate polydispersity corrections, we calculate a Kratky-Porod persistence length, a, of 54.0 +/- 5.6 nm which is invariant over the molecular range examined. From the sedimentation coefficients (preceding paper) and the theory of Yamakawa and Fujii, we calculate a to be 66 nm, a value found to apply equally well to several DNA samples of various origins whose sedimentation rates are known in themolecular weight range from about 4 X 10(4) to 10(8) daltons. Similarly, from the intrinsic viscosities and the theory of Yamakawa and Fujii, we calculate a to be 59 nm, which again adequately applies to a number of DNA samples whose viscosities have been measured by other workers in the molecular wieght range 3 X 10(5) to 10(8) daltons. The Flory-Mandelkern paramerter, beta, was found to vary with molecular weight in the manner predicted by the theory of Yamakawa and Fujii. The average value of a from the three sets of measurements is 60 +/- 6nm, which we believe applies to double-stranded DNA molecules, independent of chain length, over the whole range of molecular weights from which reliable data exist.

  19. Individual repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes. Implications for radiation-induced dermatitis in breast cancer; Die individuelle Reparatur von strahleninduzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten. Implikationen fuer die radiogene Dermatitis beim Mammakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, Patrick Wilhelm

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant 'whole breast radiotherapy' (WBRT) is the standard of care after breast conserving surgery in women with breast cancer. Throughout different cancer stages the addition of WBRT leads to significantly improved rates of freedom from local failure and overall survival. WBRT is generally well tolerated. A 5-10%-rate of severe acute or long-term side effects is commonly observed. For both radiation-mediated tumor-cell-elimination and induction of side effects, DNA-double-strand-breaks (DSB) presumably play the decisive role. The intensity of normal tissue reactions in radiotherapy can, in part, be attributed to the intrinsic DSB repair-capacity. In this study in vivo and in vitro experiments are carried through in order to assess DSB repair-kinetics in blood lymphocytes of women with breast cancer. These findings are to be correlated with the degree of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity. Patients and Methods: Eighteen patients with breast cancer, in whom WBRT was indicated, were examined. A total WBRT dose of 50 Gy (single dose 2 Gy) with an additional boost-radiotherapy to the initial tumor-region to a total dose of 60-66 Gy was administered. DSB repair was determined by means of counting γ-H2AX foci in blood lymphocytes at predefined points in time, i.e. before and 0.5 h; 2.5 h; 5 h and 24 h after in vivo irradiation (1st fraction of WBRT) and before and 0.5 h; 2.5 h and 5 h after in vitro irradiation with increasing radiation doses in the range of 10 - 500 mGy. Acute normal tissue toxicity was scored on the basis of a modified RTOG-classification (main aspects were erythema and dry or moist skin desquamation). Results: DSB repair-halflife-times did not differ between patients with a higher or lower than average incidence of acute side effects. In patients with 'above average' side effects larger irradiation volumes were treated (volume surrounded by the 50%-isodose). Adjusted for these, no single patients showed elevated

  20. Determination of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks for the biological dose monitoring in cardiac computerized tomography; Bestimmung von strahleninduzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbruechen zum Monitoring der biologischen Dosis in der Herz-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Jasmin

    2013-11-12

    Background and aims: X-rays cause relevant DNA damage to cells. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be the most biologically significant radiation induced DNA-lesions. Recently a sensitive immunofluorescence microscopic method was developed to quantify x-ray induced DSBs as nuclear foci, even after doses as used in computed tomography. The method is based on the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX after formation of DSBs and distinct foci representing DSBs can be visualised. The number of foci correlates well with the delivered radiation dose. The importance of cardiac CT has increased during the last years. The radiation exposure of cardiac CT is rather high compared to other radiologic diagnostic procedures and techniques for dose-reduction receive increasing attention. In this context the purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the γ-H2AX-based method is able to measure x-ray induced DSBs in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Furthermore the objective was to evaluate whether CT-induced DSBs correlate with exposure parameters (dose length product, DLP) and to assess the influence of the scan protocols on the biological radiation damage. Materials and methods: 32 patients undergoing coronary CT angiography either using a 64-slice (n = 5: SOMATOM Sensation 64 {sup registered}) or a dual-source CT scanner (n = 27: SOMATOM Definition {sup registered}) were included in the study. Venous blood samples were taken before and 0.5 h, 2.5 h, and 24 h after the CT scan. Additional venous blood samples obtained before CT were irradiated in-vitro at various radiation doses (10 mGy, 50 mGy, 100 mGy) to obtain reference values of foci. Lymphocytes were separated and incubated with a specific γ-H2AX primary and a fluorescent secondary antibody. The number of γ-H2AX-foci was quantified using a fluorescence microscope. Every distinct focus represents one DNA-DSB. The number of radiation-induced DSBs was calculated by subtracting the foci number

  1. Phosphorylation: The Molecular Switch of Double-Strand Break Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Summers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair of double-stranded breaks (DSBs is vital to maintaining genomic stability. In mammalian cells, DSBs are resolved in one of the following complex repair pathways: nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ, homologous recombination (HR, or the inclusive DNA damage response (DDR. These repair pathways rely on factors that utilize reversible phosphorylation of proteins as molecular switches to regulate DNA repair. Many of these molecular switches overlap and play key roles in multiple pathways. For example, the NHEJ pathway and the DDR both utilize DNA-PK phosphorylation, whereas the HR pathway mediates repair with phosphorylation of RPA2, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Also, the DDR pathway utilizes the kinases ATM and ATR, as well as the phosphorylation of H2AX and MDC1. Together, these molecular switches regulate repair of DSBs by aiding in DSB recognition, pathway initiation, recruitment of repair factors, and the maintenance of repair mechanisms.

  2. Human DNA polymerase θ grasps the primer terminus to mediate DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Karl E; Averill, April M; Aller, Pierre; Wood, Richard D; Doublié, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    DNA polymerase θ protects against genomic instability via an alternative end-joining repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks. Polymerase θ is overexpressed in breast, lung and oral cancers, and reduction of its activity in mammalian cells increases sensitivity to double-strand break-inducing agents, including ionizing radiation. Reported here are crystal structures of the C-terminal polymerase domain from human polymerase θ, illustrating two potential modes of dimerization. One structure depicts insertion of ddATP opposite an abasic-site analog during translesion DNA synthesis. The second structure describes a cognate ddGTP complex. Polymerase θ uses a specialized thumb subdomain to establish unique upstream contacts to the primer DNA strand, including an interaction with the 3'-terminal phosphate from one of five distinctive insertion loops. These observations demonstrate how polymerase θ grasps the primer to bypass DNA lesions or extend poorly annealed DNA termini to mediate end-joining.

  3. Cytological studies of human meiosis: sex-specific differences in recombination originate at, or prior to, establishment of double-strand breaks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gruhn, Jennifer R; Rubio, Carmen; Broman, Karl W; Hunt, Patricia A; Hassold, Terry

    2013-01-01

    ... for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events...

  4. Cytological Studies of Human Meiosis: Sex-Specific Differences in Recombination Originate at, or Prior to, Establishment of Double-Strand Breaks: e85075

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer R Gruhn; Carmen Rubio; Karl W Broman; Patricia A Hunt; Terry Hassold

    2013-01-01

    ... for the male:female differences remains unclear. In the present study, we used cytological methodology to directly compare recombination levels between human males and females, and to examine possible sex-specific differences in upstream events...

  5. Numt-mediated double-strand break repair mitigates deletions during primate genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Hazkani-Covo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ is the major mechanism of double-strand break repair (DSBR in mammalian cells. NHEJ has traditionally been inferred from experimental systems involving induced double strand breaks (DSBs. Whether or not the spectrum of repair events observed in experimental NHEJ reflects the repair of natural breaks by NHEJ during chromosomal evolution is an unresolved issue. In primate phylogeny, nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, numts, are inserted into naturally occurring chromosomal breaks via NHEJ. Thus, numt integration sites harbor evidence for the mechanisms that act on the genome over evolutionary timescales. We have identified 35 and 55 lineage-specific numts in the human and chimpanzee genomes, respectively, using the rhesus monkey genome as an outgroup. One hundred and fifty two numt-chromosome fusion points were classified based on their repair patterns. Repair involving microhomology and repair leading to nucleotide additions were detected. These repair patterns are within the experimentally determined spectrum of classical NHEJ, suggesting that information from experimental systems is representative of broader genetic loci and end configurations. However, in incompatible DSBR events, small deletions always occur, whereas in 54% of numt integration events examined, no deletions were detected. Numts show a statistically significant reduction in deletion frequency, even in comparison to DSBR involving filler DNA. Therefore, numts show a unique mechanism of integration via NHEJ. Since the deletion frequency during numt insertion is low, native overhangs of chromosome breaks are preserved, allowing us to determine that 24% of the analyzed breaks are cohesive with overhangs of up to 11 bases. These data represent, to the best of our knowledge, the most comprehensive description of the structure of naturally occurring DSBs. We suggest a model in which the sealing of DSBs by numts, and probably by other filler

  6. Sub-micrometer 20MeV protons or 45MeV lithium spot irradiation enhances yields of dicentric chromosomes due to clustering of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T E; Friedland, W; Greubel, C; Girst, S; Reindl, J; Siebenwirth, C; Ilicic, K; Schmid, E; Multhoff, G; Schmitt, E; Kundrát, P; Dollinger, G

    2015-11-01

    In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, micrometer-scale double-strand break (DSB) clustering is inherently interlinked with clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale relevant for DSB induction. Due to this limitation, the role of the micrometer and nanometer scales in diverse biological endpoints cannot be fully separated. To address this issue, hybrid human-hamster AL cells have been irradiated with 45MeV (60keV/μm) lithium ions or 20MeV (2.6keV/μm) protons quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5×1μm(2) spots on regular matrix patterns (point distances up to 10.6×10.6μm), with pre-defined particle numbers per spot to provide the same mean dose of 1.7Gy. The yields of dicentrics and their distribution among cells have been scored. In parallel, track-structure based simulations of DSB induction and chromosome aberration formation with PARTRAC have been performed. The results show that the sub-micrometer beam focusing does not enhance DSB yields, but significantly affects the DSB distribution within the nucleus and increases the chance to form DSB pairs in close proximity, which may lead to increased yields of chromosome aberrations. Indeed, the experiments show that focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6μm grid induces two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a quasi-homogenous irradiation. The simulations reproduce the data in part, but in part suggest more complex behavior such as saturation or overkill not seen in the experiments. The direct experimental demonstration that sub-micrometer clustering of DSB plays a critical role in the induction of dicentrics improves the knowledge on the mechanisms by which these lethal lesions arise, and indicates how the assumptions of the biophysical model could be improved. It also provides a better understanding of the increased biological effectiveness of high-LET radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Directional Secretory Response of Double Stranded RNA-Induced Thymic Stromal Lymphopoetin (TSLP) and CCL11/Eotaxin-1 in Human Asthmatic Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Nino; Shehlanoor Huseni; Perez, Geovanny F.; Krishna Pancham; Humaira Mubeen; Aleeza Abbasi; Justin Wang; Stephen Eng; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M.; Pillai, Dinesh K; Mary C. Rose

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state. METHODS: Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from c...

  8. Human SIRT6 promotes DNA end resection through CtIP deacetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaidi, Abderrahmane; Weinert, Brian T; Choudhary, Chunaram

    2010-01-01

    SIRT6 belongs to the sirtuin family of protein lysine deacetylases, which regulate aging and genome stability. We found that human SIRT6 has a role in promoting DNA end resection, a crucial step in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. SIRT6 depletion impaired the accu...

  9. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP) and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Gustavo; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Perez, Geovanny F; Pancham, Krishna; Mubeen, Humaira; Abbasi, Aleeza; Wang, Justin; Eng, Stephen; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Pillai, Dinesh K; Rose, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from control (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate) or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC) from normal (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20) vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20). Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Our data demonstrate that: 1) Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2) TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical) secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3) Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1. There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  10. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nino

    Full Text Available Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state.Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC from control (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC from normal (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20 vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20. Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay.Our data demonstrate that: 1 Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2 TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3 Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1.There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  11. Signalling of double strand breaks and deprotected telomeres in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eAmiard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Failure to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB can lead to chromosomal rearrangements and eventually to cancer or cell death. Radiation and environmental pollutants induce DSB and this is of particular relevance to plants due to their sessile life style. DSB also occur naturally in cells during DNA replication and programmed induction of DSB initiates the meiotic recombination essential for gametogenesis in most eukaryotes. The linear nature of most eukaryotic chromosomes means that each chromosome has two "broken" ends. Chromosome ends, or telomeres, are protected by nucleoprotein caps which avoid their recognition as DSB by the cellular DNA repair machinery. Deprotected telomeres are recognized as DSB and become substrates for recombination leading to chromosome fusions, the "bridge-breakage-fusion" cycle, genome rearrangements and cell death. The importance of repair of DSB and the severity of the consequences of their misrepair have led to the presence of multiple, robust mechanisms for their detection and repair. After a brief overview of DSB repair pathways to set the context, we present here an update of current understanding of the detection and signalling of DSB in the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    The possible fates of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. One possible pathway which breaks can follow, the repair pathway, was studied by assaying strains with mutations in the RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double-strand break repair. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(23/sup 0/)> rad51-1(30/sup 0/)> rad54-3(36/sup 0/). At 36/sup 0/, rad54-3 cells cannot repair double-strand breaks, while 23/sup 0/, they can. Strains with the rad57-1 mutation can rejoin broken chromosomes at both temperatures. However, the low survival at 36/sup 0/ shows that the assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from those which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain could also rejoin broken chromosomes, and was thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypothesis that rad54-3 cells are blocked in an early step of repair, while rad51-1 and rad57-1 strains are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double-strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was investigated with the rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they become uncommitted lesions. These lesions are repaired slower than the original breaks. One possible fate for an uncommitted lesion is conversion into a fixed lesion, which is likely to be an unrepairable or misrepaired double-strand break. The presence of protein synthesis after irradiation increases the probability that a break will enter the repair pathway. Evidence shows that increased probability of repair results from enhanced synthesis of repair proteins shortly after radiation. (ERB)

  13. Double-strand break repair-adox: Restoration of suppressed double-strand break repair during mitosis induces genomic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Masahiro; Shinohara, Akira; Shinohara, Miki

    2014-12-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the severest types of DNA damage. Unrepaired DSBs easily induce cell death and chromosome aberrations. To maintain genomic stability, cells have checkpoint and DSB repair systems to respond to DNA damage throughout most of the cell cycle. The failure of this process often results in apoptosis or genomic instability, such as aneuploidy, deletion, or translocation. Therefore, DSB repair is essential for maintenance of genomic stability. During mitosis, however, cells seem to suppress the DNA damage response and proceed to the next G1 phase, even if there are unrepaired DSBs. The biological significance of this suppression is not known. In this review, we summarize recent studies of mitotic DSB repair and discuss the mechanisms of suppression of DSB repair during mitosis. DSB repair, which maintains genomic integrity in other phases of the cell cycle, is rather toxic to cells during mitosis, often resulting in chromosome missegregation and aberration. Cells have multiple safeguards to prevent genomic instability during mitosis: inhibition of 53BP1 or BRCA1 localization to DSB sites, which is important to promote non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination, respectively, and also modulation of the non-homologous end joining core complex to inhibit DSB repair. We discuss how DSBs during mitosis are toxic and the multiple safeguard systems that suppress genomic instability. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Signalization and repair of the DNA double-strand breaks of in the cerebral tumors: modulation of the radiation response with the chemotherapy treatments; Signalization et reparation des cassures double-brin de l'ADN dans les gliomes: modulation de la reponse aux traitements chimio-radiotherapeutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkova-Bencokova, Z

    2007-07-15

    There are about 6000 new cases of nervous system tumours each year in France. However, the current radio chemotherapeutic approaches against brain tumours remain still insufficient to produce a satisfactory therapeutic index. In parallel, the knowledge of the early radiobiological events has considerably progressed in the last few years. This thesis aims to provide new insights in the molecular and cellular response of brain tumours to radio chemotherapy. This thesis was divided into four stages. Stage 1: a novel DNA double-strand breaks repair pathway depending on the MRE11 protein but independent of the phosphorylation of H2AX emerged from the study of artefacts of the immunofluorescence technique and a systematic analysis of the radiosensitivity of human cells. Stage 2: the radiobiological features of 3 rodent models of glioma among the most used in preclinical trials and of 7 human glioma cell lines were investigated. Functional impairments of the BRCA1 protein in response to radiation and/or cisplatin were observed in the majority of the models tested, raising the question of the role of this protein in the anti-glioma treatments and in glioma genesis. Stage 3: in order to extend our approach to genetic syndromes associated with cerebral tumours predisposition, the radiobiological characteristics of the fibroblasts resulting from patients suffering from neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a pathology associated with a strong incidence of peripheral nervous system tumours, were investigated. NF1 appeared to be a syndrome with moderated radiosensitivity, associated with a weak deficiency of DNA end-joining repair but with a strong activity of MRE11. These results enabled us to propose a preliminary model involving both proteins BRCA1 and NF1. Stage 4: considering the role of BRCA1 in the inhibition of some tyrosine kinase activity and in the response to cisplatin, we tested the radiobiological effects of treatments combining radiation, cisplatin and tyrosine kinase

  15. Investigation of double strand breaks induced by alpha particle irradiation using C.N.B.G. microbeam in human keratinocytes; Mise en evidence de cassures double brin de l'ADN induites par irradiation de keratinocytes humains en microfaisceau alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthier, Th

    2006-12-15

    To understand the mechanisms of interaction of ionizing radiation with living tissues exposed to low and protracted doses remains a major issue for risk evaluation. The response cannot be found in epidemiological studies because the only available data concern accidental exposures to high doses of radiation. The natural exposure represents the main source of exposure in the daily life, just before the medical sources (radiology, radiotherapy). In addition, this kind of exposure is very difficult to reproduce in vitro by irradiating cell lines. The method per preference is based on random irradiation of cell populations. The mean number of particles having traversed cells is then calculated on the basis of Poisson statistics. In addition to inevitable multiple impacts, the numerous potential intracellular targets (nuclei, cytoplasm), the indirect effects induced by the impact of particles on neighbouring cells or simply the extracellular targets, constitute phenomena that make more complex the interpretation of experimental data. A charged particle microbeam was developed at C.E.N.B.G. to perform the targeted irradiation of individual cells with a targeting precision of a few microns. It is possible to deliver a counted number of alpha particles down to the ultimate dose of one alpha per cell, to target predetermined cells and then to observe the response of the neighbouring cells. This facility has been validated during this work on human keratinocyte cells expressing a recombinant nuclear fluorescent protein (histone H2B-GFP). The combination of ion micro-beams with confocal microscopy and numeric quantitative analysis allowed the measurement of DNA double strand breaks via the phosphorylation of the histone H2A.X in individual cells. The mechanisms of DNA reparation and apoptosis induction were also in the scope of those studies. The experimental results obtained during this thesis validate the methodology we have developed by demonstrating the targeting

  16. A new quasi-interpenetrating network formed by poly(N-acryloyl-tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and polyvinylpyrrolidone: separation matrix for double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA fragments by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Xu; Dai, Lixin

    2006-05-01

    The preparation of a new separation matrix, quasi-interpenetrating networks (quasi-IPNs) formed by poly(N-acryloyl-Tris) (poly(tris-A)) and PVP, and its application for dsDNA and ssDNA fragments separation by CE with UV detection, are presented. This new quasi-IPN exhibited high sieving performance, good dynamic coating ability, and low viscosity. Single-base resolutions of dsDNA fragments (Rs = 0.92 for 123/124 bp) and ssDNA fragments (Rs = 0.65 for 123/124 base, Rs = 0.48 for 309/310 base) were achieved by using the quasi-IPN of poly(tris-A)/PVP (2% + 2%) solution in a 31 cm effective length linear polyacrylamide (LPA)-coated column. Single-base separation of dsDNA fragments (Rs = 0.92 for 123/124 bp) was also obtained within 28 min in a 46.7 cm effective length bare column at higher 160 V/cm electric field strength by using the same quasi-IPN solution. The RSD of the migration time measured for each DNA fragments was less than 1.5% in the bare column for nine continuous runs. The effects of temperature and electric field strength on the DNA separation were also investigated.

  17. Colocalization of somatic and meiotic double strand breaks near the Myc oncogene on mouse chromosome 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siemon H; Maas, Sarah A; Petkov, Petko M; Mills, Kevin D; Paigen, Kenneth

    2009-10-01

    Both somatic and meiotic recombinations involve the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that occur at preferred locations in the genome. Improper repair of DSBs during either mitosis or meiosis can lead to mutations, chromosomal aberration such as translocations, cancer, and/or cell death. Currently, no model exists that explains the locations of either spontaneous somatic DSBs or programmed meiotic DSBs or relates them to each other. One common class of tumorigenic translocations arising from DSBs is chromosomal rearrangements near the Myc oncogene. Myc translocations have been associated with Burkitt lymphoma in humans, plasmacytoma in mice, and immunocytoma in rats. Comparing the locations of somatic and meiotic DSBs near the mouse Myc oncogene, we demonstrated that the placement of these DSBs is not random and that both events clustered in the same short discrete region of the genome. Our work shows that both somatic and meiotic DSBs tend to occur in proximity to each other within the Myc region, suggesting that they share common originating features. It is likely that some regions of the genome are more susceptible to both somatic and meiotic DSBs, and the locations of meiotic hotspots may be an indicator of genomic regions more susceptible to DNA damage. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Electrochemical study of ellipticine interaction with single and double stranded oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tmejova, Katerina; Krejcova, Ludmila; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Trnkova, Libuse; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Kizek, Rene

    2014-02-01

    Ellipticine (5,11-dimethyl-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole) is an alkaloid that has been isolated from plants of an Apocynaceae family. It is one of the simplest naturally occurring alkaloids with a planar structure. Over the past decades, ellipticine became a very promising antitumor agent. Interaction with DNA is one of the most studied ellipticine effects on cell division. This phenomenon is not clearly explained so far. In our experiments we studied interaction of ellipticine with single-stranded and double-stranded oligonucleotides by electrochemical methods on mercury electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was applied for ellipticine (Elli) and CA peak detection. Square wave voltammetry was applied for G peak detection. The effect of the interaction time and ellipticine concentrations on interactions of ellipticine with single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides was tested too.

  19. Meiotic versus Mitotic Recombination: Two Different Routes for Double-Strand Break Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sabrina L.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Summary Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have validated the major features of the double-strand break repair (DSBR) model as an accurate representation of the pathway through which meiotic crossovers are produced. This success has led to this model being invoked to explain double-strand break (DSB) repair in other contexts. However, most non-crossover recombinants generated during S. cerevisiae meiosis do not arise via a DSBR pathway. Furthermore, and it is becoming increasing clear that DSBR is a minor pathway for recombinational repair of DSBs that occur in mitotically proliferating cells; rather, the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model appears to describe mitotic DSB repair more accurately. Fundamental dissimilarities between meiotic and mitotic recombination are not unexpected, since meiotic recombination serves a very different purpose (accurate chromosome segregation, which requires crossovers) than mitotic recombination (repair of DNA damage, which typically generates non-crossovers). PMID:20967781

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA viruses in Philippine Trichomonas vaginalis isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Windell L.; Christine Aubrey C. Justo; Relucio-San Diego, Mary Ann Cielo V.; Loyola, Lorenz M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The flagellated protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis that parasitizes the urogenital tract of humans was reported to harbor double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. These viruses, identified as Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV), belong to the genus Trichomonasvirus of the family Totiviridae. Four species, formally recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), have been reported and distinguished by pairwise comparisons of the sequences of genes coding for...

  1. Distinct genetic control of homologous recombination repair of Cas9-induced double-strand breaks, nicks and paired nicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Lianne E. M.; Prakash, Rohit; Chen, Chun-Chin; Vanoli, Fabio; Cavallo, Francesca; Zhang, Yu; Jasin, Maria; Krawczyk, Przemek M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are known to be powerful inducers of homologous recombination (HR), but single-strand breaks (nicks) have also been shown to trigger HR. Both DSB- and nick-induced HR ((nick)HR) are exploited in advanced genome-engineering approaches based on the bacterial RNA-guided

  2. A robust network of double-strand break repair pathways governs genome integrity during C. elegans development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontier, D.B.; Tijsterman, M.

    2009-01-01

    To preserve genomic integrity, various mechanisms have evolved to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Depending on cell type or cell cycle phase, DSBs can be repaired error-free, by homologous recombination, or with concomitant loss of sequence information, via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)

  3. Febrile seizures: characterization of double-stranded RNA-induced gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuya; Matsuo, Muneaki; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Hamasaki, Yuhei

    2009-08-01

    An association has long been suspected between febrile seizures and interleukin-1beta, the most potent endogenous pyrogen. Interleukin-1beta production increases after double-stranded RNA stimulation in leukocytes of febrile seizure patients. To elucidate the genetics of the immune response, the gene expression pattern after double-stranded RNA stimulation was investigated using DNA microarray. Compared with the control group, expression of the genes ACCN4 (sodium channel), KCNC3 (potassium channel), GABRE (gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor epsilon subunit), RIPK2 (receptor interacting protein kinase-2), TLR4 (toll-like receptor-4), IL26 (interleukin-26), and TNF (tumor necrosis factor), and CASP1 (caspase-1) was increased in the febrile seizure group (P < 0.01). Because RIPK2 and CASP1 are associated with interleukin-1beta production, increased expression might cause increased interleukin-1beta production in the febrile seizure patients. The induced expression of several ion channel genes by double-stranded RNA may affect neuronal excitability which leads to seizure susceptibility during infection.

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA viruses in Philippine Trichomonas vaginalis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Justo, Christine Aubrey C; Relucio-San Diego, Mary Ann Cielo V; Loyola, Lorenz M

    2017-10-01

    The flagellated protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis that parasitizes the urogenital tract of humans was reported to harbor double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. These viruses, identified as Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV), belong to the genus Trichomonasvirus of the family Totiviridae. Four species, formally recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), have been reported and distinguished by pairwise comparisons of the sequences of genes coding for major capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify the complimentary DNA of target virus genes coding for CP and RdRp. Sequence analyses confirmed the identity of the TVV isolates from T. vaginalis cultures. A total of 35 dsRNA viruses were identified from 18 (19%) T. vaginalis isolates. Multiple TVV species were observed in six of the 18 T. vaginalis cultures. Phylogenetic analyses show monophyly in TVV1 and TVV2 whereas TVV3 and TVV4 appear paraphyletic. The phylogeny of Philippine Trichomonasvirus reflects the global distribution of its host. This is the first study in the Philippines and one of the two reports worldwide to detect the four TVVs and their concurrent infection in a single T. vaginalis isolate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. OsRAD51C Is Essential for Double Strand Break Repair in Rice Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding eTang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RAD51C is one of the RAD51 paralogs that plays an important role in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination. Here, we identified and characterized OsRAD51C, the rice homolog of human RAD51C. The Osrad51c mutant plant is normal in vegetative growth but exhibits complete male and female sterility. Cytological investigation revealed that homologous pairing and synapsis were severely disrupted. Massive chromosome fragmentation occurred during metaphase I in Osrad51c meiocytes, and was fully suppressed by the CRC1 mutation. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that OsRAD51C localized onto the chromosomes from leptotene to early pachytene during prophase I, and that normal loading of OsRAD51C was dependent on OsREC8, PAIR2, and PAIR3. Additionally, ZEP1 did not localize properly in Osrad51c, indicating that OsRAD51C is required for synaptonemal complex assembly. Our study also provided evidence in support of a functional divergence in RAD51C among organisms.

  6. Structural characterization of interactions between the double-stranded RNA-binding zinc finger protein JAZ and nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Russell G; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2014-03-11

    The interactions of the human double-stranded RNA-binding zinc finger protein JAZ with RNA or DNA were investigated using electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, isothermal calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Consistent with previous reports, JAZ has very low affinity for duplex DNA or single-stranded RNA, but it binds preferentially to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with no detectable sequence specificity. The affinity of JAZ for dsRNA is unaffected by local structural features such as loops, overhangs, and bulges, provided a sufficient length of reasonably well-structured A-form RNA (about 18 bp for a single zinc finger) is present. Full-length JAZ contains four Cys2His2 zinc fingers (ZF1-4) and has the highest apparent affinity for dsRNA; two-finger constructs ZF12 and ZF23 have lower affinity, and ZF34 binds even more weakly. The fourth zinc finger, ZF4, has no measurable RNA-binding affinity. Single zinc finger constructs ZF1, ZF2, and ZF3 show evidence for multiple-site binding on the minimal RNA. Fitting of quantitative NMR titration and isothermal calorimetry data to a two-site binding model gave Kd1 ∼ 10 μM and Kd2 ∼ 100 μM. Models of JAZ-RNA complexes were generated using the high-ambiguity-driven biomolecular docking (HADDOCK) program. Single zinc fingers bind to the RNA backbone without sequence specificity, forming complexes with contacts between the RNA minor groove and residues in the N-terminal β strands and between the major groove and residues in the helix-kink-helix motif. We propose that the non-sequence-specific interaction between the zinc fingers of JAZ with dsRNA is dependent only on the overall shape of the A-form RNA.

  7. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  8. Human exonuclease 1 and BLM helicase interact to resect DNA and initiate DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimonkar, Amitabh V.; Özsoy, A. Zeynep; Genschel, Jochen; Modrich, Paul; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The error-free repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination requires processing of broken ends. These processed ends are substrates for assembly of DNA strand exchange proteins that mediate DNA strand invasion. Here, we establish that human BLM helicase, a member of the RecQ family, stimulates the nucleolytic activity of human exonuclease 1 (hExo1), a 5′→3′ double-stranded DNA exonuclease. The stimulation is specific because other RecQ homologs fail to stimulate hExo1. Stimulation of DNA resection by hExo1 is independent of BLM helicase activity and is, instead, mediated by an interaction between the 2 proteins. Finally, we show that DNA ends resected by hExo1 and BLM are used by human Rad51, but not its yeast or bacterial counterparts, to promote homologous DNA pairing. This in vitro system recapitulates initial steps of homologous recombination and provides biochemical evidence for a role of BLM and Exo1 in the initiation of recombinational DNA repair. PMID:18971343

  9. Estimated yield of double-strand breaks from internal exposure to tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing [Health Canada, Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    Internal exposure to tritium may result in DNA lesions. Of those, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are believed to be important. However, experimental and computational data of DSBs induction by tritium are very limited. In this study, microdosimetric characteristics of uniformly distributed tritium were determined in dimensions of critical significance in DNA DSBs. Those characteristics were used to identify other particles comparable to tritium in terms of microscopic energy deposition. The yield of DSBs could be strongly dependent on biological systems and cellular environments. After reviewing theoretically predicted and experimentally determined DSB yields available in the literature for low-energy electrons and high-energy protons of comparable microdosimetric characteristics to tritium in the dimensions relevant to DSBs, it is estimated that the average DSB yields of 2.7 x 10{sup -11}, 0.93 x 10{sup -11}, 2.4 x 10{sup -11} and 1.6 x 10{sup -11} DSBs Gy{sup -1} Da{sup -1} could be reasonable estimates for tritium in plasmid DNAs, yeast cells, Chinese hamster V79 cells and human fibroblasts, respectively. If a biological system is not specified, the DSB yield from tritium exposure can be estimated as (2.3 ± 0.7) x 10{sup -11} DSBs Gy{sup -1} Da{sup -1}, which is a simple average over experimentally determined yields of DSBs for low-energy electrons in various biological systems without considerations of variations caused by different techniques used and obvious differences among different biological systems where the DSB yield was measured. (orig.)

  10. Estimated yield of double-strand breaks from internal exposure to tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Internal exposure to tritium may result in DNA lesions. Of those, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are believed to be important. However, experimental and computational data of DSBs induction by tritium are very limited. In this study, microdosimetric characteristics of uniformly distributed tritium were determined in dimensions of critical significance in DNA DSBs. Those characteristics were used to identify other particles comparable to tritium in terms of microscopic energy deposition. The yield of DSBs could be strongly dependent on biological systems and cellular environments. After reviewing theoretically predicted and experimentally determined DSB yields available in the literature for low-energy electrons and high-energy protons of comparable microdosimetric characteristics to tritium in the dimensions relevant to DSBs, it is estimated that the average DSB yields of 2.7 × 10(-11), 0.93 × 10(-11), 2.4 × 10(-11) and 1.6 × 10(-11) DSBs Gy(-1) Da(-1) could be reasonable estimates for tritium in plasmid DNAs, yeast cells, Chinese hamster V79 cells and human fibroblasts, respectively. If a biological system is not specified, the DSB yield from tritium exposure can be estimated as (2.3 ± 0.7) × 10(-11) DSBs Gy(-1) Da(-1), which is a simple average over experimentally determined yields of DSBs for low-energy electrons in various biological systems without considerations of variations caused by different techniques used and obvious differences among different biological systems where the DSB yield was measured.

  11. Characteristics of replication-independent endogenous double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpanich, Monnat; Patchsung, Maturada; Thongsroy, Jirapan; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2014-09-01

    Replication-independent endogenous double-strand breaks (RIND-EDSBs) occur in both humans and yeast in the absence of inductive agents and DNA replication. In human cells, RIND-EDSBs are hypermethylated, preferentially retained in the heterochromatin and unbound by γ-H2AX. In single gene deletion yeast strains, the RIND-EDSB levels are altered; the number of RIND-EDSBs is higher in strains with deletions of histone deacetylase, endonucleases, topoisomerase, or DNA repair regulators, but lower in strains with deletions of the high-mobility group box proteins or Sir2. In summary, RIND-EDSBs are different from pathologic DSBs in terms of their causes and consequences. In this study, we identified the nucleotide sequences surrounding RIND-EDSBs and investigated the features of these sequences as well as their break locations. In recent work, we detected RIND-EDSBs using ligation mediated PCR. In this study, we sequenced RIND-EDSB PCR products of resting state Saccharomyces cerevisiae using next-generation sequencing to analyze RIND-EDSB sequences. We found that the break locations are scattered across a number of chromosomes. The number of breaks correlated with the size of the chromosomes. Most importantly, the break occurrences had sequence pattern specificity. Specifically, the majority of the breaks occurred immediately after the sequence "ACGT" (P = 2.2E-156). Because the "ACGT" sequence does not occur primarily in the yeast genome, this specificity of the "ACGT" sequence cannot be attributed to chance. RIND-EDSBs occur non-randomly; that is, they are produced and retained by specific mechanisms. Because these particular mechanisms regulate their generation and they possess potentially specific functions, RIND-EDSBs could be epigenetic marks.

  12. Human Rap1 modulates TRF2 attraction to telomeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoušková, Eliška; Nečasová, Ivona; Pavloušková, Jana; Zimmermann, Michal; Hluchý, Milan; Marini, Victoria; Nováková, Monika; Hofr, Ctirad

    2015-03-11

    More than two decades of genetic research have identified and assigned main biological functions of shelterin proteins that safeguard telomeres. However, a molecular mechanism of how each protein subunit contributes to the protecting function of the whole shelterin complex remains elusive. Human Repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1) forms a multifunctional complex with Telomeric Repeat binding Factor 2 (TRF2). Rap1-TRF2 complex is a critical part of shelterin as it suppresses homology-directed repair in Ku 70/80 heterodimer absence. To understand how Rap1 affects key functions of TRF2, we investigated full-length Rap1 binding to TRF2 and Rap1-TRF2 complex interactions with double-stranded DNA by quantitative biochemical approaches. We observed that Rap1 reduces the overall DNA duplex binding affinity of TRF2 but increases the selectivity of TRF2 to telomeric DNA. Additionally, we observed that Rap1 induces a partial release of TRF2 from DNA duplex. The improved TRF2 selectivity to telomeric DNA is caused by less pronounced electrostatic attractions between TRF2 and DNA in Rap1 presence. Thus, Rap1 prompts more accurate and selective TRF2 recognition of telomeric DNA and TRF2 localization on single/double-strand DNA junctions. These quantitative functional studies contribute to the understanding of the selective recognition of telomeric DNA by the whole shelterin complex. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. SAW1 is Required for SDSA Double-Strand Break Repair in S. cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Diamante, Graciel; Phan, Claire; Celis, Angie S.; Krueger, Jonas; Kelson, Eric P.; Fischhaber, Paula L.

    2014-01-01

    SAW1 , coding for Saw1, is required for single-strand annealing (SSA) DNA Double-strand Break (DSB) Repair in S. cerevisiae. Saw1 physically associates with Rad1 and Rad52 and recruits the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease. Herein we show by fluorescence microscopy that SAW1 is similarly required for recruitment of Rad10 to sites of Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing (SDSA) and associates with sites of SDSA repair in a manner temporally overlapped with Rad10. The magnitude of induction of colocalized...

  14. Differential usage of alternative pathways of double-strand break repair in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine R; Flores, Carlos C; Engels, William R

    2006-02-01

    Double-strand DNA breaks can be repaired by any of several alternative mechanisms that differ greatly in the nature of the final repaired products. We used a reporter construct, designated "Repair reporter 3" (Rr3), to measure the relative usage of these pathways in Drosophila germ cells. The method works by creating a double-strand break at a specific location such that expression of the red fluorescent protein, DsRed, in the next generation can be used to infer the frequency at which each pathway was used. A key feature of this approach is that most data come from phenotypic scoring, thus allowing large sample sizes and considerable precision in measurements. Specifically, we measured the proportion of breaks repaired by (1) conversion repair, (2) nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), or (3) single-strand annealing (SSA). For conversion repair, the frequency of mitotic crossing over in the germ line indicates the relative prevalence of repair by double Holliday junction (DHJ) formation vs. the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway. We used this method to show that breaks occurring early in germ-line development were much more frequently repaired via single-strand annealing and much less likely to be repaired by end joining compared with identical breaks occurring later in development. Conversion repair was relatively rare when breaks were made either very early or very late in development, but was much more frequent in between. Significantly, the changes in relative usage occurred in a compensatory fashion, such that an increase in one pathway was accompanied by decreases in others. This negative correlation is interpreted to mean that the pathways for double-strand break repair compete with each other to handle a given breakage event.

  15. Studies on the interaction of the food colorant tartrazine with double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2016-05-01

    Interaction of the food additive tartrazine with double-stranded DNA was studied by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques. Absorbance studies revealed that tartrazine exhibited hypochromism in the presence of DNA without any bathochromic effects. Minor groove displacement assay of DAPI and Hoechst 33258 suggested that tartrazine binds in the minor groove of DNA. The complexation was predominantly entropy driven with a smaller but favorable enthalpic contribution to the standard molar Gibbs energy. The equilibrium constant was evaluated to be (3.68 ± .08) × 10(4) M(-1) at 298.15 K. The negative standard molar heat capacity value along with an enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon proposed the involvement of dominant hydrophobic forces in the binding process. Tartrazine enhanced the thermal stability of DNA by 7.53 K under saturation conditions.

  16. Biotinylation of Deoxyguanosine at the Abasic Site in Double-Stranded Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotinylation of deoxyguanosine at an abasic site in double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides was studied. The biotinylation of deoxyguanosine is achieved by copper-catalyzed click reaction after the conjugation of the oligodeoxynucleotide with 2-oxohex-5-ynal. The biotinylation enables visualization of the biotinylated oligodeoxynucleotides by chemiluminescence on a nylon membrane. In order to investigate the biotinylated site, the biotinylated oligodeoxynucleotides were amplified by the DNA polymerase chain reaction. Replacement of guanine opposing the abasic site with adenine generated by the activity of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase of DNA polymerase was detected by DNA sequencing analysis and restriction endonuclease digestion. This study suggests that 2-oxohex-5-ynal may be useful for the detection of the unpaired deoxyguanosine endogenously generated at abasic sites in genomic DNA.

  17. Evidence for multiple cycles of strand invasion during repair of double-strand gaps in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mitch; Adams, Melissa; Staeva-Vieira, Eric; Sekelsky, Jeff J

    2004-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), a major source of genome instability, are often repaired through homologous recombination pathways. Models for these pathways have been proposed, but the precise mechanisms and the rules governing their use remain unclear. In Drosophila, the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model can explain most DSB repair. To investigate SDSA, we induced DSBs by excision of a P element from the male X chromosome, which produces a 14-kb gap relative to the sister chromatid. In wild-type males, repair synthesis tracts are usually long, resulting in frequent restoration of the P element. However, repair synthesis is often incomplete, resulting in internally deleted P elements. We examined the effects of mutations in spn-A, which encodes the Drosophila Rad51 ortholog. As expected, there is little or no repair synthesis in homozygous spn-A mutants after P excision. However, heterozygosity for spn-A mutations also resulted in dramatic reductions in the lengths of repair synthesis tracts. These findings support a model in which repair DNA synthesis is not highly processive. We discuss a model wherein repair of a double-strand gap requires multiple cycles of strand invasion, synthesis, and dissociation of the nascent strand. After dissociation, the nascent strand may anneal to a complementary single strand, reinvade a template to be extended by additional synthesis, or undergo end joining. This model can explain aborted SDSA repair events and the prevalence of internally deleted transposable elements in genomes.

  18. Role of the semi-quinone free radical of the anti-tumour agent etoposide (VP-16-213) in the inactivation of single- and double-stranded phi X174 DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mans, D. R.; Ret?l, J.; van Maanen, J M; Lafleur, M. V.; van Schaik, M. A.; Pinedo, H M; Lankelma, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the anti-tumour agent etoposide (VP-16-213) could involve its bioactivation to metabolites which can damage DNA. Active metabolites of etoposide, generated in vitro, are the 3',4'-dihydroxy-derivative (catechol) and its oxidation product, the ortho-quinone. The conversion of the catechol into the ortho-quinone (and vice versa) proceeds via formation of a semi-quinone free radical. We investigated the role of this radical species in the inactivation of biologically a...

  19. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chen, D.S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  20. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chen, D.S. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  1. Probing Enhanced Double-Strand Break Formation at Abasic Sites within Clustered Lesions in Nucleosome Core Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samya; Chakraborty, Supratim; Jacinto, Marco Paolo; Paul, Michael D; Balster, Morgan V; Greenberg, Marc M

    2017-01-10

    DNA is rapidly cleaved under mild alkaline conditions at apyrimidinic/apurinic sites, but the half-life is several weeks in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5). However, abasic sites are ∼100-fold more reactive within nucleosome core particles (NCPs). Histone proteins catalyze the strand scission, and at superhelical location 1.5, the histone H4 tail is largely responsible for the accelerated cleavage. The rate constant for strand scission at an abasic site is enhanced further in a nucleosome core particle when it is part of a bistranded lesion containing a proximal strand break. Cleavage of this form results in a highly deleterious double-strand break. This acceleration is dependent upon the position of the abasic lesion in the NCP and its structure. The enhancement in cleavage rate at an apurinic/apyrimidinic site rapidly drops off as the distance between the strand break and abasic site increases and is negligible once the two forms of damage are separated by 7 bp. However, the enhancement of the rate of double-strand break formation increases when the size of the gap is increased from one to two nucleotides. In contrast, the cleavage rate enhancement at 2-deoxyribonolactone within bistranded lesions is more modest, and it is similar in free DNA and nucleosome core particles. We postulate that the enhanced rate of double-strand break formation at bistranded lesions containing apurinic/apyrimidinic sites within nucleosome core particles is a general phenomenon and is due to increased DNA flexibility.

  2. Phosphate-methylated DNA aimed at HIV-1 RNA loops and integrated DNA inhibits viral infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, H. M.; Koole, L. H.; van Genderen, M. H.; Smit, L.; Geelen, J. L.; Jurriaans, S.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphate-methylated DNA hybridizes strongly and specifically to natural DNA and RNA. Hybridization to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA leads to site-selective blocking of replication and transcription. Phosphate-methylated DNA was used to interrupt the life cycle of the human

  3. Establishment of a semi-biological phantom model for the study of the effect of dose reducing measures on radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in CT using the example of risk organ based tube current modulation; Etablierung eines semibiologischen Phantommodells zur Untersuchung des Effekts dosisreduzierender Massnahmen auf strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der CT am Beispiel der risikoorganbasierten Roehrenstrommodulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Matthias

    2013-12-12

    The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations has been rising during the last decades. Therefore techniques for dose reduction receive increasing attention. Risk organ-based tube current modulation (RCM) in CT is a new approach and works by lowering the tube current, while the tube is in front of the patient's body. Therefore it should lead to a dose reduction for radiosensitive organs like the female breast, the eye lenses and the thyroid gland. Biological radiation effects cannot be estimated by physical-based dose measurements. γ-H2AX is a sensitive marker for the determination of x-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Hence the aim of this study was to establish a biological phantom model based on the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy method and to investigate the effect of RCM on radiation induced DNA damages. The γ-H2AX method is based on the phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX. The phosphorylated histone γ-H2AX can be visualised using antibodies and is specific for radiation induced DSB. Blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers, skin fibroblasts (LN) and mammary epithelial cells (HMEpC-p) were placed in different positions of an Alderson-phantom and exposed to x-rays using a 128-slice dual-source CT scanner. Standard head, neck and chest-CT scan protocols either with or without risk-organ based tube current modulation were used. RCM reduces the tube current to 20 percent at an angle of 130 degree anterior to the body, whereas tube current is increased at an angle of 230 degree posterior to the body. Afterwards cells were isolated, fixed on slides und stained with specific primary γ-H2AX antibodies and fluorescent secondary antibodies. Tiny green dots (named foci) can be detected and quantified with a fluorescence microscope and represent distinct DSB. Non-irradiated samples served as controls and CT-induced DSB were calculated by subtraction of pre- from post-exposure values. In this study a semibiological phantom model

  4. Double-strand break induction and DNA damage response after {sup 12}C ion and photon radiation in U87 glioblastoma cells; Doppelstrangbruch-Induktion und DNA-Schadensantwort nach {sup 12}C-Ionen- und Photonenstrahlung in U87 Glioblastomzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Perez, Ramon

    2015-04-22

    Heavy ion radiation has greater biological effectiveness than the same physical dose of photon radiation. In this work the underlying reasons in the DNA damage response were analyzed in U87 glioblastoma cells. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the decicive lesions for the effectiveness of ionizing radiation. Their induction and repair was measured in the context of the cell cycle based on the DSB marker γH2AX (the phosphorylated form of the histone variant H2AX). Further, radiation-specific differences in choice of the DSB repair pathway was analyzed, as well as the consequences of repair failure. The results showed that in contrast to photons, {sup 12}C ion radiation produces more severe DSBs that are repaired delayed and with slower kinetics. Accordingly, stronger and longer lasting cell cycle delays, predominantly at the G2/M border, and a higher rate of apoptosis was detected for {sup 12}C ion radiation. Autophagy, an alternative mechanism of programmed cell death, was not relevant for neither of the two types of radiation. The effect of {sup 12}C ion radiation was less dependent on the cell cycle stage than for photon radiation. This became particularly evident in the DSB repair velocities during S- and G2-phase. After {sup 12}C ion radiation, cells were more dependent on homologous recombination repair (HRR) compared to photon radiation. The reason therefore that in contrast to photons, {sup 12}C ion radiation induced graver DSBs that were repaired slower and more dependent on HRR, was most probably enhanced clustering of DSBs due to the higher ionization density of {sup 12}C ion radiation. Microscopic inspection of immunofluorently stained γH2AX revealed that {sup 12}C ion radiation induced bigger DSB repair foci containing more γH2AX molecules (higher fluorescence intensity), although their initial number was smaller. Besides the foci, a weaker pan-nuclear γH2AX staining was observed that increased in a dose-dependent manner and was more pronounced

  5. Co-Localization of Somatic and Meiotic Double Strand Breaks Near the Myc Oncogene on Mouse Chromosome 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siemon H.; Maas, Sarah A.; Petkov, Petko M.; Mills, Kevin D.; Paigen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Both somatic and meiotic recombinations involve the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that occur at preferred locations in the genome. Improper repair of DSBs during either mitosis or meiosis can lead to mutations, chromosomal aberration such as translocations, cancer and/or cell death. Currently, no model exists that explains the locations of either spontaneous somatic DSBs or programmed meiotic DSBs or relates them to each other. One common class of tumorigenic translocations arising from DSBs is chromosomal rearrangements near the Myc oncogene. Myc translocations have been associated with Burkitt lymphoma in humans, plasmacytoma in mice and immunocytoma in rats. Comparing the locations of somatic and meiotic DSBs near the mouse Myc oncogene, we demonstrated that the placement of these DSBs is not random and that both events clustered in the same short discrete region of the genome. Our work shows that both somatic and meiotic DSBs tend to occur in proximity to each other within the Myc region, suggesting that they share common originating features. It is likely that some regions of the genome are more susceptible to both somatic and meiotic DSBs, and the locations of meiotic hotspots may be an indicator of genomic regions more susceptible to DNA damage. PMID:19603522

  6. Mouse BAZ1A (ACF1 is dispensable for double-strand break repair but is essential for averting improper gene expression during spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Dowdle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers control DNA access for transcription, recombination, and other processes. Acf1 (also known as BAZ1A in mammals is a defining subunit of the conserved ISWI-family chromatin remodelers ACF and CHRAC, first purified over 15 years ago from Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Much is known about biochemical properties of ACF and CHRAC, which move nucleosomes in vitro and in vivo to establish ordered chromatin arrays. Genetic studies in yeast, flies and cultured human cells clearly implicate these complexes in transcriptional repression via control of chromatin structures. RNAi experiments in transformed mammalian cells in culture also implicate ACF and CHRAC in DNA damage checkpoints and double-strand break repair. However, their essential in vivo roles in mammals are unknown. Here, we show that Baz1a-knockout mice are viable and able to repair developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks in the immune system and germ line, I-SceI endonuclease-induced breaks in primary fibroblasts via homologous recombination, and DNA damage from mitomycin C exposure in vivo. However, Baz1a deficiency causes male-specific sterility in accord with its high expression in male germ cells, where it displays dynamic, stage-specific patterns of chromosomal localization. Sterility is caused by pronounced defects in sperm development, most likely a consequence of massively perturbed gene expression in spermatocytes and round spermatids in the absence of BAZ1A: the normal spermiogenic transcription program is largely intact but more than 900 other genes are mis-regulated, primarily reflecting inappropriate up-regulation. We propose that large-scale changes in chromatin composition that occur during spermatogenesis create a window of vulnerability to promiscuous transcription changes, with an essential function of ACF and/or CHRAC chromatin remodeling activities being to safeguard against these alterations.

  7. Facile synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Double-stranded DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation of the interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and biomolecules is very crucialfor the development of biomedical applications based on GO. This study reports the first observation of thespontaneous formation of self-assembled liquid crystals and three-dimensional hydrogels of graphene oxidewith ...

  8. Formation and rejoining of deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand breaks induced in isolated cell nuclei by antineoplastic intercalating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Y; Schwartz, R E; Kohn, K W; Zwelling, L A

    1984-07-03

    The biochemical characteristics of the formation and disappearance of intercalator-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were studied in nuclei from mouse leukemia L1210 cells by using filter elution methodology [Bradley, M. O., & Kohn, K.W. (1979) Nucleic Acids Res. 7, 793-804]. The three intercalators used were 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA), 5-iminodaunorubicin (5-ID), and ellipticine. These compounds differ in that they produced predominantly DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) (m-AMSA) or predominantly DNA double-strand breaks (ellipticine) or a mixture of both SSB and DSB (5-ID) in whole cells. In isolated nuclei, each intercalator produced DSB at a frequency comparable to that which is produced in whole cells. Moreover, these DNA breaks reversed within 30 min after drug removal. It thus appeared that neither ATP nor other nucleotides were necessary for intercalator-dependent DNA nicking-closing reactions. The formation of the intercalator-induced DSB was reduced at ice temperature. Break formation was also reduced in the absence of magnesium, at a pH above 6.4 and at NaCl concentrations above 200 mM. In the presence of ATP and ATP analogues, the intercalator-induced cleavage was enhanced. These results suggest that the intercalator-induced DSB are enzymatically mediated and that the enzymes involved in these reactions can catalyze DNA double-strand cleavage and rejoining in the absence of ATP, although the occupancy of an ATP binding site might convert the enzyme to a form more reactive to intercalators. Three inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II--novobiocin, nalidixic acid, and norfloxacin--reduced the formation of DNA strand breaks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Repair Pathway Choices and Consequences at the Double-Strand Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Raphael; Rondinelli, Beatrice; D’Andrea, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic lesions that threaten genomic integrity. Failure to repair a DSB has deleterious consequences, including genomic instability and cell death. Indeed, misrepair of DSBs can lead to inappropriate end-joining events, which commonly underlie oncogenic transformation due to chromosomal translocations. Typically, cells employ two main mechanisms to repair DSBs: homologous recombination (HR) and classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ). In addition, alternative error-prone DSB repair pathways, namely alternative end joining (alt-EJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA), have been recently shown to operate in many different conditions and to contribute to genome rearrangements and oncogenic transformation. Here, we review the mechanisms regulating DSB repair pathway choice, together with the potential interconnections between HR and the annealing-dependent error-prone DSB repair pathways. PMID:26437586

  10. Denaturation strategies for detection of double stranded PCR products on GMR magnetic biosensor array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Guldberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays and other surface-based nucleic acid detection schemes rely on the hybridization of the target to surface-bound detection probes. We present the first comparison of two strategies to detect DNA using a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor platform starting from an initially double......-time binding signals. The first strategy, using off-chip heat denaturation followed by sequential on-chip incubation of the nucleic acids and MNPs, produces a signal that stabilizes quickly but the signal magnitude is reduced due to competitive rehybridization of the target in solution. The second strategy......, using magnetic capture of the double-stranded product followed by denaturing, produces a higher signal but the signal increase is limited by diffusion of the MNPs. Our results show that both strategies give highly reproducible results but that the signal obtained using magnetic capture is higher...

  11. The extreme radiosensitivity of the squamous cell carcinoma SKX is due to a defect in double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Menegakis, Apostolos; Brammer, Ingo; Borgmann, Kerstin; Mansour, Wael Y; Degenhardt, Sarah; Krause, Mechthild; Schreiber, Andreas; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Baumann, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are characterized by moderate radiosensitivity. We have established the human head & neck SCC cell line SKX, which shows an exceptionally high radiosensitivity. It was the aim of this study to understand the underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed with SKX and FaDu, the latter taken as a control of moderate radiosensitivity. Cell lines were grown as xenografts as well as cell cultures. For xenografts, radiosensitivity was determined via local tumour control assay, and for cell cultures using colony assay. For cell cultures, apoptosis was determined by Annexin V staining and G1-arrest by BrdU labelling. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) were detected by both constant-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) and gammaH2AX-foci technique; DSB rejoining was also assessed by in vitro rejoining assay; chromosomal damage was determined by G01-assay. Compared to FaDu, SKX cells are extremely radiosensitive as found for both xenografts (TCD(50) for 10 fractions 46.0Gy [95% C.I.: 39; 54 Gy] vs. 18.9 Gy [95% C.I.: 13; 25Gy]) and cell cultures (D(0.01); 7.1 vs. 3.5Gy). Both cell lines showed neither radiation-induced apoptosis nor radiation-induced permanent G1-arrest. For DSBs, there was no difference in the induction but for repair with SKX cells showing a higher level of both, slowly repaired DSBs and residual DSBs. The in vitro DSB repair assay revealed that SKX cells are defective in nonhomologous endjoining (NHEJ), and that more than 40% of DSBs are rejoined by single-strand annealing (SSA). SKX cells also depicted a two-fold higher number of lethal chromosomal aberrations when compared to FaDu cells. The extreme radiosensitivity of the SCC SKX seen both in vivo and in vitro can be ascribed to a reduced DNA double-strand break repair, resulting from a defect in NHEJ. This defect might be due to preferred usage of other pathways, such as SSA, which prevents efficient endjoining.

  12. TLR3 and Rig-Like Receptor on Myeloid Dendritic Cells and Rig-Like Receptor on Human NK Cells Are Both Mandatory for Production of IFN-γ in Response to Double-Stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Ivan; Deauvieau, Florence; Massacrier, Catherine; Hughes, Nicola; Garrone, Pierre; Durand, Isabelle; Demaria, Olivier; Viaud, Nicolas; Gauthier, Laurent; Blery, Mathieu; Bonnefoy-Berard, Nathalie; Morel, Yannis; Tschopp, Jurg; Alexopoulou, Lena; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Paturel, Carine; Caux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Cross-talk between NK cells and dendritic cells (DCs) is critical for the potent therapeutic response to dsRNA, but the receptors involved remained controversial. We show in this paper that two dsRNAs, polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], similarly engaged human TLR3, whereas only poly(I:C) triggered human RIG-I and MDA5. Both dsRNA enhanced NK cell activation within PBMCs but only poly(I:C) induced IFN-γ. Although myeloid DCs (mDCs) were required for NK cell activation, induction of cytolytic potential and IFN-γ production did not require contact with mDCs but was dependent on type I IFN and IL-12, respectively. Poly(I:C) but not polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid synergized with mDC-derived IL-12 for IFN-γ production by acting directly on NK cells. Finally, the requirement of both TLR3 and Rig-like receptor (RLR) on mDCs and RLRs but not TLR3 on NK cells for IFN-γ production was demonstrated using TLR3- and Cardif-deficient mice and human RIG-I–specific activator. Thus, we report the requirement of cotriggering TLR3 and RLR on mDCs and RLRs on NK cells for a pathogen product to induce potent innate cell activation. PMID:20639488

  13. [Diverse double-stranded RNA viruses infecting fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Sotaro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most of reported fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes. This may reflect the simple, easy method for mycovirus hunting that entails detection of dsRNAs as a sign of viral infections. There are an increasing number of screens of various fungi, particularly phytopathogenic fungi for viruses pathogenic to host fungi or able to confer hypovirulence to them. This bases on an attractive research field of biological control of fungal plant diseases using viruses (virocontrol), mainly targeting important phytopathogenic fungi. While isolated viruses usually induce asymptomatic symptoms, they show a considerably high level of diversity. As of 2014, fungal dsRNA viruses are classified into six families: Reoviridae, Totiviridae, Chrysoviridae, Partitiviridae, Megabirnaviridae and Quadriviridae. These exclude unassigned mycoviruses which will definitely be placed into distinct families and/or genera. In this review article, dsRNA viruses isolated from the kingdom Fungi including as-yet-unclassified taxa are overviewed. Some recent achievements in the related field are briefly introduced as well.

  14. Library construction for ancient genomics: single strand or double strand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Lizzo, Giulia; Daligault, Julien; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    A novel method of library construction that takes advantage of a single-stranded DNA ligase has been recently described and used to generate high-resolution genomes from ancient DNA samples. While this method is effective and appears to recover a greater fraction of endogenous ancient material, there has been no direct comparison of results from different library construction methods on a diversity of ancient DNA samples. In addition, the single-stranded method is limited by high cost and lengthy preparation time and is restricted to the Illumina sequencing platform. Here we present in-depth comparisons of the different available library construction methods for DNA purified from 16 ancient and modern faunal and human remains, covering a range of different taphonomic and climatic conditions. We further present a DNA purification method for ancient samples that permits the concentration of a large volume of dissolved extract with minimal manipulation and methodological improvements to the single-stranded method to render it more economical and versatile, in particular to expand its use to both the Illumina and the Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. We show that the single-stranded library construction method improves the relative recovery of endogenous to exogenous DNA for most, but not all, of our ancient extracts.

  15. Human RAD52 Captures and Holds DNA Strands, Increases DNA Flexibility, and Prevents Melting of Duplex DNA: Implications for DNA Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Brouwer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human RAD52 promotes annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. In-depth knowledge of RAD52-DNA interaction is required to understand how its activity is integrated in DNA repair processes. Here, we visualize individual fluorescent RAD52 complexes interacting with single DNA molecules. The interaction with ssDNA is rapid, static, and tight, where ssDNA appears to wrap around RAD52 complexes that promote intra-molecular bridging. With double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, interaction is slower, weaker, and often diffusive. Interestingly, force spectroscopy experiments show that RAD52 alters the mechanics dsDNA by enhancing DNA flexibility and increasing DNA contour length, suggesting intercalation. RAD52 binding changes the nature of the overstretching transition of dsDNA and prevents DNA melting, which is advantageous for strand clamping during or after annealing. DNA-bound RAD52 is efficient at capturing ssDNA in trans. Together, these effects may help key steps in DNA repair, such as second-end capture during homologous recombination or strand annealing during RAD51-independent recombination reactions.

  16. Double-strand break repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli: recent insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đermić D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Damir Ðermić Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division of Molecular Biology, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: In order to survive, all organisms must repair the continuous appearance of double-strand breaks (DSBs in their DNA. Escherichia coli does this by RecA-dependent homologous recombination (HR, during which the RecA protein is assembled on a 3´-terminated overhang that is created by a process called DNA end resection. The RecA nucleoprotein filament searches for and invades an intact homologous DNA sequence, creating a central HR intermediate. This review describes recent insights into HR and DSB repair in E. coli, especially the processes that precede the formation of a RecA nucleoprotein filament, with an emphasis on the regulation of 3´-tail metabolism. Since HR is a highly conserved process, the parallels to DSB repair in eukaryotic systems are discussed, bearing in mind that the lessons learned from studies in simpler bacterial models may be useful for studying DSB repair and the maintenance of genome stability in eukaryotes. Keywords: RecA nucleoprotein filament, homologous recombination, exonucleases, genome stability, 3´-overhang metabolism