WorldWideScience

Sample records for human dignity integrity

  1. Nurses' human dignity in education and practice: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandeh, Akram; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mokhtari-Nouri, Jamileh

    2016-01-01

    Human dignity, as a fundamental human right and a moral obligation, has been emphasized in different fields of nursing. The aim of the present integrative review was to explore the nature of nurses' human dignity in educational and clinical settings. A literature review was conducted on quantitative and qualitative research papers in English and Persian using the PubMed, ProQuest, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, SID, and Irandoc databases from the year 2000 to 2013. Keywords for the search included dignity, nursing, faculty, nurse clinicians, nursing student, and humanism. In total, 12 research papers met the inclusion criteria for the integrative review. From this review, four key themes emerged. The themes consisted of concept of human dignity (it was as an expression of the professional value in nursing settings), factors affecting human dignity (including respect, communication, autonomy and power, competency and ability, structure of the workplace, and value-based education), dimensions of human dignity (including intrinsic and professional domains), and consequences of human dignity [positive (individual and professional growth and caring professional behavior) and negative (loss of motivation, intention to leave the profession, and non-professional image of nursing in the minds of people)]. The small number of studies found for the review indicates the need for further research in the field of nurses' dignity. Recognizing nurses' dignity can help to improve the nursing practice and provide them a dignified workplace.

  2. Nurses’ human dignity in education and practice: An integrated literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandeh, Akram; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mokhtari-Nouri, Jamileh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human dignity, as a fundamental human right and a moral obligation, has been emphasized in different fields of nursing. The aim of the present integrative review was to explore the nature of nurses’ human dignity in educational and clinical settings. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted on quantitative and qualitative research papers in English and Persian using the PubMed, ProQuest, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, SID, and Irandoc databases from the year 2000 to 2013. Keywords for the search included dignity, nursing, faculty, nurse clinicians, nursing student, and humanism. In total, 12 research papers met the inclusion criteria for the integrative review. Results: From this review, four key themes emerged. The themes consisted of concept of human dignity (it was as an expression of the professional value in nursing settings), factors affecting human dignity (including respect, communication, autonomy and power, competency and ability, structure of the workplace, and value-based education), dimensions of human dignity (including intrinsic and professional domains), and consequences of human dignity [positive (individual and professional growth and caring professional behavior) and negative (loss of motivation, intention to leave the profession, and non-professional image of nursing in the minds of people)]. Conclusions: The small number of studies found for the review indicates the need for further research in the field of nurses’ dignity. Recognizing nurses’ dignity can help to improve the nursing practice and provide them a dignified workplace. PMID:26985216

  3. Calvin and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity has become a major moral directive in the contemporary ethical reflection on human rights and bio-ethics. This article examines the theological foundations laid by the reformer Calvin regarding the inherent dignity of people, and his influence on post-World War ethical reflection about the violations of human rights. In this article his views on the “imago dei” and common grace, the “lex naturae” and the obligations of the civil authority are investigated in order to illuminate his ideas about the dignity of human beings. The article then deals with the influence of these ideas in the influential works of the twentieth century’s reformed theologians Barth, Berkhouwer and Moltmann.

  4. Human dignity, humiliation, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2009-09-01

    Modern human rights instruments ground human rights in the concept of human dignity, without providing an underlying theory of human dignity. This paper examines the central importance of human dignity, understood as not humiliating people, in traditional Jewish ethics. It employs this conception of human dignity to examine and criticize U.S. use of humiliation tactics and torture in the interrogation of terrorism suspects.

  5. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  6. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  7. Human Dignity in Contemporary Ethics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this strictly academic book, David. Kirchhoffer processes the complex issues surrounding the concept of human dignity through a clearly defined ethical method. At the outset, he questions whether it is possible to use human dignity as a normative criterion, when empirical research has shown there is no evidence that an ...

  8. [Human dignity, human rights and bioethics: what is the connection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorno, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Human rights are closely related to the notion of human dignity, to such a point that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to promote them without appealing, at least implicitly, to the idea that each individual has intrinsic worth simply by virtue of being human. This relationship between dignity and rights is even stronger in the field of bioethics, which deals directly with some of the most basic human rights, such as the rights to life and to physical integrity. It is therefore not by chance that the international norms relating to bioethics give a central role to the concept of human dignity. However, one should not expect from dignity more than it can offer; dignity is a "principle", not a "rule"; it embodies a fundamental value, but it alone does not determine the content of a particular decision.

  9. Nurses' human dignity in education and practice: An integrated literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Parandeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The small number of studies found for the review indicates the need for further research in the field of nurses' dignity. Recognizing nurses' dignity can help to improve the nursing practice and provide them a dignified workplace.

  10. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  11. Human dignity in concept and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Clark, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dignity seems to be something that virtually all people want. It is a seminal expression of the human experience that gains authority through the convergent demands of people worldwide. Even so, the human dignity concept is in unhelpful disarray. Dignity is variously viewed as an antecedent, a consequence, a value, a principle, and an experience, from philosophical, legal, pragmatic, psychological, behavioral, and cultural perspectives. We ask which if any of these human dignity concepts will likely serve our global common interests best, as both common ground and policy diagnostic? We examine four broad themes: dignity as (1) a metaphysical justification for human rights and duties, (2) virtuous comportment or behavior, (3) a perspective of "other," and (4) a subjective experience of the individual, contingent on a broad and equitable sharing of values. We recommend viewing dignity as a commonwealth of individually assessed well-being, shaped by relationships with others, affected by the physical world, and framed in terms of values. Viewed this way, the idea of dignity accommodates the priorities of both individualistic and communitarian cultures. Conceiving of human dignity as a commonwealth of subjectively experienced value production and enjoyment has many practical policy implications. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  12. Human dignity: intrinsic or relative value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Marie-Jo

    2010-09-01

    Is human dignity an intrinsic value? Or is it a relative value, depending on the perception or assessment of quality of life? History had delineated some of its key features, but the advent of human rights and the Holocaust put special emphasis on this notion, particularly in the field of bioethics. But if modern medicine regards human dignity as crucial, it tends to support this notion while assessing and measuring it. The quality of life becomes the gauge for measuring human dignity, starting from a distinction between a viable and a non-viable existence, which may eventually lead to assisted death, or to letting die. This article argues that the concept of quality of life is of great relevant for medical practice, but on the condition of not being used as a standard to measure the dignity of the individual. Rather, the quality of life should be regarded as an imperative posed by human dignity, which is necessarily intrinsic. If the quality of life measures dignity, humankind is divided into two categories: lives worthy of living, and lives unworthy of living, and society becomes a jungle. Raising the quality of life as a requirement of the inherent human dignity does not solve automatically all problems and does not eliminate a feeling of unworthiness. But it ensures its 'human' value: the equal respect for every human being.

  13. Does organ selling violate human dignity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt; Baumann, Holger; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2017-11-01

    Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved. One prominent argument regarding this appeals to the notion of human dignity. It is argued that organ selling violates human dignity. This paper presents a systematic discussion of dignity-based arguments in the organ selling debate, and then develops a social account of dignity. It is argued that allowing the practice of organ selling inherently runs the risk of promoting the notion that some persons have less worth than others and that persons have a price, which is incompatible with dignity. The approach is defended against possible objections and it is shown that it can capture the notion that autonomy is linked to human dignity in important ways, while dignity at the same time can constrain the autonomous choices of persons with regards to certain practices.

  14. The Core Meaning of Human Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinie Steinmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human dignity is relatively new in international and domestic constitutional law. Dignity is protected as a value or a right, or both, in international law and many domestic jurisdictions. It is difficult to define human dignity in a legal context, as the concept is not defined in the first international document which recognizes inherent human dignity and the protection thereof, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1946 and many international (and national documents enacted thereafter. Despite dissensus regarding the widespread use of the concept, dignity has come to display three elements in constitutional adjudication post World War Two: the ontological element which entails that human beings have equal inherent human dignity that cannot be waived or diminished; the second element being the claim that inherent human dignity has to be recognised and respected; and the limited-state claim as the third element which entails that states have a positive obligation to progressively realise human dignity through the mechanism of socio-economic rights. It is widely accepted that these elements root in Kantian moral ethics which holds that man's autonomy is based upon universal dignity, as a result of which man should never be used as a means to an end, but only as a means in himself. Kant expressed this idea through formulation of a categorical imperative, namely that everyone's inherent human dignity has to be respected and protected universally. The preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1946, article 1(1 of the German Basic Law and section 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 embody the elements of Kant's categorical imperative. As a result, the three elements are applied as a definitional term of human dignity in German and South African constitutional adjudication. Based on these elements, it can be argued that the current idea of universal inherent dignity, at least in German and

  15. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  16. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  17. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2006-03-14

    The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans.A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi era proved destructive to many humans. Their widespread

  18. Human dignity and biomedical ethics from a Christian theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The argument of human dignity plays an important role in current debates on human rights and their relevance in modern biomedicine. When discussing the contribution of Christian theology to current debates on human dignity and human rights the thesis is not that the modern idea of human dignity depends on a ...

  19. Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aközer, Mehmet; Aközer, Emel

    2016-12-01

    A "no ethics" principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: (1) An understanding of a scientific "ethos" based on actual "value preferences" and "value repugnances" prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the "no ethics" principle in science. (2) The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and ethics. This breaking point involved granting science the exclusive mandate to pass judgment on the life worth living. (3) By contrast, respect for human dignity, in its Kantian definition as "the absolute inner worth of being human," should be adopted as the basis to ground science ethics. (4) The pathway from this foundation to the articulation of an ethical duty specific to scientific practice, i.e., respect for objective truth, is charted by Karl Popper's discussion of the ethical principles that form the basis of science. This also permits an integrated account of the "external" and "internal" ethical problems in science. (5) Principles of the respect for human dignity and the respect for objective truth are also safeguards of epistemic integrity. Plain defiance of human dignity by genetic determinism has compromised integrity of claims to knowledge in behavioral genetics and other behavioral sciences. Disregard of the ethical principles that form the basis of science threatens epistemic integrity.

  20. The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'......Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'...

  1. 1 HUMAN DIGNITY - OUR SUPREME CONSTITUTIONAL VALUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    5) Is our understanding of the concept/value/idea of human dignity not too ... second, it informs the scope and meaning of all the rights and guarantees of the .... describing the significance of group solidarity on survival issues so central to.

  2. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  3. [Dignity of human life: euthanasia and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrój, Lesław

    2005-07-01

    Euthanasia is commonly considered as a form of suicide. The study aims to explore if such a presumption could be justified. Philosophical analysis of concepts of "human being", "human person", "biological life" and "life of human person", undertaken in this article, proved that the effective cause of suicide is obviously different from such a cause of euthanasia. Suicide aims to destruct life of a human person which is considered deprived of its dignity. Euthanasia's effective cause is to protect the dignity of such a life which is threatened by low quality of biological life caused both by the disease as well as by the applied treatment even if palliative only. On the basis of these considerations the main conclusion is drawn: suicide and euthanasia having different moral (material) subjects should be also ethically evaluated in a different way.

  4. Human Value, Dignity, and the Presence of Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jill Graper

    2015-09-01

    In the health care professions, the meaning of--and implications for--'dignity' and 'value' are progressively more important, as scholars and practitioners increasingly have to make value judgments when making care decisions. This paper looks at the various arguments for competing sources of human value that medical professionals can consider--human rights, autonomy, and a higher-order moral value--and settles upon a foundational model that is related to (though distinct from) the Kantian model that is popular within the medical community: human value is foundational; human dignity, autonomy, and rights derive from the relational quality of human dignity. Moral dignity is expressed though the relationships we cultivate, the communal ends we pursue, and the rights we enjoy. Correlatively, human dignity is inseparable from its ground (i.e., morality), and the relationship between these two is best represented for Kant in the humanities formulation. The foundational model of dignity ensures that human value is non-circularly derived, but is ultimately tied to expressions of individual human dignity that comes from the dignity of morality. Linking Kant's dignity of humanity to the dignity of morality affords a unique and efficacious response to the discussion of human value. In one sense, dignity is amplificatory, since its worth is inextricable with that of autonomy and the rights afforded to the autonomous. But that isn't to say that the worth of dignity is merely amplificatory. Rather, human dignity indicates the absolute inner value (MM 6:435) found in each individual in virtue of being human (MM 6:435, 462). That inner worth engenders certain universal rights--derivable from the dignity and fundamental rational appeal of morality--just as it provides for the possibility for a community of beings to seek to live the moral life.

  5. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  6. Human Dignity and the Ethics and Regulation of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duwell, M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates how human dignity might be understood as a normative concept for the regulation of technologies. First, various distinctions that are relevant for the way human dignity can be understood are discussed. It is argued that it is particularly important that we should see human

  7. Natural Good Theories and the Value of Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muders, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    One of the widely recognized facts about human dignity is its vastly divergent applicability-from highly controversial issues in bioethics to broader topics in political philosophy. A group of theories that this article subsumes under the header "natural good theories" appears to be especially fitted for normatively multifaceted notions like dignity. However, the heavy normative weight the concept of dignity has to bear due to the central position it occupies within these theories creates its own difficulties. As is shown in a discussion of Martha Nussbaum's capability conception of dignity, dignity appears to be unable to mirror the special normative relevance people want to assign to it in cases of great moral misconduct. The article provides a suggestion on how to solve this problem by means of paradigmatic cases that work as material constraints regarding the exact boundaries of dignity violations.

  8. [Is autonomy ground of human dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo Alvarez-Valdés, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conditions of autonomy if this is to be the foundation of human dignity. Since Kant Modernity has dissociated nature from morality and has tried to support autonomy in its purely formal aspect. To forget nature has voluntarist consequences that affect the way in which autonomy is understand. But autonomy does not consist of not having links, but of knowing how to assume one's own links freely and to be conscious of one's own limits. Autonomy and liberty are the very thing of the rational being, capable of discerning good and bad, and this must direct our actions. Reason directs as and distances us from reality to recognize the advisable thing in the human being.

  9. Human dignity and biomedical ethics from a Christian theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich H.J. Körtner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The argument of human dignity plays an important role in current debates on human rights and their relevance in modern biomedicine. When discussing the contribution of Christian theology to current debates on human dignity and human rights the thesis is not that the modern idea of human dignity depends on a theological grounding. Also, it is not the task of theology to legitimate rights as Christian a posteriori. We do not need to deduce modern human rights from theological doctrines. The theological challenge is to find an access for Christians from their belief to the modern idea of human rights and human dignity and to discuss the contribution which theology and the churches can make to further development of human rights. The Christian image of man, which serves as the foundation for the church position on bioethical topics in the German-speaking context, is a mix of biblical motives, a Kantian interpretation of the concept of human dignity and an interpretation of the German constitutional law inspired by the Catholic tradition of natural law. The following presented theological understanding of human dignity, in contrast, was inspired by the insights of the Pauline doctrine of justification and its Protestant reinterpretation.

  10. The Death Penalty and Human Dignity: An Existential Fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nagelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of capital punishment in the United States frequently cite the evolution from electrocution and hanging to lethal injection as an indication that the evolving standards of decency exhibited by such a transition demonstrate a respect for human dignity. This essay examines that claim by evaluating two standards for assessing whether an act comports with accepted definitions of human dignity: a personal-achievement model, based on work by economist Amartya Sen of Harvard University, and a universal and intrinsic approach to human dignity articulated by criminologist Robert Johnson of the American University. We evaluate Sen’s capabilities model through the lens of a condemned prisoner’s ability to achieve self-defined goals. We then assess Johnson’s claim that preserving human dignity requires an elimination of the death penalty, irrespective of any prisoner’s ability to lead a restricted, albeit goal-directed, existence.

  11. [Philosophy of human dignity and the ethics of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Current moral philosophy has serious problems with the concept of human dignity. Although it seems to be an almost inevitable ingredient of every day moral judgments, philosophers have difficulties to find an analysis of the concept that could support this central role. One way out of these difficulties consists in a closer look at the various areas where the concept is used so widely and naturally, in the attempt to extract inductively an adequate understanding of human dignity from these contexts. In the article, this strategy is used to glean features of human dignity from the history of psychiatry, condense them into a plausible understanding of human dignity and finally sketch some practical implications for modern psychiatric ethics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  13. Human dignity in religion-embedded cross-cultural nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad A; Manookian, Arpi; Nasrabadi, Alireza N

    2014-12-01

    Although human dignity is an unconditional value of every human being, it can be shattered by extrinsic factors. It is necessary to discover the authentic meaning of patients' dignity preservation from different religious perspectives to provide professional cross-cultural care in a diverse setting. This article identifies common experiences of Iranian Muslim and Armenian Christian patients regarding dignified care at the bedside. This is a qualitative study of participants' experiences of dignified care elicited by individual in-depth semi-structured interviews. A purposeful sample of 10 participants (five Iranian Muslims and five Iranian Armenians) from various private and governmental hospital settings was chosen. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All the participants were provided with information about the purpose and the nature of the study, the voluntary condition of their participation in this study, and the anonymous reporting of recorded interviews. The common experiences of Christian and Muslim patients regarding dignity preservation emerged as "exigency of respecting human nobility" and "providing person-centered care." It is essential to recognize the humanness and individuality of each patient to preserve and promote human dignity in diverse cross-cultural settings. The findings support and expand current understanding about the objective and subjective nature of dignity preservation in cross-cultural nursing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Practices in Human Dignity in Palliative Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Korhan, Esra; Üstün, Çağatay; Uzelli Yilmaz, Derya

    Respecting and valuing an individual's existential dignity forms the basis of nursing and medical practice and of nursing care. The objective of the study was to determine the approach to human dignity that nurses and physicians have while providing palliative care. This qualitative study was performed using a phenomenological research design. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted in 9 nurses and 5 physicians with human dignity approach in palliative care. Following the qualitative Colaizzi method of analyzing the data, the statements made by the nurses and physicians during the interviews were grouped under 8 categories. Consistent with the questionnaire format, 8 themes and 43 subthemes of responses were determined describing the human dignity of the nurse and the physicians. The results of the study showed that in some of the decisions and practices of the nurses giving nursing care and physicians giving medical care to palliative care patients, while they displayed ethically sensitive behavior, on some points, they showed approaches that violated human dignity and showed lack of awareness of ethical, medical, and social responsibilities.

  15. Human Dignity, Misthanasia, Public Health and Bioethics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da Rocha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on human dignity and misthanasia in the public health system in Brazil. For this, concepts, document reviews and public data about the condition of the Brazilian population’s access to public health were all used. The indicators show the health inequalities in the country, with the north and northeast at a disadvantage both in terms of access to health and the number of available professionals. Thus, the most underserved population tends to continue to be excluded from society and impaired with respect to their human dignity.

  16. The Usefulness of the Legal Concept of Human Dignity in the Human Rights Discourse: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Fernandez Burgueño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the convenience of using the legal concept of human dignity in the human rights discourse and its effectiveness to address injustice in a twenty-first century democratic society. This article will argue that the difficulty of defining human dignity does not diminish its merits and allows it to be both solid and adaptable to new challenges. Then, this paper will argue that human dignity is a powerful concept due to its capacity to bring change and modernise society and will conclude that there is a strong relationship between time, human dignity, human rights and democracy.

  17. [Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches.

  18. Human Dignity in Law – A Case Study of the Polish Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Butrymowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity is one of the most fundamental ideas in the entire international human rights system. As from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1948, the concept of the human dignity become used as a tool to protect the basic needs of humans. The other formal instruments of international human rights also make reference to dignity. Whereas international law widely accepted the inherence of dignity, controversies still arise around the source of the dignity. Polish lawmakers, on the other hand, have no doubt about the fact the concept of dignity comes from natural law. Poland, in her Constitution, refers to the teaching of John Paul II about the source, value and meaning of human dignity. There is no doubt that concept of human dignity, even when it is controversial, is the most widely accepted by all religions and political society in the world.

  19. Equality, Human Dignity and Minorities: A Social Democracy in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Gross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with equality, human dignity and the need to build a social democracy. Bringing equality concepts in a broad sense as foundation work, is set to develop writing by making some remarks on the dignity of the individual and minorities, often not heard, even within democratic scenarios since democracy is the voice the most by hiding voices and demands of sectors or groups excluded from the agenda. Minorities such as LGBT, black, residents of peripheral areas of large cities, among others, do not have their demands heard from this idea, we seek a concept of social democracy, which is wider than just the voice of the majority.

  20. The interaction between religious freedom, equality and human dignity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal Computer

    acknowledged church dogma or religious belief, and is of such a nature that it passes the test of a nuanced and context-sensitive form of balancing of these freedoms and the right to human dignity and equality of persons affected by them. 1. BACKGROUND. Religious freedom (s 15(1)) and freedom of religious communities ...

  1. The Concept of Human Dignity in German and Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the concept of human dignity in German and Kenyan constitutional law. We base our analysis on decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, in particular its take on life imprisonment and its 2006 decision concerning the shooting of hijacked airplanes, and on a close reading of the Constitution of Kenya.

  2. Human Dignity in Healthcare: A Virtue Ethics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    The term ‘dignity’ is used in a variety of ways but always to attribute or recognize some status in the person. The present paper concerns not the status itself but the virtue of acknowledging that status. This virtue, which Thomas Aquinas calls ‘observantia’, concerns how dignity is honoured, respected, or observed. By analogy with justice (of which it is a part) observantia can be thought of both as a general virtue and as a special virtue. As a general virtue observantia refers to that respect for human dignity that is implicit in all acts of justice. As a special virtue it concerns the specific way we show esteem for people. Healthcare represents a challenge to observantia because those in need of healthcare are doubly restricted in expressing their dignity in action: in the first place by their ill health, and in the second place by the conditions required by healthcare (hence the sick are termed ‘patients’ rather than ‘agents’). To be understood properly, especially in the context of healthcare, the virtue of observantia needs both to qualify and to be qualified by the virtue of misericordia, empathy, or compassion for affliction. The unity of the virtues requires a simultaneous recognition of the common dignity and common neediness of human existence.

  3. Dignity-conserving care actions in palliative care: an integrative review of Swedish research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstäde, Carina Werkander; Blomberg, Karin; Benzein, Eva; Östlund, Ulrika

    2018-03-01

    Previous research has proposed that persons in need of palliative care often have a loss of functions and roles that affects social and existential self-image. Moreover, these individuals also commonly suffer from complex multisymptoms. This, together with the situation of facing an impending death, can lead to a loss of dignity. Therefore, supporting these persons' dignity is a crucial challenge for professional nurses. The 'Dignity Care Intervention' addresses the multidimensionality of dignity by identifying patients' dignity-related concerns and suggests care actions to address them. At the present, the Dignity Care Intervention is adapted for implementation in Swedish care settings. Because expressions of dignity are influenced by culture, and an overview of care actions in a Swedish context is lacking, this integrative review aimed to find suggestions from Swedish research literature on what kind of care actions can preserve dignity. An integrative literature review was conducted using the databases SwePub and SweMed+. Articles published from 2006 to 2015 and theses published from 2000 to 2015 were searched for using the terms 'dignity' and 'palliative care'. Result sections of articles and theses were reviewed for dignity-conserving care actions synthesised by thematic analysis and categorised under themes and subthemes in Chochinov's model of dignity. Fifteen articles and 18 theses were included together providing suggestions of care actions in all themes and subthemes in the dignity model. Suggested care actions included listening, communication, information, symptom control, facilitating daily living and including patients in decision-making. Additionally, nurses' perceptiveness towards the patients was a core approach. The review offers culturally relevant suggestions on how to address specific dignity-related concerns. The adapted Dignity Care Intervention will be a way for Swedish nurses to provide person-centred palliative care that will conserve

  4. [Vulnerations of Human Dignity At The End of Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Zurriaráin, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Death is constitutive of human nature and therefore it must happen naturally. But there are mainly two ways that falsify it: euthanasia and therapeutic obstinacy. Two wrong choices that do not accept the human reality of death (the first, anticipates death and the second, delays it). From the philosophical and ethical point of view, both options are rejected, because they are against human dignity at the end of life. Aside from these, this article also rejects the different names which are given to refer to euthanasia, that also go against human nature at the end of life. On the other hand, do not confuse euthanasia with sedation. Both have a common goal to prevent the patient from feeling pain and suffering. To achieve this goal, both options administer ″drugs″ to the patient. But in the administration of drugs in euthanasia involves ending patient's life. The administration of drugs in sedation aims for the patient's death to occur naturally. Finally, we briefly discuss the basic care necessary in these situations. The absence of basic care cannot become a covert euthanasia. The patient must die from his/her illness, never from a lack of care. All human actions (euthanasia, sedation, therapeutic obstinacy and basic care) should be an expression and manifestation of what human dignity demands. Such dignity is expressed in the actions performed by human beings.

  5. Human dignity and sexual behavious � A theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vorster

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the sex ethic of Scripture with the anthropological values that underlie modern sexual morality and gives guidelines for a responsible� sex ethics that can safeguard human dignity. As point of departure it states that the biblical view of sexuality must be understood from the perspective of creation and re-creation and not the fall. The creation narratives teach that humanity possesses qualities of sameness and difference that constitutes our being. Sexuality forms the dynamic which bonds the dialectic of sameness and difference into a unity of persons. The� article concludes that the� African concept of gender , the radical freedom concept of secular society, the utilitarian view of sex, and the postmodern view that sexual behaviour and marriage are social constructs, aggravate sexual promiscuity. In order to fight HIV/AIDS and preserve human dignity the exclusiveness of the sex act, the importance of faithfulness and the sanctity of marriage must be proclaimed.

  6. Ethical downsizing. Managers must focus on justice and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L J

    1994-01-01

    It is vital that leaders and managers focus on justice and human dignity in the workplace when faced with the possible need to downsize. First, administrators should clearly identify the goals of work force reduction, evaluate their importance, and consider whether they could be achieved through other means. Once they have made the decision to downsize, top managers must clearly communicate the reasons and the goals to those responsible for identifying the employees affected. Employees selected for layoff should be identified on the basis of the articulated goals for work force reduction, whenever possible. When this is not clear, the tough decisions can be based on a variety of factors: "across-the-board" reductions; employee abilities, qualifications, and performance; diversity goals; seniority; or multiple criteria. It is also important to respect human dignity in the layoff process. Affected employees should be informed in advance and given an honest explanation for the layoff. Ordinarily, they should be encouraged to work until the effective date. All employees need a clear and honest explanation of the reasons for and the expected effects of the layoff. There should be a stress on the free flow of information, without an effort to control it. How downsizing is handled says a lot about the nature of an organization and its leadership. Ethical downsizing is, first of all, a refusal to deny the complexity of the issues and evidence of the organization's commitment to justice and human dignity.

  7. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  8. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies. PMID:12887735

  9. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-07-29

    The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws - the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  10. In defense of the dignity of being human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylin, W

    1984-08-01

    The concept of human dignity is examined in terms of the religious belief that man is created in God's image and from the Kantian viewpoint that man's autonomy gives special value to our species. The theory of psychic determinism and the prospect of genetic engineering of humans are seen as attacks on self determination. Five additional attributes that make humans "special" are explored: conceptual thought, the capacity for technology, our range of emotions, "Lamarckian" environmental genetics, and the freedom to change and modify ourselves.

  11. R Ebert and RMJ Oduor The Concept of Human Dignity in German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R Ebert and RMJ Oduor

    concept of human dignity in the two constitutions, each one of us from his ... We shall try to approach and circumscribe this ... Human dignity was introduced as the fundamental value of a new Germany when ..... involve] the degradation of the person to a thing, which can, in its entirety, be ..... The struggle for women's rights,.

  12. A resource-based version of the argument that cloning is an affront to human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, R

    2008-04-01

    The claim that human reproductive cloning constitutes an affront to human dignity became a familiar one in 1997 as policymakers and bioethicists responded to the announcement of the birth of Dolly the sheep. Various versions of the argument that reproductive cloning is an affront to human dignity have been made, most focusing on the dignity of the child produced by cloning. However, these arguments tend to be unpersuasive and strongly criticised in the bioethical literature. In this paper I put forward a different argument that reproductive cloning is an affront to human dignity, one that looks beyond the dignity of the child produced. I suggest that allocating funds to such a pursuit can affront human dignity by diverting resources away from those existing people who lack sufficient health to enable them to exercise basic rights and liberties. This version of the argument posits cloning as an affront to human dignity in particular circumstances, rather than claiming the technology as intrinsically inconsistent with human dignity.

  13. The Relation between Law and Fraternity as a Promotional Instrument for Human Dignity in Labor Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Domingos de Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Examine in this study as a problem, the relationship of law and Fraternity as a promotional instrument of Human Dignity in Labour Law, pointing out the means by which positive law has constitutionalized the fundamental guarantees of man labor law. Understand the relationship of human labor versus the dignity of the human person, and the idea of fraternity as a promotional function. The research was based on bibliographic compared. The main object is to understand the role of the fraternity and the right to promote dignity in labor law. Specifically, to understand the role of the principle of brotherhood and human dignity in the protection of labor Fundamental Rights. It is a guided research in the hypothetical-deductive research method, starting from the hypothesis that the community contributes to the correct application of the law as the dignity of labor instrument.

  14. The concept of human dignity in the ethics of genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David K

    2015-05-01

    Despite criticism that dignity is a vague and slippery concept, a number of international guidelines on bioethics have cautioned against research that is contrary to human dignity, with reference specifically to genetic technology. What is the connection between genetic research and human dignity? In this article, I investigate the concept of human dignity in its various historical forms, and examine its status as a moral concept. Unlike Kant's ideal concept of human dignity, the empirical or relational concept takes human dignity as something that is affected by one's circumstances and what others do. I argue that the dignity objection to some forms of genetic research rests on a view of human nature that gives humans a special status in nature - one that is threatened by the potential of genetic research to reduce individuals to their genetic endowment. I distinguish two main philosophical accounts of human nature. One of these, the Aristotelian view, is compatible with the use of genetic technology to help humans realize their inherent potential to a fuller extent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HUMAN DIGNITY AND PROPORTIONALITY ANALYSIS / A DIGNIDADE HUMANA E A ANÁLISE DA PROPORCIONALIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alexy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The relation between proportionality analysis and human dignity is one of the most contested questions in the debate about the normative structure of human dignity. Two conceptions stand in opposition: an absolute and a relative conception. According to the absolute conception, the guarantee of human dignity counts as a norm that takes precedence over all other norms in all cases. Taking precedence over all other norms in all cases implies that balancing is precluded. This, in turn, means that each and every interference with human dignity is a violation of human dignity. Thus, justified interference with human dignity becomes impossible. By contrast, proportionality analysis is intrinsically connected to the distinction between justified and unjustified interferences. A proportional interference is justified and is, therefore, constitutional. The opposite applies in the case of disproportional interference. The absolute conception is incompatible with this conceptual framework. For this reason, it is incompatible with proportionality analysis. According to the relative conception, precisely the opposite is true. The relative conception says that the question of whether human dignity is violated is a question of proportionality. With this, the relative conception is not only compatible with proportionality analysis, it presupposes it.

  16. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  17. Practical dignity in caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, L; Seedhouse, D

    1998-05-01

    It is difficult to understand the meaning of 'dignity' in human rights, bioethics and nursing literature because the word is used so vaguely. Unless dignity's meaning is spelt out it can disappear beneath more tangible priorities. In this article we define dignity and show how this can help health workers to maintain the dignity of people in their care.

  18. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  19. SOCIAL INCLUSION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN DIGNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in the article is the analysis of the concepts of disability in the context of inclusive processes in the Russian society and identification of scientific and theoretical approaches to the development of the concept of human dignity as correlating with the principles of social inclusion.The case study of disability problem realizes integrative and inclusive approach, which assumes that the value of human society does not depend on its characteristics and limitations, but it is determined by its inclusion in social practices.The novelty of the work is determined by the fact that it justifies the necessity to develop the concept of disability in Sociology in relation to the principles of inclusion, provides the interpretation of existing concepts of disability in inclusive context substantiates the concept of «human dignity» as basic for the development of inclusive practices of persons with disabilities.The author believes that successful social inclusion of persons with disabilities is determined social conditions to meet their basic human needs, uniting the human community.The results can be used to construct social models and programs of social inclusion of persons with disabilities, as well within the framework of the courses in «Social Rehabilitation», «Sociology of Disability».

  20. The Relation between Law and Fraternity as a Promotional Instrument for Human Dignity in Labor Law

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Domingos de Luca; Lafayette Pozzoli

    2015-01-01

    Examine in this study as a problem, the relationship of law and Fraternity as a promotional instrument of Human Dignity in Labour Law, pointing out the means by which positive law has constitutionalized the fundamental guarantees of man labor law. Understand the relationship of human labor versus the dignity of the human person, and the idea of fraternity as a promotional function. The research was based on bibliographic compared. The main object is to understand the role of the fraternity an...

  1. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia debate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2017-04-25

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia - however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide. In particular, conceptual errors pertaining to human dignity were made in Stransham-Ford, and can be avoided in future. In this article, I identify these errors and propose the following three corrective principles to inform future debate on the subject: (i) human dignity is violable; (ii) human suffering violates human dignity; and (iii) the 'natural' causes of suffering due to terminal illness do not exclude the application of human dignity.

  2. Politics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2014-12-01

    Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights.

  4. THE FUNDAMENTALITY OF SOCIAL AND LABOR RIGHTS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN DIGNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Marcio Morena

    2016-01-01

    Dignity is the common point of unity and existence of all human beings and, therefore, its preservation must legitimize and justify the State action, which must ensure the effectiveness of certain rights considered essential for people to reach a necessary life standard in order to participate as full members of society. In this list of fundamental rights, social and labor rights are included. The purpose of this research is to analyze the scope of human dignity as the main principle of natio...

  5. Human dignity as a component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity onward to condemn slavery and torture as violations of human dignity. In spelling it out, we can come to a better understanding of what "dignity" means and become aware that there exists a quite useful place for this notion in our ethical thought, albeit a modest one.

  6. Is the creation of admixed embryos "an offense against human dignity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the creation of admixed human-nonhuman embryos, and specifically of what have been termed "cybrids," involves a range of ethical and political issues. It is not reducible to a single question. This paper focuses on one question raised by that controversy, whether creating admixed human-nonhuman entities is "an offense against human dignity. "In the last decade there has been sustained criticism of the use of the concept of human dignity within bioethics. The concept has been criticized as "vague" and "useless." Nevertheless, the concept continues to be invoked in bioethical discussion and in international instruments. This paper defends a concept of human dignity that is coherent but that is wider than contemporary post-Kantian approaches. "Human dignity" is best regarded as having a set of analogically related meanings, more than one of which is relevant to the field of bioethics. A more subtle understanding of the concept of human dignity can help identify what is ethically problematic in human-nonhuman combinations and so shed light on one aspect of the admixed embryo debate.

  7. The core meaning of human dignity | Steinmann | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely accepted that these elements root in Kantian moral ethics which holds that man's autonomy is based upon universal dignity, as a result of which man should never be used as a means to an end, but only as a means in himself. Kant expressed this idea through formulation of a categorical imperative, namely that ...

  8. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: a Q methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents' ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented-self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented-self-recognition type, reflection-oriented-self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented-self-maintenance type. The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. [Applying the human dignity ideals of Confucianism and Kant to psychiatric nursing: from theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hsiu; Lee, Shui-Chuen; Lee, Shu-Chen

    2012-04-01

    Literature articles and clinical observation suggest disease and environmental factors as primary causes of the low self-esteem and stigmatization that typify most psychiatric patients. These patients are at risk of injury when subjected to inappropriate physical restraint. Hospital staffs, including nurses, are in immediate and close contact with psychiatric patients. Mencius's and Kant's thoughts on human dignity can enhance reflections on clinical nursing practices. Mencius's belief that preserving life is not the most desirable thing and death is not the most hated thing can help nurses realize the human dignity of psychiatric patients by understanding that, as an unrighteous act is more detestable than death, the meaning and value of righteousness are greater than life itself. In light of Kant's views on human dignity, nurses should treat patients as goals rather than means. Exploring such ideas can raise nursing quality, restore a positive sense of humanity to psychiatric patients, and develop nursing values and meaning to a higher plane.

  10. Dignity reevaluated: A theological examination of human dignity and the role of the Church in bioethics and end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Quentin I T

    2016-02-01

    Predominant among the terminological ambiguities that plague contemporary bioethics is confusion attending the meaning of the term "human dignity," particularly as it applies to so-called end-of-life discussions. This study surveys current trends in treatment of the concept of dignity, examining relevant thinkers who see dignity as redundant or as capability-dependent. These inadequate views are contrasted with an attitude, based theologically in Mark 5, that understands human dignity to represent an absolute characteristic that is donated graciously to all bearers of imago Dei . Human dignity must thus be affirmed as inviolable and independent of autonomy, rationality, or capability. A specific task of the Christian Church is to faithfully recognize and proclaim this dignity. This investigation is particularly relevant in the face of contemporary discussions regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted death. Lay Summary: Much of the polarization within the contemporary bioethical discussion proceeds out of confusion regarding how we ought to define the terms of the debate. If we may take the existing debates regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted death as an example, we may understand the vital need for a sensible definition of the term that stands at the heart of the arguments of both sides of the debate: "human dignity." As such, this study seeks to define dignity in a logical, theological, deeply personal, and highly practical fashion, and to outline the critical role of the Church within such an understanding. Sometimes, when I walk into the room, he ignores me. Sometimes he thinks I am someone else. Most often he is asleep, subjugated by drugs designed to prevent agitation, although "agitation" is the sterilized hospital word for what I would call unbridled panic, total disorientation. The night he had the stroke, they had to tie him to the bed just to keep him in the hospital. And they wouldn't let me see him because he had been calling my name. Very

  11. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia debate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrich W Jordaan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide. In particular, conceptual errors pertaining to human dignity were made in Stransham-Ford, and can be avoided in future. In this article, I identify these errors and propose the following three corrective principles to inform future debate on the subject: (i human dignity is violable; (ii human suffering violates human dignity; and (iii the ‘natural’ causes of suffering due to terminal illness do not exclude the application of human dignity.

  12. The Notions of the Human Person and Human Dignity in Aquinas and Wojtyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jove Jim S. Aguas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At the center of the various transformations and advancements inmodern society is man. It is man by whom and for whom these transformations and advancements are made. But one negative factoraccompanying these transformations is the violence or the degradation of the human person and his dignity, more alarming is the violence committed by man against his fellow man. Today, there is so much violence in the world, everyday we hear about killings, kidnappings, rapes, abortion, terrorist attacks, hunger, wars and many other acts of violence. It is ironic that, while the human person is the very victim of this violence, it is also the human person who is the perpetrator of such violence, man is simultaneously the victim and the culprit. Man indeed is a paradox, for while he is bestowed with dignity and good nature, he is also capable of doing evil and inflicting harm against others. This violent tendency happens because man fails to acknowledge the very dignity of his nature which is rooted in his fundamental relation with God and extended to his fellow human beings. Man is by nature good, but he is also capable of doing evil things. The Catholic Church through its teachings and writings have always emphasized the value of the person, while at the same time acknowledging the fact that he is as much capable of degrading himself. The Pastoral Constitution of the Church in the Modern World, “Gaudium et Spes” acknowledges the many divergent and contradicting opinions of man about himself, one of which “exalts man as the absolute measure of all things and debases himself to the point of despair. The result is doubt and anxiety.”

  13. Human dignity after ten years of the constitutional state in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitution not only elevates human dignity to a specially entrenched value, but also affords it special protection in the context of fundamental rights. It is furthermore a specific consideration in the limitation of rights and in the development of the common law. It applies not only to the state/subject relationship, but also to ...

  14. Stakeholder Capability Enhancement as a Path to Promote Human Dignity and Cooperative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Van Buren III, H.J.; Berman, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Promoting dignity is at the heart of the human capability approach to development. We introduce the concept of stakeholder capability enhancement, beginning with a discussion of the capability approach to development proposed by Sen (1985) and further advanced by Nussbaum (1990) to incorporate

  15. Black theology in South Africa – A theology of human dignity and black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy van Aarde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Black theology in South Africa is still relevant 20 years after the apartheid regime ended. It is a theology that gave to Black South Africans human dignity and a black identity. Black theology in South Africa confronted the imbalances of power and abusive power structures through an affirmation of human dignity and the uniqueness of the identity of black people. The biblical narrative of the Exodus is a definitive narrative in American black theology and liberation theology in overcoming oppression understood as political victimisation. Black theology in South Africa is not primarily about power and economics but also about the rediscovery of human dignity and black identity and to a lesser extent about victimisation. A third generation of black theology in South Africa will gain impetus through a rediscovery of human dignity and identity as its core values instead of a Black American liberation theology of victimisation or a Marxist liberation theology of the eradication of all power or economic imbalances.

  16. Death with dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care professionals cannot confer on patients either dignity or death with dignity. They can, however, attempt to ensure that the patient dies without indignity. Indignities are affronts to human dignity, and include such things as serious pain and the exclusion of patients from involvement in decisions about their lives and deaths. This fairly modest conception of death with dignity avoids the traps of being overly subjective or of viewing the sick and helpless as "undignified". PMID:12161582

  17. ¿Disposable Matter or Personal Entity? The Human Body, Biotechnology and the Juridical Requirements of Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nicolás Lafferriere

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological interventions affect the human body in new and powerful ways in the process of procreation, through actions of enhancement or replacement of the body, or by the search of the immortality of the body. This implies new legal challenges to prevent biotechnoscience from considering the human body as "operable and disposable matter", and treating it as the human person himself. In this article, we will study these challenges, starting from human dignity as a fundamental principle for an assessment of this biotechnology, and focusing on four legal issues: improvement interventions and their legal enforceability; the commodification of human life; growing social inequalities and the emergence of new forms of discrimination; and the principle of integrity of the human species.

  18. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA) SAVA

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the ...

  19. Human Dignity in the Surrogacy%代孕与人的尊严辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维萍; 韩跃红

    2015-01-01

    Commercial surrogacy is a deviation from the moral principle of“Man is the goal”,which dama-ges the dignity of life,human dignity and the dignity of human being of surrogate mother and the born babies. Aided surrogacy between relatives and volunteer surrogacy for some special unfortunate family are in accordance with the principle of life ethics and humanitarian spirit.Seeing that there are an enormous number of China's women loss fertility,the underground illegal surrogacy is rampant,and the dignity and human rights of surrogate women and the babies are seriously threatened,and thereby while the combat against commercial surrogacy is intensely carried out,the aided surrogacy between relatives could be cautiously initiated.%商业性代孕背离了“人是目的”的道德原则,损害了代孕妇女、代孕婴儿的生命尊严、人格尊严以及人类尊严。亲属间的援助性代孕和针对某些特殊不幸家庭的志愿者代孕符合生命伦理原则和人道主义精神。鉴于中国女性丧失生育能力者众多、地下非法代孕猖獗、代孕妇女和婴儿的尊严和人权受到严重威胁的现状,在加大打击商业性代孕的同时,可先行谨慎开放亲属间的援助性代孕。

  20. Death, dignity, and moral nonsense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl

    2004-01-01

    Although the concept of human dignity is widely invoked in discussions regarding end-of-life decision making, the content of the notion is ambiguous. Such ambiguity has led some to conclude that human dignity is a redundant or even useless concept that we would be better off without. This paper argues, to the contrary, that the concept of human dignity is indispensable to moral discourse. Far from dispensing with human dignity, we must work to clarify the concept. The paper outlines two distinct but related conceptions of dignity that are often conflated in contemporary moral discourse. These conceptions are labelled "basic dignity" and "personal dignity", respectively. It is argued that basic dignity functions as a universal meaning constraint on moral discourse in general. Hence, to dispense with the notion could reduce us to speaking moral nonsense. Throughout the discussion, some implications for our understanding of end-of-life decision making are explored.

  1. Unfettered expression and human dignity: Langston Hughes's not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In literature as in other disciplines, freedom of speech entails the unburdening of one's intent from the innermost recesses of one's mind. It is a great relief and a ventilation of the conscious and sub-conscious being. Langston Hughes and Chinua Achebe are noted human rights proponents in their American and Nigerian ...

  2. Death with dignity from the Confucian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaming; Li, Jianhui

    2017-02-01

    Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death. Therefore, Confucian bioethics can offer a new perspective for understanding the theoretical difficulties associated with the dignity of death and new methods for solving them. In this article, we attempt to reconstruct Confucian views on human dignity and the dignity of death and, based on those views, to analyze the following issues: the relationship between the dignity of death and biological life, the relationship between the dignity of death and suffering, the relationship between the dignity of death and the autonomy of human beings, and the relationship between the dignity of death and social justice. This article will also compare the Confucian views on these issues with the views of Western philosophers. Confucian ethics can offer distinct answers to the above issues and help resolve some confusions concerning concepts and theories in Western research on the dignity of death.

  3. Euthanasia and ethical dillemas: Human dignity against sanctity of life

    OpenAIRE

    Simović, Darko Z.; Simeunović-Patić, Biljana J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses ethical dilemmas and conflicting issues tied to euthanasia and the institutionalization of the right to a dignified death, viewed through a prism of arguments in favour of and against euthanasia, solutions of comparative law and the practice of the European Council and The European Court of Human Rights in this field, as well as the existing practices of physicians with respect to the implementation of various modalities of euthanasia. At the national lavel, the topic is be...

  4. Kant on Dignity and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger discusses the educational significance of Immanuel Kant's conception of human dignity. According to Kant, Giesinger claims, children can and should be educated for dignity: on the one hand, children realize their dignity by developing the capacity for moral autonomy; on the other hand, this capacity can only…

  5. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  6. Life Written in Bytes . The Superinformacional and New Technologies Company : Will the End of Privacy and Human Dignity ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Gomes Rodrigues Fermentão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent technologies have changed the way media of the human being, which shall establish direct contact with many people anywhere in the world. Allied to this fact, there is a virtualization increasing the human person, culminating in an immersion in the virtual world, which ultimately creates an increasing dependence on technology in order to exist socially. This transformation in the world of concepts makes the virtual pass to have direct impact in the real world. Attracted by the glitter and glamor of virtual network, the person finds no limits to their self-promotion. The private life is increasingly exposed to an undetermined number of people. So the person who is exposed in the virtual media in search of acceptance, forgets that it is not only stripping of his clothes or his privacy, but mainly is stripped of his dignity. The frantic search for some "tanned" finds no limit on common sense, coisificando the person and transforming it into mere virtual profile. The human person is in this state, the total lack of dignity, without realizing it, it becomes an object on display. The internet is a stage conducive to the spectacle of the self virtual, making it fertile ground for the indignity. The history of civilization dating back to fighting and winning the dignity of the human person, however, the time in which we live watch a reverse movement. Contemporaneously it is no longer the state or private to be constant threat to human dignity. Those who, seduced by the possibility of becoming the personality of the time, voluntarily abdicate their dignity in a process whose reversibility is questionable. The legislation can not keep up the speed of the transformations occurred in the virtual world and this mismatch can leave unprotected person especially in relation to their rights to intimacy, privacy and human dignity itself.

  7. Bullying in the Workplace : An Analysis in the Light of the Dignity of the Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Lima de Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The  reorganization  of  the  global  economic  environment  has  brought  the  growing competitiveness in the workplace, subjecting the employee to repeated situations of strong psychological pressure, characterized as bullying, which has generated a significant concern for his mental health. For this reason, it seeks to maintain a healthy and balanced work environment, physically and psychically, which is essential for the preservation of the worker's life quality. With the change in the liability paradigm, who left to focus on tort to glimpse  the  wrongful  damage  caused  to  the  victim,  the  worker  has  support  for  full compensation for the moral damage arising from harassment, whose foundation is the need to safeguard the human dignity, the supreme value advocated by the Constitution. From this premise, it is necessary an analysis of bullying in the light of the Constitution, which values the inviolability of the human person worker, providing ample protection to their rights of personality and therefore their dignity.

  8. Advance Directives of Will (Living Will: Ethical and Legal Implications Based on the Principle of Dignity of Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Alkimim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, with methodology of philosophical, bibliographical and documentary research intends to apply the principle of dignity of human person to the vicissitudes around the advance directives of will, to the ethical aspects disciplined by the Code of Medical Ethics, as well as to what regards the legal aspects, involving the Federal Constitution, the Civil Code, the Code of Medical Ethics and the Resolution 1995/2012 (CFM. The principle of dignity of human person along with the consequent application in the principles of bioethics is considered in a personalistic perspective. This kind of approach is indicative of the interdisciplinarity of bioethics.

  9. THE ROLE OF HUMAN DIGNITY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF FAIR COMPENSATION FOR UNFAIR DISMISSALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Vettori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available South African labour law is concerned with the attainment of fairness for both the employer and the employee. In weighing up the interests of the respective parties it is of paramount importance to ensure that a delicate balance is achieved so as to give credence to commercial reality as well as an individual's right to dignity. In other words the attainment of fairness in the employment relationship must give cognisance not only to surrounding socio-economic reality but also to human rights. The environment within which the world of work operates has at its core a free enterprise economy. Ultimately, an employer should generally not be penalised to the extent that it is crippled and unable to continue operating. It is argued in this article that in ascertaining what constitutes appropriate compensation for an unfair dismissal, the underlying reality that labour law operates in a free enterprise system must be and is given cognisance to by the legislation and the courts. At the same time in ascertaining what constitutes fair compensation for unfair dismissal due regard must be had not only to the labour rights contained in the Constitution but also to other rights protected in terms of the Constitution, most importantly, the rights to dignity and equality. The fact that the basis of the employment relationship is commercial and an employer is entitled and even encouraged to make profits is reflected in our law by the fact that there are caps on the amount of compensation for unfair dismissal in the interests of business efficiency and certainty. However, an analysis of relevant case law demonstrates that this can never be at the expense of a person's dignity. Hence the notion that the employment relationship is relational. This is reflected by the interpretation given to the legislation by the courts. Where there has been discrimination or an impairment of the employee's dignity, there are no such limits as to the amount of compensation a court

  10. When culture clashes with individual human rights: A practical theological reflection on the dignity of widows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift T. Baloyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of human beings (men and women as an egalitarian one even beyond cultural expectations. It argues against some cultural practices on women, especially widows, which claim supremacy and bind the widows to its ritual processes among the Tsonga people. It stresses the importance of human individual that overtakes everything from God�s creation, including cultural rituals which are created by human beings. It claims that the existence of culture depends solely on the existence or presence of human beings and their communities. Therefore, culture cannot use humans to shape itself and to transform the community. It is humans themselves who use culture to identify themselves and ultimately change their communities. Although the paper is theological in its approach, it argues for individual human rights to be respected and weighed above all cultural practices. It further concludes that such cultural practices are not static and that they can be removed from the rest of culture.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article, from a practical theological view, challenges the African cultural rituals that claim authority over women�s rights and dignity. The interdisciplinary nature of this article indicates the sanctity of human individuals especially widows and thereby calls for paradigm shift to deconstruct certain oppressive teachings and practices against widows among African women. This article concludes thus, cultural deconstruction is possible.

  11. 1 Corinthians 7:17�24. Identity and human dignity amidst power and liminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul�s concern with identity, and in particular the identity of the believer in relation to Jesus Christ, is an important concern in his writings. In the midst of an important section dedicated to advice and instruction on marriage in his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul encouraged his audience in 1 Corinthians 7:17�24 to remain in the calling by, or position in, which they were called. Concerning these circumstances he refers to circumcision (1 Cor 7:18�19 and slavery (1 Cor 7:21�23 by name. These Pauline instructions are investigated against the backdrop of both the 1st century CE context and post-apartheid South Africa, where issues of identity and marginality rub shoulders with claims to ownership and entitlement, on the one hand, and issues of human dignity, on the other.

  12. Human dignity and professional reputation under threat: Iranian Nurses' experiences of workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Fereshteh; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rahgozar, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Workplace violence against nurses is a challenging problem in both developed and developing countries. Because the concept of violence bears some cultural load, nurses' understanding is region-specific. This study explores Iranian nurses' perceptions of workplace violence. Using qualitative content analysis, 22 registered nurses underwent unstructured, in-depth interviews. The main themes of threats to human dignity and professional reputation emerged, plus four categories: physical violence, psychological violence, honor insults, and ethnic-religious insults. The term "honor insults," as a unique finding, was used instead of "sexual harassment." These findings may help to redefine workplace violence based on cultural background, design strategies for supporting nurses, and prevent and manage such violence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA SAVA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the United Nations, signed at San Francisco, California, on the 26th of June 1945, The European Convention of Human Rights, signed at Rome, on the 5th of November 1950, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1963, The Charter of Paris, called “For a new Europe” – 1989, The Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, signed at San José, in Costa Rica, on the 22nd of November 1969, The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted during the Conference for Organisation of African Unity (OAU, on the 27th of June 1981, The Asian Human Rights Charter, elaborated by the Asian Human Rights Commission and proclaimed on the 17th of May 1998 etc.

  14. Human rights literacy: Moving towards rights-based education and transformative action through understandings of dignity, equality and freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Becker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The twentieth century has been characterised by the proliferation of human rights in the discursive practices of the United Nations (Baxi, 1997. In this article, we explore the continual process of rights-based education towards transformative action, and an open and democratic society, as dependent upon the facilitation of human rights literacy in teacher training. Our theoretical framework examines the continual process of moving towards an open and democratic society through the facilitation of human rights literacy, rights-based education and transformative action. We focus specifically on understandings of dignity, equality and freedom, as both rights (legal claims and values (moral action across horizontal and vertical applications, considering the internalisation and implementation of dignity, equality and freedom towards transformative action. Our analysis of data stemming from a project funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF entitled 'Human Rights Literacy: A quest for meaning', brought student-teachers' understandings into conversation with the proposed theoretical framework. In terms of understandings related to dignity, equality and freedom, participants seemingly understand human rights either as legal interests, or alternatively, as they pertain to values such as caring, ubuntu, respect, human dignity and equality. Legal understandings primarily focus on the vertical application of the Bill of Rights (RSA, 1996a and the role of government in this regard, whereas understandings related to the realisation of values tended to focus on the horizontal applications of particularly dignity and equality as the product of the relation between self and other. We conclude the article by linking the analysis and the theoretical framework to education as a humanising practice within human rights as a common language of humanity. In so doing, we argue that human rights literacy and rights-based education transcend knowledge about human

  15. The Fundamental Principle of Human Dignity and the Right to Life : Collision Any of These Fundamental Principles The Perspective of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika do Amaral Véras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This legal article works the theme of the collision of the fundamental principles, especially the principle of human dignity and the right to life, abortion perspective. First, we discuss of fundamental rights, bringing its definition, observed the distinction between human rights and fundamental rights. Then the super principle of human dignity is covered and, soon after, the right to life is highlighted through its relevant elements. Finally, talks on a possible collision beween the fundamental right to life and the principle of human dignity, with a special focus on the issue of abortion.

  16. KANT ON HUMAN DIGNITY: A CRITICAL APPROACH -- KANT E A DIGNIDADE HUMANA: UMA INTERPRETAÇÃO CRÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to reframe and qualify Kant’s moral philosophy for the understanding human dignity. Some Kant’s formulas seem to grant to the human being an inherent and absolute worthiness, when they are read (often in a very decontextualized way. To achieve this objective, I identify the basic characteristics we commonly attribute to the contemporary model of human dignity. This model has some expressions in the axiological field (inherent and absolute worth, and, at the same time, in the legal-political field (cornerstone of human rights and guiding principle of the Rule of law. I intend to see if we can find some of these latter characteristics in the mentioned usages that Kant gives to the term “dignity” and of formulas supposedly connected (“end in itself”, “autonomy”, “humanity”. When contextualizing these expressions, either in the motivations or in the results of Kant’s philosophy, I arrived to the conclusion that Kant was less concerned with the intrinsic worthiness of the human beings, than with establishing the authority of morality. Keywords: Categorical imperative. Human dignity. Humanity. Kant. Rights.

  17. Human dignity and autonomy in the care for patients with dementia: differences among formal caretakers from various cultural backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Dickman, Nomy; Oberman, Amitai

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether gaps exist between caretakers from different ethno-cultural groups (Israeli-born Jews [Sabras], Israeli Arabs [Arabs], and migrants from Russia [Russians]) regarding their perceptions of autonomy and human dignity of patients with dementia. A mixed-methods research scheme was used, comprised of qualitative and quantitative methods, utilizing semi-structured interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Twenty formal caretakers participated in the qualitative portion, and approximately 200 caretakers were included in the quantitative portion. All participants were recruited from three nursing homes and one hospital in the Galilee region (Israel). The qualitative portion of the study yielded eight themes encapsulated in the concept of autonomy and ten themes entailed within human dignity, in the context of care for patients with dementia. By utilizing these themes in the quantitative portion, substantial differences in nursing homes were found in the attitudes to autonomy and dignity of patients with dementia between Russian and Arab as well as Sabra caretakers (index score for autonomy: 2.97, 4.07, and 4, respectively; index score for dignity: 3.17, 4.1, and 4.07). A multi-variable regression, focusing on caretakers from nursing homes, showed the most significant influencing variables on the indexes of autonomy and dignity were ethno-culture Arab/Russian (0.84, 0.62) and the patient's family (0.29, 0.30). Regarding the autonomy index, being a female caretaker also had a significant influence (0.24). In the hospital, no influence emerged for the ethno-culture variables, and neither type of institution showed any influence of religion or religiousness as well as societal or community norms. Contrary to past research, in nursing homes, significant differences were found between certain ethno-cultural groups (Arabs and Russians) regarding their stance toward the dignity and autonomy of patients with dementia. Arab caretakers' fostering of more

  18. Womb Rentals and Baby-Selling: Does Surrogacy Undermine the Human Dignity and Rights of the Surrogate Mother and Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clara

    2016-11-01

    The question of surrogacy has dominated much of the European human rights agenda over the last two years, at the time writing, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe hopes to adopt a resolution on surrogacy in the coming months. There is, however, danger in taking action at a supranational level to address the European 'surrogacy problem', without first honestly answering the question: does surrogacy undermine the human dignity and rights of the surrogate mother and child? This paper presents the case that surrogacy, by its nature, necessarily undermines the human dignity of both the woman and child born through such arrangements, and thus neither commercial nor altruistic surrogacy can ever be justified.

  19. Language as a barrier to ministry of the Word with special reference to sign language in ministry: Human dignity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leepo J. Modise

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is born out of my participation in the General Synod Ministerial Formation for theological training of Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA, when a decision was taken to license a student with a disability to be a minister of the Word in URCSA. Furthermore, my experience and observation of the licensing of the two candidates with hearing impairments to the ministry of the Word and Sacrament in URCSA and Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (DRCSA has encouraged me to conduct this research. This article is made up of four important parts: Firstly, the researcher will discuss Belhar Confession as the confession that emphasises unity (inclusivity, reconciliation and justice. Secondly, Belhar Confession and disability from the human dignity perspective will be discussed. Thirdly, the ecclesiological practices and shortcomings from the human dignity perspective will be highlighted. Fourthly, pastoral care as the affirmation of human dignity will be discussed.Interdisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The fields involved in this article are Systematic Theology, Sociology and Psychology. The author challenges classification of people with a disability under the category of limited competence by the Dutch Reformed Church when they license the ministerial candidates. The future results will reveal the inclusivity in terms of licensing and calling of ministers in the Dutch Reformed Church Family. This research calls for the change in the traditional discourse within ecclesiological, sociological and psychological fields, which exclude the people with a disability from the ministry of the Word and Sacraments.

  20. [Surrogate Motherhood and Woman Dignity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparisi Miralles, Ángela

    2017-01-01

    Motherhood by subrogation is an issue that directly affects human rights and, ultimately, human dignity. Therefore, if we want to give an adequate response to this issue, it is essential to reflect on how this practice affects the dignity and rights of the people involved in it and, more specifically, the pregnant mother. This study tries to show how in relation to the latter, maternity by subrogation directly contradicts some basic requirements of human dignity, since it reifies, instrumentalizes, convert into an object of commerce, and disregards the personal uniqueness of pregnant women.

  1. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  2. Dignity and the use of body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper contends that the conventional ethical and legal ways of analysing the wrong involved in the misuse of human body parts are inadequate, and should be replaced with an analysis based on human dignity. It examines the various ways in which dignity has been understood, outlines many of the criticisms made of those ways (agreeing with many of the criticisms), and proposes a new way of seeing dignity which is exegetically consonant with the way in which dignity has been historically understood, and yet avoids the pitfalls which have led to dignity being dismissed by many as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. The account of dignity proposed is broadly Aristotelian. It defines dignity in terms of human thriving, and presupposes that it is possible, at least in principle, to determine empirically what makes humans thrive. It contends that humans are quintessentially relational animals, and that it is not possible (and certainly not ethically desirable) to define humans as atomistic entities. One important corollary of this is that when using dignity/thriving as a criterion for determining the ethical acceptability of a proposed action or inaction, one should ask not merely how the dignity interests of the patient (for instance) would be affected, but how the dignity interests of all stakeholders would be affected. The business of ethics is then the business of auditing all those interests, and determining the course of action which would maximise the amount of thriving in the world.

  3. A Local Response to the Global Human Rights Standard: The "Ubuntu" Perspective on Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Some African leaders have made the argument that the promotion of an international human rights standard is a strategy that is used and abused by hypocritical Western governments to justify their intervention into the affairs of African countries. The tacit objective behind this articulation is the desire to avoid an external evaluation or…

  4. Just emotions: Reading the Sarah and Hagar narrative (Genesis 16, 21 through the lens of human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Claassens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeked to read the interconnected narratives of Sarah and Hagar (Genesis 16, 21 in terms of the hermeneutical lens of human dignity. For the purpose of this article, recent studies on the performative nature of emotions, which considered the central role of emotions such as pain, disgust and hatred in shaping the lives of individuals as well as the ways in which people relate to one another, were helpful in contemplating the situations of dehumanisation faced by both Sarah and Hagar as well as the broader question regarding upholding human worth in a context of indignity. This article furthermore considered the role of emotions in a conversation on ethics and particularly the way in which the narrative offered a fruitful avenue for considering Israel�s relationship to their neighbours � a line of interpretation that holds potential for reflecting on complex interracial and interethnic relationships in today�s global context.

  5. Understanding the Different Dimensions of Human Dignity: Analysis of the Decision of the Constitutional Courth of the Republic of Slovenia on the »Tito Street« Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleindienst Petra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia made a historical decision on the ‘Tito street’ case, thereby placing human dignity at the centre of the constitutional order. A few years later, some related doubts not resolved by the Constitutional Court remain. For instance, the Court argues that an exhaustive a priori definition of human dignity is impossible since the notion depends on the development of its historical and ethical substance over time. The question thus arises of why legislation states that human dignity is universal even though it can be perceived as being a product of time and place. In this paper, we strive to answer this question by arguing that human dignity has two dimensions, initial dignity and realised dignity, and interpret the Court’s decision from a new angle. Thereby, the aim of this paper is to build a conceptual framework of human dignity and discuss it from a fresh perspective as well as to prove its applicability by presenting Slovenian constitutional case law. The paper offers significant insights into the discussion and may therefore help to improve future interpretations of human dignity in the field of constitutional case law.

  6. A concept analysis of dignity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Connelly, Thomas W; Brown, Rana; Proulx, Kathy; Vo, Thuy

    2004-10-01

    Human dignity is an essential value of professional nursing education as well as a component of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics. Nurses are exhorted to treat patients with dignity, and older adults want to be treated with dignity and die with dignity. Although dignity, particularly the dignity of older adults, is often discussed in the health care literature, its meaning is not always clear. The aim of this paper is to describe a concept analysis to develop a definition of dignity in older adults. Data were collected using a literature review and five focus groups composed of older adults. The literature provided data about professionals' ideas of dignity and the focus groups provided qualitative data about the nature of dignity in older people. The literature review and focus groups were carried out concurrently, followed by synthesis of the findings. Dignity is an inherent characteristic of being human, it can be subjectively felt as an attribute of the self, and is made manifest through behaviour that demonstrates respect for self and others. Dignity must be learned, and an individual's dignity is affected by the treatment received from others. A behavioural definition of dignity was constructed and this could provide the theoretical basis for nurses to develop interventions that foster dignity for older people.

  7. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  8. Unlocking Human Dignity: A Plan to Transform the US Immigrant Detention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migration and Refugee Services/ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking Human Dignity: A Plan to Transform the US Immigrant Detention System addresses one of the most troubled features of the US immigration system and highlights the need for fundamental changes to it. The report comes six years since the inception of the Obama administration’s detention reform initiative. In the interim, the number of immigrant detainees per year has risen to more than 400,000, the administration has opened immense new family detention centers, and the overwhelming majority of persons in the custody of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS have remained in prisons, jails and other secure facilities where they are subject to standards designed for criminal defendants and, in many ways, treated more harshly than criminals.The report’s overarching recommendation is that the US immigrant detention system be dismantled and replaced with a network of supervised release, case management, and community support programs, designed to ensure court appearances. It recognizes that detention may be necessary for short periods and in certain cases, but it rejects detention as a central immigrant “management” tool, and argues that detention should only be used as a last resort if less harmful strategies and programs—viewed on a continuum beginning with the least restrictive and moving to release programs with different levels of supervision, monitoring, and support—cannot reasonably ensure court appearances or (in rare cases protect the public. It opposes the detention of pregnant and nursing women, bona fide asylum seekers, the very ill, the disabled, the elderly, and other vulnerable persons. It calls for the substantial contraction of detention facilities and “bed space.”As the first step in this process, the report urges Congress to commission a comprehensive study on the benefits, challenges, cost, and time frame for creating a civil immigration detention system. It also proposes that the administration create a

  9. Autonomy and dignity: a discussion on contingency and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brussel, Leen

    2014-06-01

    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying 'well'. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a 'good' death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on 'autonomy' and 'dignity' as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a variety of meanings within different discursive projects. The article aims to distinguish the varieties of these signifiers by elaborating existing theoretical perspectives on autonomy and dignity, and also, starting from a perspective on mass media as sites of meaning production and contestation, to study the contingency of autonomy and dignity in Belgian newspaper coverage of four prominent euthanasia cases. By means of a discourse-theoretical textual analysis, this study exposes a dominant--yet contested--articulation of rational-personal autonomy and of dignity in external terms as something that can be obtained, retained or lost, rather than in terms of intrinsic human integrity. These logics of representation reflect a more general late modern dominance of liberal autonomy and of dignity as being closely connected to self-identity, but at the same time result in limited visibility of alternative ways of experiencing an autonomous and dignified death.

  10. Dying with dignity

    OpenAIRE

    S P Kalantri

    2003-01-01

    The concept of dignity has beeen one of the ambiguous concepts in biomedical ethics. Thus the ambiguous nature of this concept has been extended to what it means to die with dignity. This research work is an investigation into the complexity in the understanding of "dying with dignity" in Applied Ethics.

  11. Mandatory Submission to The Identification of Genetic Profile for Criminal Purpose: A Broach Pursuant to the Right to Privacy and Dignity of the Human Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maia Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate that the mandatory submission convicted of a crime committed, intentionally, with serious violence against person or heinous crime, to identify the genetic profile by DNA extraction - deoxyribonucleic acid, although by proper and painless technique is offensive to fundamental rights. For this purpose, it is part of the overall concept of the right to privacy, which is configured as a negative right or protection against unlawful state mismanagement, in order to protect a need or a basic right to the free individual self-determination. Then genetic intimacy is defined as an asset able to reveal the physical, psychological, behavioral and disease features, which, if disclosed or accessed without the consent of the accused, may generate stigmatization and discrimination of the subject involved, violating in this way, therefore, the right to privacy. In conclusion, we move towards emphasizing besides the right to privacy, compulsory provision of biological material to identify the genetic profile is offensive to fundamental rights to physical liberty or outpatient; physical integrity; to the freedom of religion or conscience; non-discrimination; the silence and non-production of evidences against himself, and in last instance, the biggest vector of all fundamental rights: the dignity of the human person.

  12. New Paradigms of Social Rights and Human Dignity, Analyzed From the Perspective of the Rights of Personality of Workers in a Globalized World

    OpenAIRE

    Villatore, Marco Antônio Cesar; Rodrigues, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    New paradigms of social rights in relation to human dignity will be analyzed, principally in situations in which workers are morally degraded because of globalization, by virtue of its ready generation of unemployment. First, the distinction (or lack thereof) will be examined with respect to social rights in relation to other rights. The question of globalization will also be considered, emphasizing the economic crisis as a factor that directly and indirectly produces problems everywhere.  Th...

  13. THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON AND HUMAN SOCIETY: A CONTEMPORARY READING OF VATICAN II’S PASTORAL CONSTITUTI ON «GAUDIUMET SPES» OF 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PH. BORDEYNE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the topic of moral ethics as expounded by the Second Vatican Council in its dogmatic constitution «Gaudium et Spes». It off ers a consistent and detailed analysis of the principle ideas essential for the understanding of the Council’s doctrine on the dignity of the human person and which are based on a theological interpretation of the human person as a social being. In this way, the Council took an innovative stance on the subject of the human person in society and the Roman Catholic Church consequently for the fi rst time in history opened itself more completely to the exploration of a full range of social problems

  14. Resolution No. 43/146. Measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers, 8 December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains portions of the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers. In this resolution, the General Assembly reaffirms international instruments protecting human rights but articulates a further need to improve the protection of human rights for migrant workers and their families. The General Assembly then noted the two most recent reports of the Working Group on the Drafting of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families and took measures to enable the Working Group to complete its task.

  15. Architectures of intergenerational justice : Human dignity, international law, and duties to future generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws attention to the constitutive requirements of intergenerational justice and exposes the limitations of regulative arguments based on international human rights law. Intergenerational justice demands constraining the regulative freedom of the international community, and it is

  16. In defense of posthuman dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Nick

    2005-06-01

    Positions on the ethics of human enhancement technologies can be (crudely) characterized as ranging from transhumanism to bioconservatism. Transhumanists believe that human enhancement technologies should be made widely available, that individuals should have broad discretion over which of these technologies to apply to themselves, and that parents should normally have the right to choose enhancements for their children-to-be. Bioconservatives (whose ranks include such diverse writers as Leon Kass, Francis Fukuyama, George Annas, Wesley Smith, Jeremy Rifkin, and Bill McKibben) are generally opposed to the use of technology to modify human nature. A central idea in bioconservativism is that human enhancement technologies will undermine our human dignity. To forestall a slide down the slippery slope towards an ultimately debased 'posthuman' state, bioconservatives often argue for broad bans on otherwise promising human enhancements. This paper distinguishes two common fears about the posthuman and argues for the importance of a concept of dignity that is inclusive enough to also apply to many possible posthuman beings. Recognizing the possibility of posthuman dignity undercuts an important objection against human enhancement and removes a distortive double standard from our field of moral vision.

  17. Human Dignity and the Commercial Appropriation of Personality: Towards a Cosmopolitan Consensus in Publicity Rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Weber

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the commercial appropriation of human personality and its regulation in different legal systems. Where accepted, so called “publicity rights” allow for the exclusive commercial exercise of a persona’s publicity values. A tradable worth can be found in many personal characteristics such as voice, signature or pseudonym. Predominantly, however, it accrues to one’s name and likeness. It is argued that such potential rights are inherent in every human being.

  18. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics: a reflection on the ethics of respect and human dignity with nurse as expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2003-10-01

    The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses calls for the nurse to practice with compassion and respect for every individual. What are the ethics and challenges of practicing professional nursing with expertise and educating a new generation of nurses while incorporating the interpretive statements into practice? This column differentiates the traditional biomedical views on human dignity and respect while exploring the embedded ethics of respect and self-determination and what it truly means to be an expert of nursing from the theoretical perspective of the human becoming school of thought.

  19. Dignity and the death penalty in the United States Supreme Court

    OpenAIRE

    Malkani, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    The US Supreme Court has repeatedly invoked the idea of dignity in its Eighth Amendment jurisprudence, particularly in cases involving capital punishment. However, it has never articulated a clear and consistent conception of dignity. The first half of this paper examines the Court's inconsistent use, and highlights how various justices have used different conceptions of human dignity, communitarian dignity, and institutional dignity to uphold the constitutionality of capital punishment. This...

  20. Organ markets and human dignity: on selling your body and soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempsey, W E

    2000-08-01

    This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant.

  1. Towards a substantive knowledge that promotes the dignity of the human being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginés Marco Perles

    2017-05-01

    Regarding this failure to take such life processes into account, and given its propensity for generalization, science stood out among these spheres as placing an excessive weight on positivist values that by their very nature disregarded anything that could not be classified as such. This approach was in stark contrast with the open tradition upheld by Miguel de Unamuno that would be eagerly taken up by Spanish philosophy in the twentieth century. From the perspective of that philosophy it is, therefore, worth asking whether all of those aspects and elements (not only those that form part of any given human life but also those belonging to the other two main spheres of culture – art and morality – displaced by scientism because they were not positive or verifiable through experiment, because they did not lend themselves to being understood using a rationalist or logical/scientific reasoning were not also human. Was their rejection justified?

  2. "Death with dignity" in the Japanese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Motomu

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, "death with dignity" is a widely known term that is distinguished from "euthanasia." It is generally defined as "the act of letting a terminally ill or a patient in a persistent vegetative state die by withdrawing life-sustaining treatment on request in the form of a living will." Most Japanese people consider death with dignity a desirable way of terminating one's life and it is therefore acceptable as a "natural death" or "humane death." Originally, death with dignity was regarded as a passive intervention, but since the 1990s, its connotations have changed in western countries; people claim that voluntary active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide should be legalized as death with dignity or the "right to die." In this paper, I examine the points and problems of this new type of death with dignity and propose an alternative version of death with dignity especially for the Japanese context, i.e. the end-of-life care process in support of terminal living with dignity.

  3. The elderly patients' dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C.; Wagner, L.

    2007-01-01

    the principles of nursing practice, protecting, enhancing and promoting the elderly patient's health potential. It is suggested that these themes of dignity provide a frame of reference in elder care; they shape the understanding of when health issues become a concern for health-promoting care for the elderly...... patient and what goals should be defined. Key words: Dignity, elderly patient, phenomenological hermeneutical method....

  4. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    appearance’. The study documents that caring for older people is about creating small everyday circumstances in which patient dignity can flourish. Shortcomings of a secondary analysis are discussed and suggestions for future research, such as how older hospital patients experience caring and dignity...

  5. Dying with dignity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Zeinab; Ashouri, Elaheh; AllahBakhshian, Maryam; Pourfarzad, Zahra; Shirani, Farimah; Safazadeh, Shima; Ziyaei, Marziyeh; Varzeshnejad, Maryam; Hashemi, Maryam; Taleghani, Fariba

    2016-05-01

    This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of dying with dignity. Dignity is an important component of providing care for dying patients and their families. Nevertheless, given that this concept is poorly defined, concept analysis is one of the best ways to define and clarify the concept of death with dignity with the aim to enhance its application in clinical practice, research and education. A search of multiple nursing and social sciences databases was undertaken, including Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, ProQuest, Scopus, Medline, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Noormage, Cinahl, Magiran, PsycINFO and SID. After an extensive review of the literature from 1998-2014, about 14 related articles were included in the study. Based on these articles, the applications, attributes and experimental results of and references to death with dignity were recorded. Based on this analysis, the most important attributes of this concept included respect for privacy, respect, spiritual peace and hope. The antecedents of this concept included consideration of moral values during caregiving, preservation of human dignity as a patient right and professional ethics, and belief in the dignity of self and others, consideration of culture in providing end-of-life care. The consequences of this concept included a sense of peace in the patient and their family, peaceful death and provision of patient privacy and comfort. The concept of patient dignity has been referred to in many contexts. However, considering the dignity of dying patients commensurate with their culture is the most important component of care provided by nurses to facilitate a peaceful death. Respecting the dignity of the patient results in the reduction of her/his suffering and prepares her/him for a comfortable death. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. What is dignity in prehospital emergency care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelsson, Anna; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2017-05-01

    Ethics and dignity in prehospital emergency care are important due to vulnerability and suffering. Patients can lose control of their body and encounter unfamiliar faces in an emergency situation. To describe what specialist ambulance nurse students experienced as preserved and humiliated dignity in prehospital emergency care. The study had a qualitative approach. Data were collected by Flanagan's critical incident technique. The participants were 26 specialist ambulance nurse students who described two critical incidents of preserved and humiliated dignity, from prehospital emergency care. Data consist of 52 critical incidents and were analyzed with interpretive content analysis. Ethical considerations: The study followed the ethical principles in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The result showed how human dignity in prehospital emergency care can be preserved by the ambulance nurse being there for the patient. The ambulance nurses meet the patient in the patient's world and make professional decisions. The ambulance nurse respects the patient's will and protects the patient's body from the gaze of others. Humiliated dignity was described through the ambulance nurse abandoning the patient and by healthcare professionals failing, disrespecting, and ignoring the patient. It is a unique situation when a nurse meets a patient face to face in a critical life or death moment. The discussion describes courage and the ethical vision to see another human. Dignity was preserved when the ambulance nurse showed respect and protected the patient in prehospital emergency care. The ambulance nurse students' ethical obligation results in the courage to see when a patient's dignity is in jeopardy of being humiliated. Humiliated dignity occurs when patients are ignored and left unprotected. This ethical dilemma affects the ambulance nurse students badly due to the fact that the morals and attitudes of ambulance nurses are reflected in their actions toward the patient.

  7. Death with dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care pr...

  8. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... dignity is maintained. Background. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise the importance of care for human dignity. There have been several attempts to define dignity as a theoretical concept, but few studies on how dignity is maintained from...... was used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive...

  9. The rights of personality in the search of dignity to live and die: the right to death (with dignity as corollary of the right to life (with dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze if the rights of personality, primarily the right to own body, the right to psychophysical integrity, and, deeply, the right to life with dignity, can base the right to death with dignity, embodied in the anticipation of death in terminal patients. Therefore, it was realized an exploratory-explanatory bibliographical research, qualitative, using the hypothetical-deductive method. The obtained conclusion is that, although the right to life must be preserved, must since with dignity, and, being the death (with dignity part of the life (with dignity process, it must not be promptly rejected, for preserving the own rights of personality.

  10. Granting death with dignity: patient, family and professional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris

    2007-04-01

    Dignity is a complex construct lacking clear meaning. While conceptualizing dignity as a basic right is useful in determining and justifying social and economic costs of health care, it is insufficient in considerations of personal dignity at the end of life. There is a dissonance between how dignity is shown to matter to healthcare professionals compared to patients. Furthermore, dignity is not clearly linked in the empirical literature to variables of quality of life and to a dignified death. Current studies about the construct of dignity enhance understanding of how we extrinsically construct moral worth, but not of how individuals interpret intrinsic moral worth through maintaining their personal integrity and attitudes of being cared for. References to key qualitative studies illuminate how clinicians ethically negotiate a creation of dying with dignity. As one's personal integrity fades, caregivers (i.e. healthcare providers, family and friends) are challenged to recognise and attend to the individual's vulnerability. I suggest that caregivers nurture personal integrity - through gestures that remember and honour aspects of the other as he/she was once known. Perhaps only through others can dying people be granted death with a sense of personal dignity.

  11. A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Nora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

  12. Universalism, particularism and the ethics of dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl

    2001-12-01

    This paper explores the problem of universalism and particularism in contemporary ethics, and its relationship to Christian bioethics in particular. An ethic of human dignity is outlined, which, it is argued, constrains moral discourse in the broad sense--thus meeting the demands of universalism--but which is at the same time amenable to a variety of particularist interpretations--thus acknowledging the current shift toward historicism, traditionalism, and culture. The particularist interpretations that are of central concern here are those provided by historic Christianity. The eventual goal is to indicate how a Christian conception of human dignity can have universal normative relevance both as a standard against which to assess competing particularist conceptions, and as a practical guide for everyday living. A Christian conception of dignity will in turn have significant implications when addressing contemporary issues in bioethics. These are ambitious goals, and a full explication of the ideas presented will not be possible in this context. Nevertheless, there is value in getting a bird's-eye view of the landscape before one goes about scaling the mountains and exploring the valleys. The present essay is intended as a general geography of the moral terrain in which an ethic of dignity in general, and a Christian perspective on dignity in particular, can provide normative guidance.

  13. [Death with dignity - dignity life. A debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Morales, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Since 2010 in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia passed into law ″derechos y garantías de la dignidad de las personas en el proceso de muerte″. At national level, in Spain, it's disputed the need to legalize this delicate aspect therefore already been made some projects for legalization. This advised to review the pros and cons of some legislative implementation experiences and case mix in countries where it has already occurred. This paper undertakes the study of the implementation of the Death with Dignity Act in Oregon and highlight is what were the immediate consequences and risks that has produced a law of this nature.

  14. Dying with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. [Architecture, budget and dignity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on its dynamic strengths, a psychiatric unit develops various projects and care techniques. In this framework, the institute director must make a number of choices with regard to architecture. Why renovate the psychiatry building? What financial investments are required? What criteria should be followed? What if the major argument was based on the respect of the patient's dignity?

  16. Human-Systems Integration Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to baseline a Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) document as a companion to the NASA-STD-3001 and Human Integration Design...

  17. Clarifying appeals to dignity in medical ethics from an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes Jm

    2009-03-01

    Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the 'special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics.

  18. Gestational Surrogacy from the Perspective of Human Dignity%人格尊严视角下代孕技术的伦理审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓琴; 张振兴

    2012-01-01

    目前我国对代孕技术采取全面禁止的态度是伦理学界争议较大的问题之一。生育和人类的繁衍作为人类基本的一项权利,应当在社会中得到尊重,得到法律的保护。文章从“人格尊严”的视角出发,对代孕技术中涉及的委托父母、代孕母亲进行伦理审视和研究,从其人格尊严的价值层面寻找对代孕技术在计划生育政策条件下有限开放的伦理论证。%The ban on gestational surrogacy in China has triggered a heated argument in me acaaemla o, ethics. Rights of reproduction, being a basic human right, should get more respect and legal protection in the community. Based on the summary of several represent academic views of gestational surrogacy, this article pro- duces an ethical research of the infertile couples and surrogate mothers from the perspective of human dignity, and attempts to find the ethical argumentations to support the appropriate opening of gestational surrogacy.

  19. Promoting Dignity: The Ethical Dimension of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David R

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the limitations of a strict scientific account of the causes of unhealthy behaviors, based on the standards promoted in evidence-based medicine, where randomized controlled trials are seen to provide the gold standard for establishing the validity of different explanations. The article critiques this account based on its disputed assumption that human free will does not exist, and thus, human autonomy and moral responsibility are an illusion. By denying human autonomy, the naturalistic paradigm also denies the possibility of human dignity. In contrast, the article describes and explains a humanistic account of human agency where human beings are characterized by the capacity to choose how to live their lives based on values that matter. Based on this humanistic framework, the article explains why dignity is an essential dimension of human health and well-being and describes key research challenges in moving the field of health promotion in a more humanistic direction. The article concludes with the recommendation to expand the goal of health promotion beyond physical fitness and to reorient the methods of research toward articulating values that matter and promoting human dignity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  1. ["Dignity" at the end of life: ethical and deontologic reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzon, Davide

    2015-12-01

    Bioethical reflection is often raised to qualify medical treatment in relation to the concept of "dignity" of the human being. In philosophy, the concept of human dignity is used to refer to the intrinsic value of every human being but it has been framed in many different ways depending on the theoretical matrix we refer to. According to Christian principles, the dignity of human beings resides on their being created in the image and likeness of God: hence, the holiness of life for the believer and the condemnation of all means of action intended to anticipate death from suicide to euthanasia. On the contrary, according to the liberal tradition, human dignity is especially expressed in the autonomy of every human being. The Italian and the German Constitutions recall the value of human dignity. In the article 32 of the Italian Constitution, the concept of dignity is taken into account when stating the autonomy of the individual decision-making about health treatment. This is confirmed by the Code of Medical Ethics (2014): the right to self-determination and the right of patients to decide for themselves in accordance with their own life plans, are at the core of the concept of "human dignity". For this reason, doctors should support and encourage the full right of every patient to be considered as an autonomous person until the end of life, affirming his dignity. The acronym ABCD (airway, breathing, circulation, drugs) synthetises the essentials of intensive care procedures in life-threatening events. The same acronym should guide our behavior in promoting dignity in clinical settings. Attitude: moving away from our certainties, to better understand the real nature of the sick person we are approaching. Behavior: always be inspired by kindness and respect. Compassion, that is, deep awareness of the suffering, coupled with the desire to bring relief. Dialogue, being open to know the human being "behind" disease. This approach, developed by Chochinov and called

  2. [Difficulties of the negotiation process of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the application of biology and medicine (and a call for its adhesion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba Ulloa, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Making an attempt to frame the controversial topic of bioethics within international law and with the aim of watching over the society, the Council of Europe elaborated the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the application of biology and medicine. The instrument, which came into force 12 years ago, is opened to all countries but only 29 states have ratified it. This legal document represents the base of a universal legislation on the subject. The present article examines the origin of the Convention, its process and evolution. It analyses the intense debates with regard to the human dignity, the freedom of science, the beginning of life, among others; equally it explores the interests at stake within the convention, whether political, moral, scientific, and economic, at the moment of its draft and in the present. Finally, the article analyses the possibility of the adoption of the Convention by the Mexican government. It concludes on the effectiveness of the international law of bioethics, and calls for the need that the Convention be used as a base for universal legislation.

  3. Nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Findings: Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. Conclusion: According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions. PMID:28546981

  4. Nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses' commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P < 0.05 were considered significant in all analyses. Most patients (91%) scored their relationships with nurses as good. Moreover, 91.8% of the participants described privacy protection as moderate/good. Only 6.5% of the subjects rated it as excellent. The majority of the patients (84.4%) believed their independence was maintained. These subjects also approved of taking part in decision-making. According to our findings, nurses respected patient dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions.

  5. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most intimate aspects of one’s life and, because, choose the death with dignity doesn’t mean to give up from the right to life.

  6. Dignity in the care of older people – a review of the theoretical and empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dignity has become a central concern in UK health policy in relation to older and vulnerable people. The empirical and theoretical literature relating to dignity is extensive and as likely to confound and confuse as to clarify the meaning of dignity for nurses in practice. The aim of this paper is critically to examine the literature and to address the following questions: What does dignity mean? What promotes and diminishes dignity? And how might dignity be operationalised in the care of older people? This paper critically reviews the theoretical and empirical literature relating to dignity and clarifies the meaning and implications of dignity in relation to the care of older people. If nurses are to provide dignified care clarification is an essential first step. Methods This is a review article, critically examining papers reporting theoretical perspectives and empirical studies relating to dignity. The following databases were searched: Assia, BHI, CINAHL, Social Services Abstracts, IBSS, Web of Knowledge Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index and location of books a chapters in philosophy literature. An analytical approach was adopted to the publications reviewed, focusing on the objectives of the review. Results and discussion We review a range of theoretical and empirical accounts of dignity and identify key dignity promoting factors evident in the literature, including staff attitudes and behaviour; environment; culture of care; and the performance of specific care activities. Although there is scope to learn more about cultural aspects of dignity we know a good deal about dignity in care in general terms. Conclusion We argue that what is required is to provide sufficient support and education to help nurses understand dignity and adequate resources to operationalise dignity in their everyday practice. Using the themes identified from our review we offer proposals for the direction of

  7. Dependence and a Kantian conception of dignity as a value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Philippa

    2016-02-01

    Kantian moral concepts concerning respect for human dignity have played a central role in articulating ethical guidelines for medical practice and research, and for articulating some central positions within bioethical debates more generally. The most common of these Kantian moral concepts is the obligation to respect the dignity of patients and of human research subjects as autonomous, self-determining individuals. This article describes Kant's conceptual distinction between dignity and autonomy as values, and draws on the work of several contemporary Kantian philosophers who employ the distinction to make sense of some common moral intuitions, feelings, and norms. Drawing on this work, the article argues that the conceptual distinction between dignity and autonomy as values is indispensable in the context of considering our obligations to those who are dependent and vulnerable.

  8. Dignity and the ownership and use of body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Property-based models of the ownership of body parts are common. They are inadequate. They fail to deal satisfactorily with many important problems, and even when they do work, they rely on ideas that have to be derived from deeper, usually unacknowledged principles. This article proposes that the parent principle is always human dignity, and that one will get more satisfactory answers if one interrogates the older, wiser parent instead of the younger, callow offspring. But human dignity has a credibility problem. It is often seen as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. These accusations are often just. But a more thorough exegesis exculpates dignity and gives it its proper place at the fountainhead of bioethics. Dignity is objective human thriving. Thriving considerations can and should be applied to dead people as well as live ones. To use dignity properly, the unit of bioethical analysis needs to be the whole transaction rather than (for instance) the doctor-patient relationship. The dignity interests of all the stakeholders are assessed in a sort of utilitarianism. Its use in relation to body part ownership is demonstrated. Article 8(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights endorses and mandates this approach.

  9. [Dignity of the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Rights Literacy: Moving towards Rights-Based Education and Transformative Action through Understandings of Dignity, Equality and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne; de Wet, Annamagriet; van Vollenhoven, Willie

    2015-01-01

    The twentieth century has been characterised by the proliferation of human rights in the discursive practices of the United Nations (Baxi, 1997). In this article, we explore the continual process of rights-based education towards transformative action, and an open and democratic society, as dependent upon the facilitation of human rights literacy…

  11. The political economy of dignity: monitoring the advancement of socio-economic human rights in a globalized economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dichotomy between political and socio-economic rights has been subject to criticism ever since the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, almost sixty years ago. The declaration itself leaves little doubt regarding the interconnectedness between both types of human rights.

  12. Dying with dignity: the good patient versus the good death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Kathryn; Jacelon, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Death is a unique experience for each human being, yet there is tremendous societal pressure on a dying person to be a "goodpatient " while trying to experience the "good death. " These pressures shape patient, caregiver, and family choices in end-of-life situations. The purpose of this literature review was twofold: first, to develop an understanding of "dying with dignity" to enhance the end-of-life care received by dying patients, and second, to contribute to a concept analysis of dignity to improve the clarity and consistency of future research related to dignity in aging individuals. Articles pertaining to dying with dignity from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, ethics, psychology, and sociology were reviewed using a matrix method. A dichotomy surrounding dying with dignity emerged from this review. The definition of dignity in dying identifies not only an intrinsic, unconditional quality of human worth, but also the external qualities of physical comfort, autonomy, meaningfulness, usefulness, preparedness, and interpersonal connection. For many elderly individuals, death is a process, rather than a moment in time, resting on a need for balance between the technology of science and the transcendence of spirituality.

  13. Exploring the value of dignity in the work-life of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Jane; Moss, Cheryle

    2007-04-01

    In this paper the authors draw attention to the value of nurse dignity in the work-life of nurses. How does the profession currently understand this as a concept and construct? How might the valuing of worker dignity in the workplace affect the wellbeing of the workforce? A review of nursing literature and a theoretical lens on worker dignity derived from recent work by Hodson (2001) was used to explore these questions. In the context of current and international workforce issues associated with recruitment and retention, analysis of the construct of worker dignity within the profession takes on a strong imperative. The large existing body of research into nursing workplace environments highlights concern that nurses have in understanding and improving work-life quality. Findings of this inquiry reveal that while there is a degree of coherence between the nursing research and elements of Hodson's (2001) research on worker dignity, the dignity of nurses, as a specific construct and as an intrinsic human and worker right has received little explicit attention. Reasons for this may lie partly in approaches that privilege patient dignity over nurse dignity and which rely on the altruism and self-sacrifice of nurses to sustain patient care in environments dominated by cost-control agendas. The value of dignity in the work-life of nurses has been under-explored and there is a critical need for further theoretical work and research. This agenda goes beyond acceptance of dignity in the workplace as a human right towards the recognition that worker dignity may be a critical factor in sustaining development of healthy workplaces and healthy workforces. Directing explicit attention to nurse dignity may benefit the attainment of both nurse and organisational goals. Hodson's (2001) framework offers a new perspective on dignity in the workplace and leads to new insights and a slightly different view of a 'road well travelled' in nursing literature.

  14. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  15. Fostering dignity in the care of nursing home residents through slow caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Lillestø, Britt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical impairment and dependency on others may be a threat to dignity. Research questions: The purpose of this study was to explore dignity as a core concept in caring, and how healthcare personnel focus on and foster dignity in nursing home residents. Research design: This study has...... personnel, maintaining human dignity requires slow caring in nursing homes, as an essential approach....... a hermeneutic design. Participants and research context: In all, 40 healthcare personnel from six nursing homes in Scandinavia participated in focus group interviews in this study. Ethical considerations: This study has been evaluated and approved by the Regional Ethical Committees and the Social Science Data...

  16. Dignity in maternal health service delivery : Cross sectional survey on factors that promote or compromise dignity in maternal health service delivery: Perspectives of Women and Midwives from Southern Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Chigwenembe, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective The concept of dignity is broad and complex as its interpretation is based on culture and social norms of a particular setting. According to the United Nations General Assembly and the World Health Organization (WHO), human dignity is the understanding of human rights and the foundation for patients’ rights. A number of international instruments have been developed to promote patients’ rights and dignity. Such instruments include the Universal Declaration on Human ...

  17. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational

  18. Integrity, Concept of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Integrity can be defined in the following sense: Integrity accounts for the inviolability of the human being. Although originally a virtue of uncorrupted character, expressing uprightness, honesty, and good intentions, it has, like dignity, been universalized as a quality of the person as such...

  19. [Does the right to die with dignity exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Flores, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Death is one of the few certainties in human beings. This reality generates uneasiness regarding how death will occur especially in circumstances of loneliness or suffering which can become agony. In this report, the author first analyzes the existence of the right to die with dignity as a human right which takes on the nature of being a subjective right. In continuation, the author describes the existing problematic in the application of this right to die in relationship to the so-called double effect mechanism and euthanasia. The author concludes this article by proposing previous instructions or anticipated desires as ideal measures to make the right to die with dignity valid.

  20. The particularity of dignity: relational engagement in care at the end of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, J.; Pasveer, B.; Willems, D.

    This paper articulates dignity as relational engagement in concrete care situations. Dignity is often understood as an abstract principle that represents inherent worth of all human beings. In actual care practices, this principle has to be substantiated in order to gain meaning and inform care

  1. A validade do princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana e o pós-positivismo / The validity of the principle of human dignity and post-positivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Splicido

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente estudo visa discorrer acerca da aplicação do princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana na hermenêutica jurídica contemporânea, sob a luz do pós-positivismo, abordando a origem e evolução histórica sobre tal princípio e pelo próprio Direito para chegar ao atual modelo principiológico que segue e vincula todo o ordenamento jurídico contemporâneo. Palavras-Chave: Princípio da Dignidade da Pessoa Humana – Pós-Positivismo – Interpretação Normativa – Regras e princípios. Abstract The present study contemporary aims at to discourse concerning the application of the beginning of the dignity of the person human being in the legal hermeneutics, under the light of the one post-positivism, approaching the origin and historical evolution on such principle and for the proper Right to arrive at the current study of the principles model that all follows and ties to the legal system contemporary. Keywords: Principle of the Dignity of the Person Human being – Post-positivism - Normative Interpretation - Rules and principles.

  2. Revisiting Privacy and Dignity: Online Shaming in the Global E-Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S.Y. Cheung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of new Web-based technology in the early 21st century, online shaming against those who have violated social norms has been proliferating fast in cyberspace. We have witnessed personal information of targeted individuals being disclosed and displayed for the purpose of humiliation and social condemnation by the anonymous Internet crowd, followed often by harassment and abusive behavior online and offline, resulting in serious disruption of personal life. While public shaming as a form of criminal sanction has been widely discussed in present literature, social policing by shaming transgressions via the Internet is largely a new terrain yet to be explored and studied. Drawing on socio-legal literature on shaming and punishment, and jurisprudence from the English Courts on defamation, harassment and misuse of personal information and the European Court of Human Rights on the relationship between the right to private life and dignity, the discussion will explain how the role of dignity has informed the development of the right to privacy where its value has played a distinctive role. This refers especially to the context in which the plaintiffs could be said to be partly at fault as transgressor-victims. It argues that the recognition and protection of the dignity and privacy of an individual is necessary in order to arrive at norms and values inherent in decent participation in the e-village. In this article, the term “dignity” refers to one’s innate personhood, integrity and self-respect.

  3. God and Dignity of Labour in Nigeria: A Moral Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AWONIYI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept labour can be viewed from different perspectives. In the first instance, it can be assessed in forms of work or vocation embarked upon as a source of livelihood either in a private or public affair of mankind. Also, it refers to work done for wages. Besides, it is equally a generic word for employees and trade unions as a collective. However, dignity of labour is fundamental to the nature of man because man often lifts himself when he does his work well. In line with this observation Pat Utomi writes that: The dignity of the human person is tied very closely to work. And when we work well, when we recognize the dignity of other human beings as they work, we essentially elevate the ordinary to the level of the engagement of   the divine (Utomi,2004:29.

  4. Protecting the dignity of displaced Syrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Mansour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available What does dignity mean to Syrian refugees and practitioners? And what can humanitarian organisations do – or abstain from doing – to help Syrians preserve and protect their dignity?

  5. Moral-jural reflections on the right to marital dignity and the 'nursery of human society': interpreting Luther’s views on conjugal rights and benevolent love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raath

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available At the advent of the Reformation, the institution of marriage, with particular emphasis on the marriage of priests and the degeneration of married life in Germany, proved to be a contentious matter in the discourse on marriage between Martin Luther and his colleague Melanchthon on the one hand and the papal authorities on the other. Although Luther subscribed to the basic definition of marriage postulated by the classical Roman jurists, he placed the issue of man’s “de facto” conjugal union in a broader perspective of moral-jural right as the foundation of the spouses’ duties and rights in marriage. Hence the distinction between “de facto” and “de jure” conjugal union enabled Luther and Melanchthon to develop a broader natural law-inspired view on marital dignity and the right thereto. In this article the origin, content and some implications of Luther’s reformational perspectives on the dignity of marriage are investigated.

  6. Death and dignity in Catholic Christian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-12-01

    This article traces the history of the concept of dignity in Western thought, arguing that it became a formal Catholic theological concept only in the late nineteenth century. Three uses of the word are distinguished: intrinsic, attributed, and inflorescent dignity, of which, it is argued, the intrinsic conception is foundational. The moral norms associated with respect for intrinsic dignity are discussed briefly. The scriptural and theological bases for adopting the concept of dignity as a Christian idea are elucidated. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of this concept of dignity to the spiritual and ethical care of the dying.

  7. Exploring nurses' personal dignity, global self-esteem and work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Bonnie A; Dellert, Jane C

    2016-06-01

    This study examines nurses' perceptions of dignity in themselves and their work. Nurses commonly assert concern for human dignity as a component of the patients' experience rather than as necessary in the nurses' own lives or in the lives of others in the workplace. This study is exploratory and generates potential relationships for further study and theory generation in nursing. What is the relationship between the construct nurses' sense of dignity and global self-esteem, work satisfaction, and identified personal traits? This cross-sectional correlation study used a stratified random sample of nurses which was obtained from a US University alumni list from 1965 to 2009 (N = 133). University Institutional Review Board approval was achieved prior to mailing research questionnaire packets to participants. Participation was optional and numerical codes preserved confidentiality. Statistical results indicated a moderately strong association between the nurse's sense of personal dignity and self-esteem (rx = .62, p = .000) with areas of difference clarified and discussed. A positive but moderate association between nurses' personal dignity and nurses' work satisfaction (rx = .37, p = .000) and a similar association between self-esteem and nurses' work satisfaction (rs = .29, p = .001) were found. A statistically significant difference was found (F = 3.49 (df = 4), p = .01) for dignity and categories of spiritual commitment and for nurses' personal dignity when ratings of health status were compared (F = 21.24 (df = 4), p = .000). Personal sense of dignity is discussed in relation to conceptual understandings of dignity (such as professional dignity) and suggests continued research in multiple cultural contexts. The relationships measured show that nurses' sense of dignity has commonalities with self-esteem, workplace satisfaction, spiritual commitment, and health status; the meaning of the findings has ramifications for the welfare of nurses internationally. © The

  8. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  9. “Can’t you at least die with a little dignity?” The Right to Die Debates and Normative Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandsman, Ari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the right to die has emerged as one of the most divisive social and political questions in North America and Europe, one that involves the mobilization of numerous social actors and activists as well as several legal challenges. In Québec, the provincial legislature formed the “Select Committee on Dying with Dignity”, a group of legislators tasked with examining the issue. In their 2012 report, they recommend the legalization of “medical aid in dying” as an appropriate part of the continuum of care at the end of life. From a meta-analysis of the written and oral submissions collected by the Committee in different locations throughout the province, this article presents several competing meanings of what human dignity means at the end of life. Intrinsic definitions of dignity – whether religious or philosophical – often associate dignity with an acceptance of death. These definitions of dignity compete with more relative and contingent understandings of dignity. In such a view, dignity depends on the physical or mental condition of the individual. Here “dying with dignity” means dying without undue suffering or loss of autonomy. Whether “dying with dignity” is defined as having a peaceful or meaningful death or alternatively as an end-of-life without undue suffering or loss of autonomy, these normative calls all take for granted that human beings want to die with dignity. This article analyzes the multiple meanings of dignity in the right to die debate while challenging the assumption that a “good death” is necessary synonymous with “dying with dignity.”

  10. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  11. Self-ownership, relational dignity, and organ sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenov, David

    2018-06-19

    Material property has traditionally been conceived of as separable from its owner and thus alienable in an exchange. So it seems that you could sell your watch or even your kidney because it can be removed from your wrist or abdomen and transferred to another. However, if we are each identical to a living human animal, self-ownership is impossible for self-separation is impossible. We thus cannot sell our parts if we don't own the whole that they compose. It would be incoherent to own all of your body's parts but not the whole body; and it would be arbitrary to own some but not all of your removable parts. These metaphysical obstacles to organ sales do not apply to the selling of the organs of the deceased. The human being goes out of existence at death and is not identical to the body's remains. Any objections to selling the organs of the deceased must instead be due to dignity rather than metaphysical or conceptual considerations. But the remains lack the intrinsic dignity of the human being, instead possessing, at best, relational dignity. Relational dignity would not provide sufficient reason to prohibit life-saving sales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dignity Impact as a Primary Outcome Measure for Dignity Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lisa; Oh, Sungho; Sylvera, Ashley; Lamonge, Ralph; Yao, Yingwei; Chochinov, Harvey; Fitchett, George; Handzo, George; Emanuel, Linda; Wilkie, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Feasibility of dignity therapy (DT) is well established in palliative care. Evidence of its efficacy, however, has been inconsistent and may stem from DT's primary effects differing from the outcomes measured in previous studies. We proposed that DT effects were in the spiritual domain and created a new outcome measure, Dignity Impact Scale (DIS), from items previously used in a large randomized controlled trial (RCT). The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to examine properties of a new measure of dignity impact. Using the DIS, we conducted reanalysis of posttest data from a large 3-arm, multi-site RCT study. Participants were receiving hospice/palliative care (n = 326, 50.6% female, mean age = 65.1 years, 89.3% white, all with a terminal illness with 6 months or less life expectancy). They had been randomized to standard palliative care (n = 111), client-centered care (n = 107), or DT (n = 108). The 7-item DIS was derived from selected items in a posttest DT Patient Feedback Questionnaire. The DIS had strong internal consistency (α = 0.85). The DT group mean DIS score (21.4 ± 5.0) was significantly higher than the usual care group mean score (17.7 ± 5.5; t = 5.2, df = 216, P death, and life completion tasks. We propose that the DIS be used as the primary outcome measure in evaluating the effects of DT.

  13. Death and dignity through fresh eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew; Pilkington, Ruth; Patterson, Aileen; Hennessy, Martina

    2011-12-01

    Trinity College Dublin remains one of the Medical Schools that uses traditional dissection to teach anatomy, exposing students from the first week of entry to cadavers. This early exposure makes it imperative that issues surrounding death and donor remains are explored early on within the main structure of the curriculum. The School of Medicine began a programme of Medical Humanities student-selected modules (SSMs) in 2010, and the opportunity to offer a module on medical ethics regarding death and dignity was taken. A course was devised that touched only lightly on subjects such as palliative care and the concept of a good death. The course focused much more strongly on the reality of death as part of cultural and societal identity and placement. This was facilitated by field trips to settings where discussions regarding death, dying and dignity were commonplace and authentic experiences, rather than classroom discussions based on theoretical circumstances that may not yet have been experienced by the student. The module ran very well, with students feeling that they had had a chance to think critically about the role of death as an event with significance within society and culture, rather than purely in a medico-legal framework. Options to extend the module to the compulsory element of the course, to be built upon in later years looking at more technical aspects surrounding death, are being explored. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  14. Respecting dignity in forensic care: the challenge faced by nurses of maintaining patient dignity in clinical caring situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, L-K; Wigerblad, A; Lindwall, L

    2013-02-01

    We must recognize the importance of increased understanding for maintaining patient dignity to expand earlier formulated knowledge about caring ethics. Illuminations of this topic can create conditions for changing and developing care, as well as making caregivers' preservation of dignity evident. The aim was to illuminate the meaning of maintenance of patient dignity in forensic care. A qualitative design with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used to analyse and interpret focus group interviews with nurses in forensic care. In the text the meaning of maintenance of patient dignity was protection and respect but also brotherly humanity. Protection was shown outwards to cover or screen the patient and to guard against danger. The inner form was described as protecting the patients' needs and arousing the patients' protection resources. Respect was shown outwards to take the patient seriously and to show others that patients are to be reckoned with, inwards in teaching patients to create respect and in teaching patients to expect respect from others. Meeting patients with human brotherhood was shown in doing 'the little extra' and demonstrating human similarity. The new understanding will enable nurses to plan and provide professional care, based on caring science. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  15. [Right to die with dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    The right to die with dignity is an ill-defined concept, with multiple, often inappropriate, interpretations. The current proposition is that the physician take full responsibility for protecting the patients rights, for ensuring a rational use of resources and for overseeing the decision-making process such that the information is adequate and the steps proportioned. This responsibility extends not only to the health status of the patient situation, to the patients prognosis, and to his/her expectations and wishes, but also to the benefits foreseen and to the cost-benefit ratio. Emphasis is placed on two aspects of this relationship. First, dignity can be interpreted in many ways and sometimes, in the name of dignity, the patient is exposed (or exposes him/herself) to suffering, pain and complications that can be avoided. Second, when no reasonable probability of survival is present and a better quality of life is impossible, efforts are better redirected to offering a better quality of death.

  16. The Budapest Meeting 2005 intensified networking on ethics of science: the case of reproductive cloning, germline gene therapy and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steendam, Guido; Dinnyés, András; Mallet, Jacques; Meloni, Rolando; Casabona, Carlos Romeo; González, Jorge Guerra; Kure, Josef; Szathmáry, Eörs; Vorstenbosch, Jan; Molnár, Péter; Edbrooke, David; Sándor, Judit; Oberfrank, Ferenc; Cole-Turner, Ron; Hargittai, István; Littig, Beate; Ladikas, Miltos; Mordini, Emilio; Roosendaal, Hans E; Salvi, Maurizio; Gulyás, Balázs; Malpede, Diana

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports on the meeting of the Sounding Board of the EU Reprogenetics Project that was held in Budapest, Hungary, 6-9 November 2005. The Reprogenetics Project runs from 2004 until 2007 and has a brief to study the ethical aspects of human reproductive cloning and germline gene therapy. Discussions during The Budapest Meeting are reported in depth in this paper as well as the initiatives to involve the participating groups and others in ongoing collaborations with the goal of forming an integrated network of European resources in the fields of ethics of science.

  17. Patient perspectives of maintaining dignity in Indonesian clinical care settings: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaningrum, Nurfika; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2018-03-01

    To gain an understanding towards the perspectives of hospitalized inpatients in Indonesia regarding maintaining dignity during clinical care. Dignity is a basic human right that is crucial for an individual's well-being. Respect for a person as a valuable human is a concept that is comparable to treating a person with dignity. Maintaining patient's dignity is an ethical goal of nursing care. Nevertheless, the concept is highly dependent on cultural context. This issue has not been well studied in Indonesia. This study used a qualitative descriptive design. Thirty-five participants were recruited by purposive sampling from medical to surgical wards of six public hospitals in Eastern Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2016 through individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was applied to the data. Four major categories which described qualities of nursing care essential for maintaining a patient's dignity in clinical care settings were revealed: (1) responsiveness; (2) respectful nurse-patient relationships; (3) caring characteristics and (4) personalized service. Our findings provide a cultural viewpoint of dignity for care recipients in Indonesia. The findings provide empirical support for linking dignified care and person-centred care principles with regards to cultural sensitivity. Nurses must not only be clinically competent but also culturally competent. The ability to provide culturally competent care is important for nurses as a strategy to maintain patient dignity during hospitalized care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Autonomy and dignity of patients with dementia: Perceptions of multicultural caretakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Dickman, Nomy; Oberman, Amitai

    2018-02-01

    A key message in the World Health Organization's report on dementia emphasizes the need to improve public and professional attitudes to dementia and its understanding, while acknowledging the fact that the workforce in dementia care is becoming increasingly diverse culturally. To explore possible differences among formal caretakers from varied cultural background in their attitudes toward the autonomy and human dignity of patients with dementia. Semi-structured interviews and content analysis, utilizing two fictional vignettes for eliciting caretakers' attitudes toward dignity and autonomy of their patients. Participants and context: A total of 20 formal caretakers of patients with dementia from three different cultural groups in Israel ("Sabras," "Arabs," and "Russians"), working in nursing homes and a hospital. Ethical consideration: Approvals of relevant research ethics committees were obtained and followed. In comparison with the other groups, most Arab caretakers offer markedly richer perceptions of human dignity and autonomy. Their human dignity's conceptualization emphasizes "person-centered approach," and their perception of patients' autonomy includes provision of explanations and preservation and encouragement of independence. The differences found in the attitudes toward the meaning of autonomy and human dignity between the Arab caretakers and the other caretakers stand in contrast to previous studies regarding human dignity, emphasizing the common nature of these attitudes. Offering a linkage (theoretical and empirical) between the Arab perceptions of dignity and autonomy, the study strengthen and further the importance attributed in existing literature to person-centered care in enhancing the quality of care for patients with dementia. The conceptualization of human dignity may vary among different cultural groups. It may also influence the extent to which the caretaker holds a full-fledged perception of the patients' autonomy.

  19. Dignity and the challenge of dying in nursing homes: the residents' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleschberger, Sabine

    2007-03-01

    human dignity is discussed in almost all public debates on the care of the dying, as well as in international policies for health and social care of older people. Because nursing homes are gaining importance as places where residents live out their lives in modern western societies and since there is evidence that end-of-life care in nursing homes lacks quality, there is a growing discussion on introducing improved end-of-life care in these institutions. In order to accomplish this, the view of those who are most affected is of utmost importance. to explore the meaning of dignity with regard to end-of-life issues from the perspective of older nursing home residents in western Germany. this qualitative study is based on the Grounded Theory Approach, and the design included three steps of data generation; narrative interviews with residents of nursing homes constitute the main data pool (n = 20) of the results presented in this paper. Theoretical sampling was aimed at maximising the variety of organisational as well as residents' characteristics. Analysis of the transcripts was supported by Atlas/ti program and followed several different coding procedures and aimed at generating a concept of dignity. dignity was differentiated into intrapersonal dignity and relational dignity, socially constructed by the act of recognition. Social relations and encounters are a prerequisite for relational dignity, which underlines the vulnerability of nursing home residents' who increasingly lack social networks. A broad spectrum of attitudes and behaviour, which aimed at recognising dignity, was bundled under the category 'not being a burden'. In this light, dignity was challenged most by the threat of illness and having care needs. This was fostered by the perception of insufficient care in the nursing homes. In the light of this concept, death with dignity meant 'death at the right time', though the residents in the sample did not want to comment on the time of death, other than

  20. Child’s dignity in suffering and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuch, Grażyna; Kruszecka-Krówka, Agnieszka

    The magnitude of unfair, absurd, pointless suffering we cannot accept or understand makes it a phenomenon which defies human logic - especially when it concerns children. The source of suffering of a dying child is pain, fear, failure to satisfy the basic human needs and concern about the parents. It is also heightened by medical procedures, including treatments aimed at preventing the unavoidable death. Such actions, resulting from the fear of death and a lack of acceptance of death as the end of life burdened with suffering, pose a risk to the child’s fundamental rights and violate the source of human freedom - one’s inalienable dignity. Our priority should be to unconditionally respect the children’s rights postulated by Korczak, to ensure that while providing holistic care for a dying child, their dignity is always considered the greatest good.

  1. Dignity, Equality, Freedom: The EU-Policy Values Viewed Personalistically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nnamdi Konye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author points out that dignity, equality, and freedom are leading themes of the European Union policy and should be respected and upheld if understood personalistically. He agrues that the subjectivity of the individual person, rather than that of the public state, underlines the context of interpreting those themes which are the liberal values the Western society purports to cultivate. Therefore, he claims that dignity is grounded on the understanding of man as imago Dei, equality is doubly grounded in both the unique identity and incommunicability of each human person, and freedom is doubly grounded in the dual responsibility of each human person for his or her actions as well as the responsibility we share for each human life from conception to natural death.

  2. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity. PMID:28299297

  3. Patients' Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients' dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient's dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient's rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients' dignity.

  4. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zirak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a demographic characteristics, and (b patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13 software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28. According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2% were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity.

  5. [Respect of patient's dignity in the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, A-M

    2010-12-01

    Every code of ethics of health professionals in France considers the respect of dignity as a fundamental duty. The French 2002 Law on patient rights says that the person has the right to respect of dignity and of private life. After a presentation of the articles of ethics codes regarding dignity, this paper presents recommendations to deliver medical care in situations where dignity might be endangered such as for patients hospitalized in psychiatric services without consent, or for medical examination of prisoners or medical care to vulnerable patients unable to express their will, especially in palliative care or at the end of life. Respect of dignity after death is illustrated by the reflection conducted by the Espace Ethique de l'AP-HP (Paris area hospitals) and in the Chart of the mortuary yard. A survey of the patients' letters of complaint received by the emergency service of the Toulouse University Hospital showed that, in five years, there were 188 letters and 18 pointed out infringements to the dignity of the person. The health professional team is now aware of this obligation, and in the accreditation of the hospitals, the respect of dignity is one of the indicators of the quality of medical care.

  6. Deprivation of Dignity in Nursing Home Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    deepened knowledge in how to maintain and promote dignity in nursing home residents. The purpose of this paper is to present results concerning the question: How is nursing home residents’ dignity maintained or deprived from the perspective of close family caregivers? In this presentation we only focus...... on deprivation of dignity. Methodology: The overall design of this study is modified clinical application research. The study took place at six different nursing home residences in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Data collection methods were individual research interviews. All together the sample consisted of 28...

  7. LA DIGNIDAD DE LA PERSONA HUMANA: DESDE LA FECUNDACIÓN HASTA SU MUERTE A DIGNIDADE DA PESSOA HUMANA: DESDE A FECUNDAÇÃO ATÉ A MORT THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN BEING: FROM CONCEPTION TO DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Vial Correa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el concepto de "dignidad" desde sus orígenes y la evolución del término, en búsqueda de un sustrato filosófico y antropológico que fundamente el concepto, con el fin de que se respete la persona humana desde la fecundación hasta la muerte y la reflexión bioética tenga una base desde la cual proceder.O presente trabalho reflete sobre o conceito de "dignidade" desde suas origens e a evolução do termo. Busca um substrato filosófico e antropológico que fundamente o conceito, com a finalidade de que se respeite a pessoa humana desde a fecundação até a morte e que a reflexão bioética tenha uma base de ação.This work contemplates the concept of "dignity" from its origins and the evolution of the term, in search of a philosophical and anthropological substrate that grounds the concept, with the objective of the respect of the human being from its conception until death and the provision of a basis from which bioethical reflection may proceed.

  8. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  9. The Budapest Meeting 2005. Intensified networking on ethics of science : The case of reproductive cloning, germline gene therapy and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steendam, Guido; Dinnyes, Andras; Mallet, Jacques; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the meeting of the Sounding Board of the EU Reprogenetics Project that was held in Budapest, Hungary, 6–9 November 2005. The Reprogenetics Project runs from 2004 until 2007 and has a brief to study the ethical aspects of human reproductive cloning and germline gene therapy.

  10. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  11. Humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lyndyuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available European integration of Ukraine requires new philosophy of governance modernization and organization, an effective functioning of the civil service system. The urgency of the implementation of humanization approach is a priority for modernization of the national civil service system. The problem of humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine has been studied in the article. The essence of concepts of «humanism» and «humanization of the civil service» has been considered. Humanism is understood as reflected anthropocentrism, with the human being the object with the highest value. The term «humanization of the civil service» means a deliberate reorientation of the civil service and its objects to recognize a human as an absolute value, «a measure of all things» and to meet the vital needs of society, creating conditions for its full self-realization and ensuring sustainable human development. The civil service must guarantee the security and stability of life and protect rights, freedoms and interests of each individual. Humanization of civil service is also determined as strengthening the rights and freedoms of civil servants, special protection of their dignity and the formation of new humanistic principles of civil service. The features of humanization of the national civil service have been analyzed. It has been found that the human is considered to be the highest value and the content and direction of civil servants activity is determined by ensuring his rights and freedoms. The necessity of changing the priorities of civil service modernization on the basis of humanization, orientation on meeting the needs of human and citizen, as well as creating conditions for closer implementation of national civil service standards to those used in the European Union has been proved. Changes in the philosophy of the civil service of Ukraine should be directed to «serving people», functioning of

  12. ¿Innovación o continuidad?: Dignidad humana y protección de la vida desde el momento de la concepción en la nueva Ley Fundamental húngara de 2011 // Innovation or continuity?: Human dignity and protection of life from conception in the new hungarian basic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ruiz Ruiz

    2014-11-01

    La controversia en torno al art. II no sólo ha estado centrada en el supuesto enfoque más restrictivo del nuevo texto constitucional hacia el aborto, sino que se ha extendido a la propia concepción de derecho de la dignidad humana, que para cierta doctrina ha recibido una configuración distinta a la concepción predominante en el derecho europeo. Under Article II of Hungarian Basic Law «Human dignity shall be inviolable. Every human being shall have the right to life and human dignity; embryonic and foetal life shall be subject to protection from the moment of conception». It is evident that, unlike the previous Constitution, the Basic Law expressly mentions the fetal and embryonic life, as also expressly stipulates that it shall be protected from the moment of conception. This new constitutional provision would be for some scholars, not strictly expanding the holders of the right to life, but at least extending the protective cloak of the Constitution to fetal and embryonic life from its beginning, which would effectively exclude outright the possibility of legal abortion at discretion of woman in any event, implying an absence of constitutional guarantee for other mother’s fundamental rights at stake. The controversy about art. II has been focused not only on the supposed more restrictive approach of the new constitution to abortion, but has reached to the very conception of the right to human dignity, that for some scholars has received a different configuration to the prevailing conception in European law.

  13. The dignity of the nursing profession: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Laura; Stievano, Alessandro; Rocco, Gennaro; Kallio, Hanna; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari K

    2014-09-01

    Nursing continues to gain legitimation epistemologically and ontologically as a scientific discipline throughout the world. If a profession gains respect as a true autonomous scientific profession, then this recognition has to be put in practice in all environments and geographical areas. Nursing professional dignity, as a self-regarding concept, does not have a clear definition in the literature, and it has only begun to be analyzed in the last 10 years. The purpose of this meta-synthesis was to determine the various factors that constitute the notion of nursing professional dignity. The target was to create a tentative model of the concept. The research design was a meta-synthesis (N = 15 original articles) of nursing professional dignity described in the literature, based on the guidelines by Noblit and Hare. Original studies were sought out from electronic databases and manual searches. The selection of literature was conducted on stages based on titles (n = 2595), abstracts (n = 70), and full-texts (n = 15) according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From this analysis, a clear definition of nursing professional dignity emerged that underscored two main macro-dimensions constituting this intertwined, multidimensional, and complex notion: characteristics of the human beings and workplace elements. The recognition of nursing professional dignity could have a positive impact on patients because the results clearly showed that nurses are more prone to foster patients' dignity, patients' safety, and a better quality of care if their own dignity is respected. If nurses are uncomfortable, humiliated, or not seen in their professional role, it is difficult to give to others good care, good support, or good relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farris, Ronald K.; Medema, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve lineup verifications, containment closure verifications, safety and equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R and D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet. (author)

  15. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  16. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  17. Testes psicológicos e o Direito: uma aproximação à luz da dignidade da pessoa humana e dos direitos da personalidade Psychological tests and Law: an approach in light of human dignity and personality rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Augusto de Toledo Coelho

    2004-08-01

    . Such abusive personnel selection techniques and tests, which are not very trustworthy, increase the possibility of unnecessary disclosure and, consequently, a violation of privacy, private life and the disrespect of the constitutional principle of human dignity.

  18. Educating student midwives around dignity and respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jenny S; Mitchell, Mary

    2017-06-01

    There is currently limited information available on how midwifery students learn to provide care that promotes dignity and respect. In recent years the importance of dignity in healthcare and treating people with respect has received considerable emphasis in both a national and international context. The aim of this discussion paper is to describe an educational workshop that enables learning to promote dignity and respect in maternity care. An interactive workshop, using different creative methods as triggers for learning will be described. Provision of learning opportunities for students around dignity and respect is important to ensure appropriate care is provided in practice. The use of creative methods to inspire has contributed to deep learning within participants. An evaluation of the workshop illustrated how learning impacted on participants practice. Data to support this is presented in this paper. The use of creative teaching approaches in a workshop setting appears to provide an effective learning opportunity around dignified and respectful care. These workshops have evoked a deep emotional response for some participants, and facilitators must be prepared for this outcome to ensure a safe space for learning. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of the Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Dixon, Jane; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    A sequential, multi-method approach to instrument development beginning with concept analysis, followed by (a) item generation from qualitative data, (b) review of items by expert and lay person panels, (c) cognitive appraisal interviews, (d) pilot testing, and (e) evaluating construct validity was used to develop a measure of attributed dignity in older adults. The resulting positively scored, 23-item scale has three dimensions: Self-Value, Behavioral Respect-Self, and Behavioral Respect-Others. Item-total correlations in the pilot study ranged from 0.39 to 0.85. Correlations between the Attributed Dignity Scale (ADS) and both Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (0.17) and Crowne and Marlowe's Social Desirability Scale (0.36) were modest and in the expected direction, indicating attributed dignity is a related but independent concept. Next steps include testing the ADS with a larger sample to complete factor analysis, test-retest stability, and further study of the relationships between attributed dignity and other concepts.

  20. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  1. Patient's dignity in intensive care unit: A critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Farimah Shirani; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining patient's dignity in intensive care units is difficult because of the unique conditions of both critically-ill patients and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to uncover the cultural factors that impeded maintaining patients' dignity in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit. The study was conducted using a critical ethnographic method proposed by Carspecken. Participants and research context: Participants included all physicians, nurses and staffs working in the study setting (two cardiac surgery intensive care units). Data collection methods included participant observations, formal and informal interviews, and documents assessment. In total, 200 hours of observation and 30 interviews were performed. Data were analyzed to uncover tacit cultural knowledge and to help healthcare providers to reconstruct the culture of their workplace. Ethical Consideration: Ethical approval for the study from Ethics committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was obtained. The findings of the study fell into the following main themes: "Presence: the guarantee for giving enough attention to patients' self-esteem", "Instrumental and objectified attitudes", "Adherence to the human equality principle: value-action gap", "Paternalistic conduct", "Improper language", and "Non-interactive communication". The final assertion was "Reductionism as a major barrier to the maintaining of patient's dignity". The prevailing atmosphere in subculture of the CSICU was reductionism and paternalism. This key finding is part of the biomedical discourse. As a matter of fact, it is in contrast with dignified care because the latter necessitate holistic attitudes and approaches. Changing an ICU culture is not easy; but through increasing awareness and critical self-reflections, the nurses, physicians and other healthcare providers, may be able to reaffirm dignified care and cure in their therapeutic relationships.

  2. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Technology innovation, human resources and dysfunctional integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Arne Stjernholm; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    (Internet technology), which transcends the traditional business of the company in question. It illustrates what goes wrong when innovative human resources do not succeed in becoming integrated into the rest of the host organization and therefore may become trapped by their own passion in a position as self...

  4. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  5. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  6. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services.

  7. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  8. Validation of human factor engineering integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Apart from hundreds of thousands of human-machine interface resources, the control room of a nuclear power plant is a complex system integrated with many factors such as procedures, operators, environment, organization and management. In the design stage, these factors are considered by different organizations separately. However, whether above factors could corporate with each other well in operation and whether they have good human factors engineering (HFE) design to avoid human error, should be answered in validation of the HFE integrated system before delivery of the plant. This paper addresses the research and implementation of the ISV technology based on case study. After introduction of the background, process and methodology of ISV, the results of the test are discussed. At last, lessons learned from this research are summarized. (authors)

  9. Student nurses' experiences of preserved dignity in perioperative practice - Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Ann-Catrin; Willassen, Elin; von Post, Iréne; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, operating theatre nurse students' education focussed on ethical value issues and how the patient's dignity is respected in the perioperative practice. Health professionals are frequently confronted with ethical issues that can impact on patient's care during surgery. The objective of this study was to present what operating theatre nurse students experienced and interpreted as preserved dignity in perioperative practice. The study has a descriptive design with a hermeneutic approach. Data were collected using Flanagan's critical incident technique. Operating theatre nurse students from Sweden and Norway participated and collected data in 2011, after education in ethics and dignity. Data consisting of 47 written stories and the text were analysed with hermeneutical text interpretation. The study was conducted accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by a local University Ethics Research Committee. The findings revealed that students experienced that operating theatre nurses perserved patient's dignity in perioperative practice by being present for each other and making themselves known to the patient. Operating theatre nurses caring for the patient by being compassionate and preserved the patient privacy. The new understanding that emerged was that the operating theatre nurse students understood that the operating theatre nurse wanted to care for the patient like a human being. In the discussion, we have illuminated how professional ethics may be threatened by more pragmatic and utilitarian arguments contained in regulations and transplant act. Preserved dignity is an ethical and caring act. Ethical questions and how to preserve dignity in perioperative practice should be discussed more both in educations of healthcare professionals and in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Dignity and informed consent in the treatment of mature minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Bidemi Ademola

    2010-12-01

    In today's world, as evinced in various human rights provisions, emphasis is placed on the assertion and protection of the entrenched rights of every human and particularly the dignity of humans and respect of human autonomy. Medical/health workers are concerned about protecting every patient's right to the dignity of his or her person. This led to the formulation of the concept of self determination and informed consent in medical diagnosis and treatments. However, serious concern is placed on these principles especially as it affects mature minors, a group of individuals who by conduct demand a level of respect but may at the same time be viewed as not capable of making the "best" informed decisions, especially about health. The following issues may arise as a result of the aforementioned concerns: --are mature young ones entitled to right of self determination and informed consent despite the alleged fear that they may lack capacity to make informed decisions? --if no, who should decide on their behalf--their parents, their medical/health provider or the society/government (especially since the 3 (three) interested groups may have different and conflicting stands on what is best for the child); --if the answer to the initial question is yes, to what extent should mature minors be informed of their medical choices and be allowed to exercise their right of self determination? --should they be guided? --and who should so guide them? In resolving the above issue, due consideration has been given not only to legal and bio-ethical provisions of some countries but also to international conventions which several countries are party to. Thereafter, it became clear that most authorities are of the view that mature minors should be fully informed and be allowed to have a say in health decisions, coaching them with few exceptions. Ultimately, because of the importance of respect for human dignity, autonomy and self determination along with medical disclosure in today

  11. Mathematics education and the dignity of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; García, Gloria; Camelo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    On the grounds of our work as researchers, teacher educators and teachers engaging with a socio-political approach in mathematics education in Colombia, we propose to understand democracy in terms of the possibility of constructing a social subjectivity for the dignity of being. We address the di...... of territorialisation, and Latin American epistemology with the notion of intimate space as an important element of social subjectivity....

  12. [The dignity of older persons in view of postconciliar church teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necek, Ks Robert

    2014-01-01

    Dignity is innate value of human. In perspective of human dignity the health protection of patients is the essence of medical deontology, duty of love, which is taking by doctor and nurse is express by practice of profession, which does not lose human features. It is important, that is impossible to enjoin love, because love is not an order, it is open for other's needs. By virtue of this elderly cannot be treated like things in economic system of hospital, but through love "we should enable the elderly to grow in the conventional wisdom gathered by the entire life". Pope Benedict XVI notices that, every work, competence is the most important thing. Due to it, medicine extend respect for body human and the law, which rules it, furthermore recognize human life as sign of unexplored secret.

  13. Aruna Shanbaug and the right to die with dignity: the battle continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, R R

    2016-01-01

    Aruna Shanbaug's protracted continuance in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) for nearly 42 years needs to be viewed seriously by all those who believe in a person's inalienable right to dignity in dying. A terminally ill and/or incapacitated individual is a helpless person confronted with perpetual risk of intrusion in to his autonomy by the moral paternalists, owing to false notion of human virtues. Legislative inadequacy coupled with judicial heterogeneity has exposed the decision making process to unwarranted ambiguity. Misapplication of moral and juristic principles is a global challenge. 29-year-old Brittany Maynard's recent act of ending her life by migrating from California to Oregon has ignited a fierce debate and nearly half of the states in the USA are contemplating enactment of death with dignity legislation. Across the Atlantic, the European Court of Human Rights judgment on June 5, 2015, endorsing Vincent Lambert's right to end medical support, is a resounding affirmation of an individual's right to die with dignity. This article is an attempt to explore various dimensions of one's right to dignity in dying, in the global as well as the Indian context.

  14. Dignity, Health, and Membership: Who Counts as One of Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    This essay serves as an introduction to this issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. The five articles in this issue address a range of topics from the human embryo and substantial change to conceptions of disability. They engage claims of moral status, defense of our humanity, and argue for an accurate and just classification of persons of different communities within a healthcare system. I argue in this essay that though their concerns are diverse, the authors in this issue help to answer a common question: “Who counts as one of us?” Reading these articles through the lens of membership and the themes of dignity illustrates this commonality and bears fruit for further reflection on many of the challenging issues addressed in the subsequent papers. PMID:26868673

  15. A new place for death with dignity: the golden room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Lynn; Drick, Carole Ann

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the authors consider how professional nurses can strive to advance death and dying to the next level in our evolution of compassionate end-of-life practices. The authors focus on describing the development of a place for dying that allows for a peaceful, profound experience that honors and respects human dignity and elevates the human family. Actual places called the Golden Room or Golden Room Centers are proposed to accommodate dying persons and their loved ones at end of life as they make the transition from physical life. The authors detail and propose a return to the sacredness of death and dying through access to a place for the physical transition.

  16. Washing the patient: dignity and aesthetic values in nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2013-07-01

    Dignity is a fundamental concept, but its meaning is not clear. This paper attempts to clarify the term by analysing and reconnecting two meanings of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to citizen values that protect individuals as equal to one another. Dignitas refers to aesthetic values embedded in genres of sociality that relate to differences between people. The paper explores these values by way of an empirical ethical analysis of practices of washing psychiatric patients in nursing care. Nurses legitimate the washing of reluctant patients with reference to dignity. The analysis shows the intertwinement of humanitas and dignitas that gives dignity its fundamental meaning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Human-Systems Integration (HSI) Methodology Development for NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Human-Systems Integration (HSI) refers to design activities associated with ensuring that manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, safety, health...

  18. Euthanasia and Death with Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvraj Dilip Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dying has become imposition upon humans, who seek to avoid it as they encounter the inevitably fatal aging process. After the case of Aruna Shanbag a nurse who spent 42 years in a vegetative state as a result of sexual assault, the issue of euthanasia-mercy killing gained attention. The formulation of regulatory provision for euthanasia was earlier examined in Health Ministry in th 2006 based on the 196 report of the law commission of India however; health ministry at that time had opted not to make law on it. Interestingly the health ministry has enacted bill for terminally ill patient in 2016. In this article author has discussed The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of patients and medical practitioners bill- 2016 with position in other countries.

  19. Global human capital: integrating education and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir

    2011-07-29

    Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.

  20. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2015-01-01

    The NASA/SP-2015-3709, Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide, also known as the "HSIPG," provides a tool for implementing HSI activities within the NASA systems engineering framework. The HSIPG is written to aid the HSI practitioner engaged in a program or project (P/P), and serves as a knowledge base to allow the practitioner to step into an HSI lead or team member role for NASA missions. Additionally, this HSIPG is written to address the role of HSI in the P/P management and systems engineering communities and aid their understanding of the value added by incorporating good HSI practices into their programs and projects. Through helping to build a community of knowledgeable HSI practitioners, this document also hopes to build advocacy across the Agency for establishing strong, consistent HSI policies and practices. Human Systems Integration (HSI) has been successfully adopted (and adapted) by several federal agencies-most notably the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-as a methodology for reducing system life cycle costs (LCCs). These cost savings manifest themselves due to reductions in required numbers of personnel, the practice of human-centered design, decreased reliance on specialized skills for operations, shortened training time, efficient logistics and maintenance, and fewer safety-related risks and mishaps due to unintended human/system interactions. The HSI process for NASA establishes how cost savings and mission success can be realized through systems engineering. Every program or project has unique attributes. This HSIPG is not intended to provide one-size-fits-all recommendations for HSI implementation. Rather, HSI processes should be tailored to the size, scope, and goals of individual situations. The instructions and processes identified here are best used as a starting point for implementing human-centered system concepts and designs across programs and projects of varying types, including

  1. Loss of Dignity in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brahm K; Wilson, Keith G; Henderson, Peter R; Poulin, Patricia A; Kowal, John; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    The maintenance of dignity is an important concept in palliative care, and the loss of dignity is a significant concern among patients with advanced cancer. The goals of this study were to examine whether loss of dignity is also a concern for patients receiving interdisciplinary rehabilitation for Stage III or IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We examined the prevalence and correlates of loss of dignity and determined whether it improves with treatment. Inpatients underwent a structured interview inquiry around their sense of dignity and completed measures of pulmonary, physical, and psychological function at admission (n = 195) and discharge (n = 162). Loss of dignity was identified as a prominent ongoing concern for 13% of patients. It was correlated with measures of depression and anxiety sensitivity, but not with pulmonary capacity or functional performance. A robust improvement in loss of dignity was demonstrated, with 88% of those who reported a significant problem at admission no longer reporting one at discharge. The prevalence of a problematic loss of dignity among patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is at least as high as among those receiving palliative cancer care. Loss of dignity may represent a concern among people with medical illnesses more broadly, and not just in the context of "death with dignity" at the end of life. Furthermore, interdisciplinary care may help to restore a sense of dignity to those individuals who are able to participate in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Opinion Humanity as an end in itself, pharmaceutical companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nine million people worldwide were living with HIV at the end of 2005. ... Saharan Africa is the worst-affected by HIV and AIDS than any other region of the world. .... worth. Humanity has dignity and this dignity has intrinsic value. Human dignity .... paper titled “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Poggle.

  3. Washing the patient: dignity and aesthetic values in nursing care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dignity is a fundamental concept, but its meaning is not clear. This paper attempts to clarify the term by analysing and reconnecting two meanings of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to citizen values that protect individuals as equal to one another. Dignitas refers to aesthetic

  4. Euthanasia and death with dignity in Japanese law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Katsunori

    2010-12-01

    In Japan, there are no acts and, specific provisions or official guidelines on euthanasia, but recently, as I will mention below, an official guideline on "death with dignity" has been made. Nevertheless in fact, this guideline provides only a few rules of process on terminal care. Therefore the problems of euthanasia and "death with dignity" are mainly left to the legal interpretation by literatures and judicial precedents of homicide (Article 199 of the Criminal Code; where there is no distinction between murder and manslaughter) and of homicide with consent (Article 202 of the Criminal Code). Furthermore, there are several cases on euthanasia or "death with dignity" as well as borderline cases in Japan. In this paper I will present the situation of the latest discussions on euthanasia and "death with dignity" in Japan from the viewpoint of medical law. Especially, "death with dignity" is seriously discussed in Japan, therefore I focus on it.

  5. Realizing dignity as a part of intercultural competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breunig, Steven

    2014-01-01

    in intercultural encounters with cognitive, behavioral and affective competence. Dignity contributes to intercultural competence by enabling persons to view the social world anew. In this paper, dignity is conceptualized as the development and self-expression of persons free from social categorization, while...... for effective and appropriate interaction between a Self and a culturally dissimilar Other. Accordingly, it is proposed that emotional regulation is essential for realizing dignity as an aspect of intercultural competence. Research on social dynamics and identity and the emotions is not without its precedence...... within intercultural communication. This project contributes to the objectives of intercultural communication and competence by theorizing how awareness of social dynamics and emotional regulation may support the realization of dignity during intercultural encounters. Dignity may complement other...

  6. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  7. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  8. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  9. Educação em saúde como estratégia para garantir a dignidade da pessoa humana Educación en salud como estrategia para garantizar la dignidad del ser humano Health education as a strategy to ensure the human being's dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneji Shiratori

    2004-10-01

    preliminar para garantía de la dignidad del ser humano. Conclusión: Al promover la salud, mediante estrategias dialógicas de educación en salud, la enfermería respeta al ser humano en su dignidad, libertad y autonomía, observando y garantizando los derechos humanos fundamentales y aportando para la humanización de los espacios en los cuales se desarrollan los servicios de salud.It is a theoretical, reflexive study linked to the institutional research project named "Nursing Social Responsibility: from the meaning of person to bioethical paradigms." Objective: discussing health education as a strategy to ensure the human being's dignity. Methodology: it was based on a qualitative approach, in view of the identification and analysis of the theoretical elements obtained in the bibliographic surveys for the foundations of the study constituted as one of the preliminary aspects of the research. Results: the following were identified as theoretical elements: human dignity, its relation with humanization, fundamental human rights, and the international declarations to ensure them; human action; preliminary strategy for ensuring the dignity of the person. Conclusion: while health is being furthered through nursing by means of dialogical strategies on health education, the person is being respected as a dignified, free and autonomous human being, fundamental human rights are being taken into account and ensured, therefore contributing to the humanization of the areas where health services are developed.

  10. Hospice-assisted death? A study of Oregon hospices on death with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney S; Cox, Jessica C

    2012-05-01

    Nearly 90% of terminally ill patients who have used Oregon's distinctive death with dignity law to receive a medication to end their lives are enrolled in hospice care programs. In 2009-2010, we conducted a study of the policies developed by Oregon hospices to address patient inquiries and requests for death with dignity. The study examined the stated hospice values and positions and identified the boundaries to participation drawn by the hospice programs to protect personal and programmatic integrity. The boundaries were drawn around 6 key caregiving considerations: (1) language regarding physician-assisted death (PAD); (2) informed decision making by patients; (3) collaboration with physicians; (4) provision of lethal medication; (5) assistance in the patient's act of taking the medication; and (6) staff presence at the time of medication ingestion.

  11. Complex contradictions in conceptualisations of 'dignity' in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa; Trussardi, Gabriella; Black, Stella; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Frey, Rosemary; Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn

    2018-01-02

    Internationally, increasing attention is being paid to understanding patient experiences of health care. Within palliative care, the Views of Informal Carers - Evaluation of Services (VOICES) questionnaire is commonly used for this purpose. Among its objectives is to ask family members if their relatives were treated with dignity at the end of life. This is regarded as useful for understanding the quality of the health care received. To highlight the differences between family members' reports of dignity in the care provided to their relatives at the end of life, as reported in the VOICES questionnaire, and their narratives about the care their relatives received. A total of 21 cognitive interviews were conducted during a New Zealand pilot of the VOICES questionnaire. Discrepancies between ratings of dignity and the lived experience of care suggest that lay understandings of dignity may not be congruent with that of health care providers. Bereaved family members' self-reports of dignity in end-of-life care captured using survey methods alone are inadequate to understand the complex ways in which individuals conceptualise and experience dignity within a health care context. The authors advocate consideration of multiple, complementary approaches to gathering consumer experiences of end-of-life care, as well as research which enables service users to interrogate what dignity in care means in an end-of-life context.

  12. Maintaining patients' dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2011-02-01

    This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Mathematics education and the dignity of being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Valero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On the grounds of our work as researchers, teacher educators and teachers engaging with a socio-political approach in mathematics education in Colombia, we propose to understand democracy in terms of the possibility of constructing a social subjectivity for the dignity of being. We address the dilemma of how the historical insertion of school mathematics in relation to the Colonial project of assimilation of Latin American indigenous peoples into the episteme of the Enlightenment and Modernity is in conflict with the possibility of the promotion of a social subjectivity in mathematics classrooms. We illustrate a pedagogical possibility to move towards a mathematics education for social subjectivity with our work in reassembling the notion of geometrical space in the Colombian secondary school mathematics curriculum with notions of space from critical geography and the problem of territorialisation, and Latin American epistemology with the notion of intimate space as an important element of social subjectivity.

  14. [Dignity and the moralism of the values expressed by the European Convention on Biomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2010-12-01

    With biolaw, new branches have sprouted from the tree of human rights aimed at encouraging its extension. Will they smother it or can we hope for a certain harmonisation, if not a new-found unity? But above all, doesn't biolaw, in a post-modern context, bring to human rights elements that are likely substantially to alter its philosophy? Thus it is with the primacy given by the European Convention on Biomedicine to values which, like dignity, may be turned against the philosophy of human rights by adopting the way of moralism and even sometimes of a new-found moral order.

  15. Death with dignity and euthanasia: comparative European approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-09-01

    From 1800 to 1960, the average life expectancy doubled making medical activities a fight against death. In doing so, the dying process became medicalized. Some infectious diseases clearly disappeared while new surgical interventions, such as organ transplants, may be viewed as some kinds of human resuscitation. Sociologically, medicine has replaced religion and doctors are the new priests of our techno society. Paradoxically this has created a new fear The artificial process of dying is replacing death but it is transforming the individuals into artificially supported and suffering bodies relying on medical supervision while the family is left away, making social solidarity and compassion a relic of the past. There comes the wish to re appropriate our own death, to give a true meaning to the dying process by making it peaceful and respectful of our human dignity. This evolution takes place in a very controversial context because it is founded on various and contradictory attitudes. A rights based approach will support both the termination of futile treatment and active euthanasia while a duty-based approach will allow the physicians to accept responding positively to death claims that follow some predetermined criteria and refused others.

  16. [The concept of dignity and life science law: a symbolic, dynamic value at the heart of the social construction of man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Included in human rights law just after the Second World War, dignity is the quality common to all people in that it symbolises their human condition. Inherent to each person, it is therefore independent of any other personal and random condition (physical state, origin, colour, religion...) just as it is independent of social conditions (a person's dignity cannot be questioned by society). However, the very context of this recognition--in the aftermath of the defeat of Nazism--emphasises the fact that it was not something evident in human history. So there is in this manifestation of the international community a strong political sign which makes dignity as much a construction of man as a quality consubstantial with his nature. A symbol of the human condition, dignity is therefore also a dynamic value, a combat value. As such, it forces us to wonder about what belongs to the human sphere and also about the particular responsibility which springs for every man and for mankind, from the dignity with which he is invested.

  17. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  18. Morphological integration in the gorilla, chimpanzee, and human neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlegi, Mikel; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2018-06-01

    Although integration studies are important to understand the evolution of organisms' traits across phylogenies, vertebral integration in primates is still largely unexplored. Here we describe and quantify patterns of morphological integration and modularity in the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) in extant hominines incorporating the potential influence of size. Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 546 subaxial cervical vertebrae from 141 adult individuals of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens. Integration and modularity, and the influence of size effects, were quantified using geometric morphometric approaches. All subaxial cervical vertebrae from the three species show a strong degree of integration. Gorillas show the highest degree of integration; conversely, humans have the lowest degree of integration. Analyses of allometric regression residuals show that size is an important factor promoting integration in gorillas, with lesser influence in chimpanzees and almost no effect in humans. Results point to a likely ancestral pattern of integration in non-human hominines, whereby the degree of integration decreases from cranial to caudal positions. Humans deviate from this pattern in the cranialmost (C3) and, to a lesser extent, in the caudalmost (C7) vertebrae, which are less integrated. These differences can be tentatively related to the emergence of bipedalism due to the presence of modern human-like C3 in australopiths, which still preserve a more chimpanzee-like C7. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The medical humanities and the perils of curricular integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaroli, Neville; Ellwood, Constance

    2012-12-01

    The advent of integration as a feature of contemporary medical curricula can be seen as an advantage for the medical humanities in that it provides a clear implementation strategy for the inclusion of medical humanities content and/or perspectives, while also making its relevance to medical education more apparent. This paper discusses an example of integration of humanities content into a graduate medical course, raises questions about the desirability of an exclusively integrated approach, and argues for the value of retaining a discrete and coherent disciplinary presence for the medical humanities in medical curricula.

  20. Differential neural network configuration during human path integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E. G. F; Burles, Ford; Bray, Signe; Levy, Richard M.; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a fundamental skill for navigation in both humans and animals. Despite recent advances in unraveling the neural basis of path integration in animal models, relatively little is known about how path integration operates at a neural level in humans. Previous attempts to characterize the neural mechanisms used by humans to visually path integrate have suggested a central role of the hippocampus in allowing accurate performance, broadly resembling results from animal data. However, in recent years both the central role of the hippocampus and the perspective that animals and humans share similar neural mechanisms for path integration has come into question. The present study uses a data driven analysis to investigate the neural systems engaged during visual path integration in humans, allowing for an unbiased estimate of neural activity across the entire brain. Our results suggest that humans employ common task control, attention and spatial working memory systems across a frontoparietal network during path integration. However, individuals differed in how these systems are configured into functional networks. High performing individuals were found to more broadly express spatial working memory systems in prefrontal cortex, while low performing individuals engaged an allocentric memory system based primarily in the medial occipito-temporal region. These findings suggest that visual path integration in humans over short distances can operate through a spatial working memory system engaging primarily the prefrontal cortex and that the differential configuration of memory systems recruited by task control networks may help explain individual biases in spatial learning strategies. PMID:24808849

  1. [Humanities in medical education: between reduction and integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taehee

    2015-09-01

    Reductive logic has been a major reasoning style in development of modern biomedical sciences. However, when "medical humanities" is developed by reductive reasoning, integrative and holistic values of humanities tend to be weakened. In that sense, identity and significance of "medical humanities" continue to be controversial despite of its literal clarity. Humanities in medical education should be established by strengthening humanistic and socialistic aspects of regular medical curriculum as well as developing individual "medical humanities" programs.

  2. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  3. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  4. Dysthanasia: Between the Life Extension And the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Pompeu Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the XX century, arise new techniques and drugs that can prolong life. However, an unreasonable extension of the vital process of human being that does not have dignified conditions of living it could result in a slow and painful death. Dysthanasia is characterized as medical treatment whose beneficial potentials for the terminal patient are non-existent or unlikely, they are not able to overcome their maleficent potentials. In the context, the present study aims to demonstrate that to deny the right to die to such patient is violate the right to life, as well as to harm the human dignity.

  5. Dignity realization of patients with stroke in hospital care: A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannikko, Sunna; Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Dignity is seen as an important but complex concept in the healthcare context. In this context, the discussion of dignity includes concepts of other ethical principles such as autonomy and privacy. Patients consider dignity to cover individuality, patient's feelings, communication, and the behavior of healthcare personnel. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the realization of patients' dignity in hospital care and the focus of the study is therefore on the realization of dignity of the vulnerable group of patients with stroke. The aim of the study was to create a theoretical construct to describe the dignity realization of patients with stroke in hospital care. Research design and participants: Patients with stroke (n = 16) were interviewed in 2015 using a semi-structured interview containing open questions concerning dignity. The data were analyzed using constant comparison of Grounded Theory. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval for the research was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the University. The permission for the research was given by the hospital. Informed consent was obtained from participants. The "Theory of Dignity Realization of Patients with Stroke in Hospital Care" consists of a core category including generic elements of the new situation and dignity realization types. The core category was identified as "Dignity in a new situation" and the generic elements as health history, life history, individuality and stroke. Dignity of patients with stroke is realized through specific types of realization: person-related dignity type, control-related dignity type, independence-related dignity type, social-related dignity type, and care-related dignity type. The theory has similar elements with the previous literature but the whole construct is new. The theory reveals possible special characteristics in dignity realization of patients with stroke. For healthcare personnel, the theory provides a frame for a better understanding and

  6. Inclusive and relevant language: the use of the concepts of autonomy, dignity and vulnerability in different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Hans Morten

    2010-08-01

    The article analyses the three terms autonomy, dignity and vulnerability. The relevance and practical application of the terms is tested in two spheres. First, as guiding principles in the area of ethics of medicines and science. Second, as human rights principles, serving to guide the conduct of public policies for an effective realization of human rights. The article argues that all human beings have the same dignity, but that the autonomy--and therefore vulnerability--differs considerably. Simply said, with reduced autonomy comes increased vulnerability, implying extra attention to the protective dimensions. The article finds that the three terms approach the protection of human beings in different ways and that all are relevant and applicable in both spheres, but that an isolated notion of autonomy and a 'group-based' notion of vulnerability are not adequate.

  7. An Integrative Introduction to Human Augmentation Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Bradly

    2018-01-01

    Human Augmentation (HA) spans several technical fields and methodological approaches, including Experimental Psychology, Human-Computer Interaction, Psychophysiology, and Artificial Intelligence. Augmentation involves various strategies for optimizing and controlling cognitive states, which requires an understanding of biological plasticity, dynamic cognitive processes, and models of adaptive systems. As an instructive lesson, we will explore a few HA-related concepts and outstanding issues. ...

  8. Human capital, innovation, and climate policy: An integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study the climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital incre...

  9. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus C.W. van Rooyen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue that this article dealt with is whether, in South African law, speech that infringes upon the religious feelings of an individual is protected by the dignity clause in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The Constitution, as well as the Broadcasting Code, prohibits language that advocates hatred, inter alia, based on religion and that constitutes incitement to cause harm. Dignity, which is a central Constitutional right, relates to the sense of self worth which a person has. A Court has held that religious feelings, national pride and language do not form part of dignity, for purposes of protection in law. The Broadcasting Complaints Commission has, similarly, decided that a point of view seriously derogatory of ‘Calvinistic people’ blaming (some of them as being hypocritical and even acting criminally is not protected by dignity. It would have to be accompanied by the advocacy of hatred as defined previously. The author, however, pointed out that on occasion different facts might found a finding in law that religion is so closely connected to dignity, that it will indeed be regarded as part thereof.

  10. Human Systems Integration: Requirements and Functional Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Barry; Gershzohn, Gary; Boltz, Laura; Wolf, Russ; Schultz, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This deliverable was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy and Simulation Integrated Product Teams. This document contains high-level pilot functionality for operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. Based on the derived pilot functions the associated pilot information and control requirements are given.

  11. Dignity and autonomy in the care for patients with dementia: Differences among formal caretakers of varied cultural backgrounds and their meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Dickman, Nomy; Oberman, Amitai

    A key message in the World Health Organization report on dementia (2012) emphasizes this disease as a top priority in public health and the need to improve professional attitudes to patients with dementia, while acknowledging that the workforce in dementia care is becoming increasingly diverse culturally. To trace whether there are substantial gaps between formal caretakers from different cultural groups (Israeli born Jews [Sabras], Israeli Arabs [Arabs] and migrants from Russia [Russians]) regarding their stances on the human dignity and autonomy of patients with dementia, as well as understand the meaning of these gaps. quantitative analysis utilizing questionnaires that were filled-out by approximately 200 caretakers from the different cultural groups, working in a nursing home or a hospital. In nursing homes, substantial differences were found in the attitudes to human dignity and autonomy of patients with dementia between Russian and Arab as well as Sabra caretakers. In the hospital, there was no influence for the ethno-culture variable on dignity or autonomy. Contrary to past research, in nursing homes, significant differences were found between certain ethno-cultural groups (Arabs and Russians) regarding their stance towards the dignity of patients with dementia. Arab caretakers hold a conception of dignity and autonomy that resonates strongly with person-centered care and outweighs institutional settings as well as may be related to the fostering of virtues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  13. Integration of effects on human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    It seems possible that several hundred millions of humans could die from the direct effects of nuclear war. The indirect effects could result in the loss of one to several billions of humans. How close the latter projection would come to loss of all humans is problematical, but the current best estimation is that this result would not follow from the physical and societal perturbations currently projected to occur after a large-scale nuclear war. One important issue of scale to keep in mind is the difference between estimating that on a global scale the bases for human support would be undetermined for a particular fraction of the population (e.g., estimating insufficient food to support more than a certain fraction of the current population), and predicting the survival strategies of small groups of people. Projections of global-scale population losses do not mean that even in those areas in which humans would be expected to die, all would suffer the same fate. No analysis have been attempted here concerning the capability of selected humans on a relatively small scale (e.g., individual, family, community level) to find a successful strategy for survival. That a person or group in a combatant country might find a way to escape the effects of radiation, societal disruptions, climatic alterations, and the host of other potential disruptions, and still continue to survive seems possible, even in devastated areas. That billions of people could do so in the absence of a sufficient food support base is impossible. Thus, one needs to distinguish carefully between possible survival strategies on a small scale, and the physical limitations of support for massive numbers of people on a large scale

  14. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  15. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  16. Integrating Humanism and Behaviorism: Toward Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1974-01-01

    The current emphasis on performance criteria in training programs and in professional services poses a threat to the humanistically oriented helper. This article suggests a behavioral humanism as the desired solution to the dilemma and proposes some guidelines for formulating and implementing such a synthetic system. (Author)

  17. Dignity and Dawn: Libya’s Escalating Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daveed Gartenstein-Ross

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, ICCT Associate Fellow Dr. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross and Nathaniel Barr provides a detailed examination of the armed conflict in Libya between the Operation Dignity and Libya Dawn military coalitions. The conflict erupted in May 2014, when Dignity leader Khalifa Hifter announced the launch of his campaign, which was aimed at ridding eastern Libya of Islamist militias, beginning with Benghazi. This offensive shattered a fragile status quo. Revolutionary forces concentrated in the city of Misrata and Islamist politicians perceived Hifter’s offensive as a direct affront and, following parliamentary elections that these factions lost, the Misrata-Islamist bloc announced the launch of the Libya Dawn offensive, aimed at driving pro-Dignity forces out of Tripoli. More broadly, the Dawn offensive was an effort to change facts on the ground in order to ensure that the Misrata-Islamist bloc retained political influence. The Dignity and Dawn offensives have contributed to the continuing political and geographic fragmentation of Libya. Libya now has two separate parliaments and governments, while much of the country has been carved into spheres of influence by warring factions. The Dignity-Dawn conflict has also caused a deterioration of security, which has played into the hands of a variety of violent non-state actors, including al-Qaeda and Islamic State affiliates that have capitalized on Libya’s security vacuum to establish bases of operation. This report provides a blow-by-blow account of the military conflict between Dignity and Dawn forces, then assesses the implications of the Libyan civil war on regional security and potential policy options for Western states.

  18. The Right to Dignity and Restorative Justice in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Reyneke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A retributive and punitive approach is normally adopted in dealing with misbehavior in South African schools. Despite the legal abolition of corporal punishment, more than 50 percent of schools still administer it. Other forms of punishment generally applied are also punitive in nature. The right to dignity of all of the parties affected by misbehaviour in schools is considered in this analysis. The possibility of adopting restorative justice as an alternative disciplinary approach is examined as a way of protecting, promoting and restoring the dignity of the victims of such misbehaviour.

  19. Protection of honour and dignity in criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Diāna Hamkova

    2009-01-01

    Annotation As it is not possible to analyze categories „honour” and „dignity” only from one point of view, the research is made in philosophical, legal and bioethical aspects. Legal analysis of corpus delicti – defamation and demeaning of the dignity is made in the research, as well as nuances of protection of honour and dignity in criminal and civil law are analyzed. In order to reach the objective of the research wide range of international regulations is dealt with as well as comparativ...

  20. Dignity and the factors that influence it according to nursing home residents: a qualitative interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Muller, Martien T.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight in the way nursing home residents experience personal dignity and the factors that preserve or undermine it. Nursing home residents are exposed to diverse factors which may be associated with the loss of personal dignity. To help them maintain their dignity, it is important to

  1. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  2. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  3. Human Papillomavirus Genome Integration and Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinatti, L M; Walline, H M; Carey, T E

    2018-06-01

    We conducted a critical review of human papillomavirus (HPV) integration into the host genome in oral/oropharyngeal cancer, reviewed the literature for HPV-induced cancers, and obtained current data for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, we performed studies to identify HPV integration sites and the relationship of integration to viral-host fusion transcripts and whether integration is required for HPV-associated oncogenesis. Viral integration of HPV into the host genome is not required for the viral life cycle and might not be necessary for cellular transformation, yet HPV integration is frequently reported in cervical and head and neck cancer specimens. Studies of large numbers of early cervical lesions revealed frequent viral integration into gene-poor regions of the host genome with comparatively rare integration into cellular genes, suggesting that integration is a stochastic event and that site of integration may be largely a function of chance. However, more recent studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) suggest that integration may represent an additional oncogenic mechanism through direct effects on cancer-related gene expression and generation of hybrid viral-host fusion transcripts. In HNSCC cell lines as well as primary tumors, integration into cancer-related genes leading to gene disruption has been reported. The studies have shown that integration-induced altered gene expression may be associated with tumor recurrence. Evidence from several studies indicates that viral integration into genic regions is accompanied by local amplification, increased expression in some cases, interruption of gene expression, and likely additional oncogenic effects. Similarly, reported examples of viral integration near microRNAs suggest that altered expression of these regulatory molecules may also contribute to oncogenesis. Future work is indicated to identify the mechanisms of these events on cancer cell behavior.

  4. Evaluating a dignity care intervention for palliative care in the community setting: community nurses' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlfatrick, Sonja; Connolly, Michael; Collins, Rita; Murphy, Tara; Johnston, Bridget; Larkin, Philip

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate a dignity care intervention provided by community nurses seeking to address dignity concerns for people with advanced and life-limiting conditions. Evidence would suggest that dying people fear a loss of dignity and a central focus of palliative care is to assist people to die with dignity. Whilst community nurses have a key role to play in the delivery of palliative care, specific interventions for dignity are lacking. A mixed methods study using online survey and focus group interviews and thematic analysis to examine data. Twenty four community nurses implemented the dignity care intervention for people with advanced and life-limiting conditions were recruited from four pilot sites across Ireland. Four focus group interviews and on line survey were conducted between March-June 2015. The community nurses found the dignity care intervention useful. It helped the nurses to provide holistic end-of-life care and assisted in the overall assessment of palliative care patients, identifying areas that might not otherwise have been noted. Whilst it was a useful tool for communication, they noted that it stimulated some emotionally sensitive conversations for which they felt unprepared. Implementing the dignity care intervention in practice was challenging. However, the dignity care intervention facilitated holistic assessment and identified patient dignity-related concerns that may not have been otherwise identified. Further support is required to overcome barriers and enable dignity-conserving care. Ensuring dignity is a key aspect of palliative and end-of-life care; however, community nurses may not feel equipped to address this aspect of care. Implementing a dignity care intervention can assist in identifying patient dignity-related concerns and provision of holistic care. Community nurses need more training to assist in difficult conversations relating to dignity and end-of-life care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tweeting dignity: A practical theological reflection on Twitter's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-10

    Aug 10, 2017 ... content in which a dynamic interpretation of dignity functions strongly. In the acknowledgement ... Koch, tweeting under the user-name of his puppet @ .... example Twitter and Instagram, have seen the light over the past ... and analyze one per cent of the public generated Tweets every 'streaming second' ...

  6. Safety, Dignity and the Quest for a Democratic Campus Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    In his excellent paper, Callan (2016) differentiates intellectual safety, which fosters smugness, indifference and lack of effort, from dignity safety, which is needed for participation, learning and engagement. He suggests that college classrooms that reject the first and espouse the second would be ones that focus on "cultivating…

  7. Through the looking glass: good looks and dignity in care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    There are roughly two meanings attached to the concept of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to ethical and juridical notions of equality, autonomy and freedom. Much less understood is the meaning of dignitas, which this paper develops as peoples' engagement with aesthetic values and

  8. Through the looking glass: good looks and dignity in care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, J.

    2013-01-01

    There are roughly two meanings attached to the concept of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to ethical and juridical notions of equality, autonomy and freedom. Much less understood is the meaning of dignitas, which this paper develops as peoples’ engagement with aesthetic values and

  9. The Right to Dignity and Restorative Justice in Schools | Reyneke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retributive and punitive approach is normally adopted in dealing with misbehaviour in South African schools. Despite the legal abolition of corporal punishment, more than 50 percent of schools still administer it. Other forms of punishment generally applied are also punitive in nature. The right to dignity of all of the parties ...

  10. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue that this article dealt with is whether, in South African law, speech that infringes upon the religious feelings of an individual is protected by the dignity clause in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The Constitution, as well as the Broadcasting Code, prohibits language that advocates hatred, inter alia, ...

  11. The Interpretatiom of Contracts to Provide Health Service With the Ligth of the Principle of Dignity of Human Person A interpretação dos contratos de prestação de serviços de saúde à luz do princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto de Almeida Tomaszewski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The dignity of the human person, as one of the founding principles of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Democratic State must, even as possible, be respected when interpreting a contract of health service providing by the operator of right in front of a concrete case. After showing this premise, this study has as main objective to perform an analysis of the many rules of interpretation of the contracts of health service providing, in face of the principles and constitutional norms, as well as infra-constitutional legislation applicable to it, also aiming to acquire economic equilibrium and contractual justice. This theme is very relevant, because the number of beneficiaries of contracts of health service increases every year, before State’s inability to provide to all citizens a public health model, sculptured in article 196 of the Constitution of 1988, giving to the private business the possibility of exploration of this relevant state activity (articles 170 and 199 of the Constitution of 1988. Finally, it aims to encourage the parties involved in the contract to have a real and permanent debate, as a result of a critical reflection about all the variables involved in this context, aimed also to improve the entire health system (public and private ones, and, as a consequence of it, the faithful fulfillment of constitutional guidelines, because the article XXV of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees to every person the right to have a comprehensive health and dignity.A dignidade da pessoa humana, enquanto um dos princípios fundantes da República Federativa do Brasil e do Estado Democrático de Direito, deve, sempre que possível, ser levada em linha de conta quando da interpretação de um contrato de prestação de serviços de saúde pelo operador do Direito, diante de um caso concreto. Colocada essa premissa, tem o presente estudo como objetivo primordial, efetuar a análise das diversas regras de interpreta

  12. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision A January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes the portfolio of Human Research Program (HRP) research and technology tasks. The IRP is the HRP strategic and tactical plan for research necessary to meet HRP requirements. The need to produce an IRP is established in HRP-47052, Human Research Program - Program Plan, and is under configuration management control of the Human Research Program Control Board (HRPCB). Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological and behavioral effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes HRP s approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and how they are integrated to provide a risk mitigation tool. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  13. Patrimonial ownership in the enterprise before the civil constitutional order and the enterprise role for human dignity: first notes Titularidade patrimonial na empresa frente à ordem civil constitucional e o papel empresarial para a dignidade humana: primeiras anotações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Borba Vianna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the constitutional principles of social function and human dignity, along with freedom of initiative, this article proposes a consideration about the importance of the partner legal personality as a limitation of the entrepreneur’s and the company’s responsibility in the contemporary society, as a way of performance in the economic development of the country. This article also approaches the need for legal stability in business relationships and the influence of the law-cost in the entrepreneur’s decision-making when it comes to opting for investing in the private sector. Finally, the impacts on Brazil cost derived from the unsystematic application of the disregard of the legal personality to the detriment of the societas distat singulis fundamental rule are considered.A partir dos princípios constitucionais da função social e dignidade da pessoa humana, aliados à liberdade de iniciativa, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre a importância da personalidade jurídica societária, como limitação da responsabilidade do empresário, e da empresa na sociedade contemporânea, como forma de atuação no desenvolvimento econômico do país. Aborda-se a necessidade de estabilidade jurídica das relações empresariais e da influência que o direito-custo tem na decisão do empresário quando opta por investir no setor privado. Por fim, trata-se dos reflexos no custo Brasil pela aplicação assistemática da desconsideração da personalidade jurídica em prejuízo da regra fundamental societas distat singulis.

  14. Elimination of corporal punishment of children's a human right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors indicate the necessity of explicit legal prohibition of all corporal punishment of children that represent a violation of the right of the child to respect his/her physical integrity and human dignity. The paper emphasizes why all corporal punishment of children should be prohibited and points out the progress made at the legislative level to the elimination of all corporal punishment of children in some member states of the Council of Europe and the Republic of Serbia.

  15. Identifying care actions to conserve dignity in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary; Johnston, Bridget; Ostlund, Ulrika

    2011-05-01

    Community nurses have a central role in the provision of palliative and end-of-life care; helping people to die with dignity is an important component of this care. To conserve dignity, care should comprise a broad range of actions addressing the distress that might impact on the patient's sense of dignity. These care actions need to be defined. This study aims to suggest care actions that conserve dignity at the end of life based on evidence from local experience and community nursing practice. Data were collected by focus group interviews and analysed by framework analysis using the Chochinov model of dignity as a predefined framework. Suggestions on care actions were given in relation to all themes. As part of a multi-phase project developing and testing a dignity care pathway, this study might help community nurses to conserve dying patients' dignity.

  16. Vincent Lambert, Dignity in Dying and the European Court: A Critical Evaluation and the Global Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, R R

    2016-04-01

    In this article I analyse the verdict of the European Court of Human Rights in the Case of Lambert and Others v. France, delivered on 5 June 2015, affirming the Conseil d'État's decision holding that the withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration from Vincent Lambert, a French national lying in tetraplegia and persistent vegetative state, was consistent with French domestic law and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. In order to make a comparative evaluation I give an account of judicial decisions across the world and find that the European Court's decision is an affirmative pronouncement, in the prevailing milieu of judicial heterogeneity, as it recognizes a person's right to die with dignity in the face of conflicting claims and arguments, by giving supremacy to a person's autonomy and right of self-determination over the deep-rooted religious beliefs and undue paternalistic postures. I conclude that right to die with dignity is a profound area where judge-made law is not the answer. The situation calls for greater consensus and uniformity by evolving suitable legislative strategies.

  17. The Possibility of Using the Embryonic Stem Cells on the Discard Period: the Conflict Between the Right to Life and the Principle of Human DignityDa Possibilidade do Uso de Células-Tronco Embrionárias em Período de Descarte: o Conflito Entre o Direito à Vida e o Princípio da Dignidade da Pessoa Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkíria Aparecida Lopes Ferraro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Its purpose is to talk about the possibility of using human embryonic stem cells in the rejection period for research and therapies reasons. It deals with basic notes concerning the personality rights, incorporating the basic characteristics and aspects of the reported legal category. It addresses the right to life and the relevant position it has in the Brazilian and international legal system. It deepens the last theme as it incorporates the constitutional imperative of a worthy life accomplishment of all human beings. It elucidates the problematic concerning the use of stem cells, explaining the characteristics and existing species, analyzing the legal diploma concerning this matter, the Biosafety Law and the judgment, by the Brazilian Supreme Court, of the Inconstitutionality Direct Action that was against the 5th article of the mentioned law, a device that disciplines the matter under discussion in this work. Finally, it clarifies the conflict that exists between the values life and human dignity, deciding on which one should overlap the other.Este trabalho tem por escopo discutir a possibilidade do uso de células-tronco embrionárias humanas em período de descarte para fins de pesquisas e terapias. Ele traz apontamentos básicos acerca dos direitos da personalidade, e ingressa nas características e aspectos basilares da referida categoria jurídica. Aborda o direito à vida e a posição de destaque que detém no ordenamento jurídico pátrio e em domínio internacional. Aprofunda o último tema ao ingressar no imperativo constitucional de realização de vida digna de todos os seres humanos. Elucida a problemática do uso de células-tronco, esclarecendo características e espécies existentes, analisando o diploma legal respeitante à matéria, a Lei de Biossegurança, e o julgamento, pela Suprema Corte brasileira, da ação direta de inconstitucionalidade que atacou o artigo 5º da aludida lei, dispositivo que disciplina a mat

  18. The philosophy and method of integrative humanism and religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper titled “Philosophy and Method of Integrative Humanism and Religious Crises in Nigeria: Picking the Essentials”, acknowledges the damaging effects of religious bigotry, fanaticism and creed differences on the social, political and economic development of the country. The need for the cessation of religious ...

  19. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  20. The principle of systemic integration in human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachovitsa, Adamantia

    International lawyers and courts consider the principle of systemic integration to be a potential answer to difficulties arising from the fragmentation of public international law. This article questions the application of this approach in the context of human rights treaties. It is argued, first,

  1. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  2. "Wide-Awake Learning": Integrative Learning and Humanities Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the development of integrative learning and argues that it has an important role to play in broader conceptions of the undergraduate curriculum recently advanced in the UK. It suggests that such a focus might also provide arts and humanities educators with a hopeful prospect in difficult times: a means by which the distinctive…

  3. Information-integration category learning and the human uncertainty response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Boomer, Joseph; Smith, J David; Ashby, F Gregory

    2011-04-01

    The human response to uncertainty has been well studied in tasks requiring attention and declarative memory systems. However, uncertainty monitoring and control have not been studied in multi-dimensional, information-integration categorization tasks that rely on non-declarative procedural memory. Three experiments are described that investigated the human uncertainty response in such tasks. Experiment 1 showed that following standard categorization training, uncertainty responding was similar in information-integration tasks and rule-based tasks requiring declarative memory. In Experiment 2, however, uncertainty responding in untrained information-integration tasks impaired the ability of many participants to master those tasks. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that the deficit observed in Experiment 2 was not because of the uncertainty response option per se, but rather because the uncertainty response provided participants a mechanism via which to eliminate stimuli that were inconsistent with a simple declarative response strategy. These results are considered in the light of recent models of category learning and metacognition.

  4. Humane Letters: Notes on the Concept of Integrity and the Meanings of Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for an analysis of integrity and contends that attempting to describe wholeness precisely and incisively is not necessarily a contradiction in terms. The author makes some distinctions about integrity using two moves, one inspired by Plato, and one by Aristotle. The author uses the phrase "humane letters" to name…

  5. Integrating medical humanities into a pharmaceutical care seminar on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of a medical humanities teaching module that focuses on pharmaceutical care for dementia patients.Design. Visual and textual dementia narratives were presented using a combination of teacher and learner-centered approaches with the aim being to highlight patients' and caregivers' needs for empathy and counselling.Assessment. As gauged from pre- and post-experience questionnaires, students highly rated this approach to teaching medical humanities. In-class presentations demonstrated students' increased sensitivity to patient and caregiver needs, while objective learning outcomes demonstrated students' increased knowledge and awareness.Conclusions. Pharmacy students were open to and successfully learned from reading and discussing patient and caregiver narratives, which furthers the discussion on the value of integrating the medical humanities into the curricula of pharmacy and other health sciences.

  6. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of human and machine intelligence in space systems is outlined with respect to the contributions of artificial intelligence. The current state-of-the-art in intelligent assistant systems (IASs) is reviewed, and the requirements of some real-world applications of the technologies are discussed. A concept of integrated human-machine intelligence is examined in the contexts of: (1) interactive systems that tolerate human errors; (2) systems for the relief of workloads; and (3) interactive systems for solving problems in abnormal situations. Key issues in the development of IASs include the compatibility of the systems with astronauts in terms of inputs/outputs, processing, real-time AI, and knowledge-based system validation. Real-world applications are suggested such as the diagnosis, planning, and control of enginnered systems.

  7. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  8. Human systems integration in remotely piloted aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-12-01

    The role of humans in remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) is qualitatively different from manned aviation, lessening the applicability of aerospace medicine human factors knowledge derived from traditional cockpits. Aerospace medicine practitioners should expect to be challenged in addressing RPA crewmember performance. Human systems integration (HSI) provides a model for explaining human performance as a function of the domains of: human factors engineering; personnel; training; manpower; environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH); habitability; and survivability. RPA crewmember performance is being particularly impacted by issues involving the domains of human factors engineering, personnel, training, manpower, ESOH, and habitability. Specific HSI challenges include: 1) changes in large RPA operator selection and training; 2) human factors engineering deficiencies in current RPA ground control station design and their impact on human error including considerations pertaining to multi-aircraft control; and 3) the combined impact of manpower shortfalls, shiftwork-related fatigue, and degraded crewmember effectiveness. Limited experience and available research makes it difficult to qualitatively or quantitatively predict the collective impact of these issues on RPA crewmember performance. Attending to HSI will be critical for the success of current and future RPA crewmembers. Aerospace medicine practitioners working with RPA crewmembers should gain first-hand knowledge of their task environment while the larger aerospace medicine community needs to address the limited information available on RPA-related aerospace medicine human factors. In the meantime, aeromedical decisions will need to be made based on what is known about other aerospace occupations, realizing this knowledge may have only partial applicability.

  9. An undignified side of death with dignity legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The primary justification for Death with Dignity legislation has been the principle of respect for autonomy. However, some have objected that if respect for autonomy is the reason for allowing physician-assisted suicide, then why not allow it for people with longer than six months to live? Defenders of the laws have responded that respect for autonomy must be balanced against the state's interest in the lives of its citizens. Persons with less than six months remaining have virtually no life left to protect; persons with more time have a meaningfully long segment of life remaining. The state can therefore overrule their autonomy interests to preserve their lives. This paper will argue that this response constitutes an ironic affront to the dignity of people with less than six months to live, for it implies that their lives are not worth enough for the state to prevent them from committing physician-assisted suicide.

  10. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  11. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  12. An Integrated Simulation Tool for Modeling the Human Circulatory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Ken'ichi; Kitamura, Tadashi

    This paper presents an integrated simulation of the circulatory system in physiological movement. The large circulatory system model includes principal organs and functional units in modules in which comprehensive physiological changes such as nerve reflexes, temperature regulation, acid/base balance, O2/CO2 balance, and exercise are simulated. A beat-by-beat heart model, in which the corresponding electrical circuit problems are solved by a numerical analytic method, enables calculation of pulsatile blood flow to the major organs. The integration of different perspectives on physiological changes makes this simulation model applicable for the microscopic evaluation of blood flow under various conditions in the human body.

  13. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  14. The significance of meaningful and enjoyable activities for nursing home resident's experiences of dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slettebø, Åshild; Saeteren, Berit; Caspari, Synnøve

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Living in a nursing home may be challenging to the residents' experience of dignity. Residents' perception of how their dignity is respected in everyday care is important. AIM: To examine how nursing home residents experience dignity through the provision of activities that foster...... meaning and joy in their daily life. METHOD: A qualitative design was used and 28 individual semistructured interviews conducted with nursing home residents from six nursing homes in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Independent ethical committees in all...... participating countries granted their approval for the study. FINDINGS: The participants highlight two dimensions of the activities that foster experiences of dignity in nursing homes in Scandinavia. These two categories were (i) fostering dignity through meaningful participation and (ii) fostering dignity...

  15. Imigração Haitiana no Brasil: os Motivos da Onda Migratória, as Propostas para a Inclusão dos Imigrantes e a sua Proteção à Dignidade Humana / Haitian Immigration in Brazil: the Migration Wave Reasons, the Proposals for Inclusion of Immigrants and their Protection for Human Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Messias da Silva

    2016-11-01

    common in ordinary legal practice. Finally the essay points to the fact that legal conventionalism failed to cope with the Dworkinian challenge since it could not rightly take in consideration the kind of theoretical disagreements that are at stake in pivotal cases of legal practice. Keywords: Haitian immigrants; Inclusion; Human Dignity.

  16. Dignity in nursing care: What does it mean to student nurses?

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Rosemary.; Fleming, Anne.; McMillan, Laura.; Kydd, Angela.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite growing interest in the potential of nursing education to enhance dignity in nursingcare, relatively little is known about what dignity means to nursing students.Research question: What meaning does dignity in nursing care have for nursing students?Research design: Photo-elicitation was embedded within a Nominal Group Technique and responseswere analysed by qualitative and quantitative content analysis.Participants and research context: Participants were recruited from eac...

  17. Feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy for people with motor neurone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bentley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor neurone disease (MND practice guidelines suggest developing interventions that will promote hope, meaning, and dignity to alleviate psychological distress, but very little research has been done. This study begins to address this need by exploring the use of dignity therapy with people with MND. Dignity therapy is a brief psychotherapy that promotes hope, meaning and dignity, and enhances the end of life for people with advanced cancer. The aims of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy for people with MND. METHODS/DESIGN: This cross-sectional feasibility study used a one-group pre-test post-test design with 29 people diagnosed with MND. Study participants completed the following self-report questionnaires: Herth Hope Index, FACIT-sp, Patient Dignity Inventory, ALS Assessment Questionnaire, ALS Cognitive Behavioural Screen, and a demographic and health history questionnaire. Acceptability was measured with a 25-item feedback questionnaire. Feasibility was assessed by examining the length of time taken to complete dignity therapy and how symptoms common in MND affected the intervention. Generalised linear mixed models and reliable change scores were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: There were no significant pre-test post-test changes for hopefulness, spirituality or dignity on the group level, but there were changes in hopefulness on the individual level. The results of the feedback questionnaire indicates dignity therapy is highly acceptable to people with MND, who report benefits similar to those in the international randomised controlled trial on dignity therapy, a population who primarily had end-stage cancer. Benefits include better family relationships, improved sense of self and greater acceptance. Dignity therapy with people with MND is feasible if the therapist can overcome time and communication difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Dignity therapy for people with

  18. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.; Bainbridge, W.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco and Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA)

  19. Human and machine perception communication, interaction, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.

  20. Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    comprehension. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1977. Craik , F.I.M., and Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning A...Table 5.9 presents summary data regarding the performance levels and memory and search processes of individual subjects. The first row in Table 5.9...R-2256-ARP A June 1979 ARPA Order No.: 189-1 9020 Cybernetics Technology Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and

  1. INTEGRATION MECHANISMS OF IMPROVEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Akimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions, the efficiency of business processes of an organization is determined by the quality of the staff. Therefore, actual is the creation and application of new approaches to the management of human re-sources. The article presents a comparative analysis of management practices and their impact on the effectiveness of personnel management, the mechanism of their integration to improve the efficiency of the process.

  2. Space Medicine in the Human System Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of integration of space medicine in the human system of lunar exploration. There is a review of historical precedence in reference to lunar surface operations. The integration process is reviewed in a chart which shows the steps from research to requirements development, requirements integration, design, verification, operations and using the lessons learned, giving more information and items for research. These steps are reviewed in view of specific space medical issues. Some of the testing of the operations are undertaken in an environment that is an analog to the exploration environment. Some of these analog environments are reviewed, and there is some discussion of the benefits of use of an analog environment in testing the processes that are derived.

  3. Human-Centered Design as an Integrating Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy André Boy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What is research today? Good research has to be indexed within appropriate mechanisms to be visible, considered and finally useful. These mechanisms are based on quantitative research methods and codes that are often very academic. Consequently, they impose rigorous constraints on the way results should be obtained and presented. In addition, everything people learn in academia needs to be graded. This leads to standard packaging of what should be learned and results in making people executants and not creators nor inventors. In other words, this academic standardization precludes freedom for innovation. This paper proposes Human-Centered Design (HCD as a solution to override these limitations and roadblocks. HCD involves expertise, experience, participation, modeling and simulation, complexity analysis and qualitative research. What is education today? Education is organized in silos with little attempt to integrate individual academic disciplines. Large system integration is almost never learned in engineering schools, and Human- Systems Integration (HSI even less. Instead, real-life problemsolving requires integration skills. What is design research? We often hear that design has nothing to do with research, and conversely. Putting design and research together, as complementary disciplines, contributes to combine creativity, rigorous demonstration and validation. This is somehow what HCD is about.

  4. Human dignity and consent in research biobanking | Kirchhoffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...

  6. Human dignity and biomedical ethics from a Christian theological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... Not only is there no Christian or humanistic idea of man. (because they do not .... ness which can be denied only at the cost of doing violence to the text. ... of an existential interpretation of the New Testament would not have to ...

  7. LGBT: equally entitled to human rights and dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Richard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition that LGBT rights are universal rights is gaining ground.The trend, finally, is positive. But greater respect for LGBT rights andinclusion of LGBT people still is not a worldwide movement.

  8. Dignity, dependence and relational autonomy for older people living in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolo Heggestad, Anne Kari; Høy, Bente; Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Dignity is a core concept in nursing care . In earlier theories on dignity, close links have been drawn between dignity and autonomy, and autonomy has been closely related to independence . These traditional understandings of dignity and autonomy may be challenged when an individual moves...... into a nursing home . Our findings show that negative views about dependence, institutional frames and structures in the nursing home, and the attitudes and actions of healthcare personnel may diminish independence and lead to a lack of autonomy . Each of these areas can be experienced as a serious threat...

  9. Operator role definition and human-system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses operator role definition and human-system integration from a perspective of systems engineering and allocation of functions. Current and traditional allocation of tasks/functions can no longer by applied to systems that are significantly more sophisticated and dynamic than current system designs. For such advanced and automated designs, explicit attention must be given to the role of the operator in order to facilitate efficient system performance. Furthermore, such systems will include intelligent automated systems which will support the cognitive activities of the operator. If such systems share responsibility and control with the human operator, these computer-based assistants/associates should be viewed as intelligent team members. As such, factors such as trust, intentions, and expectancies, among team members must be considered by the systems designer. Such design considerations are discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the area of dynamic allocation of functions, and the need for models of the human operator in support of machine forecast of human performance. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) model is discussed as an example of a cognitive model capable of functioning beyond a rule-based behavioral structure

  10. VSED: Death With Dignity or Without?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life. These twelve compelling narratives represent a dramatic groundswell of attention to the practice of VSED. Through my review of these narratives, numerous statements of significance emerged along with common ethical themes which bring to light matters that might otherwise remain idle. As such, integrity and autonomy become paramount while, unfortunately, logical fallacies like that of the slippery slope argument are asserted. Ultimately, the suffering that leads people to embrace VSED is compelling and must not be minimized. Therefore, this paper, while not comprehensive, is an attempt to dissect these major themes and offer recommendations for addressing concerns regarding end-of-life care that have surfaced during the VSED debate. It is through this endeavor that I will hopefully challenge prevailing assumptions and misconceptions that can only exist in an ideal world.

  11. Sonnet XXX: Love, dignity, and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E Wesley

    2016-05-01

    All of us in medicine who care for patients who are chronically critically ill, dying of incurable illnesses, will be faced with discussions about the value of their lives and about the appropriateness of ongoing supportive care. Such discussions are good and true, and they must always be done within the context of the sanctity of every human life and the promise of God that we are His children, each and every one of us. In this article, I explore the end-of-life path of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the courageous faith that she demonstrated in the face of her illness. I explore with you, the reader, the hard-core conversations that took place at her bedside and their meaning in light of Catholic moral teaching. This story is not meant to indicate that we should always do all interventions at all times for all patients. That would be a teaching counter to Evangelium vitae . This story is meant to help you think through the path of your patients and of you as a physician or other type of healthcare professional in serving your patients. Primum non nocere. Ad majorem Dei gloriam .

  12. The dignity of the child in a psychiatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Kmieciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to respect the dignity of children using medical services in psychiatric units is regulated among other by the Patients’ Rights act and the Patients’ Rights Ombudsman act, Physician and Dentist Professions Act and the Medical Ethics Code. Although since 1994 the Mental Health Protection Act has existed, some information appears about the violation of the dignity of the child in psychiatric hospitals. Material and methods: Analysis of the information obtained from different sources (the media, the Internet, from patients and/or their legal guardians, peror Psychiatric Hospital Patients’ Ombudsman allowed to draw up a list of repeated situations in psychiatric units for children and adolescents where the dignity of the juvenile/minor patient may be violated. Results: The most frequently reported issues are: reduction of the minor/juvenile patients’ access to “privileges” (such as direct contacts with colleagues, lack of privacy (such as controls in toilets and bathrooms, irregularities during the use of direct coercion, lack of regular access to a mobile phone, the Internet, stereo equipment, lack of juvenile/minor patients’ consent for treatment (including the double permission, engaging the patients to cleaning work, and medical staff’s interventions of educational and corrective character (the patients perceive this as the use of penalties. Discussion: It was found out that the reaction of a minor/juvenile psychiatric unit patient or her/his carers to the detachment from her/his surroundings, favourite activities or things, and educational interventions are related to precise determination of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and rules prevalent in the group, privileges, consequences, and application of behavioural effects in the form of negative reinforcements (so-called penalties and positive reinforcements (rewards. A strong response to infringement of the rules may be perceived by the patients as a violation of

  13. Spirituality and Dignity of Thai Adolescents Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnsunaphat Balthip

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Adolescents are a key asset and resource for the social and economic development of any country, with the potential to make a significant contribution to their families, communities and countries. Healthy and educated adolescents are important. However, there are still significant rates of death, illness and disease among adolescents in some countries, where HIV is one of the most prevalent causes of death in this group. Adolescents living with HIV may experience and encounter social restrictions and physiological limitations. Therefore, this investigation explored whether the concepts of spirituality and dignity had any relevance to participants sense of meaning and purpose and whether these had any impact upon their health and well-being (2 Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used involving twenty-two adolescents living with HIV attending one regional hospital in Southern Thailand. One to one interviews and descriptive diaries were used to collect the data and thematic analysis enabled the identification of attributes of spirituality and dignity. (3 Results: The findings revealed that spirituality and dignity were present in the lives of Thai adolescents living with HIV expressed in the main category of living life responsibly. This comprised of six themes: (a Understanding the disease and accepting the truth about life, (b Maintaining hope for a cure, (c Focusing on life’s purposes, (d Making life choices, (e Caring for oneself and (f Responsibility towards other. (4 Conclusions: The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents living with HIV to obtain a holistic, dignified approach to care that includes attention to the spiritual dimension.

  14. [The dignity of the patient: a legal problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, H

    1980-11-01

    Rules of medical ethic bid since the times of antiquity to respect the patients dignity. Today to respect the dignity of any man is a general legal rule. In the same way other rules of the traditional medical ethic became legal norms as for instance the command forbidding to do harm to someone. The law intends to limit the possibilities to exercise power. Therefore it does not compete to the doctor alone to decide that a medical treatment has to be applied. The legal base of a medical treatment lies in the consent of the patient who has been duly cleared up on his state, the necessary treatment and its risks. If it has to be decided if a doctor has given the right treatment in a special case it does not suffice to consult the general rules of the law; the circumstances of the case have to be considered as well. The doctor has to decide, according to the actual medical knowledge and the rules of his professional art what the appropriate proceeding is. Legal and medical considerations are closely connected if one judges a doctor handling a special case. If the patient consents, the doctor is not obliged to treat him, but he is entitled to do it, cases of emergency excepted. If and in what way he treats the patient has to be decided by the doctor according to medical criterias. If a patient, sound of mind, who is suffering heavily by an incurable illness asks the doctor to restrain treatment to alleviating the pains and to the absolute cares to preserve life, the doctor is bound by his patient's wish. In analogy the legal construct of "conducting business without mandate" allows the doctor to proceed in the same way if the patient who lost consciousness is not able to decide upon the treatment and whose death is inevitable and imminent if this is the only wise to respect the dignity of the patient.

  15. The Fundamental Right To Grow Old With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rabelo de Matos Silva Arruda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the role the growing old in society has been changing considerably, the population is aging and increasing life expectancy. Law No. 10741/03, which established the Statute of the Elderly, where the legislator sought to ensure the right to grow old with dignity. The increase in the number of retirees and unemployment generated changing the demand in the social security system, which is being processed at the national congress. This article examines how society has been treating the elderly and preparing to deal with the aging population.

  16. Male nurses and the protection of female patient dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Antony

    Nurses need to be aware of their professional, legal and ethical responsibilities towards patients. Male nurses in particular face problems in their practice as a result of their gender and the stereotypes associated with male nurses. Such stereotypes can act as a barrier to their duty of care. This article examines the challenges associated with male nurses carrying out intimate, physical care. It discusses the ethical, legal and professional issues that male nurses should consider in relation to maintenance of patient dignity during nursing care provision, particularly in relation to female patients.

  17. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  18. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  19. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory are due to preanalytical errors. Preanalytical variability of biospecimens can have significant effects on downstream analyses, and controlling such variables is therefore fundamental for the future use of biospecimens in personalized...... medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  20. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  1. THERP and HEART integrated methodology for human error assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Francesco; Giardina, Mariarosa; Tomarchio, Elio

    2015-11-01

    THERP and HEART integrated methodology is proposed to investigate accident scenarios that involve operator errors during high-dose-rate (HDR) treatments. The new approach has been modified on the basis of fuzzy set concept with the aim of prioritizing an exhaustive list of erroneous tasks that can lead to patient radiological overexposures. The results allow for the identification of human errors that are necessary to achieve a better understanding of health hazards in the radiotherapy treatment process, so that it can be properly monitored and appropriately managed.

  2. Learning from dying patients during their final days: life reflections gleaned from dignity therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan E; Chochinov, Harvey M; Cann, Beverley J; Hassard, Thomas H; Kristjanson, Linda J; Harlos, Mike

    2010-10-01

    Dignity therapy is a novel therapeutic approach designed to decrease suffering, enhance quality of life and bolster a sense of dignity for patients approaching death. The benefits of dignity therapy were previously documented in a sample of 100 terminally ill patients. One of the products of dignity therapy is a transcript of the edited therapy session(s). In this qualitative study, 50 of the 100 (17 from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and 33 from Perth, Australia) dignity therapy transcripts were randomly drawn, and independently coded and analysed by three investigators using a grounded theory approach. The transcripts revealed that dignity therapy serves to provide a safe, therapeutic environment for patients to review the most meaningful aspects of their lives in such a manner that their core values become apparent. The most common values expressed by the patients included 'Family', 'Pleasure', 'Caring', 'A Sense of Accomplishment', 'True Friendship', and 'Rich Experience'. Exemplars of each of these values illustrate the pervasive, defining role of values in our lives. The findings are discussed in terms of values theory, the role of dignity therapy, and consideration of values clarification in clinicians' efforts to enhance the dignity of terminally ill patients.

  3. Nursing home staff's views on residents' dignity: a qualitative interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining dignity is an important element of end-of-life care and also of the care given in nursing homes. Factors influencing personal dignity have been studied from both nursing home residents' and staff's perspective. Little is however known about the way nursing home staff perceive and promote

  4. The end-of-life phase of high-grade glioma patients: dying with dignity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Eefje M.; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Heimans, Jan J.; Deliens, Luc; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.

    2013-01-01

    In the end-of-life (EOL) phase, high-grade glioma (HGG) patients have a high symptom burden and often lose independence because of physical and cognitive dysfunction. This might affect the patient's personal dignity. We aimed to (a) assess the proportion of HGG patients dying with dignity as

  5. Changes in the Personal Dignity of Nursing Home Residents: A Longitudinal Qualitative Interview Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld-Vlug, M.G.; Pasman, H.R.W.; van Gennip, I.E.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable.Aim:To

  6. Changes in the personal dignity of nursing home residents: a longitudinal qualitative interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; van Gennip, Isis E.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2013-01-01

    Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. To investigate if and how

  7. Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Tretter, Felix; Braun, Hans A.; Buchheim, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Fuchs, Thomas; Hasler, Felix; Hastedt, Heiner; Hinterberger, Thilo; Northoff, Georg; Rentschler, Ingo; Schleim, Stephan; Sellmaier, Stephan; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge, rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather aggravate them by the complexity problem. The present article is devoted to methodological and epistemic problems that obstruct the development of human neuroscience. We neither discuss ontological questions (e.g., the nature of the mind) nor review data, except when it is necessary to demonstrate a methodological issue. As regards intradisciplinary methodological problems, we concentrate on those within neurobiology (e.g., the gap between electrical and chemical approaches to neurophysiological processes) and psychology (missing theoretical concepts). As regards interdisciplinary problems, we suggest that core disciplines of neuroscience can be integrated using systemic concepts that also entail human-environment relations. We emphasize the necessity of a meta-discussion that should entail a closer cooperation with philosophy as a discipline of systematic reflection. The atomistic reduction should be complemented by the explicit consideration of the embodiedness of the brain and the embeddedness of humans. The discussion is aimed at the development of an explicit methodology of integrative human neuroscience, which will not only link different fields and levels, but also help in understanding clinical phenomena. PMID:27965548

  8. Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Tretter, Felix; Braun, Hans A; Buchheim, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Fuchs, Thomas; Hasler, Felix; Hastedt, Heiner; Hinterberger, Thilo; Northoff, Georg; Rentschler, Ingo; Schleim, Stephan; Sellmaier, Stephan; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge , rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather aggravate them by the complexity problem. The present article is devoted to methodological and epistemic problems that obstruct the development of human neuroscience. We neither discuss ontological questions (e.g., the nature of the mind) nor review data, except when it is necessary to demonstrate a methodological issue. As regards intradisciplinary methodological problems, we concentrate on those within neurobiology (e.g., the gap between electrical and chemical approaches to neurophysiological processes) and psychology (missing theoretical concepts). As regards interdisciplinary problems, we suggest that core disciplines of neuroscience can be integrated using systemic concepts that also entail human-environment relations. We emphasize the necessity of a meta-discussion that should entail a closer cooperation with philosophy as a discipline of systematic reflection. The atomistic reduction should be complemented by the explicit consideration of the embodiedness of the brain and the embeddedness of humans. The discussion is aimed at the development of an explicit methodology of integrative human neuroscience , which will not only link different fields and levels, but also help in understanding clinical phenomena.

  9. An Integrated Framework for Human-Robot Collaborative Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Weihua; Thobbi, Anand; Gu, Ye

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated learning framework that enables humanoid robots to perform human-robot collaborative manipulation tasks. Specifically, a table-lifting task performed jointly by a human and a humanoid robot is chosen for validation purpose. The proposed framework is split into two phases: 1) phase I-learning to grasp the table and 2) phase II-learning to perform the manipulation task. An imitation learning approach is proposed for phase I. In phase II, the behavior of the robot is controlled by a combination of two types of controllers: 1) reactive and 2) proactive. The reactive controller lets the robot take a reactive control action to make the table horizontal. The proactive controller lets the robot take proactive actions based on human motion prediction. A measure of confidence of the prediction is also generated by the motion predictor. This confidence measure determines the leader/follower behavior of the robot. Hence, the robot can autonomously switch between the behaviors during the task. Finally, the performance of the human-robot team carrying out the collaborative manipulation task is experimentally evaluated on a platform consisting of a Nao humanoid robot and a Vicon motion capture system. Results show that the proposed framework can enable the robot to carry out the collaborative manipulation task successfully.

  10. A prospective evaluation of Dignity Therapy in advanced cancer patients admitted to palliative care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Lise Jul; Chochinov, Harvey M; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    questionnaires were completed when patients received the generativity document (T1) and 2 weeks later (T2). Changes from baseline (T0) were measured in sense of dignity, Structured Interview for Symptoms and Concerns items, Patient Dignity Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and European...... and will to live. Quality of life decreased (mean = -9 (95% confidence interval: -14.54; -2.49)) and depression increased (mean = 0.31 (0.06; 0.57)) on one of several depression measures. At T2 (n = 31), sense of dignity (mean = -0.52 (-1.01; -0.02)) and sense of being a burden to others (mean = -0.26 (-0.49; -0......Background:Dignity Therapy is a brief, psychosocial intervention for patients with incurable disease.Aim:To investigate participation in and evaluation of Dignity Therapy and longitudinal changes in patient-rated outcomes.Design:A prospective (pre/post) evaluation design was employed. Evaluation...

  11. Death with Dignity: The Developing Debate Among Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Brittany N; Campbell, Hope E; Runk, Lindsay M

    2015-06-01

    The right-to-die movement-known variously as death with dignity, physician-assisted suicide, or aid in dying-remains controversial. The recently publicized death of 29-year-old Brittany Maynard, who chose to end her life through physician-assisted suicide, forced many health care professionals to evaluate or re-evaluate their stance on the issue. Currently, only five states have aid-in-dying laws, but many others have bills under consideration. The legalized process for physician-assisted suicide has a strict set of procedures that physicians and patients must follow to ensure the competency and safety of all parties involved. Opposition against legalizing physician-assisted suicide encompasses more than simply moral, religious, or ethical differences. While some individuals believe that physician-assisted suicide gives patients autonomy in their end-of-life care, health care professionals also may have reservations about the liability of the situation. Pharmacists, in particular, play a pertinent role in the dispensing of, and counseling about, the medications used to assist patients in hastening their death. It is imperative that pharmacists be aware of the intended use of the particular medication so that they can make informed decisions about their participation and ensure that they perform all the necessary steps required to remain compliant with the laws or statutes in their jurisdiction. This practice places an increased burden on pharmacists to evaluate their opinion on the concept of death with dignity and whether or not they want to participate.

  12. The development of a model of dignity in illness based on qualitative interviews with seriously ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gennip, Isis E.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Willems, Dick L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2013-01-01

    While knowledge on factors affecting personal dignity of patients nearing death is quite substantial, far less is known about how patients living with a serious disease understand dignity. To develop a conceptual model of dignity that illuminates the process by which serious illness can undermine

  13. The development of a model of dignity in illness based on qualitative interviews with seriously ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gennip, I.E.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Oosterveld-Vlug, M.G.; Willems, D.L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While knowledge on factors affecting personal dignity of patients nearing death is quite substantial, far less is known about how patients living with a serious disease understand dignity. Objective: To develop a conceptual model of dignity that illuminates the process by which serious

  14. Human midsagittal brain shape variation: patterns, allometry and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Colom, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Midsagittal cerebral morphology provides a homologous geometrical reference for brain shape and cortical vs. subcortical spatial relationships. In this study, midsagittal brain shape variation is investigated in a sample of 102 humans, in order to describe and quantify the major patterns of correlation between morphological features, the effect of size and sex on general anatomy, and the degree of integration between different cortical and subcortical areas. The only evident pattern of covariation was associated with fronto-parietal cortical bulging. The allometric component was weak for the cortical profile, but more robust for the posterior subcortical areas. Apparent sex differences were evidenced in size but not in brain shape. Cortical and subcortical elements displayed scarcely integrated changes, suggesting a modular separation between these two areas. However, a certain correlation was found between posterior subcortical and parietal cortical variations. These results should be directly integrated with information ranging from functional craniology to wiring organization, and with hypotheses linking brain shape and the mechanical properties of neurons during morphogenesis. PMID:20345859

  15. Integrated Human Test Facilities at NASA and the Role of Human Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tri, Terry O.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated human test facilities are a key component of NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). Over the past several years, the ALSP has been developing such facilities to serve as a large-scale advanced life support and habitability test bed capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. These facilities-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support and habitability systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces-are currently in the development stage at the Johnson Space Center. These major test facilities are comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment, which will be outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support and habitability functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by these integrated human test facilities, the overall system architecture of the facilities, the current development status of the facilities, and the role that human design has played in the development of the facilities.

  16. Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Schaffner, Stephen F; Yu, Fuli; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bonnen, Penelope E; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Deloukas, Panos; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah; Inouye, Michael; Jia, Xiaoming; Palotie, Aarno; Parkin, Melissa; Whittaker, Pamela; Yu, Fuli; Chang, Kyle; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora R; Ren, Yanru; Wheeler, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna Marie; Barnes, Chris; Darvishi, Katayoon; Hurles, Matthew; Korn, Joshua M; Kristiansson, Kati; Lee, Charles; McCarrol, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Keinan, Alon; Montgomery, Stephen B; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Soranzo, Nicole; Bonnen, Penelope E; Gibbs, Richard A; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Keinan, Alon; Price, Alkes L; Yu, Fuli; Anttila, Verneri; Brodeur, Wendy; Daly, Mark J; Leslie, Stephen; McVean, Gil; Moutsianas, Loukas; Nguyen, Huy; Schaffner, Stephen F; Zhang, Qingrun; Ghori, Mohammed J R; McGinnis, Ralph; McLaren, William; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Schaffner, Stephen F; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Grossman, Sharon R; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Hostetter, Elizabeth B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Foster, Morris W; Gordon, Deborah R; Licinio, Julio; Manca, Maria Cristina; Marshall, Patricia A; Matsuda, Ichiro; Ngare, Duncan; Wang, Vivian Ota; Reddy, Deepa; Rotimi, Charles N; Royal, Charmaine D; Sharp, Richard R; Zeng, Changqing; Brooks, Lisa D; McEwen, Jean E

    2010-09-02

    Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations, and sequenced ten 100-kilobase regions in 692 of these individuals. This integrated data set of common and rare alleles, called 'HapMap 3', includes both SNPs and copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). We characterized population-specific differences among low-frequency variants, measured the improvement in imputation accuracy afforded by the larger reference panel, especially in imputing SNPs with a minor allele frequency of human disease, and serves as a step towards a high-resolution map of the landscape of human genetic variation.

  17. From Legal to Effective Recognition of Equal Dignity as a Right of the Individual with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. A Process that Challenges us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana URIEN ORTIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the ethical implications of acknowledging disability as a human rights issue. The most common way to understand disability is inspired by a welfarist structure where collective needs trump the wishes of the individual. This new conceptualization, inspired by influential philosophers, such as Dworkin and Margalit, understands dignity as the individual’s right to have their life unfold in an inclusive context that creates self-respect.

  18. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  19. NASA Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH): Revitalization of Space-Related Human Factors, Environmental and Habitability Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane; Pickett, Lynn; Tillman, Barry; Foley, Tico

    2007-01-01

    This chart illustrates the contents for NASA's Human Integration Design Handbook, which is being developed as a new reference handbook for designing systems which accomodate the capabilities and limitations of the human crew.

  20. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  1. An Integrated Hybrid Transportation Architecture for Human Mars Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Chai, Patrick R.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture that uses both chemical and electric propulsion systems on the same vehicle to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By applying chemical and electrical propulsion where each is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper presents an integrated Hybrid in-space transportation architecture for piloted missions and delivery of cargo. A concept for a Mars campaign including orbital and Mars surface missions is described in detail including a system concept of operations and conceptual design. Specific constraints, margin, and pinch points are identified for the architecture and opportunities for critical path commercial and international collaboration are discussed.

  2. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT BY PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION / REINTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents some opportunities for the development of human resources by means of professional insertion / reinsertion. It is about an intervention project, more precisely the establishment of a Centre for Career Counselling and Professional Requalification (CORP within the University “Eftimie Murgu” of Reşita. The objective was the promotion of an inclusive society able to facilitate the access and integration on the labour market of the young unemployed. By its activities, the project forwards an inclusive model of social inclusion of the professionally inactive young people through individualised programmes of qualification - requalification, support and professional counselling. By its results the project contributed to the stimulation of the participation of young unemployed persons to the social, economic and educational life, the consideration of the importance of the role played by education and professional training among the youth.

  3. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Woo Chang

    2004-05-01

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs

  5. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Univ. of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs.

  6. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  7. Integrating human resources and program-planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E

    1989-06-01

    The integration of human resources management (HRM) strategies with long-term program-planning strategies in hospital pharmacy departments is described. HRM is a behaviorally based, comprehensive strategy for the effective management and use of people that seeks to achieve coordination and integration with overall planning strategies and other managerial functions. It encompasses forecasting of staffing requirements; determining work-related factors that are strong "motivators" and thus contribute to employee productivity and job satisfaction; conducting a departmental personnel and skills inventory; employee career planning and development, including training and education programs; strategies for promotion and succession, including routes of advancement that provide alternatives to the managerial route; and recruitment and selection of new personnel to meet changing departmental needs. Increased competitiveness among hospitals and a shortage of pharmacists make it imperative that hospital pharmacy managers create strategies to attract, develop, and retain the right individuals to enable the department--and the hospital as a whole--to grow and change in response to the changing health-care environment in the United States. Pharmacy managers would be greatly aided in this mission by the establishment of a well-defined, national strategic plan for pharmacy programs and services that includes an analysis of what education and training are necessary for their successful accomplishment. Creation of links between overall program objectives and people-planning strategies will aid hospital pharmacy departments in maximizing the long-term effectiveness of their practice.

  8. Action and language integration: from humans to cognitive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The topic is characterized by a highly interdisciplinary approach to the issue of action and language integration. Such an approach, combining computational models and cognitive robotics experiments with neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and linguistic approaches, can be a powerful means that can help researchers disentangle ambiguous issues, provide better and clearer definitions, and formulate clearer predictions on the links between action and language. In the introduction we briefly describe the papers and discuss the challenges they pose to future research. We identify four important phenomena the papers address and discuss in light of empirical and computational evidence: (a) the role played not only by sensorimotor and emotional information but also of natural language in conceptual representation; (b) the contextual dependency and high flexibility of the interaction between action, concepts, and language; (c) the involvement of the mirror neuron system in action and language processing; (d) the way in which the integration between action and language can be addressed by developmental robotics and Human-Robot Interaction. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Characterization, conservation and loss of dignity at the end-of- life in the emergency department. A qualitative protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José; Díaz-Cortés, María Del Mar; Jiménez-López, Francisca Rosa; Roman-López, Pablo; Saez-Molina, Encarnación; Aranda-Torres, Cayetano José; Muñoz-Terrón, José María; García-Caro, María Paz; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2018-06-01

    To explore and understand the experiences of terminally ill patients and their relatives regarding dignity during end-of-life care in the emergency department. The respect given to the concept of dignity is significantly modifying the clinical relationship and the care framework involving the end-of-life patient in palliative care units, critical care units, hospices and their own homes. This situation is applicable to in-hospital emergency departments, where there is a lack of research which takes the experiences of end-of-life patients and their relatives into account. A phenomenological qualitative study. The protocol was approved in December 2016 and will be carried out from December 2016-December 2020. The Gadamer's philosophical underpinnings will be used in the design and development of the study. The data collection will include participant observation techniques in the emergency department, in-depth interviews with terminally ill patients and focus groups with their relatives. For the data analysis, the field notes and verbatim transcriptions will be read and codified using ATLAS.ti software to search for emerging themes. Emerging themes that contribute to comprehending the phenomenon of dignity in end-of-life care in the emergency department are expected to be found. This study's results could have important implications in the implementation of new interventions in emergency departments. These interventions would be focused on improving: the social acceptance of death, environmental conditions, promotion of autonomy and accompaniment and assumption (takeover) of dignified actions and attitudes (respect for human rights). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Medieval Iceland, Greenland, and the New Human Condition: A case study in integrated environmental humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steven; Ogilvie, A. E. J.; Ingimundarson, Jón Haukur; Dugmore, A. J.; Hambrecht, George; McGovern, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper contributes to recent studies exploring the longue durée of human impacts on island landscapes, the impacts of climate and other environmental changes on human communities, and the interaction of human societies and their environments at different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the paper addresses Iceland during the medieval period (with a secondary, comparative focus on Norse Greenland) and discusses episodes where environmental and climatic changes have appeared to cross key thresholds for agricultural productivity. The paper draws upon international, interdisciplinary research in the North Atlantic region led by the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) and the Nordic Network for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies (NIES) in the Circumpolar Networks program of the Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE). By interlinking analyses of historically grounded literature with archaeological studies and environmental science, valuable new perspectives can emerge on how these past societies may have understood and coped with such impacts. As climate and other environmental changes do not operate in isolation, vulnerabilities created by socioeconomic factors also beg consideration. The paper illustrates the benefits of an integrated environmental-studies approach that draws on data, methodologies and analytical tools of environmental humanities, social sciences, and geosciences to better understand long-term human ecodynamics and changing human-landscape-environment interactions through time. One key goal is to apply previously unused data and concerted expertise to illuminate human responses to past changes; a secondary aim is to consider how lessons derived from these cases may be applicable to environmental threats and socioecological risks in the future, especially as understood in light of the New Human Condition, the concept transposed from Hannah Arendt's influential framing of the human condition that is

  11. Cultural Requirements of Policy Making System for Hijab and Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Bagheri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making and policy measures is important in the social system. occurs. Policy maker aimed to achieve cultural requirements of policy making system by interaction stale and society. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran. the strengths and weaknesses of the different levels of the system politically has been accompanied in the field of moral and sexual dignity and chastity, aside from the basic necessity of building systems - Iranian, coordination and harmony of the system was not relevant. That is in the realm of theoretical ideas and goals are expressed in practice, the relationship between logical and measurable programs are executed with the goals and policies have been developed. measures to improve processes, motivate and educate individuals and groups, and to monitor the development of information systems.

  12. Death with "dignity": the wedge that divides the disability rights movement from the right to die movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behuniak, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Much of the American debate over physician assisted death (PAD) is framed as an ideological split between conservatives and liberals, pro life and pro choice advocates, and those who emphasize morality versus personal autonomy. Less examined, but no less relevant, is a split within the ranks of progressives--one that divides those supporting a right to die in the name of human rights from disability rights activists who invoke human rights to vehemently oppose euthanasia. This paper reviews how "dignity" serves both as a divisive wedge in this debate but also as a value that can span the divide between groups and open the way to productive discourse. Supporters of legalized euthanasia use "dignity" to express their position that some deaths might indeed be accelerated. At the same time, opponents adopt the concept to argue that physician assisted suicide stigmatizes life with a disability. To bridge this divide, the worldviews of two groups, Compassion & Choices and Not Dead Yet, are studied. The analysis concludes that the two organizations are more parallel than contrary--a finding that offers opportunities for dialogue and perhaps even advances in public policy.

  13. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  14. Death with dignity in Washington patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leo H; Elliott, Michael A; Jung Henson, Lily; Gerena-Maldonado, Elba; Strom, Susan; Downing, Sharon; Vetrovs, Jennifer; Kayihan, Paige; Paul, Piper; Kennedy, Kate; Benditt, Joshua O; Weiss, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    To describe the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients who sought medication under the Washington State Death with Dignity (DWD) Act since its inception in 2009. Chart review at 3 tertiary medical centers in the Seattle/Puget Sound region and comparison to publicly available data of ALS and all-cause DWD cohorts from Washington and Oregon. In Washington State, 39 patients with ALS requested DWD from the University of Washington, Virginia Mason, and Swedish Medical Centers beginning in 2009. The median age at death was 65 years (range 46-86). Seventy-seven percent of the patients used the prescriptions. All of the patients who used the medications passed away without complications. The major reasons for patients to request DWD as reported by participating physicians were loss of autonomy and dignity and decrease in enjoyable activities. Inadequate pain control, financial cost, and loss of bodily control were less commonly indicated. These findings were similar to those of the 92 patients who sought DWD in Oregon. In Washington and Oregon, the percentage of patients with ALS seeking DWD is higher compared to the cancer DWD cohort. Furthermore, compared to the all-cause DWD cohort, patients with ALS are more likely to be non-Hispanic white, married, educated, enrolled in hospice, and to have died at home. Although a small number, ALS represents the disease with the highest proportion of patients seeking to participate in DWD. Patients with ALS who choose DWD are well-educated and have access to palliative or life-prolonging care. The use of the medications appears to be able to achieve the patients' goals without complications. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  16. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  17. National Integration in Humanities and Development: The Way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the following concepts nation and its attributes; national integration, development and social studies education. The paper also discusses the concept of national integration, theories of nation al integration and the problems of national integration in Nigeria. It further discusses the factors of disunity and ...

  18. DigitalHuman (DH): An Integrative Mathematical Model ofHuman Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA

  19. Integrating human and machine intelligence in galaxy morphology classification tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melanie R.; Scarlata, Claudia; Fortson, Lucy F.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, B. D.; Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Dickinson, Hugh; Masters, Karen L.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wright, Darryl

    2018-06-01

    Quantifying galaxy morphology is a challenging yet scientifically rewarding task. As the scale of data continues to increase with upcoming surveys, traditional classification methods will struggle to handle the load. We present a solution through an integration of visual and automated classifications, preserving the best features of both human and machine. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a system through a re-analysis of visual galaxy morphology classifications collected during the Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) project. We reprocess the top-level question of the GZ2 decision tree with a Bayesian classification aggregation algorithm dubbed SWAP, originally developed for the Space Warps gravitational lens project. Through a simple binary classification scheme, we increase the classification rate nearly 5-fold classifying 226 124 galaxies in 92 d of GZ2 project time while reproducing labels derived from GZ2 classification data with 95.7 per cent accuracy. We next combine this with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm that learns on a suite of non-parametric morphology indicators widely used for automated morphologies. We develop a decision engine that delegates tasks between human and machine and demonstrate that the combined system provides at least a factor of 8 increase in the classification rate, classifying 210 803 galaxies in just 32 d of GZ2 project time with 93.1 per cent accuracy. As the Random Forest algorithm requires a minimal amount of computational cost, this result has important implications for galaxy morphology identification tasks in the era of Euclid and other large-scale surveys.

  20. The experiences on dignity from the perspective of the elderly in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore nursing home residents’ practice experiences on dignity in caring situations and everyday life in order to illuminate the significance for a life in dignity. Elderly living in nursing homes are vulnerable which appeal to nursing care ethics and emphasise....... From the literature we have knowledge of how dignity is violated among persons who are sick, weak and helpless; however, the knowledge is limited on how dignity is maintained among vulnerable elderly in nursing homes. A hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the material, which was gathered during...... semi-structured interviews with elderly living in six nursing homes in Scandinavian. A total of 28 interviews were transcribed. The findings will be presented at the conference....

  1. A Battle of Words: "Dignity" and "Peace" in the Writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes the writings of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross through the discursive lens of the phrase "dying with dignity." For her, the phrase meant allowing someone to die comfortably his/her own death. This phrase has to be understood in relationship with the final "stage of acceptance" of her model. Describing this key part of her well-known scientific output, she often used, in the early 1970s, the phrase "dying in peace and dignity." An evaluation of the evidence suggests that because the concept of dignity was co-opted by the pro-euthanasia movement during this decade, the language of dignity was little by little abandoned by her. In later years, only "peace" survived from her favorite expression. Although this concept of peace remains present to the end in all Kübler-Ross writings, the pro-euthanasia movement has also started to speak the language of peace.

  2. Advanced Cancer Patients' Perceptions of Dignity: The Impact of Psychologically Distressing Symptoms and Preparatory Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Papazoglou, Irene; Zygogianni, Anna; Galanos, Antonis; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2018-04-01

    The present study assesses the relationship between patient dignity in advanced cancer and the following variables: psychological distress, preparatory grief, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The sample consisted of 120 patients with advanced cancer. The self-administered questionnaires were as follows: the Preparatory Grief in Advanced Cancer Patients (PGAC), the Patient Dignity Inventory-Greek (PDI-Gr), the Greek Schedule for Attitudes toward Hastened Death (G-SAHD), and the Greek version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (G-HADS). Moderate to strong statistically significant correlations were found between the 4 subscales of PDI-Gr (psychological distress, body image and role identity, self-esteem, and social support) with G-HADS, G-SAHD, and PGAC ( P dignity among patients with advanced cancer. Clinicians should assess and attend to dignity-distressing factors in the care of patients with advanced cancer.

  3. 'This is my story, how I remember it': In-depth analysis of Dignity Therapy documents from a study of Dignity Therapy for people with early stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bridget; Lawton, Sally; Pringle, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Dementia is a progressive condition that impacts on individuals, families and care professionals. Maintaining quality of life through engagement with the person with dementia is an important part of their care. Dignity Therapy is an interactive, psychotherapeutic intervention that uses a trained dignity therapist to guide the person with dementia through an interview that then creates a written legacy called a generativity document. This can provide knowledge to inform care, as the condition progresses. Generativity documents were analysed using framework analysis. Main themes from the analysis were origin of values, essence and affirmation of self, forgiveness and resolution and existentialism/ meaning of life. These themes provide evidence of the type, scope and contribution that information generated from Dignity Therapy can make to the care and support of people with dementia. They provide information about the values, self-identity and the people and events that have been important to them and influenced their lives.

  4. A changing climate: impacts on human exposures to O3 using an integrated modeling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting the impacts of changing climate on human exposure to air pollution requires future scenarios that account for changes in ambient pollutant concentrations, population sizes and distributions, and housing stocks. An integrated methodology to model changes in human exposu...

  5. An Acquisition Approach to Adopting Human Systems Integration in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This report provides guidance on how the railroad industry can develop safer systems by acquiring new equipment based on human-centered design practices, or Human Systems Integration (HSI). If a railroads system design approach is focused on prope...

  6. Resource expenditure not resource allocation: response to McDougall on cloning and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J

    2009-05-01

    This paper offers some comments on bioethical debates about resource allocation in healthcare. It is stimulated by Rosalind McDougall's argument that it is an affront to the human dignity of people with below "liberties-level" health to fund human reproductive cloning. McDougall is right to underline the relevance of resource prioritisation to the ethics of research and provision of new biomedical technologies. This paper argues that bioethicists should be careful when offering comments about such issues. In particular, it emphasises the need to represent accurately the reality of the situation-especially when we are passing judgement on technologies that are in their infancy and whose practical application is yet to be confirmed. The paper also emphasises the importance of the actual context to bioethical debate, and note that it would be better to talk about resource expenditure rather than resource allocation when it comes to discussing the rights and wrongs of how money is spent. It also reiterates the claims made by other writers that social and political philosophy need to have a transparent and considered role in debates about resources.

  7. Dignity as an empirical lifeworld construction-in the field of surgery in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tina Seidelin; Delmar, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Patient dignity is a complex yet central phenomenon. Disrespect for dignity can mean retention of sick role, loss of self-care and control, decreased participation and therefore influence healing. At the same time, nurses have an obligation to respect dignity, and patients expect it. In clinical practice, with the focus on efficiency and economy, dignity can be compromised. The surgical patient may be particularly vulnerable to loss of dignity, when focus is solely on surgical procedure, efficiency, and productivity. The aim of the article is to describe the characteristics of the importance of dignity perceived by four surgical patients at a university hospital in Denmark. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach of Van Manen is used to analyse and interpret data collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviews explored the lived experience with two women and two men who had undergone a surgical intervention in a Danish vascular surgery department. The thematic analysis led to the basic theme: "To be an important person" illustrated by the themes: "Being a co-player," "Over exposure," and "To swallow the bitter pill." The findings provide a better understanding of patient's perspective of dignity, which is characterized by a complex interaction of several factors. Nurses should be concerned with balancing expectations, values, and opinions to maintain dignity in nursing and create a common platform for collaboration. This collaboration makes it possible for patients to be involved and have a voice in relation to nursing, treatment, and administering of time even though it could be at the expense of the terms of the system.

  8. Dignity as an empirical lifeworld construction—In the field of surgery in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Seidelin Rasmussen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patient dignity is a complex yet central phenomenon. Disrespect for dignity can mean retention of sick role, loss of self-care and control, decreased participation and therefore influence healing. At the same time, nurses have an obligation to respect dignity, and patients expect it. In clinical practice, with the focus on efficiency and economy, dignity can be compromised. The surgical patient may be particularly vulnerable to loss of dignity, when focus is solely on surgical procedure, efficiency, and productivity. The aim of the article is to describe the characteristics of the importance of dignity perceived by four surgical patients at a university hospital in Denmark. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach of Van Manen is used to analyse and interpret data collected from in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviews explored the lived experience with two women and two men who had undergone a surgical intervention in a Danish vascular surgery department. The thematic analysis led to the basic theme: “To be an important person” illustrated by the themes: “Being a co-player,” “Over exposure,” and “To swallow the bitter pill.” The findings provide a better understanding of patient's perspective of dignity, which is characterized by a complex interaction of several factors. Nurses should be concerned with balancing expectations, values, and opinions to maintain dignity in nursing and create a common platform for collaboration. This collaboration makes it possible for patients to be involved and have a voice in relation to nursing, treatment, and administering of time even though it could be at the expense of the terms of the system.

  9. Defining dignity in end-of-life care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Cortés, María Mar Díaz; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel; Torres, Cayetano José Aranda; Terrón, José María Muñoz; Granero-Molina, José

    2017-02-01

    Respecting dignity is having a profound effect on the clinical relationship and the care framework for terminally ill patients in palliative care units, hospices and their own homes, with particular consequences for the emergency department. However, dignity is a vague and multifaceted concept that is difficult to measure. The aim of this study is to define the attributes of dignity in end-of-life care in the emergency department, based on the opinions of physicians and nurses. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach utilising Gadamer's philosophical underpinnings guided the study. Participants and research context: This research was conducted in Spain in 2013-2014. Participants included 10 physicians and 16 nurses with experience working in the emergency department. Two focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews were carried out. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Research Centre Ethical Committee (Andalusian Health Service, Spain). The results point to the person's inherent value, socio-environmental conditions and conscious actions/attitudes as attributes of dignity when caring for a dying patient in the emergency department. Dying with dignity is a basic objective in end-of-life care and is an ambiguous but relevant concept for physicians and nurses. In line with our theoretical framework, our results highlight care environment, professional actions and socio-family context as attributes of dignity. Quality care in the emergency department includes paying attention to the dignity of people in the process of death. The dignity in the care of a dying person in the emergency department is defined by acknowledging the inherent value in each person, socio-environmental conditions and social and individual acceptance of death. Addressing these questions has significant repercussions for health professionals, especially nurses.

  10. The relationship between dignity status and quality of life in iranian terminally ill patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palliative care is an approach that has been used to care for terminally ill patients. The current study was performed to assess the association between the status of patient dignity and quality of life (QOL in Iranian terminally ill patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 210 end-stage cancer patients (102 men and 108 women who were referred to Seyed Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2015. To assess dignity status, we used the Patient Dignity Inventory. The Persian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire was used for QOL assessment. Results: There was a significant negative association between total dignity status and QOL scales. In addition, significant negative relationship was observed between dignity-related domains (loss of worth sense: r = −0.50, P< 0.001; anxiety and uncertainty: r = −0.51, P< 0.001; symptom distress: r = −0.62, P< 0.001; and loss of autonomy: r = −0.61, P< 0.001 and functional scale and some subscales of the QOL scale. In contrast, a significant positive relationship was found between dignity-related domains, and total symptom scale and fatigue. No significant relationship was observed between different items of dignity and global health status/QOL scale. Conclusions: High dignity status in terminally ill patients was associated with higher QOL in terms of functional intactness and lower symptom distress. Further studies are necessary to shed light to our findings.

  11. How individuals with dementia in nursing homes maintain their dignity through life storytelling - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, Anne Kari Tolo; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article was to present and discuss findings on what individuals with dementia do by themselves to maintain or promote their dignity of identity when they live in a nursing home. The majority of residents living in Norwegian nursing homes suffer from dementia. Individuals who suffer from dementia are particularly vulnerable, and their dignity of identity is at risk. It is therefore of great importance to explore how we can maintain their dignity of identity. The study builds on a phenomenological and hermeneutic design. The article reports three cases or life stories based on participant observation in two different nursing homes and interviews with five residents with dementia living in these nursing homes. Fifteen residents with dementia from these nursing home wards were included in the overall study. Individuals with dementia living in nursing homes may use life storytelling or narratives to manage chaos and to find safety in their lives. Storytelling is also used as a way to present and maintain identity. We can see this as a way of maintaining dignity of identity or social dignity. Life storytelling can be seen as an important way of preserving dignity for people with dementia. It is of great importance that health care professionals are open to and listen to the life stories people with dementia tell. As nurses we have an obligation to ensure that dignity is enhanced in care for people with dementia. Knowledge about how residents with dementia use life storytelling as a way to maintain dignity is therefore of great importance to health care workers in nursing homes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Living and dying with dignity: a qualitative study of the views of older people in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene

    2009-07-01

    most older people living in nursing homes die there. An empirically based model of dignity has been developed, which forms the basis of a brief psychotherapy to help promote dignity and reduce distress at the end of life. to explore the generalisability of the dignity model to older people in nursing homes. qualitative interviews were used to explore views on maintaining dignity of 18 residents of nursing homes. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. The analysis was both deductive (arising from the dignity model) and inductive (arising from participants' views). the main categories of the dignity model were broadly supported: illness-related concerns, social aspects of the illness experience and dignity conserving repertoire. However, subthemes relating to death were not supported and two new themes emerged. Some residents saw their symptoms and loss of function as due to old age rather than illness. Although residents did not appear to experience distress due to thoughts of impending death, they were distressed by the multiple losses they had experienced. these findings add to our understanding of the concerns of older people in care homes on maintaining dignity and suggest that dignity therapy may bolster their sense of dignity.

  13. Development and evaluation of the Dignity Talk question framework for palliative patients and their families: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaohong; Chochinov, Harvey Max; McClement, Susan; Thompson, Genevieve; Hack, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Effective patient-family communication can reduce patients' psychosocial distress and relieve family members' current suffering and their subsequent grief. However, terminally ill patients and their family members often experience great difficulty in communicating their true feelings, concerns, and needs to each other. To develop a novel means of facilitating meaningful conversations for palliative patients and family members, coined Dignity Talk, explore anticipated benefits and challenges of using Dignity Talk, and solicit suggestions for protocol improvement. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design. Dignity Talk, a self-administered question list, was designed to prompt end-of-life conversations, adapted from the Dignity Therapy question framework. Participants were surveyed to evaluate the Dignity Talk question framework. Data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 20 palliative patients, 20 family members, and 34 healthcare providers were recruited from two inpatient palliative care units in Winnipeg, Canada. Most Dignity Talk questions were endorsed by the majority of patients and families (>70%). Dignity Talk was revised to be convenient and flexible to use, broadly accessible, clearly stated, and sensitively worded. Participants felt Dignity Talk would be valuable in promoting conversations, enhancing family connections and relationships, enhancing patient sense of value and dignity, promoting effective interaction, and attending to unfinished business. Participants suggested that patients and family members be given latitude to respond only to questions that are meaningful to them and within their emotional capacity to broach. Dignity Talk may provide a gentle means of facilitating important end-of-life conversations.

  14. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  15. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  16. Dignity in health-care: a critical exploration using feminism and theories of recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Jones, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    Growing concerns over undignified health-care has meant the concept of dignity is currently much discussed in the British National Health Service. This has led to a number of policies attempting to reinstate dignity as a core ethical value governing nursing practice and health-care provision. Yet these initiatives continue to draw upon a concept of dignity which remains reliant upon a depoliticised, ahistorical and decontexualised subject. In this paper, we argue the need to revise the dignity debate through the lens of feminism and theories of recognition. Postmodern feminist theories provide major challenges to what remain dominant liberal approaches as they pay attention to the contingent, reflexive, and affective aspects of care work. Theories of recognition provide a further critical resource for understanding how moral obligations and responsibilities towards others and our public and private responses to difference arise. This re-situates dignity as a highly contested and politicised concept involving complex moral deliberations and diverse political claims of recognition. The dignity debate is thus moved beyond simplistic rational injunctions to care, or to care more, and towards critical discussions of complex politicised, moral practices infused with power that involve the recognition of difference in health-care.

  17. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  18. Human trafficking education for nurse practitioners: Integration into standard curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    of human trafficking among students enrolled in a nurse practitioner program. Informed nurse practitioners have the ability to identify, treat, and refer victims of trafficking. As an integral part of the health care team, nurse practitioners should receive trafficking education as part of the standard course curricula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes of Chinese Oncology Physicians Toward Death with Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ping; Huang, Bo-Yan; Yi, Ting-Wu; Deng, Yao-Tiao; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Zong-Yan; Jiang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Death with dignity (DWD) refers to the refusal of life-prolonging measures for terminally ill patients by "living wills" forms in advance. More and more oncology physicians are receiving DWD requests from advance cancer patients in mainland China. The study objective was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese oncology physicians toward the legalization and implementation of DWD. A questionnaire investigating the understanding and attitudes toward DWD was administered to 257 oncology physicians from 11 hospitals in mainland China. The effective response rate was 86.8% (223/257). The majority of oncology physicians (69.1%) had received DWD requests from patients. Half of the participants (52.5%) thought that the most important reason was the patients' unwillingness to maintain survival through machines. One-third of participants (33.0%) attributed the most important reason to suffering from painful symptoms. Most oncology physicians (78.9%) had knowledge about DWD. A fifth of respondents did not know the difference between DWD and euthanasia, and a few even considered DWD as euthanasia. The majority of oncology physicians supported the legalization (88.3%) and implementation (83.9%) of DWD. Many Chinese oncology physicians have received advanced cancer patients' DWD requests and think that DWD should be legalized and implemented. Chinese health management departments should consider the demands of physicians and patients. It is important to inform physicians about the difference between DWD and euthanasia, as one-fifth of them were confused about it.

  20. Dignity in Employment – the Protection of a Fundamental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code brought a series of important changes also in respect to those offences that can be committed by employees. Both at the European and at the national level, the concept of dignity in employment suffered transformations. This change of perspective at the national level makes the object of this article. The regulation of sexual harassment in the work place was first introduced in the domestic legislation in 2001, undergoing, since then, a series of modifications which we shall analyze in depth. Sexual harassment in the work place is one of the most difficult problems to solve, at the European level because in the majority of situations there is a subordination relation between the two parties – the employer having the upper hand over the employee who is, in many cases, afraid of endangering his/her job by reporting the harassment offence. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem erased by the sexual harassment concept.

  1. Integrating Human and Machine Intelligence in Galaxy Morphology Classification Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melanie Renee

    thus solved both the visual classification problem of time efficiency and improved accuracy by producing a distribution of independent classifications for each galaxy. While crowd-sourced galaxy classifications have proven their worth, challenges remain before establishing this method as a critical and standard component of the data processing pipelines for the next generation of surveys. In particular, though innovative, crowd-sourcing techniques do not have the capacity to handle the data volume and rates expected in the next generation of surveys. These algorithms will be delegated to handle the majority of the classification tasks, freeing citizen scientists to contribute their efforts on subtler and more complex assignments. This thesis presents a solution through an integration of visual and automated classifications, preserving the best features of both human and machine. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a system through a re-analysis of visual galaxy morphology classifications collected during the Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) project. We reprocess the top-level question of the GZ2 decision tree with a Bayesian classification aggregation algorithm dubbed SWAP, originally developed for the Space Warps gravitational lens project. Through a simple binary classification scheme we increase the classification rate nearly 5-fold classifying 226,124 galaxies in 92 days of GZ2 project time while reproducing labels derived from GZ2 classification data with 95.7% accuracy. We next combine this with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm that learns on a suite of non-parametric morphology indicators widely used for automated morphologies. We develop a decision engine that delegates tasks between human and machine and demonstrate that the combined system provides a factor of 11.4 increase in the classification rate, classifying 210,803 galaxies in just 32 days of GZ2 project time with 93.1% accuracy. As the Random Forest algorithm requires a minimal amount of computational

  2. Modeling the integration of bacterial rRNA fragments into the human cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Karsten B; Gajer, Pawel; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2016-03-21

    Cancer is a disease driven by the accumulation of genomic alterations, including the integration of exogenous DNA into the human somatic genome. We previously identified in silico evidence of DNA fragments from a Pseudomonas-like bacteria integrating into the 5'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes in stomach cancer sequencing data. The functional and biological consequences of these bacterial DNA integrations remain unknown. Modeling of these integrations suggests that the previously identified sequences cover most of the sequence flanking the junction between the bacterial and human DNA. Further examination of these reads reveals that these integrations are rich in guanine nucleotides and the integrated bacterial DNA may have complex transcript secondary structures. The models presented here lay the foundation for future experiments to test if bacterial DNA integrations alter the transcription of the human genes.

  3. Human Systems Integration Assessment of Network Centric Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quashnock, Dee; Kelly, Richard T; Dunaway, John; Smillie, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    .... FORCEnet is the operational construct and architectural framework for Naval Network Centric Warfare in the information age that integrates warriors, sensors, networks, command and control, platforms...

  4. Details from dignity to decay: facial expression lines in visual arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Marc

    2003-10-01

    A number of dermatologic procedures are intended to reduce facial wrinkles. This article is about wrinkles as a statement of art. This article explores how frown lines and other facial wrinkles are used in visual art to feature personal peculiarities and accentuate specific feelings or moods. Facial lines as an artistic element emerged with advanced painting techniques evolving during the Renaissance and following periods. The skill to paint fine details, the use of light and shadow, and the understanding of space that allowed for a three-dimensional presentation of the human face were essential prerequisites. Painters used facial lines to emphasize respected values such as dignity, determination, diligence, and experience. Facial lines, however, were often accentuated to portrait negative features such as anger, fear, aggression, sadness, exhaustion, and decay. This has reinforced a cultural stigma of facial wrinkles expressing not only age but also misfortune, dismay, or even tragedy. Removing wrinkles by dermatologic procedures may not only aim to make people look younger but also to liberate them from unwelcome negative connotations. On the other hand, consideration and care must be taken-especially when interfering with facial muscles-to preserve a natural balance of emotional facial expressions.

  5. Adult education and reflexive activation: prioritising recognition, respect, dignity and capital accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séamus Ó Tuama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that emerged in 2008 put great stress on the so-called European project. The economic downturn put additional pressure on economically and educationally marginalised populations, who continue to experience high levels of unemployment and lower levels of access to societal goods. Activation is seen as one of the main strategies to combat unemployment. The EU also recognises a systemic shift in the nature of work, such that individuals will have several transitions between work and education during their careers. This is a significant societal level challenge that will likely pose greater stress on groups and individuals that are marginalised socially, educationally and economically. To deliver better long-term outcome it is necessary to adopt reflexive activation approaches. Reflexive activation is one in which unemployed people actively co-design the proposed resolutions. It is also embedded in a societal context. It is cognisant of citizenship, autonomy and human rights and leans towards traditional adult education values. The model of reflexive activation explored here is infused with understandings emerging from Schuller's three types of capital and theories of recognition, respect and dignity developed by Honneth and others.

  6. We "Must" Integrate Human Rights into the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that educators need to teach about human rights issues, such as social and economic rights, in the social studies curriculum because these issues are disregarded throughout the country. Defines human rights, discusses the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and provides two lessons. (CMK)

  7. Understanding human action: integrating meanings, mechanisms, causes, and contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Repko, A.F.; Newell, W.H.; Szostak, R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are capable of understanding an incredible variety of actions performed by other humans. Even though these range from primary biological actions like eating and fleeing, to acts in parliament or in poetry, humans generally can make sense of each other’s actions. Understanding other people’s

  8. Changes in the personal dignity of nursing home residents: a longitudinal qualitative interview study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska G Oosterveld-Vlug

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. AIM: To investigate if and how nursing home residents' personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. DESIGN: A longitudinal qualitative study. METHODS: Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1 finding a way to cope with one's situation; 2 getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3 physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair; 4 being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5 being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. CONCLUSION: Although the direction in which a resident's personal dignity develops is also dependent on one's character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person.

  9. Changes in the personal dignity of nursing home residents: a longitudinal qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Gennip, Isis E; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-01-01

    Most nursing home residents spend the remainder of their life, until death, within a nursing home. As preserving dignity is an important aim of the care given here, insight into the way residents experience their dignity throughout their entire admission period is valuable. To investigate if and how nursing home residents' personal dignity changes over the course of time, and what contributes to this. A longitudinal qualitative study. Multiple in-depth interviews, with an interval of six months, were carried out with 22 purposively sampled nursing home residents of the general medical wards of four nursing homes in The Netherlands. Transcripts were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. From admission onwards, some residents experienced an improved sense of dignity, while others experienced a downward trend, a fluctuating one or no change at all. Two mechanisms were especially important for a nursing home resident to maintain or regain personal dignity: the feeling that one is in control of his life and the feeling that one is regarded as a worthwhile person. The acquirement of both feelings could be supported by 1) finding a way to cope with one's situation; 2) getting acquainted with the new living structures in the nursing home and therefore feeling more at ease; 3) physical improvement (with or without an electric wheelchair); 4) being socially involved with nursing home staff, other residents and relatives; and 5) being amongst disabled others and therefore less prone to exposures of disrespect from the outer world. Although the direction in which a resident's personal dignity develops is also dependent on one's character and coping capacities, nursing home staff can contribute to dignity by creating optimal conditions to help a nursing home resident recover feelings of control and of being regarded as a worthwhile person.

  10. Nurses' perceptions of spiritual care and attitudes toward the principles of dying with dignity: A sample from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdogan, Eylem Pasli; Kurt, Duygu; Aksoy, Berna; Kınıcı, Ezgi; Şen, Ayla

    2017-03-01

    Spiritual care is vital for holistic care and dying with dignity. The aim of this study was to determine nurses' perceptions of spiritual care and their attitudes toward dying with dignity. This study was conducted with 289 nurses working at a public hospital. Results showed three things. First, spiritual care perceptions and attitudes toward dying with dignity were more positive in female participants than in male participants. Second, there was a correlation between participants' education levels and their perceptions of spiritual care. Third, there was also a correlation between participants' attitudes toward dying with dignity and their perceptions of spiritual care.

  11. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    test hypotheses they developed about how people walk. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to define Human Locomotor Control W911NF-14-R-0009...An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination...Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Report Title Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination across

  12. Integrated modeling of natural and human systems - problems and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J.; Gunnink, J.; Hughes, A.; Moore, R. V.; Peach, D.

    2009-12-01

    Governments and their executive agencies across the world are facing increasing pressure to make decisions about the management of resources in light of population growth and environmental change. In the UK and the Netherlands, for example, groundwater is becoming a scarce resource for large parts of its most densely populated areas. At the same time river and groundwater flooding resulting from high rainfall events are increasing in scale and frequency and sea level rise is threatening the defences of coastal cities. There is also a need for affordable housing, improved transport infrastructure and waste disposal as well as sources of renewable energy and sustainable food production. These challenges can only be resolved if solutions are based on sound scientific evidence. Although we have knowledge and understanding of many individual processes in the natural sciences it is clear that a single science discipline is unable to answer the questions and their inter-relationships. Modern science increasingly employs computer models to simulate the natural, economic and human system. Management and planning requires scenario modelling, forecasts and “predictions”. Although the outputs are often impressive in terms of apparent accuracy and visualisation, they are inherently not suited to simulate the response to feedbacks from other models of the earth system, such as the impact of human actions. Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) are increasingly employing advances in Information Technology to visualise and improve their understanding of geological systems. Instead of 2 dimensional paper maps and reports many GSOs now produce 3 dimensional geological framework models and groundwater flow models as their standard output. Additionally the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of the Netherlands have developed standard routines to link geological data to groundwater models, but these models are only aimed at solving one specific part of the earth

  13. [Restoring dignity and respect to health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedić, Olesja

    2006-01-01

    This year, the World Health Organization focuses on restoring dignity and respect to health care workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workplace stressors in physicians. The present study was performed in the period 2002 - 2004, among physicians treated in the Health Center Novi Sad. The examinees were asked to fill out a questionnaire--a workplace survey--to identify workplace stressors by using a self-evaluation method The physicians were divided into three groups: those practicing surgery (S), internal medicine (IM) and preventive-diagnostics (PD). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS and STATISTICA software. The sample included 208 physicians with an average age of 40 years (SD = 7,1); average work experience of 22 years (SD = 8,1). 65 physicians from group S and 108 physicians from group IM, identified the following workplace stressors: treating patients in life-threatening situations (47.7%, 30.6%, respectfully); on-call duty (13.8%, 12%); low salary (10.8%, 10.2%); limited diagnostic and therapeutic resources in the IM group. 35 physicians from the DP group identified the following stressors: low salary (25%), treating patients in life-threatening situations and a great number of patients (16%). The analysis of all examined physicians revealed the following workplace stressors: treating patients in life-threatening situations (34.6%), low salary (13%), on-call duty and overtime, and too many patients per physician (11.5%). Restoring the reputation of health workers can be done by providing new equipment to resolve life-threatening situations, by increasing salaries, reducing on-call time, as well as the number of patients. Generally speaking, this should help to improve the quality of work in the health care system, in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO.

  14. Human Computation An Integrated Approach to Learning from the Crowd

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Human computation is a new and evolving research area that centers around harnessing human intelligence to solve computational problems that are beyond the scope of existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. With the growth of the Web, human computation systems can now leverage the abilities of an unprecedented number of people via the Web to perform complex computation. There are various genres of human computation applications that exist today. Games with a purpose (e.g., the ESP Game) specifically target online gamers who generate useful data (e.g., image tags) while playing an enjoy

  15. The end-of-life phase of high-grade glioma patients: dying with dignity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Eefje M; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Heimans, Jan J; Deliens, Luc; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Pasman, H Roeline W

    2013-01-01

    In the end-of-life (EOL) phase, high-grade glioma (HGG) patients have a high symptom burden and often lose independence because of physical and cognitive dysfunction. This might affect the patient's personal dignity. We aimed to (a) assess the proportion of HGG patients dying with dignity as perceived by their relatives and (b) identify disease and care factors correlated with dying with dignity in HGG patients. We approached relatives of a cohort of 155 deceased HGG patients for the study. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning the EOL phase of the patient, covering several subthemes: (a) symptoms and signs, (b) health-related quality of life, (c) decision making, (d) place and quality of EOL care, and (e) dying with dignity. Relatives of 81 patients participated and 75% indicated that the patient died with dignity. These patients had fewer communication deficits, experienced fewer transitions between health care settings in the EOL phase, and more frequently died at their preferred place of death. Relatives were more satisfied with the physician providing EOL care and reported that the physician adequately explained treatment options. Multivariate analysis identified satisfaction with the physician, the ability to communicate, and the absence of transitions between settings as most predictive of a dignified death. Physicians caring for HGG patients in the EOL phase should timely focus on explaining possible treatment options, because patients experience communication deficits toward death. Physicians should strive to allow patients to die at their preferred place and avoid transitions during the last month of life.

  16. Beyond Pain: Nurses' Assessment of Patient Suffering, Dignity, and Dying in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Amanda; Lief, Lindsay; Berlin, David; Cooper, Zara; Ouyang, Daniel; Holmes, John; Maciejewski, Renee; Maciejewski, Paul K; Prigerson, Holly G

    2018-06-01

    Deaths in the intensive care unit (ICU) are increasingly common in the U.S., yet little is known about patients' experiences at the end of life in the ICU. The objective of this study was to determine nurse assessment of symptoms experienced, and care received by ICU patients in their final week, and their associations with nurse-perceived suffering and dignity. From September 2015 to March 2017, nurses who cared for 200 ICU patients who died were interviewed about physical and psychosocial dimensions of patients' experiences. Medical chart abstraction was used to document baseline patient characteristics and care. The patient sample was 61% males, 70.2% whites, and on average 66.9 (SD 15.1) years old. Nurses reported that 40.9% of patients suffered severely and 33.1% experienced severe loss of dignity. The most common symptoms perceived to contribute to suffering and loss of dignity included trouble breathing (44.0%), edema (41.9%), and loss of control of limbs (36.1%). Most (n = 9) remained significantly (P dignity (AOR 3.15). Use of feeding tube was associated with severe loss of dignity (AOR 3.12). Dying ICU patients are perceived by nurses to experience extreme indignities and suffer beyond physical pain. Attention to symptoms such as dyspnea and edema may improve the quality of death in the ICU. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perspectives of newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients receiving dignity therapy during cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Ann Marie; Rhudy, Lori M

    2018-01-01

    Dignity therapy is a psychosocial intervention that has been used primarily at the end of life to improve quality of life and other patient outcomes, but many individuals are unable to complete it due to health decline and death. The purpose of this study was to identify what individuals with advanced pancreatic or lung cancer with limited life expectancy, undergoing active cancer treatment describe during the dignity therapy intervention as important to them when not immediately facing end of life. Twenty patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced cancer participated in a dignity therapy intervention study. Initial interviews were analyzed using descriptive content analysis. Family provided the overall context and background for emerging themes of defining events, accomplishments, and God's plan, which led to lessons learned, and resulted in messages of hope. Interviews were often autobiographical in nature and contained much reminiscence, consistent with dignity therapy's intent. Few participants spoke about their cancer diagnoses during the interview. This study adds unique insight into the use of dignity therapy for those still receiving active cancer treatment, different from work by others in which it was offered only at end of life. As part of supportive care, clinicians need to validate the importance of family to those with advanced cancer and to provide opportunities for patients to share what they have learned throughout life and to impart messages of hope to those closest to them.

  18. Tweeting dignity: A practical theological reflection on Twitter’s normative function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert Van den Berg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media makes an important contribution to a rapidly changing world in which various domains of meaning are described anew. The evolving nature and dynamic character of social media therefore provides for a rich praxis terrain with which to interact from a practical theological orientation. More specifically associated with the theme of this contribution, the social media sphere also provides an excellent space not only to rethink but also to reenact expressions of dignity in society. The research is facilitated from a practical theological orientation, with particular focus on a normative dimension as embodied in aspects of dignity. Through the use of an interdisciplinary approach and methodology, some contours of dignity specifically associated with South African politics as well as the so-called Charlie Hebdo attacks in 2015 in Paris expressed on the social media platform, Twitter, are described and discussed. From this empirical analysis, description and discussion, a practical theological reflection is offered in which aspects of dignity associated with a normativity function are described. Some practical theological perspectives contributing to future relevant tweeting on dignity are also formulated and provided in conclusion.

  19. Messages on pregnancy and family planning that providers give women living with HIV in the context of a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention intervention in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilliard S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starr Hilliard, Sarah A Gutin, Carol Dawson Rose Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Family planning is an important HIV prevention tool for women living with HIV (WLHIV. In Mozambique, the prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age is 13.1% and the average fertility rate is high. However, family planning and reproductive health for WLHIV are under-addressed in Mozambique. This study explores provider descriptions of reproductive health messages in order to identify possible barriers and facilitators to successfully addressing family planning and pregnancy concerns of WLHIV. Methods: In 2006, a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention program was introduced in Mozambique focused on training health care providers to work with patients to reduce their transmission risks. Providers received training on multiple components, including family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers who participated in the training in five rural clinics in three provinces. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis showed that providers' clinical messages on family planning, pregnancy, and PMTCT for WLHIV could be arranged along a continuum. Provider statements ranged from saying that WLHIV should not become pregnant and condoms are the only valid form of family planning for WLHIV, to suggesting that WLHIV can have safe pregnancies. Conclusion: These data indicate that many providers continue to believe that WLHIV should not have children and this represents a challenge for integrating family planning into the care of WLHIV. Also, not offering WLHIV a full selection of family planning methods severely limits their ability to protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and to fully exercise their reproductive rights. Responding to the reproductive health

  20. Human Systems Integration Synthesis Model for Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    33  b.   Diesel .......................................................................................35  c.  Gas Turbine ...acquire systems capable of maximizing the output of the Navy’s Human Capital. The term Human Capital is defined by Kaplan and Norton (2004, p. 13) as...Machine—engines: steam, diesel, gas turbine , or nuclear Prior to establishing a ship’s speed requirements, one must understand the forces that

  1. Question of Drug Workers under the Prism Theory of Axel Honneth recognition . Human Right to Work and his pretension of Universal Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cecília Máximo Teodoro; Sabrina Colares Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Relate the theme regarding the Theory of Recognition Axel Honnet, the human right to work as a human right to claim to universal validity, from the perspective of the Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work ILO, for purposes of setting parameters and recognition of social (re) integration of chemical class dependent workers is the main goal of this article. We will analyze the theoretical framework in which the pursuit of human dignity at work is the goal of the state to whic...

  2. Integration of Lightning- and Human-Caused Wildfire Occurrence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilar, Lara; Nieto Solana, Hector; Martín, M. Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Fire risk indices are useful tools for fire prevention actions by fire managers. A fire ignition is either the result of lightning or human activities. In European Mediterranean countries most forest fires are due to human activities. However, lightning is still an important fire ignition source...... probability models at 1 × 1 km grid cell resolution in two regions of Spain: Madrid, which presents a high fire incidence due to human activities; and Aragón, one of the most affected regions in Spain by lightning-fires. For validation, independent fire ignition points were used to compute the Receiver...

  3. Theory of defamation in the doctrine of honor and dignity protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarova E.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant growth of interest in the issue of protection of honor and dignity as personal intangible benefits is recently caused by two key acts: Federal Law of July 2, 2013 N 142 “On amendments to subsection 3 of section I of the first part of the RF Civil Code” and decision of the RF Constitutional Court of July 9, 2013 N 18 “On the case about verification of the constitutionality of the provisions of paragraphs 1, 5, 6 of Article 152 of the RF Civil Code in connection with the complaint of a citizen E.V. Krylov”. Further humanization of the civil law, its corresponding with human rights, as well as legislator’s wish to eliminate the backlog in regulations of relations on the protection of personal intangible benefits are obvious. The ongoing legislative changes became associated with the theory of defamation. A lot of defamation terms, relating to personal intangible benefits and characterizing the corresponding behavior, tort, doctrine, offence, appeared in the Russian jurisprudence. The phrase “defamation law” is more frequently used, but its logical-semantic boundaries, methodological guidelines and branch are not yet clear. Most of the provisions of the defamation theory are taken for granted, while the theory itself dates back to pre-revolutionary (bourgeois – for the Soviet jurisprudence law and is undergoing a significant transformation currently. The need for theoretical elaboration of the defamation doctrine as applied to the new conditions of its practical application is substantiated. Therefore the necessary methodological guidelines are considered in the article.

  4. Dignity and existential concerns among nursing homes residents from the perspective of their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspari., Synnøve; Høy, Bente; Lohne, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this cross-country Scandinavian study was to explore how residents in nursing homes experience that their dignity is promoted and attended to. This is one part of the Scandinavian project in which we interviewed residents, relatives and staff members. Background......: The main subject concerns the dignity of residents of nursing homes for older people. This article brings forward results from interviews of relatives on how they experience that the dignity is met, promoted and attended to for their next of kin. Design: The study was qualitative with a hermeneutic...... approach. Methods: Qualitative research interviews of 28 relatives of residents at six participating nursing homes in Scandinavia. The results derive from analysis of the interviews using Kvale’s three levels of interpretation; self-understanding, common sense and a theoretical understanding. Results...

  5. [How to integrate humanization and technology in nursing training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dagmar Estermann

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current incorporation of the subject of humanization of care in the current context of Brazilian nursing. The relation between nursing and technology is approached, in this study, from a historical perspective. The study also develops the proposition of "human re-signification", having as reference the concept of Cyborg, considering the way this concept has been employed in the contemporary cultural and feminist theoretical framework.

  6. Question of Drug Workers under the Prism Theory of Axel Honneth recognition . Human Right to Work and his pretension of Universal Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Máximo Teodoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relate the theme regarding the Theory of Recognition Axel Honnet, the human right to work as a human right to claim to universal validity, from the perspective of the Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work ILO, for purposes of setting parameters and recognition of social (re integration of chemical class dependent workers is the main goal of this article. We will analyze the theoretical framework in which the pursuit of human dignity at work is the goal of the state to which we treat below the dignity of man as a right whose claim to universal validity is based on the recognition of the theory of Axel Honneth . That said, we analyze the possible dignity of man at work in a global context from the recognition of new rights, especially with regard to the category of workers who occupy the social portion of chemical-dependent, whose participation in the social process is prevented, creating a category of workers socially excluded, which is intended to overcome.

  7. Implementing a Death with Dignity program at a comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggers, Elizabeth Trice; Starks, Helene; Shannon-Dudley, Moreen; Back, Anthony L; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Stewart, F Marc

    2013-04-11

    The majority of Death with Dignity participants in Washington State and Oregon have received a diagnosis of terminal cancer. As more states consider legislation regarding physician-assisted death, the experience of a comprehensive cancer center may be informative. We describe the implementation of a Death with Dignity program at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, the site of care for the Fred Hutchinson-University of Washington Cancer Consortium, a comprehensive cancer center in Seattle that serves the Pacific Northwest. Institution-level data were compared with publicly available statewide data from Oregon and Washington. A total of 114 patients inquired about our Death with Dignity program between March 5, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Of these, 44 (38.6%) did not pursue the program, and 30 (26.3%) initiated the process but either elected not to continue or died before completion. Of the 40 participants who, after counseling and upon request, received a prescription for a lethal dose of secobarbital (35.1% of the 114 patients who inquired about the program), all died, 24 after medication ingestion (60% of those obtaining prescriptions). The participants at our center accounted for 15.7% of all participants in the Death with Dignity program in Washington (255 persons) and were typically white, male, and well educated. The most common reasons for participation were loss of autonomy (97.2%), inability to engage in enjoyable activities (88.9%), and loss of dignity (75.0%). Eleven participants lived for more than 6 months after prescription receipt. Qualitatively, patients and families were grateful to receive the lethal prescription, whether it was used or not. Overall, our Death with Dignity program has been well accepted by patients and clinicians.

  8. [Dignity in the care of terminal ill and dying patients. Definitions and supportive interventions in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, A; Schröder, A S; Puhlmann, K; Müllerleile, U; Koch, U

    2006-11-01

    Most patients, family members, health care professional as well as volunteers would agree that dignified care and being allowed to die with dignity are superior and unquestionable goals of palliative care. Although the majority of people have a more or less vague concept of dignity and despite its significance for palliative care, only a few empirical approaches to describe the sense of dignity from patients' and health care professionals' perspectives have been undertaken. However, individual descriptions of the dignity concept and definitions can serve as an impetus to improve the current palliative care practice by the development and evaluation of psychotherapeutic interventions for patients near the end of life and the allocation of resources. This article considers an internationally developed empirical-based model of dignity in severe and terminal ill patients by Chochinov et al. Furthermore, it illustrates the understanding of dignity as well as self-perceived exertions of influence on a patient's dignity from the perspective of health care professionals and volunteers. Psychotherapeutic interventions and strategies are introduced that can help conserve the sense of dignity of patients during palliative care.

  9. Death with dignity from the perspective of the surviving family: A survey study among family caregivers of deceased older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gennip, I.E.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Kaspers, P.J.; Oosterveld-Vlug, M.G.; Willems, D.L.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Death with dignity has been identified as important both to patients and their surviving family. While research results have been published on what patients themselves believe may affect the dignity of their deaths, little is known about what family caregivers consider to be a dignified

  10. Death with dignity from the perspective of the surviving family: a survey study among family caregivers of deceased older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gennip, Isis E.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Kaspers, Pam J.; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G.; Willems, Dick L.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.

    2013-01-01

    Death with dignity has been identified as important both to patients and their surviving family. While research results have been published on what patients themselves believe may affect the dignity of their deaths, little is known about what family caregivers consider to be a dignified death. (1)

  11. The Integration Hypothesis of Human Language Evolution and the Nature of Contemporary Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru eMiyagawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa, Berwick, & Okanoya (Frontiers 2013 put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, which holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis.

  12. Integrating Human Terrain reasoning and tooling in C2 systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N. de; Grand, N. le; Kwint, M.; Reniers , F.; Anthonie van Lieburg, A. van

    2010-01-01

    Within an operational staff the ‘core business’ of the Intelligence Cell is to initiate, collect, process, analyze and disseminate relevant information. This Intelligence Preparation of the Environment addresses the environmental evaluation, threat evaluation and results in an integrated overview of

  13. Human Resource Challenges to Integrating HIV Pre-Exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    These challenges paralleled current challenges related to integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ..... is not additional work but is rather another HIV ... should be added to performance contracts (terms of ... stress and burnout, difficulty adhering to time- ... Similarly, the role of ... (diploma level) nursing officers or clinical.

  14. Integrating Chinese and African Culture into Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally recognized that culturally insensitive attitudes and behaviours stemming from ... when they integrate Chinese and African cultures in managing HR activities like hiring, promoting, ... Key Words: China, Africa, Culture, Investment, job satisfaction, performance, value orientations ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Status Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  16. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Dynamics Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  17. Considering ethics, aesthetics and the dignity of the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebler, Aline; Valentin, Claude

    2014-03-01

    There are variations on vulnerability that are often based on opposing authorities. In his book Parcours de la reconnaissance, Paul Ricœur offers a reflection grounded in a survey from Aristotle to Levinas, with way stations in phenomenology, from Hegel to Husserl. He sketches the silhouette of capable man. In a reversal of thinking and positioning, weakness, which could be considered the hallmark of disability in all its forms, becomes a source of mutual wealth and an argument in favour of reciprocity and dialogue. Relying on clinical examples, we propose art as a mediator of the doctor-patient relationship, which in its present unique form forces us to question the dynamics of empathy. A. Strebler A FEW GRAMS OF GOLD IN AN INSECURE WORLD: Vulnerability has long gone hand in hand with precarity. It is disturbing in a world where all is 'comfort and beauty, calm and bliss.' Additionally, vulnerability is a type of wound and wounds are what knit the relationship between patient and care provider. Similarly disturbing is poverty: the pauper is "without": without work, without a home, without a legal residency permit, without money… Poverty is also a wound, and yet it may serve as a path to "truth," according to the philosopher Simone Weil. These two concepts, equally vulnerable, question man's finite nature, and may serve as an introduction to the art of living together. In the midst of this ambiguity, the word "art" stands out. It is a counter-power, a challenge to established authority and politico-economic forms of government; it is inessential, unclassifiable, ungraspable, unthinkable and cannot be evaluated. Art avenges the abyss of ambiguity. C. Valentin COMMON SUMMARY: This article, composed of two core pieces, was written for a common project leading to the creation of a university degree at Paris 5 University (chaired by Pr. Hervé): Ethics, Aesthetics and the Dignity of the Individual. Together, they serve as a forum for reflection and dialogue in which

  18. The meaning of dignity in nursing home care as seen by relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Lindwall, Lillemor; Høy, Bente

    2014-01-01

    culture is assumed to be a more ontological or universal concept than, for example, an ethical context or ethical person-to-person acts. Research design: The methodological approach is hermeneutic. The data consist of 28 interviews with relatives of older persons from Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Ethical...... considerations: The principles of voluntariness, confidentiality and anonymity were respected during the whole research process. Findings: Three patterns were revealed: dignity as at-home-ness, dignity as the little extra and non-dignifying ethical context. Discussion: Caring communion, invitation, at...

  19. Becoming Earth Independent: Human-Automation-Robotics Integration Challenges for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Future exploration missions will require NASA to integrate more automation and robotics in order to accomplish mission objectives. This presentation will describe on the future challenges facing the human operator (astronaut, ground controllers) as we increase the amount of automation and robotics in spaceflight operations. It will describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. This presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  20. Human integration as a fundamental anthropological problem in Neo-Humanistic education / Song-Guk Joh

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Song-Guk

    1997-01-01

    Neo-Humanistic education (or "humanistic education" in Neo-Humanist terms) is an irrationalistic educational movement which developed in the USA during the 1960s and 1970s on the basis of Progressivism, Existentialism, Humanistic Psychology, Romantic criticism and some religious movements. Neo-Humanistic Education attempts to effect human integration as the most important goal in the context of education. This research focuses on human integration as a fundamental anthropological problem i...

  1. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...specific cognitive states remains elusive, owing perhaps to limited crosstalk between the fields of neuroscience and engineering. Here, we report a

  2. Dignity, death, and dilemmas: a study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney S; Black, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The legalization of physician-assisted death in states such as Washington and Oregon has presented defining ethical issues for hospice programs because up to 90% of terminally ill patients who use the state-regulated procedure to end their lives are enrolled in hospice care. The authors recently partnered with the Washington State Hospice and Palliative Care Organization to examine the policies developed by individual hospice programs on program and staff participation in the Washington Death with Dignity Act. This article sets a national and local context for the discussion of hospice involvement in physician-assisted death, summarizes the content of hospice policies in Washington State, and presents an analysis of these findings. The study reveals meaningful differences among hospice programs about the integrity and identity of hospice and hospice care, leading to different policies, values, understandings of the medical procedure, and caregiving practices. In particular, the authors found differences 1) in the language used by hospices to refer to the Washington statute that reflect differences among national organizations, 2) the values that hospice programs draw on to support their policies, 3) dilemmas created by requests by patients for hospice staff to be present at a patient's death, and 4) five primary levels of noninvolvement and participation by hospice programs in requests from patients for physician-assisted death. This analysis concludes with a framework of questions for developing a comprehensive hospice policy on involvement in physician-assisted death and to assist national, state, local, and personal reflection. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatry's Role in the Management of Human Trafficking Victims: An Integrated Care Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mollie; Salami, Temilola; Coverdale, John; Nguyen, Phuong T

    2018-03-01

    Human trafficking is an outrageous human rights violation with potentially devastating consequences to individuals and the public health. Victims are often underrecognized and there are few guidelines for how best to identify, care for, and safely reintegrate victims back into the community. The purpose of this paper is to propose a multifaceted, interdisciplinary, and interprofessional guideline for providing care and services to human trafficking victims. Databases such as PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for papers outlining human trafficking programs with a primary psychiatric focus. No integrated care models that provide decisional guidelines at different points of intervention for human trafficking patients and that highlight the important role of psychiatric consultation were found. Psychiatrists and psychologists are pivotal to an integrated care approach in health care settings. The provision of such a comprehensive and integrated model of care should facilitate the identification of victims, promote their recovery, and reduce the possibility of retraumatization.

  4. Development of an integrated system for estimating human error probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Morzinski, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project had as its main objective the development of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), knowledge-based expert system that would provide probabilistic estimates for potential human errors within various risk assessments, safety analysis reports, and hazard assessments. HRA identifies where human errors are most likely, estimates the error rate for individual tasks, and highlights the most beneficial areas for system improvements. This project accomplished three major tasks. First, several prominent HRA techniques and associated databases were collected and translated into an electronic format. Next, the project started a knowledge engineering phase where the expertise, i.e., the procedural rules and data, were extracted from those techniques and compiled into various modules. Finally, these modules, rules, and data were combined into a nearly complete HRA expert system.

  5. Design and management of production systems: Integration of human factors and ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...

  6. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  7. Engineering planetary exploration systems : Integrating novel technologies and the human element using work domain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, C.; Naikar, N.; Neerincx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The realisation of sustainable space exploration and utilisation requires not only the development of novel concepts and technologies, but also their successful integration. Hardware, software, and the human element must be integrated effectively to make the dream for which these technologies were

  8. Patient Perspectives of Dignity, Autonomy and Control at the End of Life: Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prat, Andrea; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Porta-Sales, Josep; Escribano, Xavier; Balaguer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Research in the end-of-life context has explored the sense of dignity experienced by patients with advanced disease, examining the factors associated with it. Whereas certain perspectives regard dignity as an intrinsic quality, independent of external factors, in the clinical setting it is generally equated with the person's sense of autonomy and control, and it appears to be related to patients' quality of life. This study aims to explore the relationship between perceived dignity, autonomy and sense of control in patients at the end of life. We conducted a systematic review and meta-ethnography using reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. The search strategy used MeSH terms in combination with free-text searching of the Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases, from their inception until 2015. This identified 186 articles, after excluding duplicates. The inclusion criterion was primary qualitative studies in which dignity, autonomy and control at the end of life were explored. Studies were evaluated using the CASP guidelines. Twenty-one studies recording the experiences of 400 participants were identified. Three themes emerged: a) dignity mediated by the loss of functionality, linked to the loss of control; b) dignity as identity; and c) autonomy as a determining factor of perceived dignity, understood as the desire for control over the dying process and the desire for self-determination. We propose an explanatory model which highlights that those patients with an intrinsic sense of dignity maintained a positive view of themselves in the face of their illness. This synthesis illustrates how dignity and autonomy are intertwined and can be perceived as a multidimensional concept, one that is close to the notion of personal identity. The ability to regard dignity as an intrinsic quality has a positive impact on patients, and the design of care strategies should take this into account.

  9. Patient Perspectives of Dignity, Autonomy and Control at the End of Life: Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prat, Andrea; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Porta-Sales, Josep; Escribano, Xavier; Balaguer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Research in the end-of-life context has explored the sense of dignity experienced by patients with advanced disease, examining the factors associated with it. Whereas certain perspectives regard dignity as an intrinsic quality, independent of external factors, in the clinical setting it is generally equated with the person’s sense of autonomy and control, and it appears to be related to patients’ quality of life. This study aims to explore the relationship between perceived dignity, autonomy and sense of control in patients at the end of life. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-ethnography using reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis. The search strategy used MeSH terms in combination with free-text searching of the Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases, from their inception until 2015. This identified 186 articles, after excluding duplicates. The inclusion criterion was primary qualitative studies in which dignity, autonomy and control at the end of life were explored. Studies were evaluated using the CASP guidelines. Results Twenty-one studies recording the experiences of 400 participants were identified. Three themes emerged: a) dignity mediated by the loss of functionality, linked to the loss of control; b) dignity as identity; and c) autonomy as a determining factor of perceived dignity, understood as the desire for control over the dying process and the desire for self-determination. We propose an explanatory model which highlights that those patients with an intrinsic sense of dignity maintained a positive view of themselves in the face of their illness. Conclusion This synthesis illustrates how dignity and autonomy are intertwined and can be perceived as a multidimensional concept, one that is close to the notion of personal identity. The ability to regard dignity as an intrinsic quality has a positive impact on patients, and the design of care strategies should take this into account

  10. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  11. Integrated Human and Animal Disease Control for Tanzanian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research focuses on two agro-ecological zones of the cattle corridor in Tanzania - Ngorongoro and Kibaha/Kilosa districts - and will be led by a regional scientific network, the ... They will look at interactions between human and animal health, environmental change, gender, and other socio-economic conditions.

  12. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  13. Integrating Digital Humanities into the Library and Information Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Sarah Leila

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) is a hot topic, in demand and on the rise. This article begins with excerpts from job listings that were posted to the American Library Association's job list in a two-month span in spring 2015 and they seem to indicate that DH is an increasingly important competency and interest for academic librarians who perform…

  14. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  15. Moving NASA Beyond Low Earth Orbit: Future Human-Automation-Robotic Integration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of current human spaceflight operations. It will also describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. Additionally, there are many implications regarding advanced automation and robotics, and this presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  16. Integrating social sciences and humanities in interdisciplinary research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    drivers for embedding SSH research in interdisciplinary research. By analysing recent policy initiatives, the article shows how policymakers across the world continue to be ambivalent regarding the role of the SSH. While many stakeholders acknowledge the need to integrate SSH research in solving key...... societal challenges, such as climate change, migration or national security, funding for SSH is limited and tends to focus on strategic interventions and instrumental solutions. By accounting for the diversity of interdisciplinary collaborations the article recommends a more context-sensitive approach...

  17. Constellation Program Human-System Integration Requirements. Revision E, Nov. 19, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) in this document drive the design of space vehicles, their systems, and equipment with which humans interface in the Constellation Program (CxP). These requirements ensure that the design of Constellation (Cx) systems is centered on the needs, capabilities, and limitations of the human. The HSIR provides requirements to ensure proper integration of human-to-system interfaces. These requirements apply to all mission phases, including pre-launch, ascent, Earth orbit, trans-lunar flight, lunar orbit, lunar landing, lunar ascent, Earth return, Earth entry, Earth landing, post-landing, and recovery. The Constellation Program must meet NASA's Agency-level human rating requirements, which are intended to ensure crew survival without permanent disability. The HSIR provides a key mechanism for achieving human rating of Constellation systems.

  18. Human Resource Management in COSO Internal Control: Integrated Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Gürhan

    2010-01-01

    COSO perceives human resource management (HRM) as an organizational governance technic. Because COSO aims to increase efficency and effectiveness of business operations, reliability of financial reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Therefore, for example, in COSO HRM policy and practices should enable organizations to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Moreover, HRM is to find out best-ability and capable employees for managerial positions. In addition, or...

  19. Parvovirus B19 integration into human CD36+ erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovitz, Tyler; Wong, Susan; Young, Neal S; Oliveira, Thiago; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome. Computational analysis of integration patterns revealed strong correlations with gene intronic regions, H3K9me3 sites, and the identification of 41 base pair consensus sequence with an octanucleotide core motif. The octanucleotide core has homology to a single region of B19V, adjacent to the P6 promoter TATA box. We present the first direct evidence that B19V infection of erythroid progenitor cells disrupts the human genome and facilitates viral DNA integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prolonged Integration Site Selection of a Lentiviral Vector in the Genome of Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Wang, Yong; Li, Rui-Fu; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jing; Peng, Dai-Zhi

    2017-03-03

    BACKGROUND Lentiviral vectors have been successfully used for human skin cell gene transfer studies. Defining the selection of integration sites for retroviral vectors in the host genome is crucial in risk assessment analysis of gene therapy. However, genome-wide analyses of lentiviral integration sites in human keratinocytes, especially after prolonged growth, are poorly understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, 874 unique lentiviral vector integration sites in human HaCaT keratinocytes after long-term culture were identified and analyzed with the online tool GTSG-QuickMap and SPSS software. RESULTS The data indicated that lentiviral vectors showed integration site preferences for genes and gene-rich regions. CONCLUSIONS This study will likely assist in determining the relative risks of the lentiviral vector system and in the design of a safe lentiviral vector system in the gene therapy of skin diseases.

  1. Integration sites of Epstein-Barr virus genome on chromosomes of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuu, K.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang-Wuu, S. [Institute of Genetics, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis. The viral genome is present in more than 95% of the African cases of Burkitt lymphoma and it is usually maintained in episomal form in the tumor cells. Viral integration has been described only for Nanalwa which is a Burkitt lymphoma cell line lacking episomes. In order to examine the role of EBV in the immortalization of human Blymphocytes, we investigated whether the EBV integration into the human genome is essential. If the integration does occur, we would like to know whether the integration is randomly distributed or whether the viral DNA integrates preferentially at certain sites. Fourteen in vitro immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a biotinylated EBV BamHI w DNA fragment as probe. The episomal form of EBV DNA was found in all cells of these cell lines, while only about 65% of the cells have the integrated viral DNA. This might suggest that integration is not a pre-requisite for cell immortalization. Although all chromosomes, except Y, have been found with integrated viral genome, chromsomes 1 and 5 are the most frequent EBV DNA carrier (p<0.05). Nine chromosome bands, namely, 1p31, 1q31, 2q32, 3q13, 3q26, 5q14, 6q24, 7q31 and 12q21, are preferential targets for EBV integration (p<0.001). Eighty percent of the total 938 EBV hybridization signals were found to be at G-band-positive area. This suggests that the mechanism of EBV integration might be different from that of the retroviruses, which specifically integrate to G-band-negative areas. Thus, we conclude that the integration of EBV to host genome is non-random and it may have something to do with the structure of chromosome and DNA sequences.

  2. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  3. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the relationships and interactions between fundamental human rights and natural law school. The objectives of this paper are circumscribed to the way fundamental human rights, by their nature, can be integrated within the doctrine of natural law or to the contrary, may be related to various branches of legal positivism. In specialized literature, it was pointed out that fundamental human rights constitute genuine natural rights which have the same natural law ...

  5. Structure-function relationships during segregated and integrated network states of human brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Betzel, Richard F; He, Ye; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Sporns, Olaf

    2018-04-01

    Structural white matter connections are thought to facilitate integration of neural information across functionally segregated systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the balance between segregation and integration in brain networks can be tracked by time-resolved functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and that fluctuations between segregated and integrated network states are related to human behavior. However, how these network states relate to structural connectivity is largely unknown. To obtain a better understanding of structural substrates for these network states, we investigated how the relationship between structural connectivity, derived from diffusion tractography, and functional connectivity, as measured by rs-fMRI, changes with fluctuations between segregated and integrated states in the human brain. We found that the similarity of edge weights between structural and functional connectivity was greater in the integrated state, especially at edges connecting the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. We also demonstrated that the similarity of network partitions, evaluated between structural and functional connectivity, increased and the density of direct structural connections within modules in functional networks was elevated during the integrated state. These results suggest that, when functional connectivity exhibited an integrated network topology, structural connectivity and functional connectivity were more closely linked to each other and direct structural connections mediated a larger proportion of neural communication within functional modules. Our findings point out the possibility of significant contributions of structural connections to integrative neural processes underlying human behavior.

  6. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  7. Human papillomavirus genome integration in squamous carcinogenesis: what have next-generation sequencing studies taught us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with ∼5% of all human cancers, including a range of squamous cell carcinomas. Persistent infection by high-risk HPVs (HRHPVs) is associated with the integration of virus genomes (which are usually stably maintained as extrachromosomal episomes) into host chromosomes. Although HRHPV integration rates differ across human sites of infection, this process appears to be an important event in HPV-associated neoplastic progression, leading to deregulation of virus oncogene expression, host gene expression modulation, and further genomic instability. However, the mechanisms by which HRHPV integration occur and by which the subsequent gene expression changes take place are incompletely understood. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of both RNA and DNA has allowed powerful interrogation of the association of HRHPVs with human disease, including precise determination of the sites of integration and the genomic rearrangements at integration loci. In turn, these data have indicated that integration occurs through two main mechanisms: looping integration and direct insertion. Improved understanding of integration sites is allowing further investigation of the factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants during disease progression. Furthermore, advanced approaches to the generation of genome-wide samples have given novel insights into the three-dimensional interactions within the nucleus, which could act as another layer of epigenetic control of both virus and host transcription. It is hoped that further advances in NGS techniques and analysis will not only allow the examination of further unanswered questions regarding HPV infection, but also direct new approaches to treating HPV-associated human disease. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John

  8. Data on strategically located land and spatially integrated urban human settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musakwa, Walter

    2017-12-01

    In developing countries like South Africa processed geographic information systems (GIS) data on land suitability, is often not available for land use management. Data in this article is based on a published article "The strategically located land index support system for humans settlements land reform in South Africa" (Musakwa et al., 2017) [1]. This article utilities data from Musakwa et al. (2017) [1] and it goes on a step further by presenting the top 25th percentile of areas in the country that are strategically located and suited to develop spatially integrated human settlements. Furthermore the least 25th percentile of the country that are not strategically located and spatially integrated to establish human settlements are also presented. The article also presents the processed spatial datasets that where used to develop the strategically located land index as supplementary material. The data presented is meant to stir debate on spatially integrated human settlements in South Africa.

  9. Two Rounds of Postwar Restitution and Dignity Restoration in the Netherlands and in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The looting and systematic deprivation of the property rights of the Jewish population in the Netherlands and France during the years of occupation brought about a deprivation of dignity, since these measures were intended to hit these people in their capacities as legal subjects, destroying their

  10. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act: The Right to Live or the Right to Die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westefeld, John S.; Doobay, Alissa; Hill, Jennifer; Humphreys, Clare; Sandil, Riddhi; Tallman, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred six individuals were surveyed concerning their views about the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, which allows for physician-assisted suicide under certain conditions. Results indicated extensive heterogeneity and strong opinions concerning the act. Implications are discussed. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. End-of-Life Care Education for Psychiatric Residents: Attitudes, Preparedness, and Conceptualizations of Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' attitudes, perceived preparedness, experiences, and needs in end-of-life care education. They also examined how residents conceptualized good end-of-life care and dignity. Methods: The authors conducted an electronic survey of 116 psychiatric residents at the University of Toronto. The survey…

  12. A Critical Analysis of Criticisms of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Wineberg, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article critically examines the validity of common criticisms of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, primarily through reviewing published research and analyses. After summarizing the law and recent developments, 11 areas of concerns are examined: (a) the amount of data collected, (b) the availability of the data, (c) the reporting process,…

  13. Euthanasia and death with dignity: still poised on the fulcrum of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, H

    1996-12-01

    This article questions whether the law of homicide is an appropriate mechanism to adjudicate the humanitarian issues involved in voluntary euthanasia; particularly where painful protracted dying appears inherently more harmful than euthanasia. The author suggests that even if euthanasia can provide death with dignity this will not be achieved while the law requires the undignified criminalisation of the practitioner.

  14. The End-of-Life Phase of High-Grade Glioma Patients: Dying With Dignity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, E.M.; Taphoorn, M.J.B.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Heimans, J.J.; Deliens, L.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Pasman, H.R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the end-of-life (EOL) phase, high-grade glioma (HGG) patients have a high symptom burden and often lose independence because of physical and cognitive dysfunction. This might affect the patient's personal dignity. We aimed to (a) assess the proportion of HGG patients dying with

  15. Means-ends decoupling and academic identities in Ukrainian university after the Revolution of Dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to explore the academic identities under the conditions of means-ends decoupling at the nation-state level. For empirical evidence we choose Ukraine. In 2014, after the Revolution of Dignity despite the adoption of the policies aimed to construct academic identities like in the

  16. Security, Dignity, Caring Relationships, and Meaningful Work: Needs Motivating Participation in a Job-Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, David F.; Miller-Dyce, Cherrel; Carlone, David

    2008-01-01

    Researchers asked 17 participants in a job-training program to describe their personal struggles following an economic restructuring. Examined through a critical theoretical lens, findings indicate that the learners enrolled in the program to reclaim security, dignity, meaningful work, and caring relationships. Program planners at community…

  17. Integrating the social sciences to understand human-water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Many interesting and exciting socio-hydrological models have been developed in recent years. Such models often aim to capture the dynamic interplay between people and water for a variety of hydrological settings. As such, peoples' behaviours and decisions are brought into the models as drivers of and/or respondents to the hydrological system. To develop and run such models over a sufficiently long time duration to observe how the water-human system evolves the human component is often simplified according to one or two key behaviours, characteristics or decisions (e.g. a decision to move away from a drought or flood area; a decision to pump groundwater, or a decision to plant a less water demanding crop). To simplify the social component, socio-hydrological modellers often pull knowledge and understanding from existing social science theories. This requires them to negotiate complex territory, where social theories may be underdeveloped, contested, dynamically evolving, or case specific and difficult to generalise or upscale. A key question is therefore, how can this process be supported so that the resulting socio-hydrological models adequately describe the system and lead to meaningful understanding of how and why it behaves as it does? Collaborative interdisciplinary research teams that bring together social and natural scientists are likely to be critical. Joint development of the model framework requires specific attention to clarification to expose all underlying assumptions, constructive discussion and negotiation to reach agreement on the modelled system and its boundaries. Mutual benefits to social scientists can be highlighted, i.e. socio-hydrological work can provide insights for further exploring and testing social theories. Collaborative work will also help ensure underlying social theory is made explicit, and may identify ways to include and compare multiple theories. As socio-hydrology progresses towards supporting policy development, approaches that

  18. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  19. Integrating artificial and human intelligence into tablet production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data.

  20. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  1. Cell Culture Systems To Study Human Herpesvirus 6A/B Chromosomal Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Wallaschek, Nina; Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Collin, Vanessa; Hall-Sedlak, Ruth; Jerome, Keith R; Mori, Yasuko; Carbonneau, Julie; Boivin, Guy; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Flamand, Louis

    2017-07-15

    Human herpesviruses 6A/B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their viral genomes in the telomeres of human chromosomes. The viral and cellular factors contributing to HHV-6A/B integration remain largely unknown, mostly due to the lack of efficient and reproducible cell culture models to study HHV-6A/B integration. In this study, we characterized the HHV-6A/B integration efficiencies in several human cell lines using two different approaches. First, after a short-term infection (5 h), cells were processed for single-cell cloning and analyzed for chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B (ciHHV-6A/B). Second, cells were infected with HHV-6A/B and allowed to grow in bulk for 4 weeks or longer and then analyzed for the presence of ciHHV-6. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), droplet digital PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization, we could demonstrate that HHV-6A/B integrated in most human cell lines tested, including telomerase-positive (HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-116, and HEK293T) and telomerase-negative cell lines (U2OS and GM847). Our results also indicate that inhibition of DNA replication, using phosphonoacetic acid, did not affect HHV-6A/B integration. Certain clones harboring ciHHV-6A/B spontaneously express viral genes and proteins. Treatment of cells with phorbol ester or histone deacetylase inhibitors triggered the expression of many viral genes, including U39 , U90 , and U100 , without the production of infectious virus, suggesting that the tested stimuli were not sufficient to trigger full reactivation. In summary, both integration models yielded comparable results and should enable the identification of viral and cellular factors contributing to HHV-6A/B integration and the screening of drugs influencing viral gene expression, as well as the release of infectious HHV-6A/B from the integrated state. IMPORTANCE The analysis and understanding of HHV-6A/B genome integration into host DNA is currently limited due to the lack of reproducible and efficient viral integration systems. In the

  2. Living and dying with dignity in Chinese society: perspectives of older palliative care patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Leung, Pamela Pui Yu; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Neimeyer, Robert A; Pang, Samantha Mei Che; Tse, Doris Man Wah

    2013-07-01

    the empirical Dignity Model has profoundly influenced the provision of palliative care for older terminally ill patients in the West, as it provides practical guidance and intervention strategies for promoting dignity and reducing distress at the end-of-life. to examine the concept of 'living and dying with dignity' in the Chinese context, and explore the generalisability of the Dignity Model to older terminal patients in Hong Kong. using qualitative interviews, the concept of dignity was explored among 16 older Chinese palliative care patients with terminal cancer. Framework analysis with both deductive and inductive methods was employed. the three major categories of themes of the Dignity Model were broadly supported. However, the subtheme of death anxiety was not supported, while two subthemes of generativity/legacy and resilience/fighting spirit manifested differently in the Chinese context. Furthermore, four new emergent themes have been identified. They include enduring pain, moral transcendence, spiritual surrender and transgenerational unity. these findings highlight both a cultural and a familial dimension in the construct of dignity, underline the paramount importance of cultural awareness and competence for working with ethnically diverse groups, and call for a culturally sensitive and family oriented approach to palliative care interventions with older Chinese terminal patients.

  3. Death with dignity from the perspective of the surviving family: a survey study among family caregivers of deceased older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Isis E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Kaspers, Pam J; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Willems, Dick L; Deeg, Dorly J H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-07-01

    Death with dignity has been identified as important both to patients and their surviving family. While research results have been published on what patients themselves believe may affect the dignity of their deaths, little is known about what family caregivers consider to be a dignified death. (1) To assess the prevalence of death with dignity in older adults from the perspective of family caregivers, (2) to determine factors that diminish dignity during the dying phase according to family caregivers, and (3) to identify physical, psychosocial, and care factors associated with death with dignity. A survey study with a self-administered questionnaire. Family caregivers of 163 deceased older (>55 years of age) adults ("patients") who had participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Of the family caregivers, 69% reported that their relative had died with dignity. Factors associated with a dignified death in a multivariate regression model were patients feeling peaceful and ready to die, absence of anxiety and depressive mood, presence of fatigue, and a clear explanation by the physician of treatment options during the final months of life. The physical and psychosocial condition of the patient in combination with care factors contributed to death with dignity from the perspective of the family caregiver. The patient's state of mind during the last phase of life and clear communication on the part of the physician both seem to be of particular importance.

  4. Human papilloma viruses and cervical tumours: mapping of integration sites and analysis of adjacent cellular sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Eugene; Vinokourova, Svetlana; Moisjak, Elena; Rakhmanaliev, Elian; Kobseva, Vera; Laimins, Laimonis; Kisseljov, Fjodor; Sulimova, Galina

    2002-01-01

    In cervical tumours the integration of human papilloma viruses (HPV) transcripts often results in the generation of transcripts that consist of hybrids of viral and cellular sequences. Mapping data using a variety of techniques has demonstrated that HPV integration occurred without obvious specificity into human genome. However, these techniques could not demonstrate whether integration resulted in the generation of transcripts encoding viral or viral-cellular sequences. The aim of this work was to map the integration sites of HPV DNA and to analyse the adjacent cellular sequences. Amplification of the INTs was done by the APOT technique. The APOT products were sequenced according to standard protocols. The analysis of the sequences was performed using BLASTN program and public databases. To localise the INTs PCR-based screening of GeneBridge4-RH-panel was used. Twelve cellular sequences adjacent to integrated HPV16 (INT markers) expressed in squamous cell cervical carcinomas were isolated. For 11 INT markers homologous human genomic sequences were readily identified and 9 of these showed significant homologies to known genes/ESTs. Using the known locations of homologous cDNAs and the RH-mapping techniques, mapping studies showed that the INTs are distributed among different human chromosomes for each tumour sample and are located in regions with the high levels of expression. Integration of HPV genomes occurs into the different human chromosomes but into regions that contain highly transcribed genes. One interpretation of these studies is that integration of HPV occurs into decondensed regions, which are more accessible for integration of foreign DNA

  5. Proscription supports robust perceptual integration by suppression in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideaux, Reuben; Welchman, Andrew E

    2018-04-17

    Perception relies on integrating information within and between the senses, but how does the brain decide which pieces of information should be integrated and which kept separate? Here we demonstrate how proscription can be used to solve this problem: certain neurons respond best to unrealistic combinations of features to provide 'what not' information that drives suppression of unlikely perceptual interpretations. First, we present a model that captures both improved perception when signals are consistent (and thus should be integrated) and robust estimation when signals are conflicting. Second, we test for signatures of proscription in the human brain. We show that concentrations of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in a brain region intricately involved in integrating cues (V3B/KO) correlate with robust integration. Finally, we show that perturbing excitation/inhibition impairs integration. These results highlight the role of proscription in robust perception and demonstrate the functional purpose of 'what not' sensors in supporting sensory estimation.

  6. The development of a model of dignity in illness based on qualitative interviews with seriously ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Isis E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-08-01

    While knowledge on factors affecting personal dignity of patients nearing death is quite substantial, far less is known about how patients living with a serious disease understand dignity. To develop a conceptual model of dignity that illuminates the process by which serious illness can undermine patients' dignity, and that is applicable to a wide patient population. Qualitative interview study. 34 patients with either cancer, early stage dementia, or a severe chronic illness were selected from an extensive cohort study into advance directives. In-depth interviews were carried out exploring the experiences of seriously ill patients with regard to their personal dignity. The interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis and a conceptual model was constructed based on the resulting themes. We developed a two-step dignity model of illness. According to this model, illness related conditions do not affect patients' dignity directly but indirectly by affecting the way patients perceive themselves. We identified three components shaping self-perception: (a) the individual self: the subjective experiences and internally held qualities of the patient; (b) the relational self: the self within reciprocal interaction with others; and, (c) the societal self: the self as a social object in the eyes of others. The merits of the model are two-folded. First, it offers an organizing framework for further research into patients' dignity. Secondly, the model can serve to facilitate care for seriously ill patients in practice by providing insight into illness and dignity at the level of the individual patient where intervention can be effectively targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6: Models of Viral Genome Release from the Telomere and Impacts on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael L; Royle, Nicola J

    2017-07-12

    Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release. In this review, we also discuss the relationship between ciHHV-6 and the telomere carrying the insertion, particularly how the presence and subsequent partial or complete release of the ciHHV-6 genome may affect telomere dynamics and the risk of disease.

  8. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. The Right to Death with Dignity in the Perspective of the Terminal Patient’s Right to Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective to investigate the possibility that the right to autonomy of terminal patient can base a possible right to death with dignity. Therefore, it was realized a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. The obtained conclusion is that, though there isn’t peacefulness, it’s necessary to attend for a right of unquestionable relevance, reflected in the decisional autonomy, that, even with controversy, deserves to be considered, even as north to the achievement of the right to die with dignity, because, choose the death with dignity doesn’t translate necessarily to abdicate from the right to life.

  10. Systamatic approach to integration of a human reliability analysis into a NPP probabalistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragola, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the human reliability analysis tasks which were employed in the evaluation of the overall probability of an internal flood sequence and its consequences in terms of disabling vulnerable risk significant equipment. Topics considered include the problem familiarization process, the identification and classification of key human interactions, a human interaction review of potential initiators, a maintenance and operations review, human interaction identification, quantification model selection, the definition of operator-induced sequences, the quantification of specific human interactions, skill- and rule-based interactions, knowledge-based interactions, and the incorporation of human interaction-related events into the event tree structure. It is concluded that an integrated approach to the analysis of human interaction within the context of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is feasible

  11. Human reliability analysis of performing tasks in plants based on fuzzy integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Takashi; Kitamura, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    The effective improvement of the human working conditions in nuclear power plants might be a solution for the enhancement of the operation safety. The human reliability analysis (HRA) gives a methodological basis of the improvement based on the evaluation of human reliability under various working conditions. This study investigates some difficulties of the human reliability analysis using conventional linear models and recent fuzzy integral models, and provides some solutions to the difficulties. The following practical features of the provided methods are confirmed in comparison with the conventional methods: (1) Applicability to various types of tasks (2) Capability of evaluating complicated dependencies among working condition factors (3) A priori human reliability evaluation based on a systematic task analysis of human action processes (4) A conversion scheme to probability from indices representing human reliability. (author)

  12. Within- and between-culture variation: individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Cohen, Dov

    2011-03-01

    The CuPS (Culture × Person × Situation) approach attempts to jointly consider culture and individual differences, without treating either as noise and without reducing one to the other. Culture is important because it helps define psychological situations and create meaningful clusters of behavior according to particular logics. Individual differences are important because individuals vary in the extent to which they endorse or reject a culture's ideals. Further, because different cultures are organized by different logics, individual differences mean something different in each. Central to these studies are concepts of honor-related violence and individual worth as being inalienable versus socially conferred. We illustrate our argument with 2 experiments involving participants from honor, face, and dignity cultures. The studies showed that the same "type" of person who was most helpful, honest, and likely to behave with integrity in one culture was the "type" of person least likely to do so in another culture. We discuss how CuPS can provide a rudimentary but integrated approach to understanding both within- and between-culture variation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Overview of Researches on Social Capital, Human Capital and Social Integration of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Wenjing; Lu, Honghong; Tong, Yulin; Lu, Danna

    2013-01-01

    With urbanization and socio-economic development, new generation migrant workers play an increasingly important role in urban construction. However, for a long time, their social integration situation in inflow places is not ideal. Academic circle has done a lot of researches, but no effective strategy is so far put forward. Through analysis of domestic and foreign researches, it is found that social capital and human capital have an important influence on social integration of new generation...

  14. The Conjugative Relaxase TrwC Promotes Integration of Foreign DNA in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Prieto, Coral; Gabriel, Richard; Dehio, Christoph; Schmidt, Manfred; Llosa, Matxalen

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal DNA transfer. The relaxase TrwC of the conjugative plasmid R388 cleaves one strand of the transferred DNA at the oriT gene, covalently attaches to it, and leads the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into the recipient cell. In addition, TrwC catalyzes site-specific integration of the transferred DNA into its target sequence present in the genome of the recipient bacterium. Here, we report the analysis of the efficiency and specificity of the integrase activity of TrwC in human cells, using the type IV secretion system of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae to introduce relaxase-DNA complexes. Compared to Mob relaxase from plasmid pBGR1, we found that TrwC mediated a 10-fold increase in the rate of plasmid DNA transfer to human cells and a 100-fold increase in the rate of chromosomal integration of the transferred DNA. We used linear amplification-mediated PCR and plasmid rescue to characterize the integration pattern in the human genome. DNA sequence analysis revealed mostly reconstituted oriT sequences, indicating that TrwC is active and recircularizes transferred DNA in human cells. One TrwC-mediated site-specific integration event was detected, proving that TrwC is capable of mediating site-specific integration in the human genome, albeit with very low efficiency compared to the rate of random integration. Our results suggest that TrwC may stabilize the plasmid DNA molecules in the nucleus of the human cell, probably by recircularization of the transferred DNA strand. This stabilization would increase the opportunities for integration of the DNA by the host machinery. IMPORTANCE Different biotechnological applications, including gene therapy strategies, require permanent modification of target cells. Long-term expression is achieved either by extrachromosomal persistence or by integration of the introduced DNA. Here, we studied the utility of conjugative relaxase TrwC, a bacterial protein with site

  15. Convergent integration of animal model and human studies of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Niculescu, Helen; Patel, Sagar D; Niculescu, Alexander B

    2010-10-01

    Animal models and human studies of bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders are becoming increasingly integrated, prompted by recent successes. Particularly for genomics, the convergence and integration of data across species, experimental modalities and technical platforms is providing a fit-to-disease way of extracting reproducible and biologically important signal, in sharp contrast to the fit-to-cohort effect, disappointing findings to date, and limited reproducibility of human genetic analyses alone. Such work in psychiatry can provide an example of how to address other genetically complex disorders, and in turn will benefit by incorporating concepts from other areas, such as cancer biology and diabetes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Integration of HIV in the Human Genome: Which Sites Are Preferential? A Genetic and Statistical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana; Moreira, Elsa; Sequeira, Inês J.; Rodrigues, António S.; Rueff, José; Brás, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal fragile sites (FSs) are loci where gaps and breaks may occur and are preferential integration targets for some viruses, for example, Hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, HPV16, HPV18, and MLV vectors. However, the integration of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Giemsa bands and in FSs is not yet completely clear. This study aimed to assess the integration preferences of HIV in FSs and in Giemsa bands using an in silico study. HIV integration positions from Jurkat cells were used and two nonparametric tests were applied to compare HIV integration in dark versus light bands and in FS versus non-FS (NFSs). The results show that light bands are preferential targets for integration of HIV-1 in Jurkat cells and also that it integrates with equal intensity in FSs and in NFSs. The data indicates that HIV displays different preferences for FSs compared to other viruses. The aim was to develop and apply an approach to predict the conditions and constraints of HIV insertion in the human genome which seems to adequately complement empirical data. PMID:27294106

  17. Toward integrated analysis of human impacts on forest biodiversity: lessons from Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Adrian C.; Cayuela Delgado, Luis; Echeverría, Cristian; Armesto, Juan J.; Del Castillo, Rafael F.; Golicher, Duncan; Geneletti, Davide; González Espinosa, Mario; Huth, Andreas; López Barrera, Fabiola; Malizia, Lucio; Manson, Robert; Premoli, Andrea; Ramírez Marcial, Neptali; Rey Benayas, José María

    2009-01-01

    Although sustainable forest management (SFM) has been widely adopted as a policy and management goal, high rates of forest loss and degradation are still occurring in many areas. Human activities such as logging, livestock husbandry, crop cultivation, infrastructural development, and use of fire are causing widespread loss of biodiversity, restricting progress toward SFM. In such situations, there is an urgent need for tools that can provide an integrated assessment of human impacts on forest...

  18. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of

  19. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  20. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  1. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As space missions become more complex and as mission demands increase, robots, human-robot mixed initiative teams and software autonomy applications are needed to...

  2. MARRVEL: Integration of Human and Model Organism Genetic Resources to Facilitate Functional Annotation of the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julia; Al-Ouran, Rami; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Seon-Young; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Comjean, Aram; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert; Liu, Zhandong; Bellen, Hugo J

    2017-06-01

    One major challenge encountered with interpreting human genetic variants is the limited understanding of the functional impact of genetic alterations on biological processes. Furthermore, there remains an unmet demand for an efficient survey of the wealth of information on human homologs in model organisms across numerous databases. To efficiently assess the large volume of publically available information, it is important to provide a concise summary of the most relevant information in a rapid user-friendly format. To this end, we created MARRVEL (model organism aggregated resources for rare variant exploration). MARRVEL is a publicly available website that integrates information from six human genetic databases and seven model organism databases. For any given variant or gene, MARRVEL displays information from OMIM, ExAC, ClinVar, Geno2MP, DGV, and DECIPHER. Importantly, it curates model organism-specific databases to concurrently display a concise summary regarding the human gene homologs in budding and fission yeast, worm, fly, fish, mouse, and rat on a single webpage. Experiment-based information on tissue expression, protein subcellular localization, biological process, and molecular function for the human gene and homologs in the seven model organisms are arranged into a concise output. Hence, rather than visiting multiple separate databases for variant and gene analysis, users can obtain important information by searching once through MARRVEL. Altogether, MARRVEL dramatically improves efficiency and accessibility to data collection and facilitates analysis of human genes and variants by cross-disciplinary integration of 18 million records available in public databases to facilitate clinical diagnosis and basic research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Build and Demonstrate a Training Program that Integrates Human Dimension to Optimize Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    health, and sports medicine to the overall fitness level of Soldiers.  Social: The social component focuses on the ways in which Army...has, then you can approach that person from a different perspective and knock down some barriers. You have to understand where the student is...and sports medicine contributions for optimal physical performance. (TRADOC Pam 525-3-7 (05/2014). The U.S. Army Human Dimension Concept) Human

  4. On the counterintuitive consequences of high-performance work practices in cross-border post-merger human integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilaki, A.; Smith, Pernille; Giangreco, A.

    2012-01-01

    , such as communication, employee involvement, and team building, may not always produce the expected effects on human integration; rather, it can have the opposite effects if top management does not closely monitor the immediate results of deploying such practices. Implications for managers dealing with post......, this article investigates the impact of systemic and integrated human resource practices [i.e., high-performance work practices (HPWPs)] on human integration and how their implementation affects employees' behaviours and attitudes towards post-merger human integration. We find that the implementation of HPWPs...

  5. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. Cancer cachexia and its impact on patient dignity: What nurses need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan McClement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noted physician, Sr. William Osler, is credited with saying, “Care more particularly for the individual patient than for the special features of the disease”. Osler understood that each patient for whom we care is first and foremost a person, who also happens to be living with a particular illness. In addition to understanding the nature of the patient's illness, therefore, it is also critically important that we come to understand the patient's unique story and set of circumstances. Doing so allows us to engage with patients in a way that affirms their sense of dignity and personhood. Drawing on the exemplar of cancer cachexia, this editorial reminds clinicians of the importance of Osler's sage advice to attend to patient dignity and personhood, and provides nurses with direction about how they can do that in practice.

  7. Testing the feasibility of the Dignity Therapy interview: adaptation for the Danish culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Lise J; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Chochinov, Harvey M

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 'Dignity Therapy' (DT) is a brief, flexible intervention, which allows patients to complete an interview and create a document regarding their life, identity and what they want to leave in writing for their loved ones. DT is based on the DT Question Protocol. Developed...... patients, and to obtain preliminary estimates of patient uptake for DT. These results will be used to inform a larger evaluation study. METHOD: Ten professionals were interviewed about their perception of DT and the Question Protocol. It was then tested with 20 patients at two palliative care sites and one...... and tested in English speaking settings, DT has proven to be a feasible and effective way to enhance patient dignity, while diminishing suffering and depression. The aim of this study was to test the acceptability and feasibility of the DT Question Protocol among Danish health professionals and cancer...

  8. Present status of an integrated software system for HASP (Human Acts Simulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takayuki; Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Kambayashi, Shaw; Kume, Etsuo; Higuchi, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1994-01-01

    In Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP), human acts to be realized by a human-shaped intelligent robot in a nuclear power plant are simulated by computers. The major purpose of HASP is to develop basic and underlying design technologies for intelligent and automatic power plant. The objectives of this paper is to show the present status of the HASP, with particular emphasis on activities targetted at the integration of developed subsystems to simulate the important capabilities of the intelligent robot such as planning, robot dynamics, and so on. (author)

  9. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  10. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  11. Challenges Implementing Work-Integrated Learning in Human Resource Management University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The examination of work-integrated learning (WIL) programs in the undergraduate Human Resource Management (HRM) curriculum is an area under-represented in the Australian literature. This paper identifies the challenges faced in implementing WIL into the HRM undergraduate curriculum. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38…

  12. Integrating organizational and human behavior perspectives on mergers and acquisitions: Looking inside the black box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for investigating merger and acquisition (M&A) performance through a multistage and multilevel approach. First, human resource challenges during the integration process following a merger are explored to help explain the inconsistencies among empirical

  13. Evaluation of the Dignity Care Pathway for community nurses caring for people at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bridget; Östlund, Ulrika; Brown, Hilary

    2012-10-01

    People nearing the end of life fear loss of dignity, and a central tenet of palliative care is to help people die with dignity. The Dignity Care Pathway (DCP) is an intervention based on the Chochinov theoretical model of dignity care. It has four sections: a manual, a Patient Dignity Inventory, reflective questions, and care actions. The feasibility and acceptability of the DCP were evaluated using a qualitative design with a purposive sample of community nurses. Data was collected from April to October 2010 using in-depth interviews, reflective diaries, and case studies and then analysed using framework analysis. The DCP was acceptable to the community nurses, helped them identify when patients were at the end of life, identified patients' key concerns, and aided nurses in providing holistic end-of-life care. It requires the nurse to have excellent communication skills. Some of the nurses found it hard to initiate a conversation on dignity-conserving care. The DCP helps nurses to deliver individualised care and psychological care, which has previously been identified as a difficult area for community nurses. All of the nurses wished to continue to use the DCP and would recommend it to others.

  14. Raising the question of dignity through knowledge about tacit practices and politics: sharing learning from the Norwegian welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddgeir Synnes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this special issue is some of the main tacit policies and practices in the Norwegian welfare state. By looking at what is tacit, mute, unarticulated and neglected we will contribute to raising and presenting knowledge about the social and ethical question of dignity in welfare. This introductory article will first give a short overview of the historical background of the Norwegian welfare state and some of its current features. This will be followed by our positioning of the Norwegian welfare state as situated within complex practices, political discourses and dimensions that might be characterised as tacit, implicit or unarticulated. The article aims to discuss the concept of dignity in welfare services, at the individual and structural level, by asking ‘what kind of practices and structural conditions preserve dignity and where might dignity be violated, ignored or left out?’ The various articles in this special issue of the International Practice Development Journal illuminate what can be said and what is mute and tacit in different ways, and consider a range of practice-based responses. By revealing tacit dimensions in the Norwegian welfare this issue offers important insight into practices and discourses where dignity is at stake. It is a requirement of us all that we revisit dignity and its location and representation in our health systems to ensure it is not left behind as the state and other systems within it evolve.

  15. Death AND DIGNITY. WHY VOLUNTARY EUTHANASIA IS A QUESTION OF CHOICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The prospect of voluntary euthanasia has created strong debate for decades and provoked passionate opinions from both sides of the fence. While not legal in Australia, a recent revived push for national voluntary euthanasia legislation has once again opened up the conversation and nurses have been encouraged to join the debate. Robert Fedele investigates the latest thinking and why more people are supporting voluntary euthanasia and the right to die with dignity.

  16. Oregon's Death With Dignity Act: 20 Years of Experience to Inform the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Katrina; New, Craig

    2017-10-17

    Twenty years ago, Oregon voters approved the Death With Dignity Act, making Oregon the first state in the United States to allow physicians to prescribe medications to be self-administered by terminally ill patients to hasten their death. This report summarizes the experience in Oregon, including the numbers and types of participating patients and providers. These data should inform the ongoing policy debate as additional jurisdictions consider such legislation.

  17. Dignity and cost-effectiveness: a rejection of the utilitarian approach to death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S A

    1984-01-01

    Utilitarianism is commonly assumed to be the most appropriate sub-structure for medical ethics. This view is challenged. It is suggested that the utilitarian approach to euthanasia works against the patient's individual advantage and is a corrupting influence in the relationship between the physician and society. Dignity for the individual patient is not easily achieved by assessing that person's worth against the yardstick of others' needs and wishes. PMID:6502643

  18. The integration of weighted human gene association networks based on link prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Tinghong; Wu, Duzhi; Lin, Limei; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-31

    Physical and functional interplays between genes or proteins have important biological meaning for cellular functions. Some efforts have been made to construct weighted gene association meta-networks by integrating multiple biological resources, where the weight indicates the confidence of the interaction. However, it is found that these existing human gene association networks share only quite limited overlapped interactions, suggesting their incompleteness and noise. Here we proposed a workflow to construct a weighted human gene association network using information of six existing networks, including two weighted specific PPI networks and four gene association meta-networks. We applied link prediction algorithm to predict possible missing links of the networks, cross-validation approach to refine each network and finally integrated the refined networks to get the final integrated network. The common information among the refined networks increases notably, suggesting their higher reliability. Our final integrated network owns much more links than most of the original networks, meanwhile its links still keep high functional relevance. Being used as background network in a case study of disease gene prediction, the final integrated network presents good performance, implying its reliability and application significance. Our workflow could be insightful for integrating and refining existing gene association data.

  19. Using structural equation modelling to integrate human resources with internal practices for lean manufacturing implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protik Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore and integrate the role of human resources with the internal practices of the Indian manufacturing industries towards successful implementation of lean manu-facturing (LM. An extensive literature survey is carried out. An attempt is made to build an ex-haustive list of all the input manifests related to human resources and internal practices necessary for LM implementation, coupled with a similar exhaustive list of the benefits accrued from its suc-cessful implementation. A structural model is thus conceptualized, which is empirically validated based on the data from the Indian manufacturing sector. Hardly any survey based empirical study in India has been found to integrate human resources with the internal processes towards success-ful LM implementation. This empirical research is thus carried out in the Indian manufacturing in-dustries. The analysis reveals six key input constructs and three output constructs, indicating that these constructs should act in unison to maximize the benefits of implementing lean. The structural model presented in this paper may be treated as a guide to integrate human resources with internal practices to successfully implement lean, leading to an optimum utilization of resources. This work is one of the very first researches to have a survey-based empirical analysis of the role of human resources and internal practices of the Indian manufacturing sector towards an effective lean im-plementation.

  20. Personnel Selection Influences on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Human-System Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Thomas R; King, Raymond E

    2015-08-01

    Human-system integration (HSI) is a complex process used to design and develop systems that integrate human capabilities and limitations in an effective and affordable manner. Effective HSI incorporates several domains, including manpower, personnel and training, human factors, environment, safety, occupational health, habitability, survivability, logistics, intelligence, mobility, and command and control. To achieve effective HSI, the relationships among these domains must be considered. Although this integrated approach is well documented, there are many instances where it is not followed. Human factors engineers typically focus on system design with little attention to the skills, abilities, and other characteristics needed by human operators. When problems with fielded systems occur, additional training of personnel is developed and conducted. Personnel selection is seldom considered during the HSI process. Complex systems such as aviation require careful selection of the individuals who will interact with the system. Personnel selection is a two-stage process involving select-in and select-out procedures. Select-in procedures determine which candidates have the aptitude to profit from training and represent the best investment. Select-out procedures focus on medical qualification and determine who should not enter training for medical reasons. The current paper discusses the role of personnel selection in the HSI process in the context of remotely piloted aircraft systems.