WorldWideScience

Sample records for human development theory

  1. Toward A Multilevel Theory of Career Development: Advancing Human Resource Development Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Matthew G.; Egan, Toby Marshall

    2007-01-01

    The established limitations of career development (CD) theory and human resource development (HRD) theory building are addressed by expanding the framing of these issues to multilevel contexts. Multilevel theory building is an approach most effectively aligned with HRD literature and CD and HRD practice realities. An innovative approach multilevel…

  2. The Contribution of the Human Development Index Literacy Theory to the Debate on Literacy and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu; Mogotsi, Kebadire; Maruatona, Tonic; Raditloaneng, Wapula; Tladi, Flora; Chawawa, Morgan; Kheru, Obakeng

    2014-01-01

    The Human Development Index Literacy (HDIL) theory was developed in 2011 to eliminate or minimise the negative impact of issues underlying the failure of previous literacy programmes in promoting socio-economic development. This theory was tested for the first time between July 2013 and February 2014 in two rural communities of Botswana. A…

  3. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  4. Technological Innovation and Strategic Human Resource Management: Developing a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    Technological innovation affects the structure and content of jobs. Research indicates that there is a need for a theory of technological innovation and strategic human resource management considering several factors, such as an employee's beliefs about the effect of technological innovations on the quality of work life and work content.…

  5. Andragology and social capital theory: the implications for human resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Joseph; Poell, Rob F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a

  6. Component Theories for Human Resource Development in China: A Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Carsten; Chen, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Chinese scholars have not yet achieved consensus on the specific theories that should be part of a Chinese HRD theory base. A review of the Chinese HRD literature has identified four theory domains frequently mentioned as a possible foundation for the discipline: management, economics, sociology, and psychology/learning. Considering Swanson and…

  7. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  8. Goal Setting Theory: What It Implies for Strategic Human Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Among numerous motivational theories, goal setting theory particularly can serve strategic human resource development practices. The goal-setting theory suggests that organizational goals have to be communicated clearly and the goals need to be specific enough. Another feature of goal-setting is that they need not be too easy or perceived to be impossible to fulfill. SHRD personnel should keep in mind that some employees prefer to work individually toward fulfilling a goal, while others prefe...

  9. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Keung Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers. Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  10. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  11. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships. PMID:29085818

  12. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  13. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  14. Implications of Leader-Member Exchange Theory and Research for Human Resource Development Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Janet Z.; Otte, Fred L.

    1999-01-01

    Leader/member exchange theory is proposed as an alternate approach to the study of organizational leadership. Recent research supports the theory but additional development work is needed. The theory seeks to explain how leader/member relationships develop and the behavioral components of leadership relations. Contains 74 references. (Author/JOW)

  15. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  17. The SP Theory of Intelligence as a Foundation for the Development of a General, Human-Level Thinking Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises how the "SP theory of intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP computer model" simplifies and integrates concepts across artificial intelligence and related areas, and thus provides a promising foundation for the development of a general, human-level thinking machine, in accordance with the main goal of research in artificial general intelligence. The key to this simplification and integration is the powerful concept of "multiple alignment", borrowed and adapted from...

  18. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Work Design Theory: A Review and Critique with Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these…

  20. Human-scientific Planning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Aksel

    1998-01-01

    This working report is a paper written to XII AESOP Congress 22 – 25 July 1998, Aveiro, Portugal. It is a presentation of human-scientific action theory and its linkage to planning, both planning theory and planning practice. Human-scientific action theory is created by professor Gunnar Olsson and professor José Luis Ramírez, Nordic School of Planning, Stockholm. Planning is primarily a practical and reflective activity. The notion ”Planning” may, therefore, describe the activi...

  1. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hing Keung Ma

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, sibli...

  2. Formal Mentoring Relationships and Attachment Theory: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    An attachment theory perspective of mentoring is presented to explain the degree of functionality of a mentor-protege formal match in an organizational setting. By focusing on Bowlby's (1969/1982) behavioral system of attachment and its triarchic taxonomy of secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent attachment, previous conceptualizations are…

  3. Social choice theory and its application in a human rights based approach to development

    OpenAIRE

    Deepanshu Mohan

    2017-01-01

    A discourse on human rights, is built on including such rights as part of a broader, universal framework (accommodating for moral, ethical claims) that go beyond any constitutionally derived claims and rights or any given set of legitimate laws that are defined by the sovereign of a country. In recent decades, invoking a discussion on safeguarding human rights has become a major way of challenging the level of inequities and oppression within and across countries today that are circumscribing...

  4. A theory of human error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  5. Study of Motives of Chinese Business English Development Based on the Theory of Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichang, Ouyang; Wenzhong, Zhu; Dan, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Business English in China has evolved into a cross-disciplinary program from ESP, with more than 1000 universities having set the program of business English in bachelor, master or doctor degree levels. In general, it has undergone a rapid development and enjoyed a more and more social recognition. This paper tries to uncover the underlying…

  6. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: a social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Developments of BBG theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.S.

    1979-01-01

    A short review of the early developments due largely to K. A Brueckner is given. Special emphasis is given to insertions in hole and particle lines, dispersion-effects and healings, and how the quantitative effects of these are related to the nature of the force. The importance of higher-order insertions in hole and particle lines and its relation to the force is also emphasized. This is important in a quantitative comparison of BBG theory with variational theory. The inceased healing-distance due to the tensor force is also pointed out. This gives convergence problems. Experiment may leave room for a nuclear force with weaker tensor force than mostly used. (Auth.)

  8. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  9. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  10. Human development II: We Need an Integrated Theory for Matter, Life and Consciousness to Understand Life and Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient’s brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call “deep” cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call “holistic biology for holistic medicine”. We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination, brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor, and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain

  11. Human development II: we need an integrated theory for matter, life and consciousness to understand life and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient's brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call "deep" cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call "holistic biology for holistic medicine". We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination), brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor), and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain and consciousness, the

  12. Human Nature and the Development of Character: The Clash of Descriptive and Normative Elements in John Stuart Mill's Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter J.; Kim, Ki Su

    1988-01-01

    Discusses John Stuart Mill's belief in the development of character as a solution to social problems and a worthy educational ideal. Concludes that Mill's belief in education's power to perfect human nature through character development could not be realized within the framework of his anthropological views of human kind. (DMM)

  13. Developments in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1976-01-01

    Included are sections dealing with perturbation expressions for reactivity, methods for the calculation of perturbed fluxes, integral transport theory formulations for reactivity, generalized perturbation theory, sensitivity and optimization studies, multigroup calculations of bilinear functionals, and solution of inhomogeneous Boltzmann equations with singular operators

  14. Why is Organizing Human Resource Development so Problematic? Perspectives from the Learning-Network Theory (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poell, Rob F.; Van Der Krogt, Ferd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human resource development (HRD) is an important field within management. Developing employees is often regarded as an instrument to improve the internal labor market and support organizational change. Organizing HRD to these ends, however, is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of training effectiveness, participant motivation and…

  15. Why is organizing human resource development so problematic? : Perspectives from the learning-network theory (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; van der Krogt, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Human resource development (HRD) is an important field within management. Developing employees is often regarded as an instrument to improve the internal labor market and support organizational change. Organizing HRD to these ends, however, is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of

  16. Why is organizing human resource development so problematic? : Perspectives from the learning-network theory (Part I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; van der Krogt, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Human resource development (HRD) is an important field within management. Developing employees is often regarded as an instrument to improve the internal labor market and support organizational change. Organizing HRD to these ends, however, is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of

  17. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  19. Theories of Career Development. A Comparison of the Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipow, Samuel H.

    These seven theories of career development are examined in previous chapters: (1) Roe's personality theory, (2) Holland's career typology theory, (3) the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma Theory, (4) psychoanalytic conceptions, (5) Super's developmental self-concept theory, (6) other personality theories, and (7) social systems theories.…

  20. The impact of stroke aphasia on health and well-being and appropriate nursing interventions: an exploration using the Theory of Human Scale Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Juliana; McKeever, Margo

    2014-02-01

    This paper considers the impact of aphasia on health and well-being and provides suggestions for appropriate nursing interventions. Background.  Effective communication is essential to holistic care and positive outcomes for individuals affected by aphasia. When verbal communication is absent, nurses fail to adequately use alternative strategies so that the standard of nurse/patient communication is frequently poor. This is a discursive paper which reviews relevant literature and uses the Theory of Human Scale Development as a framework for discussion. The Theory of Human Scale Development is introduced. This theory emphasises that quality of life depends as much upon self-actualisation and relation building as on physical health. The theory is used within the discussion to highlight the significance of communication to quality of life and how its loss has profound psychological and social consequences. Aphasia results in 'loss of self'. The situation is exacerbated by inadequate healthcare communication strategies. Suggestions are offered regarding more appropriate strategies. Efficacy of family input is considered; nursing competence regarding language practice therapies is discussed, and the 'quest approach' is explored. Aphasia has a negative impact on relationships by denying access to support networks, which results in isolation. The individual's predicament is worsened by negative nursing responses. Positive nursing strategies, which alleviate effects of aphasia on individuals' social health, are investigated. Concept analysis and self-awareness exercises as methods of enhancing compassion skills are explored. The social model of disability is discussed to highlight the benefits to individuals of environmental adaptations. The social benefits of aphasia-group affiliation are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising that fundamental human needs involve social and psychological as well as physical aspects. Nursing interventions must address all needs to

  1. Piaget's Theory of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robbie

    1972-01-01

    This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)

  2. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  3. a Radical Collaborative Approach: Developing a Model for Learning Theory, Human-Based Computation and Participant Motivation in a Rock-Art Heritage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubt, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores a Radical Collaborative Approach in the global and centralized Rock-Art Database project to find new ways to look at rock-art by making information more accessible and more visible through public contributions. It looks at rock-art through the Key Performance Indicator (KPI), identified with the latest Australian State of the Environment Reports to help develop a better understanding of rock-art within a broader Cultural and Indigenous Heritage context. Using a practice-led approach the project develops a conceptual collaborative model that is deployed within the RADB Management System. Exploring learning theory, human-based computation and participant motivation the paper develops a procedure for deploying collaborative functions within the interface design of the RADB Management System. The paper presents the results of the collaborative model implementation and discusses considerations for the next iteration of the RADB Universe within an Agile Development Approach.

  4. Critical Theory of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    International human rights have become an important global norm that has increasingly been incorporated into international law and global conventions. Human rights are a key reference point of mobilizations by diverse groups and international nongovernmental organization (INGOs) in global publics

  5. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  6. An evolutionary theory of human motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R Patricia

    2005-05-01

    The authors review psychology's historical, competing perspectives on human motivation and propose a new comprehensive theory. The new theory is based on evolutionary principles as proposed by C. Darwin (1859) and modified by W. D. Hamilton (1964, 1996), R. L. Trivers (1971, 1972), and R. Dawkins (1989). The theory unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to motivation. The theory is neuropsychological and addresses conscious and nonconscious processes that underlie motivation, emotion, and self-control. The theory predicts a hierarchical structure of motives that are measurable as individual differences in human behavior. These motives are related to social problem domains (D. B. Bugental, 2000; D. T. Kenrick, N. P. Li, & J. Butner, 2003), and each is hypothesized to solve a particular problem of human inclusive fitness.

  7. Can human error theory explain non-adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nick; Safdar, A; Franklin, Bryoney D

    2005-08-01

    To apply human error theory to explain non-adherence and examine how well it fits. Patients who were taking chronic medication were telephoned and asked whether they had been adhering to their medicine, and if not the reasons were explored and analysed according to a human error theory. Of 105 patients, 87 were contacted by telephone and they took part in the study. Forty-two recalled being non-adherent, 17 of them in the last 7 days; 11 of the 42 were intentionally non-adherent. The errors could be described by human error theory, and it explained unintentional non-adherence well, however, the application of 'rules' was difficult when considering mistakes. The consideration of error producing conditions and latent failures also revealed useful contributing factors. Human error theory offers a new and valuable way of understanding non-adherence, and could inform interventions. However, the theory needs further development to explain intentional non-adherence.

  8. Toward a Unified Theory of Human Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this unified theory of human reasoning is to specify what constitutes reasoning and to characterize the psychological distinction between inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory views reasoning as the controlled and mediated application of three processes (encoding, comparison and selective combination) to inferential rules. (JAZ)

  9. Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…

  10. Theory and practice in medical education--expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmont, Silke; Robra, Bernt-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare students of human medicine (HM) with students specialising in the MINT disciplines (mathematics, computer science, natural sciences and engineering), the humanities and social sciences as well as law and economic sciences with regard to their expectations of their university study and career and the areas of competence where they feel they have been supported by their education. We present in detail issues particularly relevant to prospective physicians, which are discussed with the main focus on the "theoretical and practical orientation of medical education". We used the database in the Public Use File of the "11th Student Survey", a written survey of randomly selected students studying at 25 German tertiary institutions during the 2009/2010 winter term, which was supplied by the Tertiary Education Research working group at the University of Constance. Data on 7536 students was included, of which 488 (6.5%) were prospective physicians. Human medicine students have a clear career aim and want to complete their education quickly. They have a far above-average interest in working with and for people. About one student in two is interested in a career in science or research (53% in each case - close to the average for all subjects). Compared with the other disciplines, HM students are most likely to consider their university education to have practical and research relevance and are most likely to feel prepared for their profession. Yet over half of all students (Ø 53.3%; HM 54.5%) do not consider their education to have fostered their research skills. MINT students in particular are better able to enhance their skills through independent experimentation, while theory and practice are more likely to be communicated academically in the regular teaching of human medicine. Accordingly, the HM students feel less well supported in some areas of competence required for their later work than students in other disciplines, in developing

  11. Theory and practice in medical education – expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedmont, Silke

    2015-02-01

    students in other disciplines, in developing independence, problem-solving ability, critical ability and capacity for teamwork for example. Conclusion: The high expectations held by human medicine students of being prepared for practical work with/on people are met to an above-average degree according to their assessments of the “practical relevance” and “career preparation” offered by their medical education. However the perceived development of skills in theory and practice does not respond sufficiently well to the demands of the complex, responsible profession they aspire to. Medical students should be better supported in developing both practical and academic independence.

  12. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  13. Theory of mind: A foundational component of human general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, David; Bartsch, Karen

    2017-01-01

    To understand the evolution of general intelligence, Burkart et al. endorse a "cultural intelligence approach," which emphasizes the critical importance of social interaction. We argue that theory of mind provides an essential foundation and shared perspective for the efficient ontogenetic transmission of crucial knowledge and skills during human development and, together with language, can account for superior human general intelligence.

  14. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  15. Theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L; Bowen, D M

    2017-11-01

    Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM). Using the Walker and Avant Theory Analysis, a seven-step process, the DH HNCM, was analysed and evaluated for its meaningfulness and contribution to dental hygiene. The steps include the following: (i) investigate the origins; (ii) examine relationships of the theory's concepts; (iii) assess the logic of the theory's structure; (iv) consider the usefulness to practice; (v) judge the generalizability; (vi) evaluate the parsimony; and (vii) appraise the testability of the theory. Human needs theory in nursing and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory prompted this theory's development. The DH HNCM depicts four concepts based on the paradigm concepts of the profession: client, health/oral health, environment and dental hygiene actions, and includes validated eleven human needs that evolved overtime to eight. It is logical, simplistic, allows scientific predictions and testing, and provides a unique lens for the dental hygiene practitioner. With this model, dental hygienists have entered practice, knowing they enable clients to meet their human needs. For the DH HNCM, theory analysis affirmed that the model is reasonable and insightful and adds to the dental hygiene professions' epistemology and ontology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  17. Developing an Asteroid Rotational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.

  18. Human error theory: relevance to nurse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry

    2009-03-01

    Describe, discuss and critically appraise human error theory and consider its relevance for nurse managers. Healthcare errors are a persistent threat to patient safety. Effective risk management and clinical governance depends on understanding the nature of error. This paper draws upon a wide literature from published works, largely from the field of cognitive psychology and human factors. Although the content of this paper is pertinent to any healthcare professional; it is written primarily for nurse managers. Error is inevitable. Causation is often attributed to individuals, yet causation in complex environments such as healthcare is predominantly multi-factorial. Individual performance is affected by the tendency to develop prepacked solutions and attention deficits, which can in turn be related to local conditions and systems or latent failures. Blame is often inappropriate. Defences should be constructed in the light of these considerations and to promote error wisdom and organizational resilience. Managing and learning from error is seen as a priority in the British National Health Service (NHS), this can be better achieved with an understanding of the roots, nature and consequences of error. Such an understanding can provide a helpful framework for a range of risk management activities.

  19. The human capital theory. Encouragement and criticism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolomiiets, Uliana; Petrushenko, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), s. 77-80 ISSN 2520-6621 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : human capital * Mincerian theory * labor economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://armgpublishing.sumdu.edu.ua/journals/sec/issue-1/article-9/

  20. The human capital theory. Encouragement and criticism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolomiiets, Uliana; Petrushenko, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), s. 77-80 ISSN 2520-6621 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : human capital * Mincerian theory * labor economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://armgpublishing.sumdu.edu.ua/journals/sec/issue-1/article-9/

  1. Challenging (Strategic) Human Resource management Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo fully understand the relationship between human resource management and performance in different contexts, we are in need of a synthesis between resource-based theory and new institutionalism. We argue that differences in institutional settings (between for example countries or

  2. Human factors in software development: On its underlying theories and the value of learning from related disciplines. A guest editorial introduction to the special issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, C.; Daneva, Maia; Damian, D.

    2014-01-01

    Human factors play a very important role in Software Development [1]. According to Avison et al. [2] ‘‘Failure to include human factors may explain some of the dissatisfaction with conventional information systems development methodologies; they do not address real organizations’’ (p95 [2]).

  3. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  4. Toward a New Theory of Sustainable Development: Drawing on Insights from Developments in Modern Legal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the countless hours invested in the development of the Sustainable Development Goals—the set of targets and indicators relating to future international human and sustainable development, which replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs at the end of 2015 —by hundreds of the world’s top minds, in addition to more than twenty-five years of analysis associated with the development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the MDGs, international lawyers and economists may wonder whether there is room for a new theory of sustainable development. It might seem counterintuitive to presume that new light might be shed on this vastly over-analyzed concept. However, the goal of this article is indeed to bring a new understanding to this important idea by assaying the current dominant legal theory of neo-liberalism and the radical inequality it promotes, and unpacking processes and identifying insights from advanced legal theory for the development of a new theory of sustainable development, with a primary focus on counteracting radical inequality.

  5. THE THEORY OF CIVILIZATIONS THROUGH THE LENS OF CONTEMPORARY HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Danylova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper invites reflections on the further development of civilizational theory through the lens of contemporary humanities. It argues that philosophy is one of the key dimensions of the integral theory of civilizations. The purpose is to promote dialogue-rich interdisciplinary civilizational approach with philosophical understanding of human essence at its core. Methodology. The author has used comparative historical analysis, along with hermeneutical methodology and interdisciplinary approach. Theoretical basis and results. Faced with the challenges of our time, researchers are turning to the civilizational approach, according to which world history appears to us as a colourful spectrum of the options for the development of humanity. At the present stage of scientific development the integral theory of civilizations seems to be the most productive tool for the interpretation of the events taking place in our world. Origianlity. The problem of human being is a key factor in understanding the dynamics of civilizational process and designing a promising theory of civilizations. Philosophy should occupy an important place in the development of a new theory of civilizations: philosophy is the spiritual quintessence of every epoch, every cultural and civilizational community. In particular, a new theory has to take into account both classic and contemporary investigations in the field of philosophical anthropology and theory of values. The increasing threat posed by the clash of civilizations can become a swan song of humanity. For the preservation and further development of the world civilization, there is no other choice but to elaborate the strategies, mechanisms for consultation and dialogue, cooperation and partnership of civilizations and states. That is why the urgent task is to create the certain philosophical position that will contribute to mutual understanding. Conclusions. It is important to involve philosophers in the

  6. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  7. Liberating methodological thinking in human sciences from grand theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2016-01-01

    focus on the necessity of a “grand unified theory” at the expense of any and all alternative perspectives. Properties of grand theories are discussed on the examples of Giddens and Bourdieu. It is argued that grand theories hamper a more productive focus on concrete phenomena. Robert Merton’s focus......Many humanistic and social disciplines are naturally inclined to seek for human-, person-, self- centered focus, and develop a holistic theory of such. Such disciplines continually engage with philosophical, metaphysical and meta-theoretical perspectives. This engagement often leads to a singular...... on “middle range” theories is revisited and its continuing relevance is highlighted. The level of abstraction characteristic of such theories, as well as the way they engage with the empirical social reality, are discussed. The article concludes by considering the paradoxical reductionism that can...

  8. Developments in superstring field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the structure of superstring theories is outlined. The one-loop quantum superstring gauge anomalies are then described and it is shown that their absence leads to an interesting theory with gauge group SO(32). The one-loop infinities also cancel for this gauge group. The anomaly cancellation can be understood in terms of the low-energy effective supergravity-Yang-Mills field theory, from which it is shown that E 8 x E 8 is an equally good gauge group, which suggests that there should also be an interesting E 8 x E 8 superstring theory. A new type of superstring theory, known as the 'heterotic' string theory, which only describes strings with gauge groups E 8 x E 8 or SO(32) is described. Finally some very exciting prospects for obtaining a sensible description of four-dimensional physics from a ten-dimensional superstring theory with gauge group E 8 x E 8 is outlined. (author)

  9. Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Center for Army Leadership Technical Report 2006-2 Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development Christina Curnow...2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91QF4-05-F-0026 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Learning Theories Applied to Leadership Development 5c...ABSTRACT This report describes the development and implementation of an application of advanced learning theories to leadership development. A

  10. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis

    2006-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...

  11. Contemporary developments in algebraic K-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoubi, M.; Kuku, A.O.; Pedrini, C.

    2003-01-01

    The School and Conference on Algebraic K-theory which took place at ICTP July 8-26, 2002 was a follow-up to the earlier one in 1997, and like its predecessor, the 2002 meeting endeavoured to emphasise the multidisciplinary aspects of the subject. However, one special feature of the 2002 School and Conference is that the whole activity was dedicated to H. Bass, one of the founders of Algebraic K-theory, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. The School during the first two weeks, July 8 to 19 was devoted to expository lectures meant to explore and highlight connections between K-theory and several other areas of mathematics - Algebraic Topology, Number theory, Algebraic Geometry, Representation theory, and Non-commutative Geometry. This volume, constituting the Proceedings of the School, is dedicated to H. Bass. The Proceedings of the Conference during the last week July 22 - 26, which will appear in Special issues of K-theory, is also dedicated to H. Bass. The opening contribution by M. Karoubi to this volume consists of a comprehensive survey of developments in K-theory in the last forty-five years, and covers a very broad spectrum of the subject, including Topological K-theory, Atiyah-Singer index theorem, K-theory of Banach algebras, Higher Algebraic K-theory, Cyclic Homology etc. J. Berrick's contribution on 'Algebraic K-theory and Algebraic Topology' treats the various topological constructions of Algebraic K-theory together with the underlying homotopy theory. Topics covered include the plus construction together with its various ramifications and applications, Topological Hochschild and Cyclic Homology as well as K-theory of the ring of integers. The contributions by M. Kolster titled 'K-theory and Arithmetics' includes such topics as values of zeta functions and relations to K-theory, K-theory of integers in number fields and associated conjectures, Etale cohomology, Iwasawa theory etc. A.O. Kuku's contributions on 'K-theory and Representation theory

  12. Adult Development towards What End? A Philosophical Analysis of the Concept as Reflected in the Research, Theory, and Practice of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    1999-01-01

    Presents three views of adult development: (1) person-centered, focused on self-realization and based on humanistic psychology and liberalism; (2) production-centered, focused on organizational goals and based on behaviorism and libertarianism; and (3) principled problem solving, based on cognitive psychology, progressivism, and pragmatism.…

  13. Moral Development Theory: A Critique of Its Kantian Presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert L.; Christopher, John Chambers

    1996-01-01

    Claims that contemporary moral development theory follows pathways laid down by Kant. Defines formalists and altruists, claiming that both interpret the moral domain too narrowly. Proposes a character-based redefinition that reintegrates moral development with the development of the self (Eudaimonism, or "human flourishing") and of…

  14. Cumulative Development of Attentional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.

    1982-01-01

    Describes current work in selective attention within a framework of research conducted over the past century. Presents evidence that findings at the level of performance, subjective experience, and neural systems can be linked, even though these findings are not yet reducible to a single theory. (Author/GC)

  15. Anthropologia transscendentalis. Kant's theory of human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, F

    2012-01-01

    In recent years mankind has greatly extended its knowledge of living things, in general, and itself, in particular. Such a wide-ranging body of knowledge has consequently led to the need for a theory to encompass it, that is, a coherent framework in which to systematically arrange mankind's understanding of itself, not only with regard to its physical nature, but to its individuality and sociality as well. Such a theory would moreover provide the means to mediate between the various domains of scientific and technological enquiry, on the one hand, and the cultural dimensions of human society, on the other. Already in the 18th century, Immanuel Kant strove to establish a discipline that was systematic, yet at the same time accessible. It was due to his efforts that philosophical anthropology was introduced into university curricula, to the benefit not only of philosophers, but of physicians and jurists as well. Kant's position is by no means prejudicial towards science. To the contrary, he was quite careful to appraise the impact of the sciences on the overall cognitive horizons of mankind and therefore on their potential to influence humankind's idea of itself. Clearly such a perspective is relevant to today's strongly felt need to reconcile modern neuroscience's revolutionary findings on the biological bases of the mind - of man's experience and behaviour - with the idea man needs of himself in order to orient his actions not only as individual but also as "citizen of the world" as well - something on which Kant worked with unremitting commitment throughout his entire research career. This article traces Kant's anthropological conception with regard to four specific issues: (1) its relation to science; (2) the relationship between empirical and transcendental in the speculative use and in practical use of reason; (3) the dialectic between what nature does and what human beings does, in the construction of humanity itself; (4) and finally about the character of the

  16. Toward a Theory of Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Human security” has occupied a significant place in the global discourses of peace, development, and diplomacy, despite often made criticisms of its conceptual ambiguity. Arguing for the merit of a broader definition of human security, i.e. “the right of people to live in freedom and dignity, free from poverty and despair” (UN Resolution A/RES/66/290), this paper offers an interdisciplinary theoretical framework in which key aspects of human security are systematically laid out: types of thr...

  17. Human factors and fuzzy set theory for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Human reliability and performance is affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it is important to develop a theory by which both the non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. In reality, randomness and fuzziness are sometimes mixed. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measures may be considered a special case of fuzzy measures. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. The concept 'failure possibility' based on fuzzy sets is suggested as an approach to safety analysis and fault diagnosis of a large complex system. Fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals are introduced and their possible applications are also discussed. (author)

  18. The historical character of human nature in Freud's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbersheid, Uri

    2013-06-01

    In Freud' theories of human development, human nature is described and analyzed as essentially historical. At the core of human history is the restructuring of the sexual instinct and the death instinct (or its unique form as destructive impulses). The conscious, asked-for shaping of these two instincts, under the rule of the "reality principle", forms the basis of human society at all stages. This conscious restructuring has also unintended, unasked-for results, which are part of the historically developing human nature. The historical choice has been the building of human society as a social complex based on the de-eroticization of both the individual and society. Freud suggested that the historical process of changing human nature and maintaining the achieved new structure has mainly been an enterprise of enlightened political elite, which has imposed (in all societies) the various elements of the new nature upon the ordinary people. Human history is essentially a deed of the political sphere. In viewing human nature as consisting of both asked-for and unasked-for results of human conscious purposeful activity Freud belongs to the same historical school as Marx.

  19. Development of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-10-01

    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances in understanding how motor commands are expressed at different stages of human development. Similar commands are found in several other vertebrates, indicating that locomotion development follows common principles of organization of the control networks. Movements show a high degree of flexibility at all stages of development, which is instrumental for learning and exploration of variable interactions with the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and application of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V; Archbold, J

    This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.

  1. [From humanism to nihilism: dialectics on Jean Watson's caring theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Pawel J; Lavoie, Mireille

    2015-09-01

    nursing today is heir to values that have developed over many years. In addition to the values of human care, present-day nursing embraces values that shape our modern world. This dialectical study first traces the evolution of a number of the traditional values associated with human care that nursing has retained. It goes on to show how some of the values of human care have been cast aside in favour of modern--neoliberal, technocratic and bureaucratic--values which have in turn given rise to disturbing problems of instrumentalization. Watson's theory of caring proposes two ways to remedy such instrumentalization: espousing a transcendental, metaphysical mode of thought and adopting an altruistic humanism. However, many critics have questioned the theoretical consistency and very legitimacy of the theory as a means of dealing with instrumentalization. this study analyses Watson's proposals, using a Nietzschean dialectic approach to test them and to suggest possible solutions. Significant problems in terms of both consistency and relevance are brought to light, tending to refute Watson's notions. the study findings suggest that the application of Watson's theory may paradoxically perpetuate dualism and nihilism and, rather than curb their invasive impact, lead inevitably to a conversion to instrumental values. it's suggested an alternative, ethics-of-life approach based on the synthesis of our dialectics that would foster a return to, and respect for, humanity's essential nature.

  2. Student Centered Homogeneous Ability Grouping: Using Bronfenbrenner's Theory of Human Development to Investigate the Ecological Factors Contributing to the Academic Achievement of High School Students in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Karla Denise

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the interconnectedness of the environment, human development, and the factors that influence students' academic performance in a homogeneous ability grouped mathematics classroom. The study consisted of four African American urban high school juniors, 2 male and 2 female. During the 12 week…

  3. Testing the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity with Human Microbiome Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lianwei; Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)

    2016-01-01

    The human microbiome project (HMP) has made it possible to test important ecological theories for arguably the most important ecosystem to human health?the human microbiome. Existing limited number of studies have reported conflicting evidence in the case of the neutral theory; the present study aims to comprehensively test the neutral theory with extensive HMP datasets covering all five major body sites inhabited by the human microbiome. Utilizing 7437 datasets of bacterial community samples...

  4. Embodiment and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development. However, as the influence of the Piagetian account waned, developmental notions of embodiment were shelved in favor of mechanical computational approaches. In this article, I argue that by reconsidering embodiment, we can address a key issue with computational accounts: how meaning is constructed by the developing person. I also suggest that the process-relational approach to developmental systems can provide a system of concepts for framing a fully embodied, integrative developmental science.

  5. Further Development of HS Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, Abdulmajeed; Faridani, Jacqueline; Gassem, Mahmoud

    2006-04-01

    We present a systematic treatment of the HS Field theory of the open bosonic string and discuss its relationship to other full string field theories of the open bosonic string such as Witten's theory and the CVS theory. In the development of the HS field theory we encounter infinite dimensional matrices arising from the change of representation between the two theories, i.e., the HS field theory and the full string field theory. We give a general procedure of how to invert these gigantic matrices. The inversion of these matrices involves the computation of many infinite sums. We give the values of these sums and state their generalizations arising from considering higher order vertices (i.e., more than three strings) in string field theory. Moreover, we give a general procedure, on how to evaluate the generalized sums, that can be extended to many generic sums of similar properties. We also discuss the conformal operator connecting the HS field theory to that of the CVS string field theory.

  6. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    OpenAIRE

    AnaLouise Keating; Kimberly Merenda

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work of Chicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa, this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentric epistemologies (including feminist standpoint theories) into more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledge production which are neither entirely human-centered nor fully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts: (1) A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrism and the limitations in mainstream fe...

  7. Theory of Economic Development (Secondary Stage)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    This is a secondary stage of theory of economic development. This research study is covering the secondary phase of development which rules the tactical plans of the main strategy. In this stage, the social and economical demands varies from country to country and we have developed the theory according to the Pakistani economic conditions. It requires great a lot of technical and strategic analysis to chose the accurate plans accordingly.

  8. What Is "Human" in Human Capital Theory? Marking a Transition from Industrial to Postindustrial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses educational practice as a site for the development of human capital theory. The article considers metaphysical constructions that are broadly typical of educational thought, and shows how they are amenable to economic analysis. Using different Marxist and feminist methods, it discusses pedagogy and the family as kinds of…

  9. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaLouise Keating

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work of Chicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa, this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentric epistemologies (including feminist standpoint theories into more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledge production which are neither entirely human-centered nor fully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts: (1 A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrism and the limitations in mainstream feminist standpoint theory’s ability to overcome this anthropocentrism; (2 an exploration of recent developments in virology’s promising alternatives to anthropocentrism’s narrow definition of the human; and (3 an analysis of Anzaldúa’s innovative nepantlera subjectivity and onto-epistemology as seen in her theory of conocimiento. Because scholars have yet to examine the post-anthropocentric (and posthumanist dimensions of Anzaldúa’s thought, but instead generally categorize her epistemology as an ethnic-specific feminist standpoint theory, her work offers a unique point of entry into these investigations.

  10. Contemporary developments in algebraic K-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoubi, M [Univ. Paris (France); Kuku, A O [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Pedrini, C [Univ. Genova (Italy)

    2003-09-15

    The School and Conference on Algebraic K-theory which took place at ICTP July 8-26, 2002 was a follow-up to the earlier one in 1997, and like its predecessor, the 2002 meeting endeavoured to emphasise the multidisciplinary aspects of the subject. However, one special feature of the 2002 School and Conference is that the whole activity was dedicated to H. Bass, one of the founders of Algebraic K-theory, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. The School during the first two weeks, July 8 to 19 was devoted to expository lectures meant to explore and highlight connections between K-theory and several other areas of mathematics - Algebraic Topology, Number theory, Algebraic Geometry, Representation theory, and Non-commutative Geometry. This volume, constituting the Proceedings of the School, is dedicated to H. Bass. The Proceedings of the Conference during the last week July 22 - 26, which will appear in Special issues of K-theory, is also dedicated to H. Bass. The opening contribution by M. Karoubi to this volume consists of a comprehensive survey of developments in K-theory in the last forty-five years, and covers a very broad spectrum of the subject, including Topological K-theory, Atiyah-Singer index theorem, K-theory of Banach algebras, Higher Algebraic K-theory, Cyclic Homology etc. J. Berrick's contribution on 'Algebraic K-theory and Algebraic Topology' treats the various topological constructions of Algebraic K-theory together with the underlying homotopy theory. Topics covered include the plus construction together with its various ramifications and applications, Topological Hochschild and Cyclic Homology as well as K-theory of the ring of integers. The contributions by M. Kolster titled 'K-theory and Arithmetics' includes such topics as values of zeta functions and relations to K-theory, K-theory of integers in number fields and associated conjectures, Etale cohomology, Iwasawa theory etc. A.O. Kuku's contributions on 'K-theory and Representation theory

  11. Development of unified gauge theories: retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    The construction and development of unified gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions is reviewed. The Weinberg and Lee contributions to this study are mainly considered as personal recollections

  12. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Theory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project is to develop analysis techniques and computer programs for predicting the probabilistic response of critical structural components for current and future space propulsion systems. This technology will play a central role in establishing system performance and durability. The first year's technical activity is concentrating on probabilistic finite element formulation strategy and code development. Work is also in progress to survey critical materials and space shuttle mian engine components. The probabilistic finite element computer program NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) is being developed. The final probabilistic code will have, in the general case, the capability of performing nonlinear dynamic of stochastic structures. It is the goal of the approximate methods effort to increase problem solving efficiency relative to finite element methods by using energy methods to generate trial solutions which satisfy the structural boundary conditions. These approximate methods will be less computer intensive relative to the finite element approach.

  13. The Development of a Comprehensive and Coherent Theory of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2015-01-01

    This article is an account of how the author developed a comprehensive understanding of human learning over a period of almost 50 years. The learning theory includes the structure of learning, different types of learning, barriers of learning as well as how individual dispositions, age, the learning environment and general social and societal…

  14. Human Resource Management: The need for theory and diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Wolfgang; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Human Resource Management as an academic discipline needs to be theoretically grounded, i.e. it requires support through theories, theory-driven empirical research and critiques. In doing so, different theoretical perspectives are addressed suggesting a problem-orientated theory selection which leads inevitably to theoretical diversity.

  15. Human development VIII: a theory of "deep" quantum chemistry and cell consciousness: quantum chemistry controls genes and biochemistry to give cells and higher organisms consciousness and complex behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-11-14

    Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it "sees", and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam's razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules' orbitals make one huge "cell-orbital", which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants) and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  16. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Coan, James A; Wagemans, Fieke M A; Missler, Marjolein A; van Beest, Ilja; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tops, Mattie

    2015-01-01

    Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature-thermoregulation-is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social) psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people's expectations of their social world (i.e., attachment) and their prediction of the social world. We provide support and outline a research agenda that includes consequences for individual variation in self-regulatory strategies and capabilities. In our paper, we discuss physiological, neural, and social processes surrounding thermoregulation. Emphasizing social thermoregulation in particular, we appeal to the economy of action principle and the hierarchical organization of human thermoregulatory systems. We close with future directions of a crucial aspect of human functioning: the social regulation of body temperature.

  17. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  19. Teaching and Technologies for Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickering, Arthur W.; Payne, Carla; Poitras, Gail

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential of emerging communication and information technologies in terms of human development. Topics include distinctions between training and education, instrumental and developmental purposes, and differentiation and integration; developmental stages theory; a leadership seminar based on developmental stages; and uses of…

  20. Development theory and poverty. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Farina

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents the evolution of development theory during the XX century, the measurement of poverty, the concept and the indices of multidimensional poverty. A special focus concerns the complex linkages between income inequality, poverty and institutions during the growth process of developing countries.

  1. An Integrative Theory of Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of numerical development is growing rapidly, but the volume and diversity of findings can make it difficult to perceive any coherence in the process. The integrative theory of numerical development posits that a coherent theme is present, however--progressive broadening of the set of numbers whose magnitudes can be accurately…

  2. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Owen, Julie E; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Osteen, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity revealed a 6-stage developmental process. The thirteen diverse students in this study described their leadership identity as moving from a leader-centric view to one that embraced leadership as a collaborative, relational process. Developing a leadership identity was connected to the…

  3. Human Needs Theory: Applications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author reviews needs theory as a field of research and scholarship, examines seven needs theories (including Nussbaum's capabilities approach), and synthesizes elements of all of these into a list he used tentatively and speculatively to analyze two common instructional practices in music education. The author's intent is to…

  4. Three Theories of Psychological Development; Implications for Children's Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)

  5. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  6. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  7. Development of similarity theory for control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Evtushenko, V. F.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Makarov, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The area of effective application of the traditional similarity theory and the need necessity of its development for systems are discussed. The main statements underlying the similarity theory of control systems are given. The conditions for the similarity of control systems and the need for similarity control control are formulated. Methods and algorithms for estimating and similarity control of control systems and the results of research of control systems based on their similarity are presented. The similarity control of systems includes the current evaluation of the degree of similarity of control systems and the development of actions controlling similarity, and the corresponding targeted change in the state of any element of control systems.

  8. The development of elementary quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Capellmann, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This book traces the evolution of the ideas that eventually resulted in the elementary quantum theory in 1925/26. Further, it discusses the essential differences between the fundamental equations of Quantum Theory derived by Born and Jordan, logically comprising Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Optics, and the traditional view of the development of Quantum Mechanics. Drawing on original publications and letters written by the main protagonists of that time, it shows that Einstein’s contributions from 1905 to 1924 laid the essential foundations for the development of Quantum Theory. Einstein introduced quantization of the radiation field; Born added quantized mechanical behavior. In addition, Born recognized that Quantum Mechanics necessarily required Quantum Optics; his radical concept of truly discontinuous and statistical quantum transitions (“quantum leaps”) was directly based on Einstein’s physical concepts.

  9. Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)

  10. Human Capital as a Challenge for Economics Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wyrzykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of human capital is increasingly attracting the attention of both theorists and practitioners, because at present human resources play a decisive role in the creation of competitive economies and business entities. Human capital and knowledge are becoming key factors in the area of entity competitiveness. Consequently, human capital is currently being analysed in a multi-faceted way in the context of numerous economic theories. The aim of this study is to summarize, analyse, and synthesise the information published on the subject of the theory of human capital and to present new theories and scientific paradigms. The theories presented in this study show that employees constitute the basic capital of modern organizations. One of the contemporary paradigms of modern management is the concept of knowledge-based economy and the paradigm of information technology. This article is based on literature studies and theoretical reflections of the author.

  11. Gestalt Therapy: Development, Theory, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Robert

    This paper presents a full review of the literature in the area of Gestalt Therapy and could be helpful in familiarizing people with this discipline. The roots contributing to the development of Gestalt therapy as presently practiced are explored briefly. Gestalt theory is presented in a developmental way, initially exploring the relationship…

  12. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  13. Recent developments in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Petersen, J.L.; Durhuus, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second volume in a set of three containing the proceedings of 3 conferences held in Copenhagen, to mark the centennial of Niels Bohr. The purpose of this symposium was to bring together theoretical particle physicists to discuss the present status and, in particular, the latest developments in quantum field theory, in their broadest aspects. This volume contains the main 19 lectures and reflects the contemporary status of a line of development, one of whose initiators was Niels Bohr. (orig.)

  14. Chaos theory perspective for industry clusters development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Jiang, Minghui; Li, Chengzhang

    2016-03-01

    Industry clusters have outperformed in economic development in most developing countries. The contributions of industrial clusters have been recognized as promotion of regional business and the alleviation of economic and social costs. It is no doubt globalization is rendering clusters in accelerating the competitiveness of economic activities. In accordance, many ideas and concepts involve in illustrating evolution tendency, stimulating the clusters development, meanwhile, avoiding industrial clusters recession. The term chaos theory is introduced to explain inherent relationship of features within industry clusters. A preferred life cycle approach is proposed for industrial cluster recessive theory analysis. Lyapunov exponents and Wolf model are presented for chaotic identification and examination. A case study of Tianjin, China has verified the model effectiveness. The investigations indicate that the approaches outperform in explaining chaos properties in industrial clusters, which demonstrates industrial clusters evolution, solves empirical issues and generates corresponding strategies.

  15. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mikael Lind; Goran Goldkuhl

    2006-01-01

    In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. Th...

  16. Cortical Thought Theory: A Working Model of the Human Gestalt Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    2. The Artificial Inteligence Perspective • -° 2.1 Introduction: Chapter Overview This chapter addresses the development of a...6 . . 2. The Artificial Intelligence Perspective ... .......... 9 2.1 Introduction: Chapter Overview .... ........... 9 2.2 The Problem 9...new unified theory of human brain function called Cortical Thought Theory (CTT). The analysis integrates the disciplines of Artificial Intelligence

  17. Meta-Theory and Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, H. Michael

    Curriculum development in any area should be imbued with a meaning that focuses on the cultural values of motivation, logic, and human relationships. The term "meaning" implies seeing relationships (linguistic, economic, political, moral), understanding logic, and being sensitive to the enduring values of the culture. Curriculum developers and…

  18. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  19. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  20. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  1. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  2. Theorizing Translanguaging and Multilingual Literacies through Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…

  3. Egocentrism in Norbert Elias’ theory of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Novoa Patiño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay conceptualises the importance of children in Norbert Elias’ theory of development. This analytical axis has been barely developed in most of sociologic interpretations on Elias’ work. Studies like that of Vera Weiler have brought into focus the influence of development psychology in Elias’ work, particularly in Jean Piaget’s research. With this turn on Elias thought studies, the Geman sociologist’s contributions are placed beyond considering him as a state theoretician integrating sociogenesis and psychogenesis in the behavior aspect coming back to Freud. By incorporating Jean Piaget’s development psychology, the concept of psychogenesis gets broader son as to encompass both social development and social sciences understanding.

  4. New developments in dispersion theory. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.; Petersen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The notes arose out of a series of lectures given in Copenhagen in 1973/74. The principal aim of the course was to give a reasonably comprehensive account of the considerable number of new ideas and techniques in dispersion theory which have been developed over the past few years. General background material is also given but is treated in less detail. Modern dispersion theory is seen to have two principal types of application in high energy strong interaction physics. Although not sharply seperated they can be characterized roughly as (1) use of dynamical singularities in the amplitude analysis of experimental data, and (2) dynamical interpretation of hadronic amplitudes. In the first volume the authors have concentrated on applications of the first class. A companion volume is planned in which some of the important dominantly dynamical areas of application will be described. (Auth.)

  5. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  6. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  7. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  8. Kohlberg's theory of moral development: insights into rights reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development was based on extensive research done on the reactions of people of all ages to specific moral situational dilemmas. Kohlberg was specifically interested in reasoning processes involved in decision-making. The way in which children perceive their rights is also based on reasoning processes that are inextricably linked to their level of development and more specifically to their level of moral development since the area of human rights can be considered essentially moral. Since Kohlberg's theory is primarily concerned with development, a great deal of insight can be gained into the developmental shift that occurs in children's reasoning about the rights to which they feel they should be entitled. This article focuses on Kohlberg's six-stage theory, specifically as it pertains to reasoning processes similar to those that would be used in rights reasoning. At each stage the authors propose a potential view of how children at each developmental stage might perceive their rights based on the description Kohlberg gives of the developmental trends associated with each stage. A critical assessment of Kohlberg's work is also given in order to highlight certain considerations about the limitations of this theory that need to be considered for future research.

  9. An investigation of the Sutcliffe development theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushan, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Two case studies were used to test the Sutcliffe-Peterssen development theory for both cyclonic and anticyclonic development over the eastern United States. Each term was examined to determine when and where it made a significant contribution to the development process. Results indicate the advection of vorticity at the level of non-divergence exerts the dominant influence for initial cyclone development, and that the thermal terms (advection of thickness, stability, and diabatic influence) become important after development has begun. Anticyclonic development, however, depends primarily on the stability term throughout the life cycle of the anticyclone. Simple procedures for forecasting the development and movement of cyclones and anticyclones are listed. These rules indicate that routine National Meteorological Center analyses may be used to locate areas where the positive advection of 500-mb vorticity, indicative of cyclonic development, coincides with regions of severe weather activity. The development of anticyclones also is predicted easily. Regions of increasing stability, indicating anticyclonic development, may be located by use of National Meteorological Center radar summaries and analyses for 1000-500-mb thickness. A test of these techniques found them to be satisfactory for the case examined.

  10. Testing the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity with Human Microbiome Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianwei; Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2016-08-16

    The human microbiome project (HMP) has made it possible to test important ecological theories for arguably the most important ecosystem to human health-the human microbiome. Existing limited number of studies have reported conflicting evidence in the case of the neutral theory; the present study aims to comprehensively test the neutral theory with extensive HMP datasets covering all five major body sites inhabited by the human microbiome. Utilizing 7437 datasets of bacterial community samples, we discovered that only 49 communities (less than 1%) satisfied the neutral theory, and concluded that human microbial communities are not neutral in general. The 49 positive cases, although only a tiny minority, do demonstrate the existence of neutral processes. We realize that the traditional doctrine of microbial biogeography "Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects" first proposed by Baas-Becking resolves the apparent contradiction. The first part of Baas-Becking doctrine states that microbes are not dispersal-limited and therefore are neutral prone, and the second part reiterates that the freely dispersed microbes must endure selection by the environment. Therefore, in most cases, it is the host environment that ultimately shapes the community assembly and tip the human microbiome to niche regime.

  11. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  12. Recent Developments in Sociological Risk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief overview of the main streams and recent developments of sociological research and theorising on risk. It outlines shifts in cultural theory on risk, from risk society to reflexive modernisation, from governmentality on risk to governmentality on uncertainty and adds the often neglected systems theory approach. Some important insights result from these developments: Risk and uncertainty should be interpreted as systematically linked to each other because there are different ways beyond instrumental rationality how risk can be managed. Furthermore, risk understood as rational calculation is an uncertain business, too. Risks are at the same time both real and socially constructed. Risks and uncertainties have to be managed case by case. When ignorance or uncertainty is too big there are no general rationalities available to make reasonable decisions. Finally, it is argued for more theoretical integration of the outlined approaches. The article finishes with some considerations regarding the contribution of sociology to risk research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601301

  13. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  14. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-05-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Recent development of relativistic molecular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahito, Nakajima; Kimihiko, Hirao

    2005-01-01

    Today it is common knowledge that relativistic effects are important in the heavy-element chemistry. The continuing development of the relativistic molecular theory is opening up rows of the periodic table that are impossible to treat with the non-relativistic approach. The most straightforward way to treat relativistic effects on heavy-element systems is to use the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach and its electron-correlation methods based on the Dirac-Coulomb(-Breit) Hamiltonian. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) or Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) equation with the four-component spinors composed of the large- and small-components demands severe computational efforts to solve, and its applications to molecules including heavy elements have been limited to small- to medium-size systems. Recently, we have developed a very efficient algorithm for the four-component DHF and DKS approaches. As an alternative approach, several quasi-relativistic approximations have also been proposed instead of explicitly solving the four-component relativistic equation. We have developed the relativistic elimination of small components (RESC) and higher-order Douglas-Kroll (DK) Hamiltonians within the framework of the two-component quasi-relativistic approach. The developing four-component relativistic and approximate quasi-relativistic methods have been implemented into a program suite named REL4D. In this article, we will introduce the efficient relativistic molecular theories to treat heavy-atomic molecular systems accurately via the four-component relativistic and the two-component quasi-relativistic approaches. We will also show several chemical applications including heavy-element systems with our relativistic molecular approaches. (author)

  16. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  17. Creative Trade for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, international trade in creative goods and services has been expanding. But this upward march is not lifting all boats. Although many developing countries are endowed with vast cultural wealth, they still lag behind. In addition, women are not faring well. Much needs to be done to expand creative trade for human development. Suggestions here include implementing a Women Art...

  18. On recent developments in marginal separation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Scheichl, S

    2014-07-28

    Thin aerofoils are prone to localized flow separation at their leading edge if subjected to moderate angles of attack α. Although 'laminar separation bubbles' at first do not significantly alter the aerofoil performance, they tend to 'burst' if α is increased further or if perturbations acting upon the flow reach a certain intensity. This then either leads to global flow separation (stall) or triggers the laminar-turbulent transition process within the boundary layer flow. This paper addresses the asymptotic analysis of the early stages of the latter phenomenon in the limit as the characteristic Reynolds number [Formula: see text], commonly referred to as marginal separation theory. A new approach based on the adjoint operator method is presented that enables the fundamental similarity laws of marginal separation theory to be derived and the analysis to be extended to higher order. Special emphasis is placed on the breakdown of the flow description, i.e. the formation of finite-time singularities (a manifestation of the bursting process), and on its resolution being based on asymptotic arguments. The passage to the subsequent triple-deck stage is described in detail, which is a prerequisite for carrying out a future numerical treatment of this stage in a proper way. Moreover, a composite asymptotic model is developed in order for the inherent ill-posedness of the Cauchy problems associated with the current flow description to be resolved.

  19. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  20. Theories of Career Development. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipow, Samuel H.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    This book describes and assesses the major theories of career choice and related research. The following are among the topics examined: history of vocational and career psychology (historical foundations; psychoanalytic conceptions of career choice; the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma theory; Tiedeman's developmental theory; recent history…

  1. The Basics: What's Essential about Theory for Community Development Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedde, Ronald J.; Ganowicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Relates three classical theories (structural functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism) to fundamental concerns of community development (structure, power, and shared meaning). Links these theories to Giddens' structuration theory, which connects macro and micro structures and community influence on change through cultural norms.…

  2. Career Development Theory and Its Application. Career Knowledge Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Career Development Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Covers career development theory, models, and techniques and how to apply them; understand the steps in the career development process and why career choice and development theory is important as well as limitations. Presents the assumptions that underlie four different types of theories; trait and factor, learning, developmental, and transition…

  3. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  4. Interpretation of basic concepts in theories of human motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.

  5. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 3. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the history of technology. Alfred Gierer. Perspectives Volume 29 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 235-244. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.

  7. Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new `conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing -- light as a geometric theory -- and human touching -- only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle -- plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable objects in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects -- as they occur in smaller entities -- appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  8. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  9. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  10. Territory development as economic and geographical activity (theory, methodology, practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Accents in a description of theory and methodology of territory development are displaced from distribution of the national benefits on formation of territorial natural and economic systems and organization of economical and geographical activity. The author reveals theconcept of «territory development» and reviews its placein thetheory and methodology of human geography and regionaleconomy. In the articletheindividual directions ofeconomic activity areconsidered. The author has made an attempt to definethesubject matter of five levels of «ideal» territorial and economic systems as a part of objects of the nature, societies, population settlement, production, infrastructure and management. The author’s position of interpretation of sequences of mechanisms of territory development working according to a Nested Doll principle (mechanism of economy, economic management mechanism, controlling mechanism of economy is presented. The author shows the indicators, which authentically define territory development

  11. Some apparent obstacles to developing a kantian virtue theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Several neo-Kantians have questioned the standard deontological interpretation of Kant's ethical theory. They have also responded to charges of rationalism and rigorism by emphasizing the role of virtues and emotions in Kant's view. However, none have defended a fully virtue theoretic interpretation of Kant's theory. I claim that virtue theory has much to offer Kantians, but that resistance to developing a Kantian virtue theory rests on faulty assumptions about virtue theory. In this paper I ...

  12. Using a systems orientation and foundational theory to enhance theory-driven human service program evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Deborah L

    2010-05-01

    This paper offers a framework for using a systems orientation and "foundational theory" to enhance theory-driven evaluations and logic models. The framework guides the process of identifying and explaining operative relationships and perspectives within human service program systems. Self-Determination Theory exemplifies how a foundational theory can be used to support the framework in a wide range of program evaluations. Two examples illustrate how applications of the framework have improved the evaluators' abilities to observe and explain program effect. In both exemplars improvements involved addressing and organizing into a single logic model heretofore seemingly disparate evaluation issues regarding valuing (by whose values); the role of organizational and program context; and evaluation anxiety and utilization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shot peening: theory applications and recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    1999-01-01

    Shot peening is a surface treatment process by which the surface of an elastic-plastic target material is subjected to multiple impact by spherical shots made of glass or hard steel in a defined and controlled manner. The multiple impact produces a dynamic compressive stress at the surface of the target, thereby effectively improving its mechanical behavior and eliminates cracks and imperfections hence improving the fatigue life and strength. In this paper, the theory and practice of the shot peening process are reviewed. The main parameters involved in the process and their effects on shot peening are presented and discussed which include: shot material, size and geometry, shot pressure and shot velocity, projection angle, exposure time, table rotational speed, standoff distance coverage, saturation and peening intensity. Furthermore, the effect of shot peening on fatigue life and fatigue strength of ferrous and non-ferrous materials together with other different industrial applications of the process are given. Recent developments in utilizing the shot peening process with welded parts and hard chromium plating aiming at improvement of their fatigue strength and their resistance to stress corrosion cracking are also presented and discussed. Finally, future development of the process are outlined and discussed. (author)

  14. Theory Development: A Bridge between Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James

    2010-01-01

    Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…

  15. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  16. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  17. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate

  18. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus in primates and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Some hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus have been debated since the ‘90s. One theory suggested a New World origin because of the phylogenetic co-segregation between some New World human hepatitis B virus genotypes F and H and woolly monkey human hepatitis B virus in basal sister-relationship to the Old World non-human primates and human hepatitis B virus variants. Another theory suggests an Old World origin of human hepatitis B virus, and that it would have been spread following prehistoric human migrations over 100,000 years ago. A third theory suggests a co-speciation of human hepatitis B virus in non-human primate hosts because of the proximity between the phylogeny of Old and New World non-human primate and their human hepatitis B virus variants. The importance of further research, related to the subject in South American wild fauna, is paramount and highly relevant for understanding the origin of human hepatitis B virus.

  19. Complexity, Chaos, and Nonlinear Dynamics: A New Perspective on Career Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Deborah P.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a theory of career development drawing on nonlinear dynamics and chaos and complexity theories. Career is presented as a complex adaptive entity, a fractal of the human entity. Characteristics of complex adaptive entities, including (a) autopiesis, or self-regeneration; (b) open exchange; (c) participation in networks; (d)…

  20. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, James

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  1. SLAC physicists develop test for string theory

    CERN Multimedia

    Yajnik, Juhi

    2006-01-01

    "Under certain conditions, string theory solves many of the questions wracking the minds of physicists, but until recently it had one major flaw - it could not be tested. SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) scientists have found a way to test this revolutionary theory, which posits that there are 10 or 11 dimensions in our universe" (1 page)

  2. A Framework for Theory Development in Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle

    The academic literature has frequently observed that foresight lacks a coherent theoretical basis. The discussion on theory of foresight calls for ‘a theory’, but it rarely expounds what the scope of theorizing is or should be. We propose that ‘theory of foresight’ has three overlapping meanings...

  3. A Theory for the Origin of Human Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mike; Singh, Rama S; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels - ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes - the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing.

  4. The development of the five mini-theories of self-determination theory: an historical overview, emerging trends, and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Niemiec, Christopher P; Soenens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory is a macro-theory of human motivation, emotion, and personality that has been under development for 40 years following the seminal work of Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985b, 2000; Niemiec, Ryan, & Deci, in press; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, 2008) has been advanced in a cumulative, research-driven manner, as new ideas have been naturally and steadily integrated into the theory following sufficient empi...

  5. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  6. Natural Good Theories and the Value of Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muders, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    One of the widely recognized facts about human dignity is its vastly divergent applicability-from highly controversial issues in bioethics to broader topics in political philosophy. A group of theories that this article subsumes under the header "natural good theories" appears to be especially fitted for normatively multifaceted notions like dignity. However, the heavy normative weight the concept of dignity has to bear due to the central position it occupies within these theories creates its own difficulties. As is shown in a discussion of Martha Nussbaum's capability conception of dignity, dignity appears to be unable to mirror the special normative relevance people want to assign to it in cases of great moral misconduct. The article provides a suggestion on how to solve this problem by means of paradigmatic cases that work as material constraints regarding the exact boundaries of dignity violations.

  7. Toward a Theory for the Design of Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2014-01-01

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least...... the Participatory Design (PD) community – to engage in theorizing design, on the basis of our understanding of design and design practices. This theory could be posi-tioned as an alternative to other attempts to theorize design, for example the influential efforts of the Information Systems (IS) community. We urge...... the PD community to engage in collective theory building, and we present a framework intended to support our shared reflections on the design of human technologies....

  8. More similarities than differences in contemporary theories of social development?: a plea for theory bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Many contemporary theories of social development are similar and/or share complementary constructs. Yet, there have been relatively few efforts toward theoretical integration. The present chapter represents a call for increased theory bridging. The problem of theoretical fragmentation in psychology is reviewed. Seven highlighted reasons for this predicament include differences between behavioral sciences and other sciences, theoretical paradigms as social identities, the uniqueness assumption, information overload, field fixation, linguistic fragmentation, and few incentives for theoretical integration. Afterward, the feasibility of theoretical synthesis is considered. Finally, some possible directions are proposed for theoretical integration among five contemporary theories of social and gender development: social cognitive theory, expectancy-value theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory, and self-categorization theory.

  9. Economic Development and Development of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Černetič

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Černetič deals with certain dilemmas and problems related to employee training within companies, and discusses the complexity of the relationship between technological development and education, developmental gap between the developed and underdevdoped economies, and the goals of social development in Slovenia. Cernetič stresses that training programmes should above all provide flexibility of employment; the competitive edge of an entire state actually depends on effective use of human resources. Slovenia cannot exert any substantial influence on the global economy, it can only follow the main market trends. Knowledge is therefore of great importance, as the wealth of smaller nations is primarily based on the education level of their inhabitants.

  10. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lind

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.

  11. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  12. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  13. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  14. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model. Results Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.

  15. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus in primates and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix; Lima, Renato Santos de; Rosário, Mila de Oliveira Hughes Veiga do; Netto, Eduardo Martins

    2014-01-01

    The human hepatitis B virus causes acute and chronic hepatitis and is considered one of the most serious human health issues by the World Health Organization, causing thousands of deaths per year. There are similar viruses belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that infect non-human primates and other mammals as well as some birds. The majority of non-human primate virus isolates were phylogenetically close to the human hepatitis B virus, but like the human genotypes, the origins of these viruses remain controversial. However, there is a possibility that human hepatitis B virus originated in primates. Knowing whether these viruses might be common to humans and primates is crucial in order to reduce the risk to humans. To review the existing knowledge about the evolutionary origins of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates. This review was done by reading several articles that provide information about the Hepadnaviridae virus family in non-human primates and humans and the possible origins and evolution of these viruses. The evolutionary origin of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates has been dated back to several thousand years; however, recent analyses of genomic fossils of avihepadnaviruses integrated into the genomes of several avian species have suggested a much older origin of this genus. Some hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus have been debated since the '90s. One theory suggested a New World origin because of the phylogenetic co-segregation between some New World human hepatitis B virus genotypes F and H and woolly monkey human hepatitis B virus in basal sister-relationship to the Old World non-human primates and human hepatitis B virus variants. Another theory suggests an Old World origin of human hepatitis B virus, and that it would have been spread following prehistoric human migrations over 100,000 years ago. A third theory suggests a co-speciation of human hepatitis B virus in non-human primate

  16. The Role of Language in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Jill G.; de Villiers, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Various arguments are reviewed about the claim that language development is critically connected to the development of theory of mind. The different theories of how language could help in this process of development are explored. A brief account is provided of the controversy over the capacities of infants to read others' false beliefs. Then the…

  17. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  18. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  19. The development of ideas in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the main concepts of twistor theory. The emphasis is on the evolution of the subject from the original motivating ideas to the more recent work. In particular the physical and philosophical reasoning behind the use of the various mathematical structure is discussed. (author)

  20. A Theory of Intellectual Development: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confrey, Jere

    1994-01-01

    Part 1 of a three-part article analyzing radical constructivism (as one interpretation of Piaget) and the socio-cultural perspective (as one interpretation of Vygotsky), including major principles, primary contributions to mathematics education, and potential limitations. Introduces an integration of the two theories through a feminist…

  1. Development of the optimum rotor theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.

    The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the problems...

  2. Self-Determination Theory and Higher Education Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Tad A.

    2017-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) posits a framework for human motivation, highlighting an individual's interactions and perceptions of his or her environment. Research incorporating a SDT framework has identified antecedents of psychological need satisfaction (PNS) in human motivation. Individual motivation broadens levels of social interactions as…

  3. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  4. On the physical basis of a theory of human thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, A. S.; Schindler, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical study of the physical factors which are responsible for thermoregulation in nude resting humans in a physical steady state. The behavior of oxidative metabolism, evaporative and convective thermal fluxes, fluid heat transfer, internal and surface temperatures, and evaporative phase transitions is studied by physiological/physical modeling techniques. The modeling is based on the theories that the body has a vital core with autothermoregulation, that the vital core contracts longitudinally, that the temperature of peripheral regions and extremities decreases towards the ambient, and that a significant portion of the evaporative heat may be lost underneath the skin. A theoretical basis is derived for a consistent modeling of steady-state thermoregulation on the basis of these theories.

  5. Developing theory-driven design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Design research is increasingly weak in comparison with other fields; without action to increase scientific, theoretical, and methodological rigour there is a real possibility of the field being superseded and becoming obsolete through lack of impact. The aim of this paper is to show how design r....... I identify key learning indicating future directions for theory-driven design research. I conclude by providing some concrete recommendations for the field of design research and individual design researchers....

  6. Growth charts of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate score measuring global development. The relations between the indicators should be consistent with the Rasch model. If true, the D-score is a measure with interval scale properties, and allows for the calculation of meaningful differences both within and across age. The stage line diagram describes the natural development of ordinal indicators. The method models the transition probabilities between successive stages of the indicator as smoothly varying functions of age. The location of each stage is quantified by the mid-P-value. Both types of diagrams assist in identifying early and delayed development, as well as finding differences in tempo. The relevant techniques are illustrated to track global development during infancy and early childhood (0-2 years) and Tanner pubertal stages (8-21 years). New reference values for both applications are provided. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  8. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.

    Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.

    Chapter 3. The

  9. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  10. Gifted Children and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2001-01-01

    After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…

  11. Seeing More Than Human: Autism and Anthropomorphic Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Atherton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Theory of mind (ToM is defined as the process of taking another’s perspective. Anthropomorphism can be seen as the extension of ToM to non-human entities. This review examines the literature concerning ToM and anthropomorphism in relation to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, specifically addressing the questions of how and why those on the spectrum both show an increased interest for anthropomorphism and may even show improved ToM abilities when judging the mental states of anthropomorphic characters. This review highlights that while individuals with ASD traditionally show deficits on a wide range of ToM tests, such as recognizing facial emotions, such ToM deficits may be ameliorated if the stimuli presented is cartoon or animal-like rather than in human form. Individuals with ASD show a greater interest in anthropomorphic characters and process the features of these characters using methods typically reserved for human stimuli. Personal accounts of individuals with ASD also suggest they may identify more closely with animals than other humans. It is shown how the social motivations hypothesized to underlie the anthropomorphizing of non-human targets may lead those on the spectrum to seek social connections and therefore gain ToM experience and expertise amongst unlikely sources.

  12. Sampling theory, a renaissance compressive sensing and other developments

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing or approximating objects from seemingly incomplete information is a frequent challenge in mathematics, science, and engineering. A multitude of tools designed to recover hidden information are based on Shannon’s classical sampling theorem, a central pillar of Sampling Theory. The growing need to efficiently obtain precise and tailored digital representations of complex objects and phenomena requires the maturation of available tools in Sampling Theory as well as the development of complementary, novel mathematical theories. Today, research themes such as Compressed Sensing and Frame Theory re-energize the broad area of Sampling Theory. This volume illustrates the renaissance that the area of Sampling Theory is currently experiencing. It touches upon trendsetting areas such as Compressed Sensing, Finite Frames, Parametric Partial Differential Equations, Quantization, Finite Rate of Innovation, System Theory, as well as sampling in Geometry and Algebraic Topology.

  13. Development in structural systems reliability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murotsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem. (orig.)

  14. Development in structural systems reliability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murotsu, Y

    1986-07-01

    This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem.

  15. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova Natalia S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethinking it as a new theory of global security. A cross-categorical analysis of the concepts of «human development» and of «human security» was carried out by the main criteria: characteristics, time frames, main purpose and objectives. As a result, the human security is complementary to the concept of human development in the part of safe variants of choice (freedom from needs; it further facilitated the security provision at the level of prosperity and progress, not at the level of survival. It has been determined that the conception of human security is at the same time an element of the conception of human development as well as of human security.

  16. The Development of Kant’s Theory of Moral Feeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmi Zhouhuang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kant’s critical theory on moral feeling can be divided into two stages: early and late. In the early stage, Kant was committed to accepting and transforming the traditional concept of moral feeling, while in the later stage he turned to developing his own unique theory on the topic. His beliefs about moral feeling changed between these two stages, both regarding the basic meaning of moral feeling (from intuitive empirical feelings to a priori feelings based on rationality and the function of moral feeling in moral philosophy (from the basis of moral law to the motivation of moral action. This paper argues that these shifts help clarify the framework of Kant’s moral philosophy and introduce a new dimension to Kant’s definition of feelings and the relationship between sensibility and intellectuality. Namely, sensibility is not only determined by intellectuality but also has its unique initiative. Through acting on the body, intellectuality generates intellectual feelings, which in turn assist humans in realizing their intellectual purpose as a limited rational being.

  17. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  18. Moral calculations game theory, logic, and human frailty

    CERN Document Server

    Mérő, László

    1998-01-01

    Are people ever rational? Consider this: You auction off a one-dollar bill to the highest bidder, but you set the rules so that the second highest bidder also has to pay the amount of his last bid, even though he gets nothing. Would people ever enter such an auction? Not only do they, but according to Martin Shubik, the game's inventor, the average winning bid (for a dollar, remember) is $3.40. Many winners report that they bid so high only because their opponent "went completely crazy." This game lies at the intersection of three subjects of eternal fascination: human psychology, morality, and John von Neumann's game theory. Hungarian game-theorist Laszlo Mero introduces us to the basics of game theory, including such concepts as zero-sum games, Prisoner's Dilemma and the origins of altruism; shows how game theory is applicable to fields ranging from physics to politics; and explores the role of rational thinking in the context of many different kinds of thinking. This fascinating, urbane book will interest ...

  19. Human resource development for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the features of decommissioning work and the methods how to develop human resources. The general flow of decommissioning includes the following steps: (1) evaluation of facility characteristics, (2) planning, (3) decontamination and disassembly of equipment and structures contaminated with radioactivity, (4) radioactivity measurement, (5) treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, and (6) release from legal restrictions (termination of decommissioning). For this purpose, techniques in various fields are required. In the evaluation of facility characteristics, radiation measurement and calculation of activation amount in the core part are required. In decontamination and dismantling, cutting technology (mechanical cutting, thermal cutting, etc.), decontamination technology, and remote control technology are required. In the nuclear power education in the past, the fields related to design, construction, operation, and maintenance among the plant life cycle were the main parts. Much attention was not payed to decommissioning and the treatment/disposal of radioactive waste in the second half of life cycle. As university education, Hokkaido University and Fukui University have lectures on decommissioning. Furthermore, the education and research for students are proceeding at seven universities, with a focus on common reactors including those of Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. It is a key for promoting decommissioning, to incorporate project management, risk analysis, cost evaluation, and decision making into education, and to foster human resources heading toward challenging problems including social problems. (A.O.)

  20. Informal meeting on recent developments in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-12-01

    A topical meeting on recent developments in field theory was organized by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 21 to 23 November 1977. The publication is a compilation of the abstracts of lecture given. The mayor themes of the meeting were the problem of confinement, the quantization of Yang-Mills theories and the topological aspects of field theories in flat and curved spaces

  1. Developing perspectives on Korean nursing theory: the influences of Taoism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K R

    2001-10-01

    Nursing theory provides a systematic explanation and description of nursing phenomena. Western nursing theories have widely influenced Korean nursing. And yet, although nursing theory has universal aspects, the differences in philosophy and culture that are unique to each country need to be considered. This inquiry seeks to investigate the Korean cultural heritage, which integrates Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and how it provides a unique worldview of human beings, the universe, health, and nursing. Essential principles and therapies consistent with Taoist philosophy are also identified. This framework is proffered as the basis for establishing understanding between Korean nurses and patients.

  2. Farmers' Motivational Orientation toward Participation in Competence Development Projects: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Lioutas, Evagelos D.; Koutsouris, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we use a self-determination theory (SDT) approach to understand farmers' attitudes toward, and intentions for, participation in competence development projects (CDP). Design/methodology/approach: By applying SDT, we developed two measures. The first one assessed the degree to which the three basic human psychological needs…

  3. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism: Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van, Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    2016-01-01

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and propelled to take a stand as a universal theory determining human wants and needs across the world, little has been done to critically examine its seemingly perceived universality and applicability...

  4. Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov, Vladimir D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced.

  5. Looking at the ICF and human communication through the lens of classification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Regina

    2011-08-01

    This paper explores the insights that classification theory can provide about the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to communication. It first considers the relationship between conceptual models and classification systems, highlighting that classification systems in speech-language pathology (SLP) have not historically been based on conceptual models of human communication. It then overviews the key concepts and criteria of classification theory. Applying classification theory to the ICF and communication raises a number of issues, some previously highlighted through clinical application. Six focus questions from classification theory are used to explore these issues, and to propose the creation of an ICF-related conceptual model of communicating for the field of communication disability, which would address some of the issues raised. Developing a conceptual model of communication for SLP purposes closely articulated with the ICF would foster productive intra-professional discourse, while at the same time allow the profession to continue to use the ICF for purposes in inter-disciplinary discourse. The paper concludes by suggesting the insights of classification theory can assist professionals to apply the ICF to communication with the necessary rigour, and to work further in developing a conceptual model of human communication.

  6. Some recent developments of the endochronic theory with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valanis, K.C.; Lee, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we presented a comprehensive review of recent developments of the endochronic theory of plasticity. The endochronic theory was first proposed by Valanis in 1971 with the aim of circumventing some of the difficulties associated with classical theories of plasticity, such as the concept of a yield surface and its motion in the stress space, criteria for unloading, hardening rules, etc. The theory is developed by using irreversible thermodynamics of internal variables. In the early version of the theory the intrinsic time was defined as a measure of length in strain space. This version is now called the simple endochronic theory. The derived constitutive equations have been applied with success to a number of problems of practical interest, e.g. cyclic response, cross hardening, cross ratcheting, etc. However, it has been shown by the first author that the simple theory leads to an unloading response which is not elastic at its onset. As a consequence infinitesimal hysteresis loops in the first quadrant of the stress-strain space are open, in disagreement with observed behavior in metals. Recently Valanis introduced a new intrinsic time scale which is a measure of length in the plastic strain space. As a result, a new model of endochronic theory has been developed which leads to closure of hysteresis loops in the small as well as the large. It is also shown that the new model predicts the existence of a yield surface. Hardening rules proposed in the classical theory of plasticity appear as special results. (orig.)

  7. Towards an Elaborated Theory of Inclusive Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Pouw, N.R.M.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development often leads to strong trade-offs, mostly in favour of economic growth. Inclusive development responds by focusing mainly on the social and environmental aspects of development and on current generations. While the literature covers inclusive growth in some detail, few authors

  8. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  9. Using experimental game theory to transit human values to ethical AI

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yijia; Wan, Yan; Wang, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the reflection of game theory and ethics, we develop a mathematical representation to bridge the gap between the concepts in moral philosophy (e.g., Kantian and Utilitarian) and AI ethics industry technology standard (e.g., IEEE P7000 standard series for Ethical AI). As an application, we demonstrate how human value can be obtained from the experimental game theory (e.g., trust game experiment) so as to build an ethical AI. Moreover, an approach to test the ethics (rightness or wrongn...

  10. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  11. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  12. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  13. Social touch and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J; Moore, David; McGlone, Francis

    2018-04-24

    Social touch is a powerful force in human development, shaping social reward, attachment, cognitive, communication, and emotional regulation from infancy and throughout life. In this review, we consider the question of how social touch is defined from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the former category, there is a clear role for the C-touch (CT) system, which constitutes a unique submodality that mediates affective touch and contrasts with discriminative touch. Top-down factors such as culture, personal relationships, setting, gender, and other contextual influences are also important in defining and interpreting social touch. The critical role of social touch throughout the lifespan is considered, with special attention to infancy and young childhood, a time during which social touch and its neural, behavioral, and physiological contingencies contribute to reinforcement-based learning and impact a variety of developmental trajectories. Finally, the role of social touch in an example of disordered development -autism spectrum disorder-is reviewed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The theory of sustainable Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alberta Tahiri; Idriz Kovaci

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is a phenomenon that has seen a rapid multi fold increase and growth since the middle of the twentieth century. For host communities and countries, the development of tourism has offered numerous advantages, as well as some significant challenges and difficulties. In recent decades, the awareness has been strengthened that tourism needs to be developed following the sustainable development concept. This approach eliminates or significantly decreases the negative impacts of tourism gro...

  15. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  16. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality. Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  17. Strategic Human Resource Metrics: A Perspective of the General Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and quantifying strategic human resource outcomes in relation to key performance criteria is essential to developing value-adding metrics. Objectives This paper posits (using a general systems lens that strategic human resource metrics should interpret the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance criteria such as profitability, quality or customer service. Approach Using the general systems model as underpinning theory, the study assesses the variation in response to a Likert type questionnaire with twenty-four (24 items measuring the major attitudinal dispositions of HRM outcomes (employee commitment, satisfaction, engagement and embeddedness. Results A Chi-square test (Chi-square test statistic = 54.898, p=0.173 showed that variation in responses to the attitudinal statements occurred due to chance. This was interpreted to mean that attitudinal human resource outcomes influence performance as a unit of system components. The neutral response was found to be associated with the ‘reject’ response than the ‘acceptance’ response. Value The study offers suggestion on the determination of strategic HR metrics and recommends the use of systems theory in HRM related studies. Implications This study provides another dimension to human resource metrics by arguing that strategic human resource metrics should measure the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance using a systems perspective.

  18. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism : Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and

  19. The theory of sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Tahiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a phenomenon that has seen a rapid multi fold increase and growth since the middle of the twentieth century. For host communities and countries, the development of tourism has offered numerous advantages, as well as some significant challenges and difficulties. In recent decades, the awareness has been strengthened that tourism needs to be developed following the sustainable development concept. This approach eliminates or significantly decreases the negative impacts of tourism growth and sets the basis for long-term enjoyment of benefits. In the field of tourism, sustainable development translates in two important categories of considerations: conserving natural environment and resources and the biodiversity and conserving the living cultural heritage and traditions. Designing sustainable tourism development strategies should be done in cooperative efforts by the state, businesses and local communities. The strategies need to focus on maximizing the potential positive and eliminating or minimizing potential negative impacts. Impact monitoring and evaluation mechanisms need to be set up, including identification of performance indicators. When tourism growth emerges from a carefully designed and implemented strategy, tourism is documented to contribute to generating foreign exchange earnings, creating employment and income, and stimulating domestic consumption. It also brings about social and cultural development of the host communities. Researches have shown that smaller and developing countries specialized in tourism experience higher economic growth compared to countries without significant tourism industry. Contemporary economic and statistical methods ensure that the contribution of tourism in national economies can be precisely and easily measured, which in itself can be used as an indicator in assessing the impact and effects of tourism growth.

  20. Recent developments in the theory of separately holomorphic mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet-Anh Nguyen; vietanh 1974@yahoo.fr

    2007-07-01

    We describe a part of the recent developments in the theory of separately holomorphic mappings between complex analytic spaces. Our description focuses on works using the technique of holomorphic discs. (author)

  1. Using David Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory in Portfolio Development Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Michael; Menson, Betty

    1982-01-01

    As personal portfolio assessment matures, practitioners continue to look for techniques that enhance both personal development and the process of seeking academic credit through assessment. Kolb's experiential learning theory and learning style inventory may have applications in this search. (Author)

  2. Recent development of chaos theory in topological dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Ye, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We give a summary on the recent development of chaos theory in topological dynamics, focusing on Li-Yorke chaos, Devaney chaos, distributional chaos, positive topological entropy, weakly mixing sets and so on, and their relationships.

  3. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  4. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  5. Human behavioral biology: commentary on Lerner and von Eye's sociobiology and human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Burgess, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that in their examination of arguments forwarded by sociobiologists to account for key features of human development, R. M. Lerner and A. von Eye (see record 1992-23071-001) misunderstand the role of general theory in science. They also fail to characterize the work of sociobiologists

  6. Toward a Reconstruction of Organizational Theory: Androcentric Bias in A. H. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and Self-Actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Irene Nowell; Shakeshaft, Charol

    An exploration in the context of feminist science of one theoretical basis of educational administration--Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation and self-actualization--finds an androcentric bias in Maslow's methodology, philosophical underpinnings, and theory formulation. Maslow's hypothetico-deductive methodology was based on a…

  7. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  8. THE CHILDHOOD ROMANCE THEORY OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUSKA, SHIRLEY A.; WRIGHT, BENJAMIN D.

    EXPLORATION OF PERSONALITY ORIENTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE GRADE LEVEL AT WHICH THE PROSPECTIVE TEACHER INTENDS TO TEACH INQUIRED INTO CHILDHOOD RECOLLECTIONS. 508 WOMEN ENROLLED IN 12 TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS COMPLETED A LOCALLY DEVELOPED SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONNAIRE. THOSE INTENDING TO TEACH AT LOWER SCHOOL LEVELS IDENTIFIED WITH THEIR…

  9. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  10. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  11. Social Capital, culture and theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De la Peña García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical review of the concept of social capital, focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of the communitarian approach. It argues that this approach has a culturalist bias that omits key issues of inequality, conflict and power, making it a tool that is unlikely to contribute significantly to poverty reduction or development. As an example, it describes the adoption of the concept by the World Bank and provides a case study of rural community organization in Ecuador.

  12. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT: A STRATEGY FOR MOVING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy” but also “Knowledge economy” via human capital development. She has not been serious with her ... economy, Human capital, Strategy. Introduction. The world is now controlled by the revolution of Information and Communication.

  13. Intercorporeality and aida: Developing an interaction theory of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shogo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an interaction theory (IT) of social cognition. The central issue in the field of social cognition has been theory of mind (ToM), and there has been debate regarding its nature as either theory-theory or as simulation theory. Insights from phenomenology have brought a second-person perspective based on embodied interactions into the debate, thereby forming a third position known as IT. In this article, I examine how IT can be further elaborated by drawing on two phenomenological notions-Merleau-Ponty's intercorporeality and Kimura's aida . Both of these notions emphasize the sensory-motor, perceptual, and non-conceptual aspects of social understanding and describe a process of interpersonal coordination in which embodied interaction gains autonomy as an emergent system. From this perspective, detailed and nuanced social understanding is made possible through the embodied skill of synchronizing with others.

  14. Implementing software based on relation frame theory to develop and increase relational cognitive skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.

  15. Recent selected theory developments for NICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, David

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution I present a few selected topics of recent theoretical developments of relevance for the NICA facility under construction. In a first part, I discuss new aspects of the QCD phase diagram like the possible existence of a critical endpoint of first-order phase transitions from the perspective of generalizations of the 3-flavor PNJL model including the conjecture of a universal pressure for the onset of deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions and astrophysics. A second part is devoted to first results of the newly constructed event simulator (THESEUS) which is based on the particlization of the former three-fluid hydrodynamics code by Ivanov, Russkikh and Toneev that allows also to study the role of hadronic final state interactions. Possible signals of the mixed phase accessible at NICA are considered. In particular, the robustness of the baryon-stopping signal of deconfinement and the occurrence of antiflow for protons have been investigated for Au+Au collisions in the range of the NICA-MPD energy scan for √s 6…8 GeV. This signal is reflected also in the flow pattern of light nuclear clusters, in particular deuterons. The sharp peak for the K+/π+ ratio at √s 8 GeV (the "horn" effect) is not obtained in the present version of THESEUS and calls for improvement of the equation of state input. I report the recent progress in developing a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach to a unified description of quark-hadron matter which includes now strangeness and reveals a new mechanism for explaining the K+/π+ ratio due to the pronounced occurrence of an anomalous mode in the K+ at finite baryochemical potentials.

  16. Recent selected theory developments for NICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaschke David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I present a few selected topics of recent theoretical developments of relevance for the NICA facility under construction. In a first part, I discuss new aspects of the QCD phase diagram like the possible existence of a critical endpoint of first-order phase transitions from the perspective of generalizations of the 3-flavor PNJL model including the conjecture of a universal pressure for the onset of deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions and astrophysics. A second part is devoted to first results of the newly constructed event simulator (THESEUS which is based on the particlization of the former three-fluid hydrodynamics code by Ivanov, Russkikh and Toneev that allows also to study the role of hadronic final state interactions. Possible signals of the mixed phase accessible at NICA are considered. In particular, the robustness of the baryon-stopping signal of deconfinement and the occurrence of antiflow for protons have been investigated for Au+Au collisions in the range of the NICA-MPD energy scan for √s ~ 6…8 GeV. This signal is reflected also in the flow pattern of light nuclear clusters, in particular deuterons. The sharp peak for the K+/π+ ratio at √s ~ 8 GeV (the “horn” effect is not obtained in the present version of THESEUS and calls for improvement of the equation of state input. I report the recent progress in developing a generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach to a unified description of quark-hadron matter which includes now strangeness and reveals a new mechanism for explaining the K+/π+ ratio due to the pronounced occurrence of an anomalous mode in the K+ at finite baryochemical potentials.

  17. A grounded theory of faculty's use of humanization to create online course climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the way faculty establish course social presence in an online course. The community of inquiry model by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer distinguished the area of social presence as an important component of online learning, and this study sought to understand how faculty perceive and create social presence in their online classroom. By employing a grounded theory approach, a substantive theory was developed to explain the way in which faculty create and maintain an online course climate. The sample consisted of 10 nursing faculty teaching various master's in nursing courses. Through a rigorous qualitative process using nursing faculty interviews and online course analysis, humanization was found to be the core category in setting online course climate. Faculty's efforts to humanize the climate lead each member of the community to view the other members as real, thereby enabling the establishment of online social presence.

  18. Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual wellbeing : Exploring the evidence, developing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truss, C.; Shantz, A.; Soane, E.; Emma, C.; Alfes, K.; Delbridge, R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of mainstream human resource management (HRM) theory has long been concerned with how people management can enhance performance outcomes. It is only very recently that interest has been shown in the parallel stream of research on the link between employee engagement and performance,

  19. Engendering development theory from the standpoint of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D H; Wickramasinghe, A

    1997-01-01

    Although the field of "women and development" emerged as an aftermath of the UN Decade for Women, development planners have treated gender and development as interrelated but analytically distinct by simply tacking the category "women" onto established frameworks or considering women the social "contexts" of development projects. This paper challenges this tendency with a consideration of how the global process of development is conditioned by and constitutive of gender roles and relations in specific cultural contexts. The paper presents a framework for a distinctly feminist political economy of development that moves development theory from its present impasse caused by challenges to the Marxism that has dominated critical development theory. This post-impasse framework poses Marx's theory of exploitation against the experiences of women garment workers in Free Trade Zones in Sri Lanka to illustrate how industrial development through free market channels is necessarily, not merely coincidentally, gendered. Therefore, the framework reveals the importance of engendering development theory itself. The paper opens with an introduction and continues with an exploration of the current theoretical impasse and post-impasse theory. The paper continues with a discussion of standpoint epistemology as the basis for women-centered research, a description of the research on the impact of factory employment on women from rural villages, a consideration of women's proletarianization in terms of the rise of the "new world order," a feminist reading of Marx's theory of exploitation from the standpoint of the garment workers, and an acknowledgement of the challenge posed by this application of standpoint methodology to the study of development to the current rejection by some Western feminists of universalizing categories such as "gender" and "women."

  20. Development of a dynamic computational model of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E; Hekler, Eric B; Adams, Marc A; Buman, Matthew P; Pavel, Misha; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of behavior change and has been used as the conceptual basis of health behavior interventions for smoking cessation, weight management, and other health behaviors. SCT and other behavior theories were developed primarily to explain differences between individuals, but explanatory theories of within-person behavioral variability are increasingly needed as new technologies allow for intensive longitudinal measures and interventions adapted from these inputs. These within-person explanatory theoretical applications can be modeled as dynamical systems. SCT constructs, such as reciprocal determinism, are inherently dynamical in nature, but SCT has not been modeled as a dynamical system. This paper describes the development of a dynamical system model of SCT using fluid analogies and control systems principles drawn from engineering. Simulations of this model were performed to assess if the model performed as predicted based on theory and empirical studies of SCT. This initial model generates precise and testable quantitative predictions for future intensive longitudinal research. Dynamic modeling approaches provide a rigorous method for advancing health behavior theory development and refinement and for guiding the development of more potent and efficient interventions.

  1. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499

  2. Annals of Humanities and Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Humanities and Development Studies publishes papers in all aspects of humanities and rural, social and cultural development, including peace and international cooperation activities related to societal transformation in developing countries. Papers arising from original research and case studies or forming ...

  3. Developing and evaluating a cloud service relationship theory

    CERN Document Server

    Huntgeburth, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book develops, evaluates and refines a cloud service relationship theory that explains how cloud users' uncertainties arise in these relationships and how they can be mitigated. To that end, the book employs principal-agent theory and the concepts of bounded rationality and social embeddedness. Beyond advancing IS research, the findings presented can greatly benefit governments, IT departments and IT providers, helping them to better understand cloud service relationships and to adjust their cloud service strategies accordingly.

  4. Quality Communication For human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mayor Zaragoza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instruments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.”

  5. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  6. Developing a Model of Theory-to-Practice-to-Theory in Student Affairs: An Extended Case Analysis of Theories of Student Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature suggests a problematic connection between theory and practice in higher education scholarship generally and the study of student learning and development specifically (e.g. Bensimon, 2007; Kezar, 2000; Love, 2012). Much of this disconnect stems from a lack of differentiation between various types of theory used in student affairs…

  7. Structure-Interaction Theory: Conceptual, Contextual and Strategic Influences on Human Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Стивен А Биби

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Structure-Interaction Theory (SIT, a theoretical framework that both describes communication messages as well as assists in making predictions about how human communication can be improved based on listener preferences for message structure or interaction. Communication messages may be characterized as existing on a continuum of structure-interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way information in a message is organized. A highly structured message is one in which the message is strategically organized using a planned arrangement of symbols to create meaning. Communication interaction is a way of viewing a message with give-and-take, less sustained “notes,” more change in note sequence and briefer notes. SIT seeks to provide a framework to assist communicators in appropriately adapting a message for maximum effectiveness. Although Structure-Interaction Theory newly articulated here, it is anchored in both classic ways of describing communication, such as rhetoric and dialectic (Aristotle, 1959, as well as more contemporary communication theories (Salem, 2012; Littlejohn & Foss, 2008. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of the theory and its conceptual assumptions, identifies how the theory can help explain and predict communication in several communication contexts (interpersonal, group, public communication, and suggests how SIT may help identify strategies to enhance human development. Structure-Interaction Theory is based on an assumption that a human communication message which is understood, achieves the intended effect of the communicator, and is ethical, requires an appropriate balance of two things: structure and interaction. Communication structure is the inherent way a message is constructed to provide a sustained direction to present information to another person. In linking structure and interaction to Aristotle’s description of messages, rhetoric is a more structured, sustained speech

  8. Watson’s Human Caring Theory: Pertinent Transpersonal and Humanities Concepts for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey S. Clark

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and the caring moment are based in part in the concepts of transpersonal psychology. This paper will provide a historical background around transpersonal psychology and how it relates to Watson’s human caring moment. The purpose of explicating these humanities-based concepts is to support nurses and nurse educators in creating a deeper understanding of Watson’s caring-healing moment as a time-space continuum, where the nurse’s caring supports a mutually created environment for healing. The article provides useful background information, as well as outlining simple steps to revising nursing curricula so that they become supportive of nursing students’ growth as transpersonal-caring beings.

  9. Exploring agency beyond humans: the compatibility of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and resilience thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Dwiartama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the compatibility of social theory and resilience thinking is not entirely evident, in part because the ontology of the former is rooted in social interactions among human beings rather than ecological process. Despite this difference, resilience thinking engages with particular aspects of social organization that have generated intense debates within social science, namely the role of humans as integral elements of social-ecological systems and the processes through which given social structures (including material relations are either maintained or transformed. Among social theoretical approaches, Actor-Network Theory (ANT is noted for its distinctive approach to these aspects. ANT proposes that human and nonhuman components (both referred to as actants have the same capacity to influence the development of social-ecological systems (represented as actor-networks by enacting relations and enrolling other actors. We explore the notion of agency that is employed in resilience thinking and ANT in order to extend our understandings of human-environment relationships through complementary insights from each approach. The discussion is illustrated by reference to ongoing assessment of resilience as it is experienced and expressed in two distinctive agricultural production systems: Indonesian rice and New Zealand kiwifruit. We conclude by establishing the potential for ANT to provide more profound theoretical conceptualizations of agency, both human and nonhuman, in analyses of social ecological systems.

  10. Some Sociological Alternatives to Human Capital Theory and Their Implications for Research on Post-Compulsory Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Ralph; Rees, Gareth; Gorard, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Based on research in South Wales, a sociological theory of participation in education and training is developed, identifying types of orientations: functional avoidance, instrumental credentialism, and vocational transformation. The inclusion of sociological insights in human-capital development policy is recommended. (SK)

  11. How Stuttering Develops: The Multifactorial Dynamic Pathways Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. Method: We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including…

  12. Perspective of Game Theory in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of society has attracted a lot of research efforts. A strategic aspect to the society's evolution is introduced by the game theory (Fernandez, 2011, p. 1). The research question is as follows: how to organize the process of teaching and learning in education for sustainable development? The aim of the research is to…

  13. Using Student Development Theories as Conceptual Frameworks in Leadership Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of student learning and development are particularly important in leadership education because they make prescriptions about how people can adopt increasingly complex ways of being, knowing, and doing--essential forms of development for leadership learning. Increasingly, there is a call for leadership educators to adopt interdisciplinary…

  14. How Instruction Influences Conceptual Development: Vygotsky's Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarà, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Although current interpretations of Vygotsky's theory largely assume that instruction pushes development, the issue of how this occurs has yet to be clarified. For example, the notion of "zone of proximal development" has aroused strong disagreement, and the common conceptualization of the notion of "nonspontaneous concept" has…

  15. Two Development Theories: Ibn-I-Khaldoun and Wallerstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atousa, Amirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Each day, many different people in different societies are striving within their daily work to advance society. Every society needs to create ideas for further development and in order to become recognised as developed. The purpose of this paper is to show how different cultures at different times created similar ideas and theories to…

  16. Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Team management in the 21 st century: A human relations theory angle. ... a team is about understanding human relation, that is, the manager understanding the ... The problem ranges from membership isolation to lack of communication and ...

  17. Fuzzy-Trace Theory and Lifespan Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, Valerie F

    2015-12-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) emphasizes the use of core theoretical principles, such as the verbatim-gist distinction, to predict new findings about cognitive development that are counterintuitive from the perspective of other theories or of common-sense. To the extent that such predictions are confirmed, the range of phenomena that are explained expands without increasing the complexity of the theory's assumptions. We examine research on recent examples of such predictions during four epochs of cognitive development: childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and late adulthood. During the first two, the featured predictions are surprising developmental reversals in false memory (childhood) and in risky decision making (adolescence). During young adulthood, FTT predicts that a retrieval operation that figures centrally in dual-process theories of memory, recollection, is bivariate rather than univariate. During the late adulthood, FTT identifies a retrieval operation, reconstruction, that has been omitted from current theories of normal memory declines in aging and pathological declines in dementia. The theory predicts that reconstruction is a major factor in such declines and that it is able to forecast future dementia.

  18. Theory of positive disintegration as a model of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycraft, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a conceptual model of the adolescent development based on the theory of positive disintegration combined with theory of self-organization. Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration, which was created almost a half century ago, still attracts psychologists' and educators' attention, and is extensively applied into studies of gifted and talented people. The positive disintegration is the mental development described by the process of transition from lower to higher levels of mental life and stimulated by tension, inner conflict, and anxiety. This process can be modeled by a sequence of patterns of organization (attractors) as a developmental potential (a control parameter) changes. Three levels of disintegration (unilevel disintegration, spontaneous multilevel disintegration, and organized multilevel disintegration) are analyzed in detail and it is proposed that they represent behaviour of early, middle and late periods of adolescence. In the discussion, recent research on the adolescent brain development is included.

  19. A social network model for the development of a 'Theory of Mind'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    A "Theory of Mind" is one of the most important skills we as humans have developed; It enables us to infer the mental states and intentions of others, build stable networks of relationships and it plays a central role in our psychological make-up and development. Findings published earlier this year have also shown that we as a species as well as each of us individually benefit from the enlargement of the underlying neuro-anatomical regions that support our social networks, mediated by our Theory of Mind that stabilises these networks. On the basis of such progress and that of earlier work, this paper draws together several different strands from psychology, behavioural economics and network theory in order to generate a novel theoretical representation of the development of our social-cognition and how subsequent larger social networks enables much of our cultural development but at the increased risk of mental disorders.

  20. Consumption as investment: The theory of human capital and human capital as ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Javier López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dilution of the conceptual border between “consumption” and “investment.” We argue that it is a key element for the understanding of capitalism in its current stage and the values guiding contemporary society. Some concepts created by Human Capital Theory – an economic theory from the 1960s – are widely viewed today as values that guide the behavior of individuals. This yields to a conceptual–axiological shift from consumption to investment that allows unusual forms of “delaying satisfaction by consuming now.” The diffuse area that is created between “consumption” and “investment” helps to understand how the Protestant work ethic is recreated as an “ethic of entrepreneurial work,” that is, of work understood in terms of “individual enterprise”.

  1. Inhabiting the sexual landscape: toward an interpretive theory of the development of sexual orientation and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change.

  2. Single case studies as a means for developing psychological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  4. Human Development VIII: A Theory of “Deep” Quantum Chemistry and Cell Consciousness: Quantum Chemistry Controls Genes and Biochemistry to Give Cells and Higher Organisms Consciousness and Complex Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it “sees”, and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam’s razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules’ orbitals make one huge “cell-orbital”, which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  5. Artificial intelligence and human development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job and tax revenue loss through automation: With the growing use of machine .... practices that support the development of inclusive AI applications. What ..... been tested in Malaysia and in Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.25 ...... We need to develop global and local values and principles for AI that prioritize.

  6. Socio-Cultural Theories of Cognitive Development: Implications for Teaching Theory in the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1989-01-01

    Explicates the socio-cultural developmental theories of Vygotsky and Feuerstein which advocate teacher mediated learning in order to stimulate and accelerate development. Implications for art education include the need for the teacher to become involved in the enculturation of the child into the thinking processes and conceptual organization of…

  7. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  8. Introduction to the Special Issue on the Theory of Human Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Davidov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on human values in the social sciences took of after Schwartz introduced his theory of basic human values in 1992. This special issue includes articles dealing with methods of data analysis applied to measurements of some or all of the values postulated by the theory and of other variables.

  9. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  10. Does Human Capital Theory Explain the Value of Higher Education? A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2010-01-01

    A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and...

  12. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  13. The Development of the TPR-DB as Grounded Theory Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2018-01-01

    and refine the emerging concepts and categories and to validate the developing theories, the TPR-DB has been extended with further translation studies in different languages and translation modes. In this respect, it shares many features with Grounded Theory Method. This method was discovered in 1967...... and used in qualitative research in social science ad many other research areas. We analyze the TPR-DB development as a Grounded Theory Method....... on quantitative assessment of well-defined research questions on cognitive processes in human translation production, the integration of the data into the TPR-DB allowed for broader qualitative and exploratory research which has led to new codes, categories and research themes. In a constant effort to develop...

  14. Local economic development in theories of regional economies and rural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačar Bahrija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is a detailed analysis of the basics in the theory of economic development during the period from mid last century until today. It states the most significant theories, points out their ranges, offers a critical review regarding their treatment of development, especially regional, rural and local one. It observes those theories according to different classifications existing in scientific literature, primarily the ascend theory, stagnation theory, balanced economic growth theory; then, short-term and long-term development and growth theories; traditional and endogenous theories; economic growth stages theory emphasized after the WWII; structural changes theory; dependency theory, neo-classic counter-revolution theory and endogenous theory as a new growth theory. The analysis becomes wider with a study on development in regional economy theories and rural studies and it systematizes the classification of those theories according to regional economy academics. Distancing ourselves from any particular division as the most suitable and acceptable one, the theories are treated separately and in an historic context, in order to encircle the time framework which from modern theories, dealing with local level development difficulties, resulted. It asserts The Community-led Rural Development Theory, often referred to as the Community Development Theory, or marked as Bottom-up Partnership Approach. The analysis of development theories asserts that mixed exogenous - endogenous approach to development links the rural/local development to the globalization process mostly due to fast technology changes of the IT and communication sectors.

  15. Sustainable development, human and endogenous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Brunet Icart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the dispersion of the conceptualizations of development linked to the “Second Development Decade”. This dispersion took place within a context of knowledge-based economy, which is shaped by learning and powered by innovation. A context dominated by neoclassical economics, which marked the globalized and financial capitalism of the late twentieth century and the early twenty first century. This neoclassical hegemony results from Keynesian analysis’ discredit, the Latin-American structuralism crisis and the decadence of the critical views —de-velopment neo-Marxists.

  16. Theories in Developing Oral Communication for Specific Learner Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Marham Jupri

    2016-01-01

    The current article presents some key theories most relevant to the development of oral communication skills in an Indonesian senior high school. Critical analysis on the learners' background is employed to figure out their strengths and weaknesses. The brief overview of the learning context and learners' characteristic are used to identify which…

  17. An Integrated Theory of Whole Number and Fractions Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Schneider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an integrated theory of acquisition of knowledge about whole numbers and fractions. Although whole numbers and fractions differ in many ways that influence their development, an important commonality is the centrality of knowledge of numerical magnitudes in overall understanding. The present findings with 11- and 13-year-olds…

  18. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  19. Towards a Theory of University Entrepreneurship: Developing a Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a robust theory in a largely atheoretical field of study. The increasing importance of entrepreneurship in delivering the "Third Mission" calls for an enhanced understanding of the university entrepreneurship phenomenon, not solely as a subject of academic interest but also to guide the work of practitioners in the…

  20. A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…

  1. Fractions: The New Frontier for Theories of Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Fazio, Lisa K.; Bailey, Drew H.; Zhou, Xinlin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on fractions has broadened and deepened theories of numerical development. Learning about fractions requires children to recognize that many properties of whole numbers are not true of numbers in general and also to recognize that the one property that unites all real numbers is that they possess magnitudes that can be ordered on…

  2. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  3. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  4. Impacts of Dramatic Theory and Criticism on the Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses, periscopically, the paradigmatic impacts of critical theory and criticism on the development of drama and theatre through the ages; from the classical periods; through the medieval, the Renaissance, the Romantic, Neoclassical to the modern period of realism and naturalism. It alludes to how each of ...

  5. Neoliberalism, Pedagogy and Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2012-01-01

    In most Western developed countries, adult life is increasingly organized on the basis of short-term work contracts and reduced social security funds. In this context it seems that producing efficient job-seekers and employees becomes the main aim of educational programs for the next generation.

  6. Recognition-by-Components: A Theory of Human Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Irving

    1987-01-01

    The theory proposed (recognition-by-components) hypothesizes the perceptual recognition of objects to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components. Experiments on the perception of briefly presented pictures support the theory. (Author/LMO)

  7. Development of a nonlinear unsteady transonic flow theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A nonlinear, unsteady, small-disturbance theory capable of predicting inviscid transonic flows about aerodynamic configurations undergoing both rigid body and elastic oscillations was developed. The theory is based on the concept of dividing the flow into steady and unsteady components and then solving, by method of local linearization, the coupled differential equation for unsteady surface pressure distribution. The equations, valid at all frequencies, were derived for two-dimensional flows, numerical results, were obtained for two classses of airfoils and two types of oscillatory motions.

  8. Documenting genomics: Applying archival theory to preserving the records of the Human Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The Human Genome Archive Project (HGAP) aimed to preserve the documentary heritage of the UK's contribution to the Human Genome Project (HGP) by using archival theory to develop a suitable methodology for capturing the results of modern, collaborative science. After assessing past projects and different archival theories, the HGAP used an approach based on the theory of documentation strategy to try to capture the records of a scientific project that had an influence beyond the purely scientific sphere. The HGAP was an archival survey that ran for two years. It led to ninety scientists being contacted and has, so far, led to six collections being deposited in the Wellcome Library, with additional collections being deposited in other UK repositories. In applying documentation strategy the HGAP was attempting to move away from traditional archival approaches to science, which have generally focused on retired Nobel Prize winners. It has been partially successful in this aim, having managed to secure collections from people who are not 'big names', but who made an important contribution to the HGP. However, the attempt to redress the gender imbalance in scientific collections and to improve record-keeping in scientific organisations has continued to be difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  10. SIRU utilization. Volume 1: Theory, development and test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoff, H.

    1974-01-01

    The theory, development, and test evaluations of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) are discussed. The statistical failure detection and isolation, single position calibration, and self alignment techniques are emphasized. Circuit diagrams of the system components are provided. Mathematical models are developed to show the performance characteristics of the subsystems. Specific areas of the utilization program are identified as: (1) error source propagation characteristics and (2) local level navigation performance demonstrations.

  11. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  12. Implications of learning theory for developing programs to decrease overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated Physico-Chemical Cell Model Development through Information Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Ortoleva

    2005-11-29

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive models of the chemical responses of microbial cells to variations in their surroundings. The application of these models is optimization of environmental remediation and energy-producing biotechnical processes.The principles on which our project is based are as follows: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; automation of calibration through information theory; integration of multiplex data (e.g. cDNA microarrays, NMR, proteomics), cell modeling, and bifurcation theory to overcome cellular complexity; and the use of multiplex data and information theory to calibrate and run an incomplete model. In this report we review four papers summarizing key findings and a web-enabled, multiple module workflow we have implemented that consists of a set of interoperable systems biology computational modules.

  14. Studying Human Resource Information Systems Implementation using Adaptive Structuration Theory: The Case of an HRIS Implementation at Dow Chemical Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Chiemeke, Charles C.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Research on Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) implementation lacks theoretical depth and richness. For that reason this paper applies a theory to HRIS implementation developed by Gerardine DeSanctis and Marshal Scott Poole originally for studying information systems implementation, namely

  15. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  16. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  17. Instructor's Guide for Human Development Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This instructor's guide is designed for use with an accompanying set of 61 student learning modules on human development. Included among the topics covered in the individual modules are the following: consumer and homemaking education (health and nutrition, personal appearance and grooming, puberty, menstruation, the human reproductive system,…

  18. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  19. Systemic Thinking in Career Development Theory: Contributions of the Systems Theory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Patton, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    This article considers systemic thinking in relation to the Systems Theory Framework (STF) and to career theory. An overview of systems theory and its applications is followed by a discussion of career theory to provide a context for the subsequent description of STF. The contributions of STF to career theory and to theory integration are…

  20. Using human error theory to explore the supply of non-prescription medicines from community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M C; Bond, C M; Johnston, M; Mearns, K

    2006-08-01

    The importance of theory in underpinning interventions to promote effective professional practice is gaining recognition. The Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions has assisted in promoting awareness and adoption of theory into study design. Human error theory has previously been used by high risk industries but its relevance to healthcare settings and patient safety requires further investigation. This study used this theory as a framework to explore non-prescription medicine supply from community pharmacies. The relevance to other healthcare settings and behaviours is discussed. A 25% random sample was made of 364 observed consultations for non-prescription medicines. Each of the 91 consultations was assessed by two groups: a consensus group (stage 1) to identify common problems with the consultation process, and an expert group (stages 2 and 3) to apply human error theory to these consultations. Paired assessors (most of whom were pharmacists) categorised the perceived problems occurring in each consultation (stage 1). During stage 2 paired assessors from an expert group (comprising patient safety experts, community pharmacists and psychologists) considered whether each consultation was compliant with professional guidelines for the supply of pharmacy medicines. Each non-compliant consultation identified during stage 2 was then categorised as a slip/lapse, mistake, or violation using human error theory (stage 3). During stage 1 most consultations (n = 75, 83%) were deemed deficient in information exchange. At stage 2, paired assessors varied in attributing non-compliance to specific error types. Where agreement was achieved, the error type most often selected was "violation" (n = 27, 51.9%, stage 3). Consultations involving product requests were less likely to be guideline compliant than symptom presentations (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.95, p = 0.05). The large proportion of consultations classified as violations suggests that either

  1. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  2. Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess Human Resources Development (HRD) programmes of librarians ... It was suggested that for effective HRD, each university library should have a written staff

  3. 67 Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context. Purissima Egbekpalu ... confronting man and his existence and the environment in which he lives. ... mind it is a very powerful medium through which necessary skills can be acquired to ...

  4. Human Resources Development in the 70s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  5. Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital development perspective and poverty challenges in developing countries. ... in Nigeria and contributed about 23.9% of the Gross National Domestic product in 2016. ... Equally, the new focus on agriculture involves training on new technologies and evolving ...

  6. Ionising radiation and the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of radiation exposure of the developing human brain. Much of the evidence has come from the prenatally exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The effects on development age, mental retardation, head size, neuromuscular performance, intelligence tests, school performance and the occurrence of convulsions are discussed. Other topics covered include the biological nature of the damage to the brain, risk estimates in human and problems in radiation protection. (UK)

  7. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Astronomical Theory of Early Human Migration (Milutin Milankovic Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Our climate system varies on a wide range of timescales, from seasons to several millions of years. A large part of this variability is internally generated as a result of instabilities of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice-carbon cycle system. Other modes of variability, such as glacial cycles, are caused by astronomical forcings with periods of 20, 40, 100 thousand years. These so-called Milankovitch Cycles are associated with earth's axis wobble, axis obliquity and shifts in the eccentricity of earth's orbit around the sun, respectively. When these cycles conspire, they can cause the climate system to plunge into an ice-age. This happened last time 110,000 years ago, when Northern Hemisphere summer radiation decreased substantially and ice-sheets started to form as a result. Around 100,000 years ago northern Hemisphere summer moved again closer to the sun and Homo sapiens started to leave Africa across vegetated corridors in Northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. This first migration wave must have been relatively weak, but it left unequivocal traces in the fossil and archaeological record. Why Homo sapiens embarked on its grand journey across our planet during glacial climate conditions has been subject of an intense debate in various scientific communities. Moreover, the archaeological records of an early exodus around 100 thousand years ago seem to be at odds with paleo-genetic evidences, that place the first dispersal out of Africa around 70-60 thousand years ago. To elucidate what role climate and environmental conditions played in the dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans out of Africa, we have developed and applied one of the first integrated climate/human migration computer models. The model simulates ice-ages, abrupt climate change, the "peopling" of our planet and captures the arrival time of Homo sapiens in the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, Southern China and Australia in close agreement with paleo climate reconstructions, fossil and

  9. The development of human behaviour analysis techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Cheon, Se Woo; Shu, Sang Moon; Park, Geun Ok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Han Yeong; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Eu Jin; Lee, Seung Hee

    1994-04-01

    This project has two major areas ; one is the development of an operator task simulation software and another is the development of human error analysis and application technologies. In this year project, the second year, for the development of an operator task simulation software, we studied the followings: - analysis of the characteristics of operator tasks, - development of operator task structures : Macro Structures, - development of an operator task simulation analyzes, - analysis of performance measures. And the followings for the development of human error analysis and application technologies : - analysis of human error mechanisms, - analysis of human error characteristics in tasks, - analysis of human error occurrence in Korean Nuclear Power Plants, - establishment of an experimental environment for human error data collection with Compact Nuclear Simulator, - basic design of a Multimedia-based Human Error Representing System. (Author)

  10. Developing interprofessional education online: An ecological systems theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluteau, Patricia; Clouder, Lynn; Cureton, Debra

    2017-07-01

    This article relates the findings of a discourse analysis of an online asynchronous interprofessional learning initiative involving two UK universities. The impact of the initiative is traced over three intensive periods of online interaction, each of several-weeks duration occurring over a three-year period, through an analysis of a random sample of discussion forum threads. The corpus of rich data drawn from the forums is interpreted using ecological systems theory, which highlights the complexity of interaction of individual, social and cultural elements. Ecological systems theory adopts a life course approach to understand how development occurs through processes of progressively more complex reciprocal interaction between people and their environment. This lens provides a novel approach for analysis and interpretation of findings with respect to the impact of pre-registration interprofessional education and the interaction between the individual and their social and cultural contexts as they progress through 3/4 years of their programmes. Development is mapped over time (the chronosystem) to highlight the complexity of interaction across microsystems (individual), mesosystems (curriculum and institutional/care settings), exosystems (community/wider local context), and macrosystems (national context and culture). This article illustrates the intricacies of students' interprofessional development over time and the interactive effects of social ecological components in terms of professional knowledge and understanding, wider appreciation of health and social care culture and identity work. The implications for contemporary pre-registration interprofessional education and the usefulness and applicability of ecological systems theory for future research and development are considered.

  11. Developing a Theory-Based Simulation Educator Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christine M; Sievers, Lisa D; Kellgren, Molly; Manning, Sara J; Rojas, Deborah E; Gamblian, Vivian C

    2015-01-01

    The NLN Leadership Development Program for Simulation Educators 2014 faculty development group identified a lack of a common language/terminology to outline the progression of expertise of simulation educators. The group analyzed Benner's novice-to-expert model and applied its levels of experience to simulation educator growth. It established common operational categories of faculty development and used them to organize resources that support progression toward expertise. The resulting theory-based Simulator Educator Toolkit outlines levels of ability and provides quality resources to meet the diverse needs of simulation educators and team members.

  12. Employee engagement, organisational performance and individual wellbeing: Exploring the evidence, developing the theory

    OpenAIRE

    Truss, C.; Shantz, A.; Soane, E.; Emma, C.; Alfes, K.; Delbridge, R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of mainstream human resource management (HRM) theory has long been concerned with how people management can enhance performance outcomes. It is only very recently that interest has been shown in the parallel stream of research on the link between employee engagement and performance, bringing the two together to suggest that engagement may constitute the mechanism through which HRM practices impact individual and organisational performance. However, engagement has emerged as a ...

  13. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  14. "I Had Seen Order and Chaos, but Had Thought They Were Different." The Challenges of the Chaos Theory for Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert; Bright, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights five challenges to the accepted wisdom in career development theory and practice. It presents the chaos theory of careers and argues that the chaos theory provides a more complete and authentic account of human behaviour. The paper argues that positivism, reductionism and assumptions of linearity are inappropriate for…

  15. Stagewise cognitive development: an application of catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, H L; Molenaar, P C

    1992-07-01

    In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria correspond to distinct methods used in cognitive developmental research. Such criteria are, for instance, the detection of spurts in development, bimodality of test scores, and increased variability of responses during transitional periods. When a genuine stage transition is present, these criteria are expected to be satisfied. A revised catastrophe model accommodating these criteria is proposed for the stage transition in cognitive development from the preoperational to the concrete operational stage.

  16. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1997-10-01

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  18. Dynamic field theory and executive functions: lending explanation to current theories of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Buss and Spencer's monograph is an impressive achievement that is sure to have a lasting impact on the field of child development. The dynamic field theory (DFT) model that forms the heart of this contribution is ambitious in scope, detailed in its implementation, and rigorously tested against data, old and new. As such, the ideas contained in this fine document represent a qualitative advance in our understanding of young children's behavior, and lay a foundation for future research into the developmental origins of executive functioning. © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Human-Agent Decision-making: Combining Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Kraus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been conducted both in game theory and logic to model strategic interaction. An important question is whether we can use these theories to design agents for interacting with people? On the one hand, they provide a formal design specification for agent strategies. On the other hand, people do not necessarily adhere to playing in accordance with these strategies, and their behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors. In this paper we will consider the question of whether strategies implied by theories of strategic behavior can be used by automated agents that interact proficiently with people. We will focus on automated agents that we built that need to interact with people in two negotiation settings: bargaining and deliberation. For bargaining we will study game-theory based equilibrium agents and for argumentation we will discuss logic-based argumentation theory. We will also consider security games and persuasion games and will discuss the benefits of using equilibrium based agents.

  20. Functional development in density functional theory for superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, Antonio; Gross, E.K.U.; Essenberger, Frank [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Density functional theory for superconductors (SCDFT) is a fully parameter-free approach to superconductivity that allows for accurate predictions of critical temperature and properties of superconductors. We report on the most recent extensions of the method, in particular the development of new functionals to: (1) incorporate in a correct fashion Migdal's theorem; (2) compute the excitation spectrum; (3) include spin-fluctuation mediated pairing Applications and predictions are shown for a set of materials, including conventional and unconventional superconductors.

  1. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  2. Creation and development of Bohr's theory (on the 90th anniversary of the Bohr theory of the atom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, Vladimir P

    2004-01-01

    The history of the creation and development of Bohr's atomic theory is discussed. Even now, with a consistent quantum theory available, Bohr's theory is not simply the property of history, of methodological interest only. To this day, the ideas of the theory not only provide an excellent introduction to atomic physics, but are also used successfully in treating atomic Rydberg states, exotic atoms, etc. (from the history of physics)

  3. Developing a Domain Theory Defining and Exemplifying a Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    2011-01-01

    This article defines the concept of Domain Theory, or, when educational measurement is the goal, one might call it a "Learning Theory of Progressive Attainments in X Domain". The concept of Domain Theory is first shown to be rooted in validity theory, then the concept of domain theory is expanded to amplify its necessary but long neglected…

  4. A reciprocal theorem for a mixture theory. [development of linearized theory of interacting media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. J.; Lee, Y. M.

    1972-01-01

    A dynamic reciprocal theorem for a linearized theory of interacting media is developed. The constituents of the mixture are a linear elastic solid and a linearly viscous fluid. In addition to Steel's field equations, boundary conditions and inequalities on the material constants that have been shown by Atkin, Chadwick and Steel to be sufficient to guarantee uniqueness of solution to initial-boundary value problems are used. The elements of the theory are given and two different boundary value problems are considered. The reciprocal theorem is derived with the aid of the Laplace transform and the divergence theorem and this section is concluded with a discussion of the special cases which arise when one of the constituents of the mixture is absent.

  5. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  6. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  7. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  8. Progress in Application of the Neurosciences to an Understanding of Human Learning: The Challenge of Finding a Middle-Ground Neuroeducational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    2014-01-01

    Modern neuroscientific research has substantially enhanced our understanding of the human brain. However, many challenges remain in developing a strong, brain-based theory of human learning, especially in complex environments such as educational settings. Some of the current issues and challenges in our progress toward developing comprehensive…

  9. Modeling Mixed Groups of Humans and Robots with Reflexive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    The Reflexive Game Theory is based on decision-making principles similar to the ones used by humans. This theory considers groups of subjects and allows to predict which action from the set each subject in the group will choose. It is possible to influence subject's decision in a way that he will make a particular choice. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how robots can refrain humans from risky actions. To determine the risky actions, the Asimov's Three Laws of robotics are employed. By fusing the RGT's power to convince humans on the mental level with Asimov's Laws' safety, we illustrate how robots in the mixed groups of humans and robots can influence on human subjects in order to refrain humans from risky actions. We suggest that this fusion has a potential to device human-like motor behaving and looking robots with the human-like decision-making algorithms.

  10. The Evolution of Human Longevity: Toward a Biocultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Peter J.

    Homo sapiens is the only extant species for which there exists a significant post-reproductive period in the normal lifespan. Explanations for the evolution of this species-specific trait are possible through "non-deterministic" theories of aging positing "wear and tear" or the failure of nature to eliminate imperfection, or…

  11. On Seeing Human: A Three-Factor Theory of Anthropomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Nicholas; Waytz, Adam; Cacioppo, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Anthropomorphism describes the tendency to imbue the real or imagined behavior of nonhuman agents with humanlike characteristics, motivations, intentions, or emotions. Although surprisingly common, anthropomorphism is not invariant. This article describes a theory to explain when people are likely to anthropomorphize and when they are not, focused…

  12. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  13. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  14. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  15. Defining a Strategic National Agenda on the theory of construction for development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the possibility of establishing a theory of construction for development, this paper reviews concepts of theory and theory formulation, contextualises optimal developmental modalities, describes the role of construction within...

  16. Recent developments in the theory of heavy-quark decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    I report on recent developments in the heavy-quark effective theory and its application to B meson decays. The parameters of the effective theory, the spin-flavor symmetry limit, and the leading symmetry-breaking corrections to it are discussed. The results of a QCD sum rule analysis of the universal Isgur-Wise functions that appear at leading and subleading order in the 1/m Q expansion are presented. The author illustrate the phenomenological applications of this formalism by focusing on two specific examples: the determination of V cb from the endpoint spectrum in semileptoinc decays, and the study of spin-symmetry violating effects in ratios of form factors. He also briefly comment on nonleptonic decays

  17. Recent developments in the theory of heavy-quark decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-06-01

    I report on recent developments in the heavy-quark effective theory and its application to B meson decays. The parameters of the effective theory, the spin-flavor symmetry limit, and the leading symmetry-breaking corrections to it are discussed. The results of a QCD sum rule analysis of the universal Isgur-Wise functions that appear at leading and subleading order in the 1 /m Q expansion are presented. I illustrate the phenomenological applications of this formalism by focusing on two specific examples: the determination of V cb from the endpoint spectrum in semileptonic decays, and the study of spin-symmetry violating effects in ratios of form facts. I also briefly comment on nonleptonic decays

  18. Issues of branch clusters development: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko N. E.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with objective preconditions of forming stable bases of the cluster theory and its specific features, the attention is paid to historical aspects of dialectical development of the cluster theory. The authors highlighted the main tasks, accomplishment of which is necessary for achieving an effective cluster policy in the system of the national economy. The opportunity of using the advantages and potential opportunities of clusters in respect of the agricultural sphere of the national economy is grounded. The model of agro-industrial clusters is considered as one of the ways to increase competitive advantage of the agro-industrial complex, to achieve reproduction on an enlarged scale and to solve tasks of the national victualling. An algorithm of analyzing factors of forming clusters in the agricultural sector of russian economy is proposed.

  19. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  20. [Development and application of component-based Chinese medicine theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li-Mei; Li, Chuan; Gao, Yue; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription is the main therapies for disease prevention and treatment in Chinese medicine. Following the guidance of the theory of TCM and developing drug by composing prescriptions of TCM materials and pieces, it is a traditional application mode of TCM, and still widely used in clinic. TCM prescription has theoretical advantages and rich clinical application experience in dealing with multi-factor complex diseases, but scientific research is relatively weak. The lack of scientific cognition of the effective substances and mechanism of Chinese medicine leads to insufficient understanding of the efficacy regularity, which affects the stability of effect and hinders the improvement of quality of Chinese medicinal products. Component-based Chinese medicine (CCM) is an innovation based on inheritance, which breaks through the tradition of experience-based prescription and realize the transformation of compatibility from herbal pieces to components. CCM is an important achievement during the research process of modernization of Chinese medicine. Under the support of three national "973" projects, in order to reveal the scientific connotation of the prescription compatibility theory and develop innovative Chinese drugs, we have launched theoretical innovation and technological innovation around the "two relatively clear", and opened up the research field of CCM. CCM is an innovation based on inheritance, breaking through the tradition of experience based prescription, and realizing the transformation from compatibility of herbal pieces to component compatibility, which is an important achievement of the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. In the past more than 10 years, with the deepening of research and the expansion of application, the theory and methods of CCM and efficacy-oriented compatibility have been continuously improved. The value of CCM is not only in developing new drug, more important is to build a

  1. Recent developments in the kinetic theory of nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenstein, E; Djikaev, Y S

    2005-12-30

    A review of recent progress in the kinetics of nucleation is presented. In the conventional approach to the kinetic theory of nucleation, it is necessary to know the free energy of formation of a new-phase particle as a function of its independent variables at least for near-critical particles. Thus the conventional kinetic theory of nucleation is based on the thermodynamics of the process. The thermodynamics of nucleation can be examined by using various approaches, such as the capillarity approximation, density functional theory, and molecular simulation, each of which has its own advantages and drawbacks. Relatively recently a new approach to the kinetics of nucleation was proposed [Ruckenstein E, Nowakowski B. J Colloid Interface Sci 1990;137:583; Nowakowski B, Ruckenstein E. J Chem Phys 1991;94:8487], which is based on molecular interactions and does not employ the traditional thermodynamics, thus avoiding such a controversial notion as the surface tension of tiny clusters involved in nucleation. In the new kinetic theory the rate of emission of molecules by a new-phase particle is determined with the help of a mean first passage time analysis. This time is calculated by solving the single-molecule master equation for the probability distribution function of a surface layer molecule moving in a potential field created by the rest of the cluster. The new theory was developed for both liquid-to-solid and vapor-to-liquid phase transitions. In the former case the single-molecule master equation is the Fokker-Planck equation in the phase space which can be reduced to the Smoluchowski equation owing to the hierarchy of characteristic time scales. In the latter case, the starting master equation is a Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function of a surface layer molecule with respect to both its energy and phase coordinates. Unlike the case of liquid-to-solid nucleation, this Fokker-Planck equation cannot be reduced to the Smoluchowski equation

  2. Role of Adult Learning Theories in the Development of Corporate Training in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lytovchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.

  3. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  4. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  5. The development of training based on the PM leadership theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michio [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Misumi, Emiko; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Kinjo, Akira; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Matsuo, Hidehisa; Tokudome, Eiji

    1995-09-01

    The PM leadership theory developed by Misumi, et al., basically identifies leadership behavior in terms of two dimensions, i.e., P(Performance) behavior and M(Maintenance) behavior, and divides it into four types, PM, M, P and pm, depending on the degree to which each of them performs its behavior. Thus, it has been verified that the differences between these types have an effect on various variables, such as subordinates` morale, productivity and reduced incidence of accidents. To be more concrete, it has been consistently found as a result of a number of studies that what brings about the most desirable results in the eyes of organizations is the PM type, followed by M, P and pm in the order mentioned. The most basic premise for the PM theory is that leadership lies not in the leader`s personal traits but in his behavior. Consequently, any leadership type is not `carved in stone`, and it can change according to the leader`s behavior. From this, it follows that leadership can be improved and upgraded. As the PM leadership theory has become well-established, the development research and implementation of leadership training aimed at improving and upgrading leadership was launched. In this paper, the leadership training that is now in progress will be discussed, with particular reference to its purpose, current status of its overall progress and its typical training schedule. That done, the history of development of the leadership training will be reviewed, and at the same time, its effects will be examined on the basis of some empirical data. Also some proposals will be presented concerning the relationship between organizational development and training as well as some problems to be addressed in the future. (author)

  6. The development of training based on the PM leadership theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Michio; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Misumi, Emiko; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Kinjo, Akira; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Matsuo, Hidehisa; Tokudome, Eiji.

    1995-01-01

    The PM leadership theory developed by Misumi, et al., basically identifies leadership behavior in terms of two dimensions, i.e., P(Performance) behavior and M(Maintenance) behavior, and divides it into four types, PM, M, P and pm, depending on the degree to which each of them performs its behavior. Thus, it has been verified that the differences between these types have an effect on various variables, such as subordinates' morale, productivity and reduced incidence of accidents. To be more concrete, it has been consistently found as a result of a number of studies that what brings about the most desirable results in the eyes of organizations is the PM type, followed by M, P and pm in the order mentioned. The most basic premise for the PM theory is that leadership lies not in the leader's personal traits but in his behavior. Consequently, any leadership type is not 'carved in stone', and it can change according to the leader's behavior. From this, it follows that leadership can be improved and upgraded. As the PM leadership theory has become well-established, the development research and implementation of leadership training aimed at improving and upgrading leadership was launched. In this paper, the leadership training that is now in progress will be discussed, with particular reference to its purpose, current status of its overall progress and its typical training schedule. That done, the history of development of the leadership training will be reviewed, and at the same time, its effects will be examined on the basis of some empirical data. Also some proposals will be presented concerning the relationship between organizational development and training as well as some problems to be addressed in the future. (author)

  7. Explanation of asymmetric dynamics of human water consumption in arid regions: prospect theory versus expected utility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F.; Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Based on socioeconomic and hydrological data in three arid inland basins and error analysis, the dynamics of human water consumption (HWC) are analyzed to be asymmetric, i.e., HWC increase rapidly in wet periods while maintain or decrease slightly in dry periods. Besides the qualitative analysis that in wet periods great water availability inspires HWC to grow fast but the now expanded economy is managed to sustain by over-exploitation in dry periods, two quantitative models are established and tested, based on expected utility theory (EUT) and prospect theory (PT) respectively. EUT states that humans make decisions based on the total expected utility, namely the sum of utility function multiplied by probability of each result, while PT states that the utility function is defined over gains and losses separately, and probability should be replaced by probability weighting function.

  8. Hallmarks of Human Small Antral Follicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Mamsen, Linn S; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of human ovarian steroidogenesis differs from other species and precise knowledge on how human small antral follicles (hSAF) develop and acquire competence for continued growth and steroid output is still incomplete. The present study has characterized almost 1,000 normal hSAF collected...... increased steroid output profoundly. Furthermore, the highly significant association between FSHR and AR mRNA gene expression enforces important functions of androgens in follicular development. Collectively, these data reintroduce the understanding of the follicular phase as two parted in which regulation...

  9. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  10. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  11. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  12. Putting Gino's lesson to work: Actor-network theory, enacted humanity, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thomas; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-02-01

    This article argues that rehabilitation enacts a particular understanding of "the human" throughout therapeutic assessment and treatment. Following Michel Callon and Vololona Rabeharisoa's "Gino's Lesson on Humanity," we suggest that this is not simply a top-down process, but is cultivated in the application and response to biomedical frameworks of human ability, competence, and responsibility. The emergence of the human is at once a materially contingent, moral, and interpersonal process. We begin the article by outlining the basics of the actor-network theory that underpins "Gino's Lesson on Humanity." Next, we elucidate its central thesis regarding how disabled personhood emerges through actor-network interactions. Section "Learning Gino's lesson" draws on two autobiographical examples, examining the emergence of humanity through rehabilitation, particularly assessment measures and the responses to them. We conclude by thinking about how rehabilitation and actor-network theory might take this lesson on humanity seriously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  14. Recent Developments in Non-Fermi Liquid Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2018-03-01

    Non-Fermi liquids are unconventional metals whose physical properties deviate qualitatively from those of noninteracting fermions due to strong quantum fluctuations near Fermi surfaces. They arise when metals are subject to singular interactions mediated by soft collective modes. In the absence of well-defined quasiparticles, universal physics of non-Fermi liquids is captured by interacting field theories which replace Landau Fermi liquid theory. However, it has been difficult to understand their universal low-energy physics due to a lack of theoretical methods that take into account strong quantum fluctuations in the presence of abundant low-energy degrees of freedom. In this review, we discuss two approaches that have been recently developed for non-Fermi liquid theory with emphasis on two space dimensions. The first is a perturbative scheme based on a dimensional regularization, which achieves a controlled access to the low-energy physics by tuning the codimension of Fermi surface. The second is a nonperturbative approach which treats the interaction ahead of the kinetic term through a non-Gaussian scaling called interaction-driven scaling. Examples of strongly coupled non-Fermi liquids amenable to exact treatments through the interaction-driven scaling are discussed.

  15. Intermittent control: a computational theory of human control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Lakie, Martin; Gollee, Henrik

    2011-02-01

    The paradigm of continuous control using internal models has advanced understanding of human motor control. However, this paradigm ignores some aspects of human control, including intermittent feedback, serial ballistic control, triggered responses and refractory periods. It is shown that event-driven intermittent control provides a framework to explain the behaviour of the human operator under a wider range of conditions than continuous control. Continuous control is included as a special case, but sampling, system matched hold, an intermittent predictor and an event trigger allow serial open-loop trajectories using intermittent feedback. The implementation here may be described as "continuous observation, intermittent action". Beyond explaining unimodal regulation distributions in common with continuous control, these features naturally explain refractoriness and bimodal stabilisation distributions observed in double stimulus tracking experiments and quiet standing, respectively. Moreover, given that human control systems contain significant time delays, a biological-cybernetic rationale favours intermittent over continuous control: intermittent predictive control is computationally less demanding than continuous predictive control. A standard continuous-time predictive control model of the human operator is used as the underlying design method for an event-driven intermittent controller. It is shown that when event thresholds are small and sampling is regular, the intermittent controller can masquerade as the underlying continuous-time controller and thus, under these conditions, the continuous-time and intermittent controller cannot be distinguished. This explains why the intermittent control hypothesis is consistent with the continuous control hypothesis for certain experimental conditions.

  16. TRAINING IN ETHICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to interpret training in ethics for action business students an introduction to the economy of the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Carabobo, as part of professional development in business studies. The investigation was addressed within the paradigm post positivist using ethnographic and hermeneutic method, descriptive mode of scientific research and technique participant-observation. It concludes that training in ethics management must transcend the economic theories located in the teleological by financial or economic interests toward the teleological including humanism.

  17. TAPSOFT'95: Theory and Practice of Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on the Theory and Practice of Software Engineering, TAPSOFT '95, held in Aarhus, Denmark in May 1995. TAPSOFT '95 celebrates the 10th anniversary of this conference series started in Berlin in 1985 to bring together...... theoretical computer scientists and software engineers (researchers and practitioners) with a view to discussing how formal methods can usefully be applied in software development. The volume contains seven invited papers, among them one by Vaugham Pratt on the recently revealed bug in the Pentium chip...

  18. Doctrines and Contemporary Economic Theories in the Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states. Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.

  19. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-01-01

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness

  20. To the Issue of the Practice Theory Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tchapayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theoretical analysis of practical training as one of the two main forms of vocational training. Industrial practice is regarded as poly-systematic, alternative existence of students entering the adults’ world, the means for developing students’ functional responsibility and subjective world outlook, etc. The paper overcomes the existing utilitarian one-sided approach to the place and value of practice, its impact on the specialist’s professional development and opportunities for professional growth being explored. Regarding the practical training as psycho-pedagogical and educational phenomenon, the authors developed the theoretical and methodological bases for its designing and conducting in vocational schools. The research conclu- sions contain some heuristic innovative potential facilitating both the foundation of independent theory of practical training and organization of practice oriented training in vocational schools. 

  1. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  2. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  4. An Architecturally-Based Theory of Human Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-18

    inintiedkiacy ’\\lthmipli Iifli11rdiac\\ I" al celinal tenect In a ume u1ilt). 0 1lipoltani cominuherusia theories. tC.It ii ItIL Pi I AI ’I P (hi cI~u1)t II I...te d it dion Is, a liiiict on of d(lontIan kiiowleti~ and Il Wu LAC xWpc I.,n ek wt i iili laylaa 7.2 S~atis\\’Ning the real-time11 Constraint 1) \\ll

  5. Neutral Theory: From Complex Population History to Natural Selection and Sociocultural Phenomena in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.

  6. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  7. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  8. Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context | Egbekpalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... confronting man and his existence and the environment in which he lives. ... With philosophy, one develops a rational outlook on life that interrogates the basic ... their culture about the problems on ground and seeks to proffer humane solutions. ... To this effect, Philosophers believe that knowledge is power (scientia est ...

  9. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  10. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  11. [Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rayla Amaral; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension), minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  12. Testing the Human Capital Development Model: The Case of Apprenticeships in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…

  13. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  14. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  15. Human vision is determined based on information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  16. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  17. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ADN to BSN: lessons from human capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Currently, approximately 16% of associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates acquire baccalaureate or higher degrees. Human capital analysis demonstrated negative to minimal average returns on investment (ROI) in BSN education. Increasing the ROI may influence ADNs to pursue baccalaureate education and can be an effective strategy for meeting the projected need for BSN-prepared nurses.

  19. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  20. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  1. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  3. Multiple-scattering theory. New developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Arthur

    2007-12-04

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is a very efficient technique for calculating the electronic properties of an assembly of atoms. It provides explicitly the Green function, which can be used in many applications such as magnetism, transport and spectroscopy. This work gives an overview on recent developments of multiple-scattering theory. One of the important innovations is the multiple scattering implementation of the self-interaction correction approach, which enables realistic electronic structure calculations of systems with localized electrons. Combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), this method can be applied for studying the electronic structure of alloys and as well as pseudo-alloys representing charge and spin disorder. This formalism is extended to finite temperatures which allows to investigate phase transitions and thermal fluctuations in correlated materials. Another novel development is the implementation of the self-consistent non-local CPA approach, which takes into account charge correlations around the CPA average and chemical short range order. This formalism is generalized to the relativistic treatment of magnetically ordered systems. Furthermore, several improvements are implemented to optimize the computational performance and to increase the accuracy of the KKR Green function method. The versatility of the approach is illustrated in numerous applications. (orig.)

  4. Using constructive alignment theory to develop nursing skills curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sundari; Juwah, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Constructive alignment theory has been used to underpin the development of curricula in higher education for some time (Biggs and Tang, 2007), however, its use to inform and determine skills curricula in nursing is less well documented. This paper explores the use of constructive alignment theory within a study of undergraduate student nurses undertaking clinical skill acquisition in the final year of a BSc (Hons) Nursing course. Students were followed up as newly qualified nurses (NQN) (n = 58) to ascertain the impact of skill acquisition in this way. Comparisons were made with newly qualified nurses who did not participate in a constructively aligned curriculum. This mixed methods study reported skill identification within the immediate post-registration period and evaluated the constructively aligned curriculum as having positive benefits for NQNs in terms of confidence to practice. This was supported by preceptors' views. The study recommends two process models for nursing skills curriculum development and reports that constructive alignment is a useful theoretical framework for nurse educators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple-scattering theory. New developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is a very efficient technique for calculating the electronic properties of an assembly of atoms. It provides explicitly the Green function, which can be used in many applications such as magnetism, transport and spectroscopy. This work gives an overview on recent developments of multiple-scattering theory. One of the important innovations is the multiple scattering implementation of the self-interaction correction approach, which enables realistic electronic structure calculations of systems with localized electrons. Combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), this method can be applied for studying the electronic structure of alloys and as well as pseudo-alloys representing charge and spin disorder. This formalism is extended to finite temperatures which allows to investigate phase transitions and thermal fluctuations in correlated materials. Another novel development is the implementation of the self-consistent non-local CPA approach, which takes into account charge correlations around the CPA average and chemical short range order. This formalism is generalized to the relativistic treatment of magnetically ordered systems. Furthermore, several improvements are implemented to optimize the computational performance and to increase the accuracy of the KKR Green function method. The versatility of the approach is illustrated in numerous applications. (orig.)

  6. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  7. 76 FR 46307 - Proposed collection; Comment Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    .... Formative research in the area of theory development and validation would provide the basis for developing...) Develop and refine integrative theories; (3) Identify and observe theoretical and innovative trends in... Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of...

  8. The applicability of the social development and organization development theories at the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvindina Hanna Olexandrivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on how organizational and social changes are shaped and explained is done in the paper. Traditional assumptions and new theories of social development and organizational development were united into classification offered by author through the dichotomy principle of classification. This article combines the existing classification principles and presents new ones. The contribution of the author is the assumption that the characteristics of development theories can be distinguished by the following contrast groups: Evolution – Revolution, Cycle – Wave, Equilibrium – Punctuated Equilibrium, Standard – Paradox. Meanwhile the first three groups are presented and analyzed, the fourth group is left as hypothesis for the next research.

  9. Human work interaction design meets international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, P.; Clemmensen, T.; Barricelli, B.R.

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  10. Radiation effects on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The developing human brain has been shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. Mental retardation has been observed in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan exposed in utero during sensitive periods, and clinical studies of pelvically irradiated pregnant women have demonstrated damaging effects on the fetus. In this annex the emphasis is on reviewing the results of the study of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan, although the results of other human epidemiological investigations and of pertinent experimental studies are also considered. Refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  11. MODELLING AND SIMULATING RISKS IN THE TRAINING OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES BY APPLYING THE CHAOS THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen ROTARESCU

    2012-01-01

    The article approaches the modelling and simulation of risks in the training of the human resources, as well as the forecast of the degree of human resources training impacted by risks by applying the mathematical tools offered by the Chaos Theory and mathematical statistics. We will highlight that the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of the human resources from an organization are autocorrelated in time and they depend on the level of a previous moment of the training, as well as on ...

  12. Human resource development for management of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the contents of 'Human resource development for the planning and implementation of safe and reasonable nuclear power plant decommissioning' as the nuclear human resource development project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant takes 30 to 40 years for its implementation, costing tens of billions of yen. As the period of decommissioning is almost the same as the operation period, it is necessary to provide a systematic and continuous supply of engineers who understand the essence of the decommissioning project. The engineers required here should have project management ability to take charge of preparation, implementation, and termination of decommissioning, and have the ability to perform not only technology, but also factor management, cost management, and the like. As the preconditions of these abilities, it is important to develop human resources who possess qualities that can oversee decommissioning in the future. The contents of human resource education are as follows; (1) desk training (teaching materials: facilities of nuclear power plants, management of nuclear fuels, related laws, decommissioning work, decontamination, dismantling, disposal of waste, etc.), (2) field training (simulators, inspection of power station under decommissioning, etc.), (3) practical training (radiation inventory evaluation, and safety assessment), and (4) inspection of overseas decommissioning, etc. (A.O.)

  13. Education positive approach: contributions to human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ROMERO PÉREZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the current theoretical perspectives underlying educational proposals aimed at promoting the positive development of the people. Firstly we show the most important characteristics of the positive approach. Then, we focus on the positive concept of the inner and its relation to eudaimonia, self-care and emotional selfgovernance. Thirdly, with reference to the contributions of Positive Psychology and Prevention Science we examine the two points of view –hedonic and eudaemonic– from which different pedagogical approaches are based and focus towards education for the welfare, social-emotional development and educational character. We conclude that, despite the lack of practical knowledge about happiness and the art of living, a positive education oriented to the human construction processes must promote both emotional and social skills such as feelings and moral responsibilities for the optimal development of human being.

  14. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Research on Operating Procedure Development in View of RCM Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.

    2015-01-01

    The operation of NPPs (nuclear power plants) is closely related to SSCs (Structure, System and Component) function implementations and failure recoveries, and strictly follows operating procedure. The philosophy of RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) which is a widely-used systematic engineering approach in industry focusing on likewise facility functions and effectiveness of maintenance is accepted in relative analysis of NPPs operation in this paper. Based on the theory of RCM, the paper will discuss general logic of operating procedure development and framework optimization as well combining NPPs engineering design. Since the quality of operating procedures has a significant impact on the safe and reliable operation of NPPs, the paper provides a proposed operating procedure development logic diagramme for reference for the procedure optimization task ahead. (author)

  16. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  17. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  18. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...

  19. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predispos...

  20. Developing an OD-Intervention Metric System with the Use of Applied Theory-Building Methodology: A Work/Life-Intervention Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Storberg-Walker, Julia; McMillan, Heather S.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new model, generated through applied theory-building research methods, that helps human resource development (HRD) practitioners evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of organization development (OD) interventions. This model, called organization development human-capital accounting system (ODHCAS), identifies…

  1. Protein dynamics in individual human cells: experiment and theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Aharon Cohen

    Full Text Available A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells. As a model system, we choose three stable proteins displaying cell-cycle-dependant dynamics. We find that protein accumulation with time per cell is quadratic for proteins with long mRNA life times and approximately linear for a protein with short mRNA lifetime. Both behaviors correspond to a classical model of transcription and translation. A stochastic model, in which genes slowly switch between ON and OFF states, captures measured cell-cell variability. The data suggests, in accordance with the model, that switching to the gene ON state is exponentially distributed and that the cell-cell distribution of protein levels can be approximated by a Gamma distribution throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that relatively simple models may describe protein dynamics in individual human cells.

  2. Can theories of animal discrimination explain perceptual learning in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Chris; Hall, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent studies of perceptual learning conducted with nonhuman animals. The focus of this research has been to elucidate the mechanisms by which mere exposure to a pair of similar stimuli can increase the ease with which those stimuli are discriminated. These studies establish an important role for 2 mechanisms, one involving inhibitory associations between the unique features of the stimuli, the other involving a long-term habituation process that enhances the relative salience of these features. We then examine recent work investigating equivalent perceptual learning procedures with human participants. Our aim is to determine the extent to which the phenomena exhibited by people are susceptible to explanation in terms of the mechanisms revealed by the animal studies. Although we find no evidence that associative inhibition contributes to the perceptual learning effect in humans, initial detection of unique features (those that allow discrimination between 2 similar stimuli) appears to depend on an habituation process. Once the unique features have been detected, a tendency to attend to those features and to learn about their properties enhances subsequent discrimination. We conclude that the effects obtained with humans engage mechanisms additional to those seen in animals but argue that, for the most part, these have their basis in learning processes that are common to animals and people. In a final section, we discuss some implications of this analysis of perceptual learning for other aspects of experimental psychology and consider some potential applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  4. Moral Development, Ego Autonomy and Questions of Practicality in the Critical Theory of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    This article summarizes Habermas' critical theory of education, examines relevant features of the development of children's capacity to enter into rational argumentation, and examines the significance of this development for a critical theory of schooling. (IAH)

  5. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification

  6. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification.

  7. IAEA Nuclear Security Human Resource Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunegger-Guelich, A.

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA is at the forefront of international efforts to strengthen the world's nuclear security framework. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009 was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 2005. This Plan has three main points of focus: needs assessment, prevention, detection and response. Its overall objective is to achieve improved worldwide security of nuclear and other radioactive material in use, storage and transport, and of their associated facilities. This will be achieved, in particular, through the provision of guidelines and recommendations, human resource development, nuclear security advisory services and assistance for the implementation of the framework in States, upon request. The presentation provides an overview of the IAEA nuclear security human resource development program that is divided into two parts: training and education. Whereas the training program focuses on filling gaps between the actual performance of personnel working in the area of nuclear security and the required competencies and skills needed to meet the international requirements and recommendations described in UN and IAEA documents relating to nuclear security, the Educational Program in Nuclear Security aims at developing nuclear security experts and specialists, at fostering a nuclear security culture and at establishing in this way sustainable knowledge in this field within a State. The presentation also elaborates on the nuclear security computer based learning component and provides insights into the use of human resource development as a tool in achieving the IAEA's long term goal of improving sustainable nuclear security in States. (author)

  8. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  9. Theory versus practice in the human factors and ergonomics discipline: Trends in journal publications from 1960 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann

    2018-01-01

    The research-practice gap has been highlighted as a barrier to effective practice in human factors and ergonomics (HFE). There is also evidence of a theory-research gap that may be limiting the scientific evidence base of HFE. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in journal publications, especially relating to the research-practice gap and the involvement of theory over time. A content analysis was conducted on 425 journal articles published in Human Factors, Ergonomics, and Applied Ergonomics from 1960 to 2010. Results showed evidence of growth in applied research with increasing collaborative research between research and industry, larger research teams, and more empirical research-especially on applied problems. While there has been a corresponding increase in the involvement of theory in HFE publications, around half of the publications failed to acknowledge theory. This calls into question whether the HFE discipline may be missing the benefits of theory to guide research and subsequent practice, and to enhance the development of new ideas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Refined pipe theory for mechanistic modeling of wood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckmyn, Gaby; Evans, Sam P; Randle, Tim J

    2006-06-01

    We present a mechanistic model of wood tissue development in response to changes in competition, management and climate. The model is based on a refinement of the pipe theory, where the constant ratio between sapwood and leaf area (pipe theory) is replaced by a ratio between pipe conductivity and leaf area. Simulated pipe conductivity changes with age, stand density and climate in response to changes in allocation or pipe radius, or both. The central equation of the model, which calculates the ratio of carbon (C) allocated to leaves and pipes, can be parameterized to describe the contrasting stem conductivity behavior of different tree species: from constant stem conductivity (functional homeostasis hypothesis) to height-related reduction in stem conductivity with age (hydraulic limitation hypothesis). The model simulates the daily growth of pipes (vessels or tracheids), fibers and parenchyma as well as vessel size and simulates the wood density profile and the earlywood to latewood ratio from these data. Initial runs indicate the model yields realistic seasonal changes in pipe radius (decreasing pipe radius from spring to autumn) and wood density, as well as realistic differences associated with the competitive status of trees (denser wood in suppressed trees).

  11. Integrating mental health and social development in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagerson, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to

  12. Joseph L Doob and Development of Probability Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (equivalent to BSc in India) in mathematics at the famous Harvard University, ... Doob says that the force of economic circumstances got him into probability theory. ... Books. J L Doob established probability theory as a major discipline of study ...

  13. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  14. Combining evolutionary game theory and network theory to analyze human cooperation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatà, Marialisa; Di Stefano, Alessandro; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of human cooperation in a social network. • We introduce the concepts of “Critical Mass”, centrality measure and homophily. • The emergence of cooperation is affected by the spatial choice of the “Critical Mass”. • Our findings show that homophily speeds up the convergence towards cooperation. • Centrality and “Critical Mass” spatial choice partially offset the impact of homophily. - Abstract: As natural systems continuously evolve, the human cooperation dilemma represents an increasingly more challenging question. Humans cooperate in natural and social systems, but how it happens and what are the mechanisms which rule the emergence of cooperation, represent an open and fascinating issue. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation through the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of behaviours within the social network, where nodes can choose to cooperate or defect following the classical social dilemmas represented by Prisoner’s Dilemma and Snowdrift games. To this aim, we introduce a sociological concept and statistical estimator, “Critical Mass”, to detect the minimum initial seed of cooperators able to trigger the diffusion process, and the centrality measure to select within the social network. Selecting different spatial configurations of the Critical Mass nodes, we highlight how the emergence of cooperation can be influenced by this spatial choice of the initial core in the network. Moreover, we target to shed light how the concept of homophily, a social shaping factor for which “birds of a feather flock together”, can affect the evolutionary process. Our findings show that homophily allows speeding up the diffusion process and make quicker the convergence towards human cooperation, while centrality measure and thus the Critical Mass selection, play a key role in the evolution showing how the spatial configurations can create some hidden patterns, partially

  15. Building a multiple modality, theory-based physical activity intervention: The development of CardiACTION!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul A; Glasgow, Russ E; Xu, Stan; Dzewaltowski, David A; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah; Almeida, Fabio A; Thayer, Amy N; Smith-Ray, Renae L

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite the widely acknowledged benefits of regular physical activity (PA), specific goals for increased population levels of PA, and strongly recommended strategies to promote PA, there is no evidence suggesting that the prevalence of PA is improving. If PA intervention research is to be improved, theory should be used as the basis for intervention development, participant context or environment should be considered in the process, and intervention characteristics that will heighten the likelihood of translation into practice should be implemented (e.g., ease of implementation, low human resource costs). The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of the aforementioned concepts within the intervention development process associated with CardiACTION an ongoing randomized 2 × 2 factorial trial. METHODS: The Ecological Model of Physical Activity integrated with Protection Motivation Theory was used to inform the design of the interventions. This integrated model was selected to allow for the development of theory-based individual, environmental, and individually + environmentally targeted physical activity interventions. All intervention strategies were matched to proposed mediators of behavior change. Strategies were then matched to the most appropriate interactive technology (i.e., interactive computer session, automated telephone counseling, and tailored mailings) delivery channel. CONCLUSIONS: The potential implications of this study include determining the independent and combined influence of individual and environment mechanisms of behavior change on intervention effectiveness. In addition, all intervention models are developed to be scalable and disseminable to a broad audience at a low cost.

  16. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  17. Development and the evolvability of human limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  18. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  19. Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...... for girls. Given these findings, it appears that household entrepreneurship may contribute to decreasing the severe child labour problem in Tanzania, but resolving the problem of low school attendance rates will require a different strategy....

  20. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  1. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  2. Using Adult Development Theory To Facilitate Career Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Uses Kegan's theory of the evolving self as an example of the utility of life-span theories in facilitating career happiness. Suggests how to use culturally appropriate developmental theories to help clients understand their life-stage position and discover ways to achieve self-other balance for life and career satisfaction. (SK)

  3. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  4. Categorial Compositionality: A Category Theory Explanation for the Systematicity of Human Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the P...

  5. Developing a new theory of knowledge sharing : Documenting and reflecting on a messy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsons, M.G.; Davison, R.M.; Ou, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about theories and how they can be tested. Unfortunately, much less has been written about how to develop them. This paper sheds light on the process of new theory development. We document and reflect on how we developed a context-sensitive indigenous theory of knowledge

  6. Parallel experience: how art and art theory can inform ethics in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, L

    2003-12-01

    Trends in ethical research involving humans emphasise the importance of collaboration, of involving research subjects, alongside the researchers in the construction and implementation of research. This paper will explore parallels derived from another tradition of investigation of the human: art and art theory. An artist's inquiry into the problems of human research will be described, followed by the application of arguments from art theory to research practice. Recently artist Christine Borland has provided examples in which the lack of collaboration in research has caused injustice. Borland's work reflects these ethical dilemmas and questions the procedures and assumptions involved. In most cases the value of subject anonymity is called into question because it reduces the subjects' control over themselves. The application of art theory, which has already considered these problems, helps question and explore the ways in which the subject turned object of artistic or scientific interpretation can maintain some control and dignity.

  7. Theory of Mind Development in Chinese Children: A Meta-Analysis of False-Belief Understanding across Cultures and Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Wellman, Henry M.; Tardif, Twila; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind is claimed to develop universally among humans across cultures with vastly different folk psychologies. However, in the attempt to test and confirm a claim of universality, individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes, sample specificities, and an overwhelming focus on Anglo-European children. The current meta-analysis…

  8. The place of development in mathematical evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Sean H

    2012-09-01

    Development plays a critical role in structuring the joint offspring-parent phenotype distribution. It thus must be part of any truly general evolutionary theory. Historically, the offspring-parent distribution has often been treated in such a way as to bury the contribution of development, by distilling from it a single term, either heritability or additive genetic variance, and then working only with this term. I discuss two reasons why this approach is no longer satisfactory. First, the regression of expected offspring phenotype on parent phenotype can easily be nonlinear, and this nonlinearity can have a pronounced impact on the response to selection. Second, even when the offspring-parent regression is linear, it is nearly always a function of the environment, and the precise way that heritability covaries with the environment can have a substantial effect on adaptive evolution. Understanding these complexities of the offspring-parent distribution will require understanding of the developmental processes underlying the traits of interest. I briefly discuss how we can incorporate such complexity into formal evolutionary theory, and why it is likely to be important even for traits that are not traditionally the focus of evo-devo research. Finally, I briefly discuss a topic that is widely seen as being squarely in the domain of evo-devo: novelty. I argue that the same conceptual and mathematical framework that allows us to incorporate developmental complexity into simple models of trait evolution also yields insight into the evolution of novel traits. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  9. Continued development of modeling tools and theory for RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Mission Research Corporation (MRC) is pleased to present the Department of Energy (DOE) with its renewal proposal to the Continued Development of Modeling Tools and Theory for RF Heating program. The objective of the program is to continue and extend the earlier work done by the proposed principal investigator in the field of modeling (Radio Frequency) RF heating experiments in the large tokamak fusion experiments, particularly the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) device located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). An integral part of this work is the investigation and, in some cases, resolution of theoretical issues which pertain to accurate modeling. MRC is nearing the successful completion of the specified tasks of the Continued Development of Modeling Tools and Theory for RF Heating project. The following tasks are either completed or nearing completion. (1) Anisotropic temperature and rotation upgrades; (2) Modeling for relativistic ECRH; (3) Further documentation of SHOOT and SPRUCE. As a result of the progress achieved under this project, MRC has been urged to continue this effort. Specifically, during the performance of this project two topics were identified by PPPL personnel as new applications of the existing RF modeling tools. These two topics concern (a) future fast-wave current drive experiments on the large tokamaks including TFTR and (c) the interpretation of existing and future RF probe data from TFTR. To address each of these topics requires some modification or enhancement of the existing modeling tools, and the first topic requires resolution of certain theoretical issues to produce self-consistent results. This work falls within the scope of the original project and is more suited to the project's renewal than to the initiation of a new project

  10. Fit for Practice: Analysis and Evaluation of Watson's Theory of Human Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajnkihar, Majda; McKenna, Hugh P; Štiglic, Gregor; Vrbnjak, Dominika

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the authors of this paper is to analyze Watson's theory of human caring for its usefulness and worth in education, practice, and research. The reason for undertaking this analysis is to evaluate if Watson's theory would be useful for nursing in those countries where such theories were not an established part of the nursing curriculum. Furthermore, in some European countries, their political past or cultural influences led to an unquestioned adoption of the biomedical model. As their political culture changes, many social structures have had to be revisited, and for nursing, this has meant the introduction of theoretical reasoning, teaching, and practice.

  11. Health care development: integrating transaction cost theory with social support theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajli, M Nick; Shanmugam, Mohana; Hajli, Ali; Khani, Amir Hossein; Wang, Yichuan

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies has already been influential in many industries, and Web 2.0 applications are now beginning to have an impact on health care. These new technologies offer a promising approach for shaping the future of modern health care, with the potential for opening up new opportunities for the health care industry as it struggles to deal with challenges including the need to cut costs, the increasing demand for health services and the increasing cost of medical technology. Social media such as social networking sites are attracting more individuals to online health communities, contributing to an increase in the productivity of modern health care and reducing transaction costs. This study therefore examines the potential effect of social technologies, particularly social media, on health care development by adopting a social support/transaction cost perspective. Viewed through the lens of Information Systems, social support and transaction cost theories indicate that social media, particularly online health communities, positively support health care development. The results show that individuals join online health communities to share and receive social support, and these social interactions provide both informational and emotional support.

  12. Human Resource Development: A Foundation for Participative Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Steven H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses management theories and reports on a study establishing that, if managers are exposed to modern human resources management theories through a series of training programs, they will adopt a participative leadership style, and that this style will be reflected in their attitudes and the perceptions of their subordinates. (Author/IRT)

  13. Leadership theory: implications for developing dental surgeons in primary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2011-02-12

    The development of leadership in healthcare has been seen as important in recent years, particularly at the clinical level. There have been various specific initiatives focusing on the development of leadership for doctors, nurses and other health care professions: for example, a leadership competency framework for doctors, the LEO programme and the RCN clinical leadership programme for nurses. The NHS has set up a Leadership Council to coordinate further developments. However, there has not been the same focus in dentistry, although the recent review of NHS dental services (Steele review) has proposed a need for leadership initiatives in NHS dentistry as a medium-term action. Central to this will be a need to focus on the leadership role for dental surgeons. Leadership is all the more important in dentistry, given the change of government and the policy of retrenchment, major public sector reform, the emergence of new organisations such as new commissioning consortia, possible changes to the dental contract, new ways of working, and changes to the profession such as the requirements for the revalidation of dental surgeons. The question is: which leadership theory or approach is best for dental surgeons working in primary care? This paper builds on earlier work exploring this question in relation to doctors generally, and GPs, in particular, and planned work on nurses. It will seek to address this question in relation to dental surgeons working in primary care.

  14. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard S; Boone, James L

    2010-08-21

    Two types of models aim to account the origins of rank differentiation and social hierarchy in human societies. Conflict models suggest that the formation of social hierarchies is synonymous with the establishment of relationships of coercive social dominance and exploitation. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation--the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject--may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. Little formal theoretical work, however, has established whether and under what conditions individuals would indeed prefer the establishment of more hierarchical relationships over more egalitarian alternatives. This paper provides an evolutionary game theoretical model for the acceptance of leadership in cooperative groups. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. We suggest, in particular, that this becomes an optimal solution for individual decision makers when the number of group members required for collective action exceeds the maximum group size at which leaderless cooperation is viable.

  15. Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs

  16. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  17. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  18. The Role of Adolescent Development in Social Networking Site Use: Theory and Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew P. Cingel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using survey data collected from 260 children, adolescents, and young adults between the ages of 9 and 26, this paper offers evidence for a relationship between social networking site use and Imaginary Audience, a developmental variable in which adolescents believe others are thinking about them at all times. Specifically, after controlling for a number of variables, results indicate a significant, positive relationship between social networking site use and Imaginary Audience ideation. Additionally, results indicate a positive relationship between Imaginary Audience ideation and Facebook customization practices. Together, these findings provide evidence, based on Vygotskian developmental theory, for a general consideration of the role that currently available tools, in this case social networking sites, can have on development. Thus, findings implicate both the role of development on social networking site use, as well as the role of social networking site use on development. Overall, these findings have important implications for the study of media and human development, which are discussed in detail.

  19. Sociocultural Theory and its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hameed Panhwar; Sanaullah Ansari; Komal Ansari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the literature on the socio-cultural theory suggests that the theory has potential for forming new context-oriented language teaching-learning pedagogies which c...

  20. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  1. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  2. Regulating social interactions: Developing a functional theory of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Marcela

    A role-playing intervention was developed and implemented in a fifth grade classroom. The goal of the intervention was to address serious problems that researchers have connected to dysfunctional collaborative interactions. These problems include an inability to: engage in important aspects of argumentation and communication, monitor and regulate group processes, and ensure equity in participation. To this end, a comprehensive theory of collaboration was presented to students through the use of four sociocognitive roles: mediation manager, collaboration manager, communication manager, and productivity manager. Each role came with a written guide that included specific goals and strategies related to the role. Metacognitive activities, including planning and reflection, were also used during class sessions to support students' understanding and role-use. Each of the students in the class was assigned one of the roles to manage during a two part collaborative science project. Students took quizzes on the roles and provided verbal and written feedback about their role-use and metacognitive activities. Students from one of the video-recorded groups were also interviewed after the intervention. Analyses of data from video sessions, quizzes, and interviews supported three important findings: (1) students were able to learn goals, and strategies for all of the roles, even though they only managed a single role, (2) students demonstrated the ability to take the information they learned and put it into practice, and (3) when students employed the roles while their group was working, members of the group accepted the role-use. These findings related to the learning and utilization of the roles are important because they: (1) imply that the intervention was successful at developing students' knowledge of the theory of collaboration that the roles represented, (2) indicate that students used this knowledge to monitor and regulate behaviors in an authentic context, and (3

  3. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  4. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  5. The Valency Theory: The Human Bond From A New Psychoanalytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Med Hafsi

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses some psychoanalytical conceptions concerning what links people to each other, or the human bond. Psychoanalysis, can be regarded as a science dealing basically with, although not directly, the human bond or link linking the person with his external and internal objects. The fact that this bond is in perpetualtransformation, and therefore can be apprehended from different angles has led to various psychoanalytical conceptions or theories which are more complementary...

  6. Brief Reflections on the Development of the FDI Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica OEHLER-ŞINCAI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we intend to review the theory of the FDI, since its origins to the present days, focusing on its corner stones. We present the FDI theory through the lens of the strategic management and try to bring to the forefront the main contributions to this framework. At the same time, we underline the scholars’ frequent return to the “springs” of the FDI theory, either those generated by Hymer or the internalization theory or the OLI paradigm, in order to consolidate the theoretical FDI construction.

  7. 76 FR 62421 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...; Comment Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation...), to conduct and support behavioral research informed by and informing theory. Formative research in...

  8. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  9. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  10. Full Human Development And School Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    The aim of this keynote address is to show how theoretical ideas from the cultural-historical tradition have been used to address issues that fall within the scope of interest for Brazilian school psychologists. The first part of the conference discusses the idea of radical-local teaching...... which explains how this perspective was used with lower secondary school boys in Denmark who had been expelled from several schools. These two parts will be used to illustrate a perspective about full human development, expressed through cultural-historical theoretical concepts, as an orientation...... for all professional approaches to school psychology....

  11. Autopoiesis, Observation and Informatics: Lessons from the Development of Autopoietic Systems Theory in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Hashimoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with redefining the notion of information from a perspective of systems theory. In recent years, the notion of information, which was closely related to the framework of old cybernetics, has been refined in parallel with the emergence of new cybernetics, especially second-order cybernetics and autopoiesis. The systemic view of new cybernetics provides us with the notion of “informationally closed system.” This notion is congruent with the epistemological implications of radical constructivism. In order to help understand this argument, we aim at highlighting the development of autopoietic systems theory in Japan. Autopoiesis has often been considered as a thoroughly closed system in Japan, where the relationships between autopoiesis and radical constructivism have frequently been overlooked. This is mainly because the importance which autopoietic systems theory originally attaches to the notion of observer and observation has been inadequately discussed, and autopoietic systems theory is regarded as distinct from second-order cybernetics and radical constructivism. However, they must be dealt with together, and Humberto Maturana should be given credit for his ontology of observing. Since the publication of his paper “Biology of Cognition,” Maturana has been attempting to explain the notion of observation as a biological phenomenon in his own way. Likewise, by taking into consideration the notion of observation, we can build a unified theory of information. Fundamental Informatics, which is being developed by Toru Nishigaki, outlines a unified approach to information by putting human observers at the center of his theory. Social and mechanical information is generated only when human observers conduct observations on the basis of biological information, and this mechanism of generation of information is discussed through the notion of “hierarchical autonomous system.” For an autopoietic organi- zation to be

  12. Concept analysis and the building blocks of theory: misconceptions regarding theory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the attempts to justify concepts analysis as a way to construct theory - a notion often advocated in nursing. The notion that concepts are the building blocks or threads from which theory is constructed is often repeated. It can be found in many articles and well-known textbooks. However, this notion is seldom explained or defended. The notion of concepts as building blocks has also been questioned by several authors. However, most of these authors seem to agree to some degree that concepts are essential components from which theory is built. Discussion paper. Literature was reviewed to synthesize and debate current knowledge. Our point is that theory is not built by concepts analysis or clarification and we will show that this notion has its basis in some serious misunderstandings. We argue that concept analysis is not a part of sound scientific method and should be abandoned. The current methods of concept analysis in nursing have no foundation in philosophy of science or in language philosophy. The type of concept analysis performed in nursing is not a way to 'construct' theory. Rather, theories are formed by creative endeavour to propose a solution to a scientific and/or practical problem. The bottom line is that the current style and form of concept analysis in nursing should be abandoned in favour of methods in line with modern theory of science. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  14. Development of a theory of the spectral reflectance of minerals, part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theory of the spectral reflectance or emittance of particulate minerals was developed. The theory is expected to prove invaluable in the interpretation of the remote infrared spectra of planetary surfaces.

  15. The Relationship Between Postsecondary Education and Skill: Comparing Credentialism with Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of the credential requirements used by employers to attract graduates who will use their education on the job. The framework of this study is embedded within the theoretical debates between proponents of the credentialist and human capital theories of education. Past research related to these debates has focused…

  16. Using Multiattribute Utility Theory as a Priority-Setting Tool in Human Services Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, Michael J.; Dick, Janet

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multiattribute utility theory to the needs assessment and priority-setting activities of human services planning councils was studied in Essex County (New Jersey). Decision-making and information filtering processes are explored in the context of community planning. (SLD)

  17. Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History. PEPG/07-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sascha O.; Wohmann, Ludger

    2007-01-01

    Max Weber attributed the higher economic prosperity of Protestant regions to a Protestant work ethic. We provide an alternative theory, where Protestant economies prospered because instruction in reading the Bible generated the human capital crucial to economic prosperity. County-level data from late 19th-century Prussia reveal that Protestantism…

  18. Why We Do What We Do: A Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Walter R.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a theory of human motivation that focuses on the unpredictability of life, innate and noninnate differences in individual characteristics, individual responsibility for actions, importance of a meaningful life, intrinsic physiologic rewards of behavior, gender differences in behavior, adult psychological maturation, and limitations of the…

  19. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-07-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning: The Test of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have become increasingly influential in the psychology of reasoning. Though the distinction they introduced between intuitive and reflective thinking should have strong developmental implications, the developmental approach has rarely been used to refine or test these theories. In this article, I review several contemporary…

  2. Signposts to Development: Theory of Mind in Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of language input on theory of mind by comparing the performance of deaf native-signing children (ages 4 to 8) raised by deaf signing parents and deaf late-signing children raised by hearing parents on "thought picture" measures of theory of mind. Findings indicated that deaf late signers showed…

  3. Strengthening Academic Advising by Developing a Normative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Hilleary A.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions on academic advising theory have centered on application from many disciplines; however, academic advising is unlike any other field, and therefore, theories from other disciplines do not correspond with all of the unique goals of advising: assisting students in understanding the meaning of higher education, supporting students in…

  4. Recent developments in rotary-wing aerodynamic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.

    1986-01-01

    Current progress in the computational analysis of rotary-wing flowfields is surveyed, and some typical results are presented in graphs. Topics examined include potential theory, rotating coordinate systems, lifting-surface theory (moving singularity, fixed wing, and rotary wing), panel methods (surface singularity representations, integral equations, and compressible flows), transonic theory (the small-disturbance equation), wake analysis (hovering rotor-wake models and transonic blade-vortex interaction), limitations on computational aerodynamics, and viscous-flow methods (dynamic-stall theories and lifting-line theory). It is suggested that the present algorithms and advanced computers make it possible to begin working toward the ultimate goal of turbulent Navier-Stokes calculations for an entire rotorcraft.

  5. Establishing operational stability--developing human infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Max A; Byers, Ernest J; Stingley, Preston; Sheridan, Robert M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-12-01

    Over the past year, Toyota has come under harsh scrutiny as a result of several recalls. These well publicized mishaps have not only done damage to Toyota's otherwise sterling reputation for quality but have also called into question the assertions from a phalanx of followers that Toyota's production system (generically referred to as TPS or Lean) is the best method by which to structure one's systems of operation. In this article, we discuss how Toyota, faced with the pressure to grow its business, did not appropriately cadence this growth with the continued development and maintenance of the process capabilities (vis a vis the development of human infrastructure) needed to adequately support that growth. We draw parallels between the pressure Toyota faced to grow its business and the pressure neurointerventional practices face to grow theirs, and offer a methodology to support that growth without sacrificing quality.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  7. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  8. Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.

  9. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Larry R., E-mail: dalton@chem.washington.ed [Department of Chemistry, Bagley Hall 202D, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Bagley Hall 202D, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  10. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  11. Evolution and development: some insights from evolutionary theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID JEAN R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology and evolutionary biology are both mature integrative disciplines which started in the 19th century and then followed parallel and independent scientific pathways. Recently, a genetical component has stepped into both disciplines (developmental genetics and evolutionary genetics pointing out the need for future convergent maturation. Indeed, the Evo-Devo approach is becoming popular among developmental biologists, based on the facts that distant groups share a common ancestry, that precise phylogenies can be worked out and that homologous genes often play similar roles during the development of very different organisms. In this essay, I try to show that the real future of Evo-Devo thinking is still broader. The evolutionary theory is a set of diverse concepts which can and should be used in any biological field. Evolutionary thinking trains to ask « why » questions and to provide logical and plausible answers. It can shed some light on a diversity of general problems such as how to distinguish homologies from analogies, the costs and benefits of multicellularity, the origin of novel structures (e.g. the head, or the evolution of sexual reproduction. In the next decade, we may expect a progressive convergence between developmental genetics and quantitative genetics.

  12. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas; Mace, Ruth

    2014-12-09

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challenge "Main Sequence Theory," which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic.

  13. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  14. The Development of Bimodal Bilingualism: Implications for Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of linguistic phenomena contribute to our understanding of the architecture of the human linguistic system. In this paper we present a proposal dubbed Language Synthesis to capture bilingual phenomena including code-switching and 'transfer' as automatic consequences of the addition of a second language, using basic concepts of Minimalism and Distributed Morphology. Bimodal bilinguals, who use a sign language and a spoken language, provide a new type of evidence regarding possible bilingual phenomena, namely code-blending, the simultaneous production of (aspects of) a message in both speech and sign. We argue that code-blending also follows naturally once a second articulatory interface is added to the model. Several different types of code-blending are discussed in connection to the predictions of the Synthesis model. Our primary data come from children developing as bimodal bilinguals, but our proposal is intended to capture a wide range of bilingual effects across any language pair.

  15. A theory for aftercare of human trafficking survivors for nursing practice in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R L; Naidoo, J R; Mchunu, G

    2017-06-01

    Research on aftercare for human trafficking survivors highlights the limited knowledge of the needs of survivors; the evaluation of current aftercare; and the process of recovery navigated by the survivor in aftercare (Oram et al., 2012; Locke, 2010; Hacker & Cohen, 2012). Furthermore there has been a transition in aftercare where the victim or survivor, who before was seen as a passive victim of circumstance of their life and in need of therapeutic intervention, is now seen as having an active role in their recovery, thus facilitating recovery (Hacker & Cohen, 2012). The need for a theory grounded in survivor's voices therefore motivated this grounded theory study underpinned by Freire's (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. The aim of the theory is to inform nursing care of human trafficking survivors in low resource settings. The findings elicit a theoretical model of the renewed self, and the conditions that facilitate this process in care of human trafficking survivors. The recommendations of this paper may improve the nursing care provided to human trafficking survivors and equip nurses and other health professionals with the knowledge and skills to promote the renewing of human trafficking survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-linearities in Theory-of-Mind Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M A; van Geert, Paul L C

    2016-01-01

    Research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) has mainly focused on ages of core ToM development. This article follows a quantitative approach focusing on the level of ToM understanding on a measurement scale, the ToM Storybooks, in 324 typically developing children between 3 and 11 years of age. It deals with the eventual occurrence of developmental non-linearities in ToM functioning, using smoothing techniques, dynamic growth model building and additional indicators, namely moving skewness, moving growth rate changes and moving variability. The ToM sum-scores showed an overall developmental trend that leveled off toward the age of 10 years. Within this overall trend two non-linearities in the group-based change pattern were found: a plateau at the age of around 56 months and a dip at the age of 72-78 months. These temporary regressions in ToM sum-score were accompanied by a decrease in growth rate and variability, and a change in skewness of the ToM data, all suggesting a developmental shift in ToM understanding. The temporary decreases also occurred in the different ToM sub-scores and most clearly so in the core ToM component of beliefs. It was also found that girls had an earlier growth spurt than boys and that the underlying developmental path was more salient in girls than in boys. The consequences of these findings are discussed from various theoretical points of view, with an emphasis on a dynamic systems interpretation of the underlying developmental paths.

  17. VERNADSKY'S V.I. THEORY OF NOOSPHERE AS THE BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To implement Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky's teachings of noospheric outlook as the basis for sustainable development of the world community.Discussion. The theory of noosphere has become the philosophical basis of the concept for sustainable development of society, a strategy for balanced economic development and natural resource management, and continues to have great influence on modern environmental awareness and as often happens with great scientists, that walk ahead of their time, Vernadsky’s scientific legacy will still be comprehended and creatively developed by the next generations. Vernadsky suggested the change of attitudes and ideological principles, i.e. noospheric thinking, as the solution for environmental problems. Therefore, today, Vernadsky's teachings of biosphere-noosphere transition is of particular relevance that could be the basis for fundamental research of environmental issues and practical search for their resolution. According to Vernadsky, the basic prerequisites for the development of the noosphere are the following: humanity should be united; means of communication and exchange should be transformed; the discovery of new energy sources; the rise of well-being, equality of all people; conflict-free society.Conclusion. The knowledge of the development of the biosphere is the key to rational nature management. Vernadsky concludes that humanity, in the course of its development, is transformed into a powerful new geological force, and with thought and action it changes the face of the planet. Accordingly, for the purpose of its preservation, the humanity will have to take responsibility for the development of the biosphere turning into noosphere, and it will require a certain social organization and new environmental and humanistic ethics at the same time.

  18. Human Rights in The Monotheistic Religions : Justification of Human Rights in the perspective of monotheistic religion according to Human Rights Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sadaqat

    2018-01-01

    The discourse of human rights has been very prominent in the post-world wars which led various international organizations and institutes to generate awareness on this subject and pave a path for implementation of fundamental human rights in the world. Many theories have been coined and proliferated in the world to look the matter more seriously. The question mark on the role of religion in this regard has led the discussion sidelining divinely revealed monotheistic religions. Thus, religions...

  19. Knowledge Glyphs: Visualization Theory Development to Support C2 Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitaker, Randall; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Recent and ongoing research into the subject of knowledge glyphs illustrates how the state of the art in theory and practice interact and open up new requirements for innovation with respect to each...

  20. On the Development of Relationship Awareness Theory: A Personal Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.

    1976-01-01

    Relationship Awareness Theory is based on the premise that one's behavior traits are consistent with what one finds gratifying in interpersonal relations and with concepts or beliefs one holds about how to interact with others to achieve those gratifications. (Author)

  1. Seeking Humanizing Care in Patient-Centered Care Process: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash

    Patient-centered care is both a goal in itself and a tool for enhancing health outcomes. The application of patient-centered care in health care services globally however is diverse. This article reports on a study that sought to introduce patient-centered care. The aim of this study is to explore the process of providing patient-centered care in critical care units. The study used a grounded theory method. Data were collected on 5 critical care units in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Purposive and theoretical sampling directed the collection of data using 29 semistructured interviews with 27 participants (nurses, patients, and physician). Data obtained were analyzed according to the analysis stages of grounded theory and constant comparison to identify the concepts, context, and process of the study. The core category of this grounded theory is "humanizing care," which consisted of 4 interrelated phases, including patient acceptance, purposeful patient assessment and identification, understanding patients, and patient empowerment. A core category of humanizing care integrated the theory. Humanizing care was an outcome and process. Patient-centered care is a dynamic and multifaceted process provided according to the nurses' understanding of the concept. Patient-centered care does not involve repeating routine tasks; rather, it requires an all-embracing understanding of the patients and showing respect for their values, needs, and preferences.

  2. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  3. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  4. he Development of Music Theory as an Independent Discipline: Beginnings, Conflicts, and New Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Priore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that music theory is an independent discipline and proposes to discuss what it is and the issues of modern theory. Contrary to popular believe, music theory goes beyond knowing the fundamentals of music. Just as the alphabet is only a basis for linguistics or literature, the fundamentals of music is only the beginning of understanding music theory, leading, therefore, to the need for more profound study. This article includes a review of the long history of music theory and its scholars. The objective is to recognize the indisputable value of music theory to encourage its users to innovate and promote the development of new fields.

  5. Keeping Earth at work: Using thermodynamics to develop a holistic theory of the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The Earth system is unique among terrestrial planets in that it is maintained in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Practically all processes are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy, and these would act to destroy this state of disequilibrium. In order to maintain disequilibrium in steady state, driving forces are required that perform the work to maintain the Earth system in a state far from equilibrium. To characterize the functioning of the Earth system and the interactions among its subsystems we need to consider all terms of the first and second law of thermodynamics. While the global energy balance is well established in climatology, the global entropy and work balances receive little, if any, attention. Here I will present first steps in developing a holistic theory of the Earth system including quantifications of the relevant terms that is based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This theory allows us to compare the significance of different processes in driving and maintaining disequilibrium, allows us to explore interactions by investigating the role of power transfer among processes, and specifically illustrate the significance of life in driving planetary disequilibrium. Furthermore, the global work balance demonstrates the significant impact of human activity and it provides an estimate for the availability of renewable sources of free energy within the Earth system. Hence, I conclude that a holistic thermodynamic theory of the Earth system is not just some academic exercise of marginal use, but essential for a profound understanding of the Earth system and its response to change.

  6. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  7. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  8. The Context and Values Inherent in Human Capital as Core Principles for New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a specific focus on the core foundation of New Economic Theory. That is, the focus on human capital and its implications for the theory and method of the new form of political economy. The central issue that is underlined is the importance of scientific and technological innovation and its necessary interdependence on global values and value analysis. The paper discusses the issue of scientific consciousness as a generator of technological value, and places scientific process at the heart of human consciousness. It discusses the complex interdependence of human relational subjectivity, scientific consciousness, and modern science. The paper draws attention to the problems of observation and participation, and the influence of modern quantum physics in drawing attention to aspects of human consciousness that go beyond the points of conventional science, and open up concern for the principle of non-locality. It explores human subjectivity in terms of the way in which “emotionalized behaviors” have effects on scientific objectivity. It also briefly touches on consciousness and its observable scientific role in the possible reconstruction of some aspects of reality. Mention is made of the Copenhagen perspective, the Many Worlds perspective, and the Penrose interpretation. These insights challenge us to explore human consciousness and innovation in economic organization. The discussion also brings in the principle of relational inter-subjectivity, emotion, and consciousness as a potential driver of human capital and value. In short, positive emotions can influence economic decision-making, as can negative emotions. These challenges stress the problem of human relational subjectivity, values, and technology as the tools to better understand the conflicts and potentials of human capital for New Economic Theory. The issue of value-analysis has both a descriptive and normative dimension. Both of these aspects raise important challenges

  9. Exposure to Media and Theory-of-Mind Development in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Raymond A.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Moore, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of narrative media may influence children's development of theory-of-mind. Because engagement with fictional narratives provides one with information about the social world, and possibly draws upon theory-of-mind processes during comprehension, exposure to storybooks, movies, and television may influence theory-of-mind…

  10. The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a "grand" theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the…

  11. Sociocultural Theory and Its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Abdul Hameed; Ansari, Sanaullah; Ansari, Komal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the…

  12. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Yonezo

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  13. La Teoría Marxista sobre el Humanismo Marx's Theory on Humanism. XXI Century Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Y Peña Galbán

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El término Humanismo ha sido empleado para denominar toda doctrina que defienda como principio fundamental el respeto a la persona humana, la palabra tiene una significación histórica indudable. La profesión médica parte de la comprensión del hombre como un ente biopsicosocial, es su centro de atención, y tiene como concepción filosófica al humanismo, que además constituye una exigencia de la práctica médica. Este trabajo propone ilustrar el desarrollo del pensamiento humanista en América Latina y Cuba través de sus máximos exponentes y plantear dicha proyección en la Salud Pública cubana. Con el marxismo el humanismo adquirió un perfil proletario, se desentrañaron científicamente los mecanismos subhumanizadores del capitalismo y se indicaron las posibles vías de su superación. El humanismo es una concepción filosófica en al cual el hombre es su centro, la dignidad de las personas, las capacidades y potencialidades del hombre. En el pensamiento marxista latinoamericano ha habido pujantes manifestaciones de autenticidad cuando hombres de distintas generaciones como Mella, Mariátegui, el Che o Fidel han utilizado el instrumental de análisis que ofrece la concepción dialéctico- materialista de la historia para interpretar sus respectivas circunstancias y tratar de transformarlas. El humanismo está indisolublemente ligado a la libertad, solidaridad e internacionalismo como valores humanos. La proyección humanística de la Salud Pública tiene el propósito de elevar gradualmente la salud de la población, de modo que contribuya a la elevación de su calidad de vida; al incremento de la calidad de los servicios, la satisfacción de la población y de los trabajadores de la salud; al perfeccionamiento de la gestión y la elevación de la eficiencia del sistema nacional de SaludThe term Humanism has been used to name all theories that hold, as main principle, the respect to the human being. This word has an undisputable

  14. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R M; Deci, E L

    2000-01-01

    Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.

  15. Theories of Accounting: Evolution & Developments, Income-Determination and Diversities in Use

    OpenAIRE

    Angus O. Unegbu

    2014-01-01

    Accounting frameworks follow stipulations of existing Accounting Theories. This exploratory research sets out to trace the evolution of accounting theories of Charge and Discharge Syndrome and the Corollary of Double Entry. Furthermore, it dives into the theories of Income Determination, garnishing it with areas of diversities in the use of Accounting Information while review of theories of recent growths and developments in Accounting are not left out. The method of research adopted is explo...

  16. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V; Teichmann, Lino L; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A Karolina; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes, macrophages and NK cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34(+) progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MITRG and MISTRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology.

  17. The contribution of several Nobel Laureates in the development of the Theory of general economic equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi; Rahmie Topxhiu; Donat Rexha

    2016-01-01

    Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by J...

  18. Integrating design science theory and methods to improve the development and evaluation of health communication programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promotion issues are complex, changeable, and highly related to the specific needs and contexts of the intended audiences. It is a daunting challenge to effectively influence health behaviors, particularly culturally learned and reinforced behaviors concerning lifestyle factors related to diet, exercise, and substance (such as alcohol and tobacco) use. Too often, program development and evaluation are not adequately linked to provide rapid feedback to health communication program developers so that important revisions can be made to design the most relevant and personally motivating health communication programs for specific audiences. Design science theory and methods commonly used in engineering, computer science, and other fields can address such program and evaluation weaknesses. Design science researchers study human-created programs using tightly connected build-and-evaluate loops in which they use intensive participatory methods to understand problems and develop solutions concurrently and throughout the duration of the program. Such thinking and strategies are especially relevant to address complex health communication issues. In this article, the authors explore the history, scientific foundation, methods, and applications of design science and its potential to enhance health communication programs and their evaluation.

  19. Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

  20. Examining Lives in Context: Perspectives on the Ecology of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    Extending the work of behavioral scientist Urie Bronfenbrenner on the social and contextual factors influencing human development, this collection of essays, from scholars in a range of disciplines, shows how Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and research have transformed the way many social and behavioral scientists approach, think about, and…