WorldWideScience

Sample records for human development theory

  1. Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shidhani, Thuraya Ahmed; Arora, Vinita

    2012-08-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin, with an estimated overall worldwide prevalence of 5-10% of the population. It is characterised by difficulties in reading, accuracy, fluency, spelling and decoding abilities. The majority of publications reviewed indicated that screening is performed at the preschool level. Screening can also be conducted at birth or the first year of life. Understanding human development theory, for example, Piaget's human development theory, may help determine at which stage of childhood development dyslexia is more detectable, and therefore guide the management of this disability. The objective of this review is to provide a brief and updated overview of dyslexia and its management in children through human development issues.

  2. Integrating Action Theory and Human Agency in Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P.

    2002-01-01

    Paper discusses and analyzes the correlation between action theory and the notion of human agency in a life career development context. Theoretical and research background of the two perspectives are discussed. Connections between the two perspectives are identified. Career counseling implications that enhance integration of individuals' action…

  3. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  4. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  5. Andragogy and Social Capital Theory: The Implications for Human Resource Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Joseph W.M.; Poell, Rob F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a

  6. Andragology and social capital theory: the implications for human resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, Joseph; Poell, Rob F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a

  7. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  8. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  9. Promoting Development and Innovation of China's Human Rights Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO HAOCAI

    2011-01-01

    This year marks the 90th anniversary of the foundng of the Communist Party of China (CPC).As Party Gieneral Secretary Hu Jintao said,for the past 90 years,under the leadership of the CPC,the Chinese people have accomplished the three missions of New Democratic Revolution,the Socialist Revolution and reform and opening-up.During the process,the Party and the people have opened a new path of socialism with Chinese characteristics,formed the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics,as well as established a system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  10. Cultivating New-type Farmers Based on the Theory of Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of theory of human resources development, this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development on cultivating new-type farmers. Firstly, it increases the input of rural basic education; secondly, it reinforces the vocational education and technology training; thirdly, it promotes the rural medical and public health services; fourthly, it quickens the rural labor transfer. The status quo of China’s rural human resources has been analyzed as follows: in ter...

  11. Cultivating New-type Farmers Based on the Theory of Human Resources Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of theory of human resources development,this thesis analyzes the impact of rural human resources development oncultivating new-type farmers.Firstly,it increases the input of rural basic education;secondly,it reinforces the vocational education and technologytraining;thirdly,it promotes the rural medical and public health services;fourthly,it quickens the rural labor transfer.The status quo of China’s ruralhuman resources has been analyzed as follows:in terms of the quantity of rural human resources,the status quo is large and quick-developed baseof rural human resources,high labor participatory rate,and constitution of low age;in terms of the quality of rural human resources,the status quois the ubiquitous low quality of rural human resources,low technological level of rural human resources,and overall low physical quality of farmers;in terms of the structure of rural human resources,the status quo is the irrational industrial structure distribution and imbalanced regional structuredistribution.The thesis also discusses the edification of theory of human resources development in cultivating new-type farmers.First,in terms ofthe control over quantity of rural human resources,it is to keep the stability of family planning policy,and expedite the transfer of rural surplus la-bor;second,in terms of promoting the quality of rural human resources,it is to bolster the development of reserve rural labor force resources,toconstruct the adult educational training system with Chinese characteristics,and to build rural primary health care system;third,in terms of adjus-ting the structure of rural human resources,it is to perfect rural human resources market,and adjust rural economical structure and talents struc-ture.

  12. Using Human Capital Theory to Develop a Policy Approach towards College Student Migration in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan Lee

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use human capital theory to develop a policy approach towards college student migration in Illinois. A rate of return analysis revealed the social rate of return for college student migrants who return to Illinois and the private rate of return was 15.95%. It was estimated that due to college student migration in…

  13. On Dynamic Social Factors for Development of China's Human Rights Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN JIZENG

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's mainstream humanrights theory has undergone tremendous changes sincethe reform-and-opening scheme was kicked off in the early 1980s."Human rights," which used to be seen as a concept of capitalist ideology, is now an important part of the Chinese system of socialist values.The old human rights theory has been repudiated by and large.

  14. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  15. Theory derivation in moral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chally, P S

    1990-06-01

    The difference between Kohlberg's theory of moral justice and Gilligan's conflicting theory of moral development based on sensitivity to human relations, has been addressed in recent literature. Here Chally looks at those theories, their use in nursing research, and their strengths and limitation for use by nurses.

  16. Early-life experiences and the development of adult diseases with a focus on mental illness: The Human Birth Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Polese, Daniela; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Amici, Tiziana; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Fagioli, Francesca

    2017-02-07

    In mammals, early adverse experiences, including mother-pup interactions, shape the response of an individual to chronic stress or to stress-related diseases during adult life. This has led to the elaboration of the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease, in particular adult diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In addition, in humans, as stated by Massimo Fagioli's Human Birth Theory, birth is healthy and equal for all individuals, so that mental illness develop exclusively in the postnatal period because of the quality of the relationship in the first year of life. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of programming during the early developmental period on the manifestation of adult diseases in both animal models and humans. Considering the obvious differences between animals and humans we cannot systematically move from animal models to humans. Consequently, in the first part of this review, we will discuss how animal models can be used to dissect the influence of adverse events occurring during the prenatal and postnatal periods on the developmental trajectories of the offspring, and in the second part, we will discuss the role of postnatal critical periods on the development of mental diseases in humans. Epigenetic mechanisms that cause reversible modifications in gene expression, driving the development of a pathological phenotype in response to a negative early postnatal environment, may lie at the core of this programming, thereby providing potential new therapeutic targets. The concept of the Human Birth Theory leads to a comprehension of the mental illness as a pathology of the human relationship immediately after birth and during the first year of life.

  17. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  18. Integrative Literature Review: Concept Mapping--A Strategy to Support the Development of Practice, Research, and Theory within Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Barbara J.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Mina, Liliana; Altman, Brian A.; Baldor, Maria; Brown, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review is to summarize research on concept mapping and to offer ideas on how concept mapping can facilitate practice, research, and theory development within human resource development. In this review, more than 300 articles, written in both English and Spanish, presented at two different concept mapping…

  19. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Application of Jean Piaget's theory of human development for nursing children in an adult intensive therapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1991-12-01

    Piaget (1964) believed that interaction with the environment has a large part to play in human development. Matthew (1986) states that in an ideal world critically ill children should be cared for by staff trained in paediatrics, within designated paediatric intensive therapy units. Unfortunately, there are only 28 paediatric intensive therapy units in Great Britain (CMA Medical Data, 1987), consequently each year a third of children requiring intensive care are admitted to adult intensive therapy units (ITU). A knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology can therefore be beneficial to nurses in assessing which stage of development a child has reached, in order to plan the correct level of stimulation, and hence facilitate progress rather than regression in the accomplishment of developmental tasks. The psychological and social processes involved in Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) theory of human development are discussed with regard to nursing children requiring intubation and ventilation in an adult ITU.

  1. The self-care motivation model: theory and practice in healthy human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, L G

    1985-02-01

    Effective health education and behavior motivation programs are needed to promote the compliance of children and young adults with preventive health care practices. Health promotion and primary prevention programs must consider the entire individual as well as his or her environment if positive behavior changes are to be maintained. This paper introduces an innovative model for self-care motivation curriculum development. The model prescribes the use of value clarification, enhanced physical/cognitive/affective awareness, positive lifestyle choices, and self-reinforcement skills training whereby individuals learn to become self-motivated and reinforcing agents for their own primary preventive health practices. It is theorized that by developing self-care and self-regulation skills, students will achieve and maintain higher levels of wellness, thus improving the quality of their lives and ensuring healthy human development.

  2. 人类发展生态学视野下的儿童发展%Children Development in the Theory of Ecology of Human Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娓娓

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,various theories of ecological orientation in the field of pre-school education gradually on the rise and spread,including of these theories,especially Bronfenbrenner's theory of ecology of human development is the concern of preschool education.This paper focuses on the analysis of the ecology of human development about the main view of children's development,and discusses the important enlightenment of theory to Chinese children's development.%近年来,各种生态取向的理论在学前教育领域逐渐兴起和传播,其中布朗芬布伦纳的人类发展生态学理论尤为广大学前教育人士所关注。本文着重分析了人类发展生态学理论关于儿童发展问题的主要观点,并探讨了该理论对我国儿童发展研究的重要启示。

  3. Formal Mentoring Relationships and Attachment Theory: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2011-01-01

    An attachment theory perspective of mentoring is presented to explain the degree of functionality of a mentor-protege formal match in an organizational setting. By focusing on Bowlby's (1969/1982) behavioral system of attachment and its triarchic taxonomy of secure, avoidant, and anxious-ambivalent attachment, previous conceptualizations are…

  4. Study of Motives of Chinese Business English Development Based on the Theory of Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichang, Ouyang; Wenzhong, Zhu; Dan, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Business English in China has evolved into a cross-disciplinary program from ESP, with more than 1000 universities having set the program of business English in bachelor, master or doctor degree levels. In general, it has undergone a rapid development and enjoyed a more and more social recognition. This paper tries to uncover the underlying…

  5. The Development of a Baccalaureate Outcome Measure Based on a Generic Skills Theory of Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.

    Even though several national testing firms have developed measures to evaluate the effectiveness of baccalaureate education, there continues to be a general reluctance on the part of faculty in colleges and universities to accept these measures as criteria on which to evaluate educational programs. Some of the resistance appears to lie in the lack…

  6. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: a social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human development II: We Need an Integrated Theory for Matter, Life and Consciousness to Understand Life and Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient’s brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call “deep” cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call “holistic biology for holistic medicine”. We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination, brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor, and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain

  8. Human development II: we need an integrated theory for matter, life and consciousness to understand life and healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-07-06

    For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient's brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call "deep" cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call "holistic biology for holistic medicine". We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination), brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor), and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain and consciousness, the

  9. Human Nature and the Development of Character: The Clash of Descriptive and Normative Elements in John Stuart Mill's Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter J.; Kim, Ki Su

    1988-01-01

    Discusses John Stuart Mill's belief in the development of character as a solution to social problems and a worthy educational ideal. Concludes that Mill's belief in education's power to perfect human nature through character development could not be realized within the framework of his anthropological views of human kind. (DMM)

  10. Human Nature and the Development of Character: The Clash of Descriptive and Normative Elements in John Stuart Mill's Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter J.; Kim, Ki Su

    1988-01-01

    Discusses John Stuart Mill's belief in the development of character as a solution to social problems and a worthy educational ideal. Concludes that Mill's belief in education's power to perfect human nature through character development could not be realized within the framework of his anthropological views of human kind. (DMM)

  11. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  12. The research summarizes of the theory of human capital to economic development%人力资本与经济发展理论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林芳

    2012-01-01

    国内外理论界的诸多学者为人力资本理论的发展做出了卓越的贡献。本文主要对国内外人力资本理论的起源和发展进程进行较为系统的梳理和研究,旨在探求人力资本与经济发展的内在关系。%the domestic and foreign scholars have an out-standing contribution to the development of the theory of hu-man capital. This paper systematically focuses on the re-search of the origin and development process of the theory of domestic and foreign human capital, aims to explore the in-ner relationship between the human capital and economic development.

  13. Quantum theory of human communication

    OpenAIRE

    Slowikowski, Wojtek; Nielsen, Erik B.

    2004-01-01

    We use notions and techniques of Quantum Field Theory to formulate and investigate basic concepts and mechanisms of human communication. We start with attitudes which correspond to photons frequencies, then we introduce states-of-mind which correspond to wave functions. Finally, by way of the second quantization, we come to states-of-opinions which correspond to states of quantized radiation fields. In the present paper we shall only investigate superpositions of pairs of coherent states (e.g...

  14. Why Is Organizing Human Resource Development so Problematic? Perspectives from the Learning-Network Theory (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poell, Rob F.; van der Krogt, Ferd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human resource development (HRD) is an important field within management. Developing employees is often regarded as an instrument to improve the internal labor market and support organizational change. Organizing HRD to these ends, however, is frequently a problematic affair, in terms of training effectiveness, participant motivation and…

  15. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory.

  16. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  17. Human Development Report 1991: Financing Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    1991-01-01

    Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real barrier to human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

  18. The psychomotor theory of human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2007-08-01

    This study presents a new theory to explain the neural origins of human mind. This is the psychomotor theory. The author briefly analyzed the historical development of the mind-brain theories. The close relations between psychological and motor systems were subjected to a rather detailed analysis, using psychiatric and neurological examples. The feedback circuits between mind, brain, and body were shown to occur within the mind-brain-body triad, in normal states, and psycho-neural diseases. It was stated that psychiatric signs and symptoms are coupled with motor disturbances; neurological diseases are coupled with psychological disturbances; changes in cortico-spinal motor-system activity may influence mind-brain-body triad, and vice versa. Accordingly, a psychomotor theory was created to explain the psychomotor coupling in health and disease, stating that, not the mind-brain duality or unity, but the mind-brain-body triad as a functional unit may be essential in health and disease, because mind does not end in the brain, but further controls movements, in a reciprocal manner; mental and motor events share the same neural substrate, cortical, and spinal motoneurons; mental events emerging from the motoneuronal system expressed by the human language may be closely coupled with the unity of the mind-brain-body triad. So, the psychomotor theory rejects the mind-brain duality and instead advances the unity of the psychomotor system, which will have important consequences in understanding and improving the human mind, brain, and body in health and disease.

  19. Marx' s Theory of Human Comprehensive Development and Its Contemporary Significance%马克思人的全面发展理论及其当代意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞

    2011-01-01

    Theory of human comprehensive development is an important part of Marxist philosophy, is an ideal on the future of mankind based on deep critique of capitalism. Marx discussed in detail the historical background, overall development process, the conditions, rich ideological content about human comprehensive development in a series of works. Marx' s theory of human comprehensive development has very important practical significance in contemporary China, it will help implement the scientific concept of development.%人的全面发展理论是马克思哲学的重要组成部分,是在对资本主义进行深刻批判的基础上提出的关于人类未来的理想。马克思在一系列著作中详细论述了人的全面发展的时代背景、人的全面发展的三种依次渐进的历史阶段、实现的条件以及丰富的思想内涵。马克思人的全面发展理论对当代中国现实也具有非常重要的意义,它有利于贯彻落实科学发展观。

  20. 马克思人的社会关系发展理论探究%Probe into the Theory of Marxist Human Social Relation Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长虎

    2014-01-01

    Marxist theory of human development takes human social practice activities as the research center ,seeks the problem of human nature from the reality of social relations and social practice process of people ’s life and production and points out the way to achieve the liberation of people and their free and comprehensive development.%马克思人的发展理论以对人的社会实践活动为研究中心,从人们所生产生活的现实社会关系和社会实践过程中去寻觅现实生活中“人”的本质问题,为实现人的解放从而达到人的自由而全面的发展指明了道路。

  1. The Theory of Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    Author outlined Kohlberg's theory of moral development and then attempted to show how it illuminated several areas of philosophic interest. The first of these is the claims of behavior modification psychologists, the second is the concept of authority in social theory, the third is the concept of legal obligation. (Author/RK)

  2. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  3. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE. Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  4. "A Human Ethogram: Its Scientific Acceptability and Importance." A Treatise Assessing Modern Theories of Personality Development and Proposing a New Comprehensive Theory of Behavior and Behavioral Development, key chapters and sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesness, Bradley

    Written by a methodological behaviorist, this treatise critiques neo-Hullian, Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian theories and presents an ethological perspective on behavior and personality development. The critique is extended to cover social learning, cognitive-developmental, neo-Freudian, and Skinnerian theories, as well as the ideas of…

  5. Development of Educational Human Capital in China Based on the Human Capital Theory%基于人力资本理论的我国教育人力资本开发分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱健; 王辉

    2016-01-01

    According to the human capital theory, specialized human capital accumulation is a decisive factor in sustained economic growth and is the true source of industrial development. The investment of expert and technical knowledge is a conscious and planned process, and we must maintain the timeliness and appropriateness during the development of human capital. Although the development of educational human capital in China still exist many problems, the human capital theory has an important implication for the development of educational human capital.%人力资本理论认为专业化人力资本积累是经济得以持续增长的决定性因素和产业发展的真正源泉,专业知识和技术知识的投资是一个刻意的、计划性的过程,人力资本开发必须保持适时性和适当性。我国教育人力资本开发还存在诸多问题,人力资本理论对于我国教育人力资本开发具有很好的启示作用。

  6. a Radical Collaborative Approach: Developing a Model for Learning Theory, Human-Based Computation and Participant Motivation in a Rock-Art Heritage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubt, R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper explores a Radical Collaborative Approach in the global and centralized Rock-Art Database project to find new ways to look at rock-art by making information more accessible and more visible through public contributions. It looks at rock-art through the Key Performance Indicator (KPI), identified with the latest Australian State of the Environment Reports to help develop a better understanding of rock-art within a broader Cultural and Indigenous Heritage context. Using a practice-led approach the project develops a conceptual collaborative model that is deployed within the RADB Management System. Exploring learning theory, human-based computation and participant motivation the paper develops a procedure for deploying collaborative functions within the interface design of the RADB Management System. The paper presents the results of the collaborative model implementation and discusses considerations for the next iteration of the RADB Universe within an Agile Development Approach.

  7. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  8. Recent Developments in Maser Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Elitzur, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    This review covers selected developments in maser theory since the previous meeting, "Cosmic Masers: From Proto-Stars to Black Holes" (Migenes & Reid 2002). Topics included are time variability of fundamental constants, pumping of OH megamasers and indicators for differentiating disks from bi-directional outflows.

  9. Analysis of human resource development based on the theory of dynamic capability%基于动态能力理论人力资源开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乾勇; 陈进; 李东鹏

    2012-01-01

    The article based on the theory of dynamic capability(DC),discussing the influence on human resource management.With the foundation of DC and KSAIBs model,the paper try to put forward the human resource development strategy under the complex of dynamic competition environment,desiring to make the relevant enterprise established the endogenous human resources development ability,so that businesses can adapt to the complex of dynamic competition environment.%以动态能力理论为基础,探讨动态能力理论发展对企业人力资源管理的影响,将企业动态能力的形成因素与KSAIBs人力资源开发模型结合,尝试性地提出企业在复杂动态的竞争环境下进行人力资源开发的相关策略,从而使企业建立内生的人力资源开发能力,以适应复杂动态的竞争环境。

  10. Theory of Optimal Human Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert Loongtak

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents optimal theories for punching and running. The first is a theory of the optimal karate punch in terms of the duration and the speed of the punch. This theory is solved and compared with experimental data. The theory incorporates the force vs velocity equation (Hill's eq.) and Wilkie's equation for elbow flexation in determining the optimal punch. The time T and the final speed of the punch are dependent on a few physiological parameters for arm muscles. The theoretical punch agrees fairly well with our experiments and other independent experiments. Second, a theory of optimal running is presented, solved and compared with world track records. The theory is similar to Keller's theory for running (1973) except that the power consumed by a runner is assumed to be proportional to the runner's speed v, P = Hv, whereas Keller took P = constant. There are differential equations for velocity and energy, two initial conditions and two constraint inequalities, involving a total of four free parameters. Optimal control techniques are used to solve this problem and minimize the running time T given the race distance D. The resultant predicted times T agree well with the records and the parameter values are consistent with independent physiological measurements.

  11. Theory and practice in medical education – expectations and development of skills experienced by students of human medicine compared with students in other disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedmont, Silke

    2015-02-01

    students in other disciplines, in developing independence, problem-solving ability, critical ability and capacity for teamwork for example. Conclusion: The high expectations held by human medicine students of being prepared for practical work with/on people are met to an above-average degree according to their assessments of the “practical relevance” and “career preparation” offered by their medical education. However the perceived development of skills in theory and practice does not respond sufficiently well to the demands of the complex, responsible profession they aspire to. Medical students should be better supported in developing both practical and academic independence.

  12. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  13. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  14. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Mukhi; Probir Roy

    2009-07-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics back-ground, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical paradigm of String Theory – have been made to go beyond the Standard Model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors.

  15. Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…

  16. Human Capital Theory: A Holistic Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Human capital theory has had a profound impact on a range of disciplines from economics to education and sociology. The theory has always been the subject of bitter criticisms from the very beginning, but it has comfortably survived and expanded its influence over other research disciplines. Not surprisingly, a considerable number of criticisms…

  17. On the Consistency of Marx's Theory of Human's Comprehensive Development and the System of Socialist Core Value---Human-oriented:Human Nature,Humanity and Humanization%论马克思人的全面发展学说与社会主义核心价值体系的一致性--以人为本:人性、人文、人化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏

    2016-01-01

    马克思人的全面发展学说从现实的人和生产关系进行分析,发现了人全面发展的条件和途径。人的全面发展是指体力和智力都能够自由、充分、协调发展。这一学说为我们党和政府坚持以人为本和科学发展观提供了理论支持。当前我们正在积极推进社会主义核心价值体系建设,不仅体现了马克思主义与时俱进的时代要求,同时也是我们党和政府关注民生、重视人民群众思想观念的最真实写照。因此,从根本目的上说,人的全面发展学说与社会主义核心价值体系是一致的,都体现了以人为本的社会治理理念,并且可以进一步从人性、人文、人化这三个方面作探讨。%On the condition of analyzing the realistic human and production relations,Marx's theory of human's comprehen-sive development found out the conditions and ways for human's comprehensive development.Human's comprehensive develop-ment is that human's physical strength and intelligence can develop freely,fully and harmoniously.This theory has provided theoretical support for our party and government to adhere to the people-oriented and scientific concept of development.Cur-rently we are actively promoting the construction of socialist core value system,not only embodying the requirements of the era of Marxism,but also our party and the government concerning about the livelihood of the peopleand paying attention to the ide-as of the masses.Therefore,from the fundamental purpose,Marx's theory of human's comprehensive development is consistent with the socialist core value system,reflecting the people-centered concept of social governance,and also from the human na-ture,humanityand humanization for further discussion.

  18. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-02-12

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  19. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

  20. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  1. An Energy Model for Viewing Embodied Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Neil A.; Geroy, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    Human capital development is one of the emerging areas of study with regard to social science theory, practice, and research. A relatively new concept, human capital is described in terms of individual knowledge skills and experience. It is currently expressed as a function of education as well as a measure of economic activity. Little theory…

  2. A theory of neurolinguistic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L

    1997-06-15

    This article offers a developmental theory of language and the neural systems that lead to and subserve linguistic capabilities. Early perceptual experience and discontinuities in linguistic development suggest that language develops in four phases that occur in a fixed, interdependent sequence. In each phase of language, a unique ontogenetic function is accomplished. These functions have proprietary neural systems that vary in their degree of specialization. Of particular interest is an analytical mechanism that is responsible for linguistic grammar. This mechanism is time-locked and can only be turned on in the third phase. Confirming evidence is provided by children who are delayed in the second phase of the language learning process. These children store insufficient lexical material to activate their analytic mechanism. Inactivation behaves like damage, shifting language functions to homologous mechanisms in the nondominant hemisphere, thereby increasing functional and anatomical symmetry across the hemispheres. This atypical assembly of neurolinguistic resources produces functional but imperfect command of spoken language and may complicate learning of written language. The theory thus offers a different role for genetics and early experience, and a different interpretation of neuroanatomic findings, from those entertained in most other proposals on developmental language disorders.

  3. Theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L; Bowen, D M

    2016-11-09

    Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM). Using the Walker and Avant Theory Analysis, a seven-step process, the DH HNCM, was analysed and evaluated for its meaningfulness and contribution to dental hygiene. The steps include the following: (i) investigate the origins; (ii) examine relationships of the theory's concepts; (iii) assess the logic of the theory's structure; (iv) consider the usefulness to practice; (v) judge the generalizability; (vi) evaluate the parsimony; and (vii) appraise the testability of the theory. Human needs theory in nursing and Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory prompted this theory's development. The DH HNCM depicts four concepts based on the paradigm concepts of the profession: client, health/oral health, environment and dental hygiene actions, and includes validated eleven human needs that evolved overtime to eight. It is logical, simplistic, allows scientific predictions and testing, and provides a unique lens for the dental hygiene practitioner. With this model, dental hygienists have entered practice, knowing they enable clients to meet their human needs. For the DH HNCM, theory analysis affirmed that the model is reasonable and insightful and adds to the dental hygiene professions' epistemology and ontology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  5. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  6. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  7. Challenging (Strategic) Human Resource management Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo fully understand the relationship between human resource management and performance in different contexts, we are in need of a synthesis between resource-based theory and new institutionalism. We argue that differences in institutional settings (between for example countries or branch

  8. Using Human Evolution to Teach Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besterman, Hugo; La Velle, Linda Baggott

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some traditional approaches to the teaching of evolutionary theory at pre-university level, criticising in particular some of the more commonly used models and exemplars. Curricular demands are described and an alternative approach is suggested, using the emerging story of human evolution. Recent discoveries help to illustrate…

  9. Using Human Evolution to Teach Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besterman, Hugo; La Velle, Linda Baggott

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some traditional approaches to the teaching of evolutionary theory at pre-university level, criticising in particular some of the more commonly used models and exemplars. Curricular demands are described and an alternative approach is suggested, using the emerging story of human evolution. Recent discoveries help to illustrate…

  10. Challenging (Strategic) Human Resource management Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo fully understand the relationship between human resource management and performance in different contexts, we are in need of a synthesis between resource-based theory and new institutionalism. We argue that differences in institutional settings (between for example countries or

  11. Connecting Bowen theory with its human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, M

    1996-12-01

    Murray Bowen recognized the importance of grounding clinical practice within a clearly articulated theoretical framework, which could claim its place within the general scientific tradition. Bowen theory has established itself as a significant contribution to the field of family therapy. However, in its insistence on excluding, in the interests of rigorous inquiry, all contributions except those from a natural science perspective, Bowen theory has neglected the very elements that are the identifying characteristics of Homo sapiens. As well as recognizing the common systemic characteristics of all life forms, a theory of the family and family therapy that does justice to the human condition will also need to attend to the ways in which human systems are distinct from those of other life forms. In this enterprise, the social sciences will be as important as the natural sciences.

  12. The application of humanization theory to health-promoting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    It has been identified that if public health interventions do not account for what it means to be human, they are likely to fail. The aim of this article is to introduce humanization theory and to show how it can be applied to health-promoting practice. Health promotion can feature humanizing and dehumanizing elements, and these appear to impact on how people may (or may not) engage with interventions. The primary prevention of skin cancer in young people is an illustration of this. The practice implications of applying humanization theory to health promotion are potentially vast and complex; however, it is proposed that considering the dimensions of humanization may be a useful activity to inform the early stages of health-promotion intervention designs. Furthermore, developing the qualitative research evidence base about peoples' experiences of humanizing dimensions of health promotion would also be a valuable step towards ensuring that interventions account for the 'human dimension'. Applying humanization theory to the specific example of skin cancer prevention in young people has been a new venture but based on work so far, suggestions for humanizing principles for skin cancer prevention would need to be inclusive of the needs of young people, to support them and to involve them in research and intervention development.

  13. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  14. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  15. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  16. Human agency in social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A

    1989-09-01

    The present article examines the nature and function of human agency within the conceptual model of triadic reciprocal causation. In analyzing the operation of human agency in this interactional causal structure, social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes. The issues addressed concern the psychological mechanisms through which personal agency is exercised, the hierarchical structure of self-regulatory systems, eschewal of the dichotomous construal of self as agent and self as object, and the properties of a nondualistic but nonreductional conception of human agency. The relation of agent causality to the fundamental issues of freedom and determinism is also analyzed.

  17. THE THEORY OF CIVILIZATIONS THROUGH THE LENS OF CONTEMPORARY HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Danylova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper invites reflections on the further development of civilizational theory through the lens of contemporary humanities. It argues that philosophy is one of the key dimensions of the integral theory of civilizations. The purpose is to promote dialogue-rich interdisciplinary civilizational approach with philosophical understanding of human essence at its core. Methodology. The author has used comparative historical analysis, along with hermeneutical methodology and interdisciplinary approach. Theoretical basis and results. Faced with the challenges of our time, researchers are turning to the civilizational approach, according to which world history appears to us as a colourful spectrum of the options for the development of humanity. At the present stage of scientific development the integral theory of civilizations seems to be the most productive tool for the interpretation of the events taking place in our world. Origianlity. The problem of human being is a key factor in understanding the dynamics of civilizational process and designing a promising theory of civilizations. Philosophy should occupy an important place in the development of a new theory of civilizations: philosophy is the spiritual quintessence of every epoch, every cultural and civilizational community. In particular, a new theory has to take into account both classic and contemporary investigations in the field of philosophical anthropology and theory of values. The increasing threat posed by the clash of civilizations can become a swan song of humanity. For the preservation and further development of the world civilization, there is no other choice but to elaborate the strategies, mechanisms for consultation and dialogue, cooperation and partnership of civilizations and states. That is why the urgent task is to create the certain philosophical position that will contribute to mutual understanding. Conclusions. It is important to involve philosophers in the

  18. The Semi-Aquatic Theory: Semi-Aquatic Evolutionary Phase and Environment, Language Development of Modern Humans. With a Short Epilog on Conceptualized Evolution, Social Ecology and the Quintuple Helix

    OpenAIRE

    George S. Campbell; David F.J. Campbell

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the semi-aquatic theory motivated to provide an explanation for why or how did language of the modern humans develop? Key propositions of this theory are early hominids went through a semi-aquatic evolutionary phase and that this semi-aquatic environment exposed the early hominids to frequent visual reflections of their own image, thus transforming a “potential sense of self†to an “active sense of self†, which supported the language development of early hominids....

  19. Liberating methodological thinking in human sciences from grand theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2016-01-01

    Many humanistic and social disciplines are naturally inclined to seek for human-, person-, self- centered focus, and develop a holistic theory of such. Such disciplines continually engage with philosophical, metaphysical and meta-theoretical perspectives. This engagement often leads to a singular...... focus on the necessity of a “grand unified theory” at the expense of any and all alternative perspectives. Properties of grand theories are discussed on the examples of Giddens and Bourdieu. It is argued that grand theories hamper a more productive focus on concrete phenomena. Robert Merton’s focus...... on “middle range” theories is revisited and its continuing relevance is highlighted. The level of abstraction characteristic of such theories, as well as the way they engage with the empirical social reality, are discussed. The article concludes by considering the paradoxical reductionism that can...

  20. Theory of mind development can withstand compromised episodic memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Braverman, Anna; Gilboa, Asaf; Stuss, Donald T; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2012-12-01

    As humans, we are consciously aware of unobservable mental states, including our own during episodic memory and other people's by having a "theory of mind" (ToM). Episodic memory and ToM are closely related: they share a neural substrate and emerge close in time in ontogenetic development. This relationship is central to prominent child development and cognitive neuroscience theories of ToM, but its causal nature has not been tested empirically. The current study examined whether normal episodic memory development is necessary for normal ToM development. To investigate this, we tested H.C., a young woman with impaired episodic memory development due to early hippocampal damage, on a wide range of ToM measures. H.C.'s performance was indistinguishable from that of controls on all tests of ToM suggesting that, contrary to theoretical claims in the literature, normal episodic memory development and hippocampal function are not essential for the development of ToM.

  1. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  2. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  3. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  4. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  5. Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H.

    1977-01-01

    This article outlines some of the contributions of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development in providing a developmental perspective on career behavior. A brief overview of Erikson's theory is presented and possible contributions of the theory towards enhancing understanding of career development are noted. (Author)

  6. Development and application of social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V; Archbold, J

    This article traces the development of social learning theory over the last 30 years, relating the developments to clinical nursing practice. Particular attention is focused on the contribution of Albert Bandura, the American psychologist, and his work on modelling.

  7. On the Application of Comprehensive Human Develop-ment Theory to College Ideological and Political Educa-tion%人的全面发展理论在高校思想政治教育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      近年来,学生的全面发展得到了党中央的高度重视,随着构建社会主义和谐社会的提出及落实,将“以人为本”的理念提高到新的高度。在高校环境下,基于思想政治教育的重要性,以马克思人的全面发展理论为基点对高校思想政治教育方法的对策进行梳理。%In recent years, the CPC Central Committee attaches great importance to students' comprehensive development, and human-orientation concept has been raised to a new height wuth the proposing and implementation of socialist harmonious society. In college environment, based on the importance of ideological and political education, this paper summarizes the countermea-sures of college ideological and political education based on Marx's theory of comprehensive human development.

  8. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mills

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. They also discuss Charmaz's landmark work on constructivist grounded theory relative to her positioning of the researcher in relation to the participants, analysis of the data, and rendering of participants' experiences into grounded theory. Grounded theory can be seen as a methodological spiral that begins with Glaser and Strauss' original text and continues today. The variety of epistemological positions that grounded theorists adopt are located at various points on this spiral and are reflective of their underlying ontologies.

  9. 从马斯洛需要理论看人的全面发展的实现途径%From Maslow’s Needs Theory to Research the Ways of Achieve Human Comprehensive Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒阳晔; 谭峰亮

    2014-01-01

    Man's all-round development theory is an important part of Marxist philosophy about human theory.At present,this theory has been pay more and more attention,become one of the hot issues in the philosophical circles. Human needs is based on the life and power of all human activities is inherent and essential stipulation.The essence of man's realization degree and the needs of the people is directly related to satisfaction.This paper is based on through to the complete works of Marx and Engels and the selection the study about Man's all-round development theory,and combination with Marlow hierarchy of needs theory, discusses the realization of man's all-round development.%人的全面发展理论是马克思主义哲学关于人的学说的重要组成部分。当下,这一理论受到越来越多的重视,成为哲学界比较关注的热点问题之一。人的需要是人的全部生命活动的根据与动力,是人内在的、本质的规定性。人的本质的实现程度与人的需要的满足程度是直接相关的。主要是基于通过对马克思恩格斯全集及选集中关于人的全面发展理论的研读,结合马斯洛需要层次理论,探讨人的全面发展的实现途径。

  10. The Systems Theory Framework of Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF; McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 2006) of career development was proposed as a metatheoretical framework that accommodates the contribution of all theories and offers an integrative and coherent framework of career influences. In this article, the author provides an overview of the STF, outlines its…

  11. The historical character of human nature in Freud's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbersheid, Uri

    2013-06-01

    In Freud' theories of human development, human nature is described and analyzed as essentially historical. At the core of human history is the restructuring of the sexual instinct and the death instinct (or its unique form as destructive impulses). The conscious, asked-for shaping of these two instincts, under the rule of the "reality principle", forms the basis of human society at all stages. This conscious restructuring has also unintended, unasked-for results, which are part of the historically developing human nature. The historical choice has been the building of human society as a social complex based on the de-eroticization of both the individual and society. Freud suggested that the historical process of changing human nature and maintaining the achieved new structure has mainly been an enterprise of enlightened political elite, which has imposed (in all societies) the various elements of the new nature upon the ordinary people. Human history is essentially a deed of the political sphere. In viewing human nature as consisting of both asked-for and unasked-for results of human conscious purposeful activity Freud belongs to the same historical school as Marx.

  12. On The Research of Foreign and Domestic Human Capital Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fuzhu

    2005-01-01

    Human Capital Theory came into being in the middle and later periods of the 20th century.A lot of achievements have been made on the research in its connotation, measures of the value, investment and income, function mechanism and so on, by foreign scholars. In recent 10 years of the new Millennium ahernation, the "steal business effect" and the structure of human capital on the mechanism of economic rise has become the two emphasis in current foreign Human Capital Theory's research. On the basis of foreign researches and Chinese situations, domestic scholars have enriched and developed it, but there are many disparities in its methods, aspects and levels between foreign and domestic researches.

  13. Human Resources Management & Development Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, William R., Ed.

    This revised handbook on the theory and practice of human resources management and development (HRM/D) focuses on people management and the personnel development processes. The book's 18 parts and 102 chapters by 107 contributors provide authoritative and comprehensive information on every aspect of modern HRM/D. Part 1 provides an overview of…

  14. [From humanism to nihilism: dialectics on Jean Watson's caring theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Pawel J; Lavoie, Mireille

    2015-09-01

    nursing today is heir to values that have developed over many years. In addition to the values of human care, present-day nursing embraces values that shape our modern world. This dialectical study first traces the evolution of a number of the traditional values associated with human care that nursing has retained. It goes on to show how some of the values of human care have been cast aside in favour of modern--neoliberal, technocratic and bureaucratic--values which have in turn given rise to disturbing problems of instrumentalization. Watson's theory of caring proposes two ways to remedy such instrumentalization: espousing a transcendental, metaphysical mode of thought and adopting an altruistic humanism. However, many critics have questioned the theoretical consistency and very legitimacy of the theory as a means of dealing with instrumentalization. this study analyses Watson's proposals, using a Nietzschean dialectic approach to test them and to suggest possible solutions. Significant problems in terms of both consistency and relevance are brought to light, tending to refute Watson's notions. the study findings suggest that the application of Watson's theory may paradoxically perpetuate dualism and nihilism and, rather than curb their invasive impact, lead inevitably to a conversion to instrumental values. it's suggested an alternative, ethics-of-life approach based on the synthesis of our dialectics that would foster a return to, and respect for, humanity's essential nature.

  15. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Hans eIjzerman; Coan, James A.; FIeke eWagemans; Marjolein eMissler; Ilja eVan Beest; Siegwart eLindenberg; Mattie eTops

    2015-01-01

    Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature—thermoregulation—is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social) psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people’s expectati...

  16. 能力·机会·选择:和谐论的人的全面发展观%Ability·Opportunity·Choice:View of All-Round Development of Human Being of Harmony Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万资姿

    2011-01-01

    According to harmony theory,all-round development of human being is "development of human being's capacity as aim itself "in the final analysis,equal acquirement and full use of subject's development opportunity,continual expansion process of subject's free choice,and harmonious development of human being's capacity,opportunity,choice,external objective conditions and internal subjective world.All-round development of human being not only relates closely to human being's living conditions,but also reflects the internal demands and value of human being's capacity,opportunity,and choice.All-round development of human being is just the subject's positive perfection of their own development and living conditions caused by these factors above.%和谐论的人的全面发展观认为,人的全面发展归根到底是"作为目的本身的人类能力的发展",是主体对自身发展机会的平等获得和充分利用,也是一个不断扩大主体自由选择的过程,更应是人的能力、机会、选择与外在客观条件以及与人自身主观世界的和谐发展。人的全面发展既同人们生活的客观条件密切相关,又体现了人们各种能力、机会、选择的内在需求和价值。人的全面发展正是这些因素共同作用而产生的主体对自身存在和发展状况的一种积极的完善。

  17. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  18. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaLouise Keating

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work of Chicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa, this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentric epistemologies (including feminist standpoint theories into more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledge production which are neither entirely human-centered nor fully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts: (1 A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrism and the limitations in mainstream feminist standpoint theory’s ability to overcome this anthropocentrism; (2 an exploration of recent developments in virology’s promising alternatives to anthropocentrism’s narrow definition of the human; and (3 an analysis of Anzaldúa’s innovative nepantlera subjectivity and onto-epistemology as seen in her theory of conocimiento. Because scholars have yet to examine the post-anthropocentric (and posthumanist dimensions of Anzaldúa’s thought, but instead generally categorize her epistemology as an ethnic-specific feminist standpoint theory, her work offers a unique point of entry into these investigations.

  19. The development of human nature in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Simonovski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of human nature in children from 4 to 12 years of age. The concept of human nature is described by Oerter (Oerter, 1991, 1994; Oerter, Oerter, Agostiani, Kim, in Wibowo, 1996 in his theory of development of implicit anthropology. Two procedures were applied in the research: an interview on adulthood and a social dilemma story, which was followed by a guided interview. The distribution of the developmental stages of the concept of human nature in children of different age is presented, along with the frequency of higher-stage answers that progressively rises with subject's age. The frequency of the answers on the first, the second and the third developmental stage is compared between sexes. Higher level of conceptualisation of human nature in girls was found when compared with boys. The intering in personality, social and action theory are explained.

  20. Cognitive theories of early gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Szkrybalo, Joel

    2002-11-01

    The contribution of cognitive perspectives (cognitive-developmental theory and gender schema theory) to a contemporary understanding of gender development is evaluated. Recent critiques of cognitive approaches are discussed and empirical evidence is presented to counter these critiques. Because of the centrality of early gender development to the cognitive perspective, the latest research is reviewed on how infants and toddlers discriminate the sexes and learn the attributes correlated with sex. The essence of cognitive approaches--emphasis on motivational consequences of gender concepts; the active, self-initiated view of development; and focus on developmental patterns-is highlighted and contrasted with social-cognitive views. The value of cognitive theories to the field is illustrated, and recommendations are made concerning how to construct comprehensive, integrative perspectives of gender development.

  1. 从马克思人的全面发展理论解读抗挫折教育%An Interpretation of Anti-frustration Education from the Perspective of Comprehensive Human Development Theory of Marx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亚超; 张春梅

    2014-01-01

    马克思人的全面发展理论具有丰富的内涵,为我们制定抗挫折教育的教育目标和培养方案提供了科学的理论依据。基于马克思人的全面发展理论这一视角,从人的需要全面发展、人的能力全面发展、人的社会关系全面发展和人的个性全面发展几方面,来探源抗挫折教育的马克思主义哲学理论基础,以期对提高抗挫折教育工作的有效性,实现教育方法和教育理念的创新发展有所裨益。%Marx’ s theory of comprehensive development has a profound meaning,which provides a scientific the-ory basis for us to set educational goal in anti-frustration education and make training program. From the perspec-tive of Marx’ s theory of comprehensive development,this paper will dig out the foundation of Marxism philosophy in anti-frustration education from the comprehensive development of human capacity, human needs, social relations and human personality. Finally,it aims to enhance the effectiveness of anti-frustration education work,a-chieves the innovation and development of the educational methods and educational philosophy.

  2. Human development VIII: a theory of "deep" quantum chemistry and cell consciousness: quantum chemistry controls genes and biochemistry to give cells and higher organisms consciousness and complex behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-11-14

    Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it "sees", and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam's razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules' orbitals make one huge "cell-orbital", which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants) and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  3. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  4. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  5. The development of elementary quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Capellmann, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This book traces the evolution of the ideas that eventually resulted in the elementary quantum theory in 1925/26. Further, it discusses the essential differences between the fundamental equations of Quantum Theory derived by Born and Jordan, logically comprising Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Optics, and the traditional view of the development of Quantum Mechanics. Drawing on original publications and letters written by the main protagonists of that time, it shows that Einstein’s contributions from 1905 to 1924 laid the essential foundations for the development of Quantum Theory. Einstein introduced quantization of the radiation field; Born added quantized mechanical behavior. In addition, Born recognized that Quantum Mechanics necessarily required Quantum Optics; his radical concept of truly discontinuous and statistical quantum transitions (“quantum leaps”) was directly based on Einstein’s physical concepts.

  6. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Coan, James A.; Wagemans, Fieke M. A.; Missler, Marjolein A.; van Beest, Ilja; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tops, Mattie

    2015-01-01

    Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature—thermoregulation—is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social) psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people’s expectations of their social world (i.e., attachment) and their prediction of the social world. We provide support and outline a research agenda that includes consequences for individual variation in self-regulatory strategies and capabilities. In our paper, we discuss physiological, neural, and social processes surrounding thermoregulation. Emphasizing social thermoregulation in particular, we appeal to the economy of action principle and the hierarchical organization of human thermoregulatory systems. We close with future directions of a crucial aspect of human functioning: the social regulation of body temperature. PMID:25954223

  7. A Theory of Social Thermoregulation in Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eIjzerman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature—thermoregulation—is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people’s expectations of their social world (i.e., attachment and their prediction of the social world. We provide support and outline a research agenda that includes consequences for individual variation in self-regulatory strategies and capabilities. In our paper, we discuss physiological, neural, and social processes surrounding thermoregulation. Emphasizing social thermoregulation in particular, we appeal to the economy of action principle and the hierarchical organization of human thermoregulatory systems. We close with future directions of a crucial aspect of human functioning: The social regulation of body temperature.

  8. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Coan, James A; Wagemans, Fieke M A; Missler, Marjolein A; van Beest, Ilja; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Tops, Mattie

    2015-01-01

    Beyond breathing, the regulation of body temperature-thermoregulation-is one of the most pressing concerns for many animals. A dysregulated body temperature has dire consequences for survival and development. Despite the high frequency of social thermoregulation occurring across many species, little is known about the role of social thermoregulation in human (social) psychological functioning. We outline a theory of social thermoregulation and reconsider earlier research on people's expectations of their social world (i.e., attachment) and their prediction of the social world. We provide support and outline a research agenda that includes consequences for individual variation in self-regulatory strategies and capabilities. In our paper, we discuss physiological, neural, and social processes surrounding thermoregulation. Emphasizing social thermoregulation in particular, we appeal to the economy of action principle and the hierarchical organization of human thermoregulatory systems. We close with future directions of a crucial aspect of human functioning: the social regulation of body temperature.

  9. Metaphor and the theory of libidinal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, B A

    1997-10-01

    The author argues that ongoing work in cognitive linguistics affords a better understanding of how metaphor functions, both in psychic life and in the formulation of psychoanalytic theory. Lakoff and Johnson have shown that a great deal of our thought and perception depends on mainly unconscious metaphors, drawn in large part from basic bodily experience. Their findings can be most immediately related to psychoanalysis via the theory of libidinal development. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, the theory of libidinal development was itself generated in part by a metaphor--a misleading embryological one, which, historically, has tended to encourage reification. Secondly, the links that the theory points out between experience of cathected zones and later character traits are essentially metaphorical (or metonymic) in nature. The author considers that it should be possible to re-express the classical theory in language that both avoids reification and gives due importance to metaphor, and that such a re-expression would offer a number of advantages, including that of clarifying the relationship between possession of a penis and 'phallic' character traits.

  10. Circular Economy Development Mode Based on System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Huamao; Wang Fengqi

    2007-01-01

    The paper tries to explore circular economy from the viewpoint of the system theory.Circular economy is a kind of complicated economic acdvity,and it is a wholly new ecotype economy pmposed by Western countries after they had summed up many experiences and lessons from traditional economy.It is an entirety and has many layers.It keeps an open and dynamic balance.Because the system theory is the theoretical foundation of circular economy,we should systemically analyze and study circular economy from the macroscopic view,correctly grasp its operational laws,improve its service functions,and realize human beings's ustainable development.The paper introduces the content and general characteristics of the system theory and the idea of circular economy.Then it analyzes circular economy based on the systemtheory.The paper concludes that the intonation of circular economy and the system theory can promote the functions of circular economy.

  11. A Structural Theory of Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development is restated in less technical terms, with emphasis on the concepts of: (1) moral judgment, rather than behavior, values, or feelings; (2) "stages," describing consistencies in moral reasoning procedures; and (3) "better" stages, measuring structurally more adequate levels. (MJB)

  12. Gestalt Therapy: Development, Theory, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Robert

    This paper presents a full review of the literature in the area of Gestalt Therapy and could be helpful in familiarizing people with this discipline. The roots contributing to the development of Gestalt therapy as presently practiced are explored briefly. Gestalt theory is presented in a developmental way, initially exploring the relationship…

  13. The Nomad Model: Theory, Developments and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanella, M.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Daamen, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents details of the developments of the Nomad model after being introduced more than 12 years ago. The model is derived from a normative theory of pedestrian behavior making it unique under microscopic models. Nomad has been successfully applied in several cases indicating that it ful

  14. Human Resource Management: The need for theory and diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Wolfgang; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Human Resource Management as an academic discipline needs to be theoretically grounded, i.e. it requires support through theories, theory-driven empirical research and critiques. In doing so, different theoretical perspectives are addressed suggesting a problem-orientated theory selection which leads inevitably to theoretical diversity.

  15. HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. IMPLICATIONS IN DEVELEOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Buta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the organization, the human capital theory and human resource management raises a number of issues, namely: human capital issues (they relate to attracting, maintaining, developing and rewarding human resources in order to create and maintain a skilled, dedicated and motivated personnel; issues related to the structural capital (with reference to the size and development of organizational structures that stimulate the processes of creating, capturing and sizing of knowledge; issues of organizational capital( those related to knowledge management. Therefore, organizational context, several questions arise: What knowledge do we have? What knowledge do we need now and in the future? How can we create an environment and a culture that encourages individual and organizational learning? How can we do so that both explicit and tacit knowledge to be captured stored and used judiciously? This paper focuses on human capital theory, but there will also be raised concepts associated to the human resources and knowledge management. Therefore, in this paper we try to identify ways in which human resources (HR specialists can support the KM strategy to drive value within organisation, by revising the practices in order to ensure the knowledge focus.

  16. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  17. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  18. Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice in Human Performance Technology: Examples from Behavioral, Cognitive, and Constructivist Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethower, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how to integrate theory, research, and practice in human performance technology. Discusses human learning; market pull versus knowledge push; using inquiry to connect theory, research, and practice; constructivist examples; behavioral and cognitive approaches; and differences in research methodologies. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  19. Chaos theory perspective for industry clusters development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiying; Jiang, Minghui; Li, Chengzhang

    2016-03-01

    Industry clusters have outperformed in economic development in most developing countries. The contributions of industrial clusters have been recognized as promotion of regional business and the alleviation of economic and social costs. It is no doubt globalization is rendering clusters in accelerating the competitiveness of economic activities. In accordance, many ideas and concepts involve in illustrating evolution tendency, stimulating the clusters development, meanwhile, avoiding industrial clusters recession. The term chaos theory is introduced to explain inherent relationship of features within industry clusters. A preferred life cycle approach is proposed for industrial cluster recessive theory analysis. Lyapunov exponents and Wolf model are presented for chaotic identification and examination. A case study of Tianjin, China has verified the model effectiveness. The investigations indicate that the approaches outperform in explaining chaos properties in industrial clusters, which demonstrates industrial clusters evolution, solves empirical issues and generates corresponding strategies.

  20. Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, K; Bandura, A

    1999-10-01

    Human differentiation on the basis of gender is a fundamental phenomenon that affects virtually every aspect of people's daily lives. This article presents the social cognitive theory of gender role development and functioning. It specifies how gender conceptions are constructed from the complex mix of experiences and how they operate in concert with motivational and self-regulatory mechanisms to guide gender-linked conduct throughout the life course. The theory integrates psychological and sociostructural determinants within a unified conceptual structure. In this theoretical perspective, gender conceptions and roles are the product of a broad network of social influences operating interdependently in a variety of societal subsystems. Human evolution provides bodily structures and biological potentialities that permit a range of possibilities rather than dictate a fixed type of gender differentiation. People contribute to their self-development and bring about social changes that define and structure gender relationships through their agentic actions within the interrelated systems of influence.

  1. Unknown Vygotsky: Cultural-Historical Theory in the Context of Pavlov’s Theory of Higher Nervous Activity and H. Werner’s Differential Development Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuprikova N.I.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The position about the internal connection between the cultural-historical theory of development of higher mental functions of L.S. Vygotsky and two prominent theories of the 20th century is substatianted. Firstly, this is the theory of conditioned reflex of I.P. Pavlov, including the idea of significant qualitative difference between human higher nervous activity and human behaviour and those of animals, due to the presence of the second signal system as a “grand speech signal” in humans. Second, this is the differential theory of development by H. Werner, which fits a number of key ideas of L.S. Vygotsky about the development of speech function and the role of the word in the psychological development of a child.

  2. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT PROSPECT OF BEIJING 2049 IN RELATION WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THEORY OF SCIENCES OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN TERM OF MULTI-DISCIPLINARY COOPERATION%人居与北京“2049”战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴唯佳

    2013-01-01

    人居是指包括乡村、集镇、城市、区域等在内的所有人类聚落及其环境,是社会、经济、文化发展的客观载体.城镇化是人居发展的一个重要过程.我国城镇化速度快、规模大,城乡人居建设面临复杂的资源环境局面.针对人居建设综合协同的特点,人居科学提出融贯综合的技术路线,发展了组织科学共同体、形成整体合力的人居研究科学方法,以协调空间开发秩序,统筹解决有限资源和人居建设之间的矛盾.北京2049是指对中华人民共和国成立100周年北京城市发展前景的多学科研究.北京2049运用了人居科学方法,探讨了2049年北京区域空间秩序的发展前景.%Human settlement means all kinds of human living environments such as villages, towns, cities, and regions. It is the objective carrier for the social, economic, and cultural development. Urbanization is one of the most important processes of human settlement development. The urbanization in China is featured with high speed and large scale, resulting in a difficult situation for the construction of urban and rural human settlements in terms of resources and environment. In accordance with the feature of comprehensive coordination in human settlement development, the Sciences of Human Settlements suggests an integrated technical approach, which establishes the scientific research unity and forms an integrated research method, to coordinate the spatial development sequence and tackle with the contradiction between limited resources and the need of construction. Beijing 2049 is the multi-disciplinary research on the spatial development strategy for the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China in 2049. As a practice of the theory of the Sciences of Human Settlements, it explores the prospect of spatial development of the mega-city region of Beijing in 2049.

  3. Human Needs Theory: Applications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the author reviews needs theory as a field of research and scholarship, examines seven needs theories (including Nussbaum's capabilities approach), and synthesizes elements of all of these into a list he used tentatively and speculatively to analyze two common instructional practices in music education. The author's intent is to…

  4. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  5. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  6. Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: The Nigeria Experience

    OpenAIRE

    God’stime Osekhebhen Eigbiremolen; Uchechi Shirley Anaduaka

    2014-01-01

    This study employs the augmented Solow human-capital-growth model to investigate the impact of human capital development on national output, a proxy for economic growth, using quarterly time-series data from 1999-2012. Empirical results show that human capita development, in line with theory, exhibits significant positive impact on output level. This implies that human capital development is indispensable in the achievement of sustainable economic growth in Nigeria, as there is an increase in...

  7. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  8. Egocentrism in Norbert Elias’ theory of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Novoa Patiño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay conceptualises the importance of children in Norbert Elias’ theory of development. This analytical axis has been barely developed in most of sociologic interpretations on Elias’ work. Studies like that of Vera Weiler have brought into focus the influence of development psychology in Elias’ work, particularly in Jean Piaget’s research. With this turn on Elias thought studies, the Geman sociologist’s contributions are placed beyond considering him as a state theoretician integrating sociogenesis and psychogenesis in the behavior aspect coming back to Freud. By incorporating Jean Piaget’s development psychology, the concept of psychogenesis gets broader son as to encompass both social development and social sciences understanding.

  9. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  10. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  11. Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    This book explores career development theories and shows how to apply them in a counseling setting. The first three parts of the book cover three major theoretical areas. The four chapters of part one include discussions of trait and factor theory, work adjustment theory, Holland's theory of types, and Myers-Briggs type theory. Part two contains…

  12. Kohlberg's theory of moral development: insights into rights reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development was based on extensive research done on the reactions of people of all ages to specific moral situational dilemmas. Kohlberg was specifically interested in reasoning processes involved in decision-making. The way in which children perceive their rights is also based on reasoning processes that are inextricably linked to their level of development and more specifically to their level of moral development since the area of human rights can be considered essentially moral. Since Kohlberg's theory is primarily concerned with development, a great deal of insight can be gained into the developmental shift that occurs in children's reasoning about the rights to which they feel they should be entitled. This article focuses on Kohlberg's six-stage theory, specifically as it pertains to reasoning processes similar to those that would be used in rights reasoning. At each stage the authors propose a potential view of how children at each developmental stage might perceive their rights based on the description Kohlberg gives of the developmental trends associated with each stage. A critical assessment of Kohlberg's work is also given in order to highlight certain considerations about the limitations of this theory that need to be considered for future research.

  13. Human Potential Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Edna J.

    This paper describes the organization and implementation of 16 seminars on the subject of developing the potentials inherent in the individuals involved. The stated goals of this group project for teacher corps interns are: (1) identify and use personal strengths and potential in many areas; (2) understand achievement patterns and the way in which…

  14. Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...

  15. Citation relations of theories of human information behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamid R Jamali

    2013-01-01

      Interrelation of models and theories of human information behaviour (HIB), their common roots, and the extent to which they are indebted to the fields other than library and information science (LIS) were investigated...

  16. Educating Lone Wolves: Pedagogical Implications of Human Capital Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Educational practices based on human capital theory are unlikely to alleviate social inequities because the theory views people as isolated materialists driven by desire for goods and security. It assumes an educational meritocracy in which socioeconomic status is limited only by educational investment, and more educated people are presumed to be…

  17. Toward a Psychobiological Theory of Motivations for Human Communication Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jack B.

    Noting that recent research and theory from the expanding field of psychobiology have not been integrated into the study of human communication, this paper offers a synthesis of principles from several leading psychobiological scientists as a step toward a possible unifying approach to communication philosophy, theory, and research. The paper…

  18. Some Recent Developments in Solar Dynamo Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Rai Choudhuri

    2006-06-01

    We discuss the current status of solar dynamo theory and describe the dynamo model developed by our group. The toroidal magnetic field is generated in the tachocline by the strong differential rotation and rises to the solar surface due to magnetic buoyancy to create active regions. The decay of these active regions at the surface gives rise to the poloidal magnetic field by the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. This poloidal field is advected by the meridional circulation first to high latitudes and then down below to the tachocline. Dynamo models based on these ideas match different aspects of observational data reasonably well.

  19. Developing human resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last eight years, the growth of the market for independent energy facilities in the United States has been spectacular. A combined capacity of about 29,300 MW, from over 2,500 independent energy facilities, has come on line since 1980 and the industry has experienced an annual growth of more than 15 percent per year. This trend is not limited to the United States, however, Governments around the world are recognizing the benefits of privately-owned independent energy plants. The interest is growing as the need for new capacity increases and as more projects are built and operated successfully using private capital. There are several reasons for the trends toward private power around the world. First, in developed countries, a growing need for new power capacity emerged after the 1983-1987 freeze when most utilities in developed countries reaped the benefits of increased energy conservation and halted any further construction. Now the demand is catching up and most large utilities are experiencing the same hesitations as their U.S. counterparts. Second, in less developed countries (LDCs), the increasing demand for new generating capacity stems from high annual growth rates in power demand -generally between four percent and seven percent per year. At the same time, these countries are expanding their power grid, which increases the opportunities for new plants in regions with limited service where delegation of power generation authority to third-parties can be more easily justified. Third, an increasing number of countries worldwide are eying industrial cogeneration and private power facilities favorably. Finally, lending institutions and donor agencies are becoming more interested in promoting cogeneration and private power, often as part of larger privatization schemes.

  20. Applying Adapted Big Five Teamwork Theory to Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Strode, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork is a central tenet of agile software development and various teamwork theories partially explain teamwork in that context. Big Five teamwork theory is one of the most influential teamwork theories, but prior research shows that the team leadership concept in this theory it is not applicable to agile software development. This paper applies an adapted form of Big Five teamwork theory to cases of agile software development. Three independent cases were drawn from a single organisation....

  1. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  2. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  3. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  4. Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development Objective Neuroeconomic game trials have detected a present-bias in human decision making which represents a serious shortcoming facing the long termed nature of complex problems in a globalized economy i.e. regional residual poverty, ecological...... threats and personal stress. So far, the evidence-based findings on human resource development (HRD) seem not to match these huge challenges. The aim of this study is to identify cost-effective means of mental training to recover sufficiently from the present bias to enable more sustainable decisions...... of Western decision makers to a level of sustainable development. In order to support the dissemination of non-dogmatic medical meditation an international scientific monitoring program for various competing medical meditation settings might be useful. Western psychology rooted in the Western humanities...

  5. Human development, heredity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Takasato, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    From March 27-29 2017, the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology held a symposium entitled 'Towards Understanding Human Development, Heredity, and Evolution' in Kobe, Japan. Recent advances in technologies including stem cell culture, live imaging, single-cell approaches, next-generation sequencing and genome editing have led to an expansion in our knowledge of human development. Organized by Yoshiya Kawaguchi, Mitinori Saitou, Mototsugu Eiraku, Tomoya Kitajima, Fumio Matsuzaki, Takashi Tsuji and Edith Heard, the symposium covered a broad range of topics including human germline development, epigenetics, organogenesis and evolution. This Meeting Review provides a summary of this timely and exciting symposium, which has convinced us that we are moving into the era of science targeted on humans. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  7. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  8. Theorizing Translanguaging and Multilingual Literacies through Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…

  9. Theorizing Translanguaging and Multilingual Literacies through Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…

  10. Large negative numbers in number theory, thermodynamics, information theory, and human thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2016-10-01

    We show how the abstract analytic number theory of Maier, Postnikov, and others can be extended to include negative numbers and apply this to thermodynamics, information theory, and human thermodynamics. In particular, we introduce a certain large number N 0 on the "zero level" with a high multiplicity number q i ≫ 1 related to the physical concept of gap in the spectrum. We introduce a general notion of "hole," similar to the Dirac hole in physics, in the theory. We also consider analogs of thermodynamical notions in human thermodynamics, in particular, in connection with the role of the individual in history.

  11. Simulating Human Cognitive Using Computational Verb Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGTao

    2004-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of a life system is closely connected to the modeling of cognition,especially for advanced life systems. The primary difference between an advanced life system and a digital computer is that the advanced life system consists of a body with mind while a digital computer is only a mind in a formal sense. To model an advanced life system one needs to symbols into a body where a digital computer is embedded. In this paper, a computational verb theory is proposed as a new paradigm of grounding symbols into the outputs of sensors. On one hand, a computational verb can preserve the physical "meanings" of the dynamics of sensor data such that a symbolic system can be used to manipulate physical meanings instead of abstract tokens in the digital computer. On the other hand, the physical meanings of an abstract symbol/token, which is usually an output of a reasoning process in the digital computer, can be restored and fed back to the actuators. Therefore, the computational verb theory bridges the gap between symbols and physical reality from the dynamic cognition perspective.

  12. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  13. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  14. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in…

  15. Developing Systemic Theories Requires Formal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Fernand

    2012-01-01

    Ziegler and Phillipson (Z&P) advance an interesting and ambitious proposal, whereby current analytical/mechanistic theories of gifted education are replaced by systemic theories. In this commentary, the author focuses on the pros and cons of using systemic theories. He argues that Z&P's proposal both goes too far and not far enough. The future of…

  16. A new theory of health promoting schools based on human functioning, school organisation and pedagogic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Aveyard, Paul

    2003-03-01

    This paper outlines a novel explanatory frame for understanding how schools may intervene in order to promote pupils' health. The new theory is synthesised from an Aristotelian interpretation of human functioning and a theory of cultural transmission. In keeping with recent influential theoretical developments, it is proposed that health has its roots in human functioning. It follows from this concept that the promotion of pupils' health is facilitated by the promotion of pupil functioning and the primary mechanisms through which schools promote pupil functioning and, hence, health, are through the influences of school organisation, curriculum development and pedagogic practice on pupil development. According to the new theory, good human functioning is dependent on the realisation of a number of identified essential human capacities and the meeting of identified fundamental human needs. Two essential capacities, the capacity for practical reasoning and the capacity for affiliation with other humans, plan and organise the other essential capacities. The realisation of these two capacities should, it is argued, be the primary focus of health promoting schools. Additionally, health promoting schools should ensure that fundamental human needs concerning non-useful pain and information about the body are met. A number of testable hypotheses are generated from the new theory. Comparisons with existing interpretations of health promoting schools indicate there are similarities in the actions schools should take to promote health. However, the new theory can, uniquely, be used to predict which pupils will enjoy the best health at school and in adulthood. Additionally, according to the new theory, schools do not need designated health education classes or teaching staff with specialist health education roles in order to be health promoting. It is concluded that the new theory may have a number of advantages over existing theories at both the policy and intervention levels.

  17. Allomorphic development: A major postulate of Vygotskian theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Jovan N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the importance of Vygotsky’s postulates on evolution and history for understanding his developmental theory, focusing especially on his thesis on the clear-cut replacement of evolution by history. That thesis shaped the general theoretical plane consisting of several opposing and almost mutually exclusive pairs of solutions, such as biology - culture, individual - collective, animal - human, evolution - history etc. Such general solutions offer too narrow a framework for elaborating a theory of ontogenesis. This is the background on which the true meaning of the postulate of allomorphic development is presented, along with an analysis of several more specific related theses. The article ends with a critical review of Vygotsky’s general postulates, pointing out to the ideological dimension of his developmental psychology.

  18. The onset of human labor: current theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitsky; Greene; Curry

    2000-09-01

    Innovative research has led to marked improvement in medical knowledge. Advances in technology have allowed us to attain a clearer understanding of many physiologic processes. Despite these impressive gains in knowledge, the cause of the initiation of the process of human labor remains unclear. Potential factors include changes in hormonal levels of estrogen and progesterone, increased production of prostaglandins, and elevation of levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, as well as increased sensitivity of the myometrium to endogenous oxytocin. It is most likely that interactions between these factors play an essential role in the process of labor, but the precise mechanism of onset still eludes us.

  19. Testing the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity with Human Microbiome Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianwei; Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2016-08-16

    The human microbiome project (HMP) has made it possible to test important ecological theories for arguably the most important ecosystem to human health-the human microbiome. Existing limited number of studies have reported conflicting evidence in the case of the neutral theory; the present study aims to comprehensively test the neutral theory with extensive HMP datasets covering all five major body sites inhabited by the human microbiome. Utilizing 7437 datasets of bacterial community samples, we discovered that only 49 communities (less than 1%) satisfied the neutral theory, and concluded that human microbial communities are not neutral in general. The 49 positive cases, although only a tiny minority, do demonstrate the existence of neutral processes. We realize that the traditional doctrine of microbial biogeography "Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects" first proposed by Baas-Becking resolves the apparent contradiction. The first part of Baas-Becking doctrine states that microbes are not dispersal-limited and therefore are neutral prone, and the second part reiterates that the freely dispersed microbes must endure selection by the environment. Therefore, in most cases, it is the host environment that ultimately shapes the community assembly and tip the human microbiome to niche regime.

  20. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  1. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  2. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-03-09

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences.

  3. Theory Development: A Bridge between Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James

    2010-01-01

    Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…

  4. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and…

  5. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate s

  6. Joint Scaling Theory of Human Dynamics and Network Science

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Chaoming; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of large-scale data on human behavior has catalyzed simultaneous advances in network theory, capturing the scaling properties of the interactions between a large number of individuals, and human dynamics, quantifying the temporal characteristics of human activity patterns. These two areas remain disjoint, however, traditionally each pursuing as a separate modeling framework. Here we establish the first formal link between these two areas by showing that the exponents characterizing the degree and link weight distribution in social networks can be expressed in terms of the dynamical exponents characterizing human activity patterns. We test the validity of these theoretical predictions on datasets capturing various facets of human interactions, from mobile calls to tweets. We find evidence of a universal measure, that links networks and human dynamics, but whose value is independent of the means of communication, capturing a fundamental property of human activity.

  7. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: A New Panacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Ronald A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses recent social studies developments, including the new social studies, values education, and Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning. The author analyzes the six stages of Kohlberg's theory and its contributions to revitalization of the social studies. (Author/DB)

  8. Moral Development Theories and the Teaching of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Deni

    1991-01-01

    Discusses some uses of moral development theories in the teaching of journalism ethics. Presents theories proposed by developmental psychologists Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan, along with some interpretations of them within journalism ethics instruction. (SR)

  9. Population and human resources development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1992-06-01

    The concern of this discourse on social development planning was that individuals be part of human resources development. Population growth is an obstacle to social development, but so is national expenditures on the military rather than diverting funds for social improvements. There are important benefits for society in social development: a valued consumption good, increased productivity, and reduced fertility. Dissatisfaction with an economic growth model of development occurred during the 1960s, and by the mid-1980s, human resource development was capsuled in Asia and the Pacific Region in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development and adopted in 1988. Earlier approaches favored the supply side. This article emphasizes "human" development which considers people as more than inputs to productivity. The quality of human resources is dependent on the family and society, the educational system, and individual levels of health and nutrition. Differences in income levels between East and South Asia have been attributed by Oshima to full use of the labor force and mechanization and training of workers. Ogawa, Jones, and Williamson contend that huge investment in infrastructure, efficient absorption of advanced technology, a stable political environment, and commitment to human capital formation are key to development. Demographic transition and decline in fertility at one point reflect growth and engagement in the labor force and resource accumulation. Although East Asia had higher levels of literacy and educational attainment than many developing countries, South Asia still has high fertility. Human resource development is dependent on reduced population growth rates, but rapid population growth is not an insurmountable obstacle to achieving higher levels of education. Rapid population growth is a greater obstacle in poorer countries. The impact can be reflected in increased costs of attaining educational targets of universal primary education or in

  10. SLAC physicists develop test for string theory

    CERN Multimedia

    Yajnik, Juhi

    2006-01-01

    "Under certain conditions, string theory solves many of the questions wracking the minds of physicists, but until recently it had one major flaw - it could not be tested. SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) scientists have found a way to test this revolutionary theory, which posits that there are 10 or 11 dimensions in our universe" (1 page)

  11. A Framework for Theory Development in Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle

    The academic literature has frequently observed that foresight lacks a coherent theoretical basis. The discussion on theory of foresight calls for ‘a theory’, but it rarely expounds what the scope of theorizing is or should be. We propose that ‘theory of foresight’ has three overlapping meanings...

  12. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  13. Singularity analysis: theory and further developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiuming

    2015-04-01

    Since the concept of singularity and local singularity analysis method (LSA) were originally proposed by the author for characterizing the nonlinear property of hydrothermal mineralization processes, the local singularity analysis technique has been successfully applied for identification of geochemical and geophysical anomalies related to various types of mineral deposits. It has also been shown that the singularity is the generic property of singular geo-processes which result in anomalous amounts of energy release or material accumulation within a narrow spatial-temporal interval. In the current paper we introduce several new developments about singularity analysis. First is a new concept of 'fractal density' which describes the singularity of complex phenomena of fractal nature. While the ordinary density possesses a unit of ratio of mass and volume (e.g. g/cm3, kg/m3) or ratio of energy over volume or time (e.g. J/cm3, w/L3, w/s), the fractal density has a unit of ratio of mass over fractal set or energy over fractal set (e.g. g/cmα, kg/mα, J/ mα, w/Lα, where α can be a non-integer). For the matter with fractal density (a non-integer α), the ordinary density of the phenomena (mass or energy) no longer exists and depicts singularity. We demonstrate that most of extreme geo-processes occurred in the earth crust originated from cascade earth dynamics (mental convection, plate tectonics, orogeny and weathering etc) may cause fractal density of mass accumulation or energy release. The examples to be used to demonstrate the concepts of fractal density and singularity are earthquakes, floods, volcanos, hurricanes, heat flow over oceanic ridge, hydrothermal mineralization in orogenic belt, and anomalies in regolith over mine caused by ore and toxic elements vertical migration. Other developments of singularity theory and methodologies including singular Kriging and singularity weights of evidence model for information integration will also be introduced.

  14. Transitions theory: a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2011-01-01

    There have been very few investigations into how any single nursing theory has actually evolved historically. In this paper, a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing is explored through reviewing the theoretical development of a single nursing theory-transitions theory. The literature related to transitions theory was searched and retrieved using multiple databases. Ninety-nine papers were analyzed according to type of theory, populations of interest, sources of theorizing, and theoretical methods. Transitions theory originated in research but was initially borrowed. It also arose in research with immigrants and from national and international collaborative research efforts. A product of mentoring, transitions theory is used widely in nursing education, research, and practice. Diverse thoughts related to transitions theory coexist. For future theoretical development in nursing, we need to remain open to new ideas and continue to engage in multiple collaborative efforts.

  15. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  16. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  17. The application of ecological theory toward an understanding of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Elizabeth K; Stagaman, Keaton; Dethlefsen, Les; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Relman, David A

    2012-06-08

    The human-microbial ecosystem plays a variety of important roles in human health and disease. Each person can be viewed as an island-like "patch" of habitat occupied by microbial assemblages formed by the fundamental processes of community ecology: dispersal, local diversification, environmental selection, and ecological drift. Community assembly theory, and metacommunity theory in particular, provides a framework for understanding the ecological dynamics of the human microbiome, such as compositional variability within and between hosts. We explore three core scenarios of human microbiome assembly: development in infants, representing assembly in previously unoccupied habitats; recovery from antibiotics, representing assembly after disturbance; and invasion by pathogens, representing assembly in the context of invasive species. Judicious application of ecological theory may lead to improved strategies for restoring and maintaining the microbiota and the crucial health-associated ecosystem services that it provides.

  18. Quantum theory and human perception of the macro-world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e., as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new 'conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing-light as a geometric theory-and human touching-only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle-plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable entities in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects-as they occur in smaller entities-appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping ultimately with separated entities, meaning that a more general theory will be needed.

  19. Quantum Theory and Human Perception of the Macro-World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the question of 'why customary macroscopic entities appear to us humans as they do, i.e. as bounded entities occupying space and persisting through time', starting from our knowledge of quantum theory, how it affects the behavior of such customary macroscopic entities, and how it influences our perception of them. For this purpose, we approach the question from three perspectives. Firstly, we look at the situation from the standard quantum angle, more specifically the de Broglie wavelength analysis of the behavior of macroscopic entities, indicate how a problem with spin and identity arises, and illustrate how both play a fundamental role in well-established experimental quantum-macroscopical phenomena, such as Bose-Einstein condensates. Secondly, we analyze how the question is influenced by our result in axiomatic quantum theory, which proves that standard quantum theory is structurally incapable of describing separated entities. Thirdly, we put forward our new `conceptual quantum interpretation', including a highly detailed reformulation of the question to confront the new insights and views that arise with the foregoing analysis. At the end of the final section, a nuanced answer is given that can be summarized as follows. The specific and very classical perception of human seeing -- light as a geometric theory -- and human touching -- only ruled by Pauli's exclusion principle -- plays a role in our perception of macroscopic entities as ontologically stable objects in space. To ascertain quantum behavior in such macroscopic entities, we will need measuring apparatuses capable of its detection. Future experimental research will have to show if sharp quantum effects -- as they occur in smaller entities -- appear to be ontological aspects of customary macroscopic entities. It remains a possibility that standard quantum theory is an incomplete theory, and hence incapable of coping with separated entities, meaning that a more general

  20. More similarities than differences in contemporary theories of social development?: a plea for theory bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Many contemporary theories of social development are similar and/or share complementary constructs. Yet, there have been relatively few efforts toward theoretical integration. The present chapter represents a call for increased theory bridging. The problem of theoretical fragmentation in psychology is reviewed. Seven highlighted reasons for this predicament include differences between behavioral sciences and other sciences, theoretical paradigms as social identities, the uniqueness assumption, information overload, field fixation, linguistic fragmentation, and few incentives for theoretical integration. Afterward, the feasibility of theoretical synthesis is considered. Finally, some possible directions are proposed for theoretical integration among five contemporary theories of social and gender development: social cognitive theory, expectancy-value theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory, and self-categorization theory.

  1. The Early Development of Kinetic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the work of Bernoulli and other early contributors to kinetic theory. One significant point is that the most outstanding work in this early period was done by a little-known Scotsman, John J. Waterston. (BB)

  2. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  3. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  4. Some Implications of Career Theory for Adult Development and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    Structural-interactive vocational theory shows that both aspirational and work histories have continuity over the life span and provide useful explanations of stability and change. This paper suggests some implications of structural-interactive theory for the study of adult development. Common principles of structural-interactive theories are…

  5. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  6. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model. Results Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.

  7. The Role of Language in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Jill G.; de Villiers, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Various arguments are reviewed about the claim that language development is critically connected to the development of theory of mind. The different theories of how language could help in this process of development are explored. A brief account is provided of the controversy over the capacities of infants to read others' false beliefs. Then the…

  8. APPLICABILITY OF THE BEND DEVELOPMENT THEORY IN NATURAL ALLUVIAL RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M.RAHMAN; M.A.HAQUE; M.M.HOQUE

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical conditions for the bend development or attenuation have been reviewed and tested for a study reach of the Meghna river.The field observations in the natural alluvial meander do not support the theories developed for bend development.The limitations of the theory to apply in the natural meandering river are discussed.

  9. The Role of Language in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Jill G.; de Villiers, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Various arguments are reviewed about the claim that language development is critically connected to the development of theory of mind. The different theories of how language could help in this process of development are explored. A brief account is provided of the controversy over the capacities of infants to read others' false beliefs. Then the…

  10. Theory development in health promotion: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Noar, Seth M

    2010-08-01

    Theory development has not proceeded at a pace commensurate with the evolution of health promotion practice. At least three examples of this disparity are apparent: (1) theory is developed in an evidence-based paradigm rather than a practice-based paradigm, (2) a substantial majority of health behavior theories exist at the individual level, thereby neglecting contextual realities that shape behavior, and (3) "accessibility" levels of theory to practitioners may be quite low in comparison to the growing demands to prevent disease through expanding health promotion practices. The challenges of health promotion demand a great deal more attention to developing theories that reflect the reality of broad influences on health behavior. One critical question that must be answered involves setting limits regarding the realistic role of behavioral interventions in public health practice. The evolution of theory should be practice-based, largely ecological in nature, and the resulting theories should be easily accessible to practitioners.

  11. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  12. The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…

  13. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  14. Children's Spiritual Development in Forced Displacement: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…

  15. A Theory for the Origin of Human Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mike; Singh, Rama S; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels - ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes - the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing.

  16. Development of a quantitative theory of polycondensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchanov, S.; Slot, J.J.M.; Stroeks, A.

    2004-01-01

    This review presents the first systematic treatment of the voluminous literature on the theory of polycondensation. Processes for obtaining homo- and copolymers with linear and branched macromolecules are considered. Emphasis is on a thorough discussion of various polycondensation models, and the me

  17. Development of the optimum rotor theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.

    The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the proble...

  18. Developing the Theory of Perspective Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggan, Chad; Mälkki, Kaisu; Finnegan, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Mezirow's theory of perspective transformation has proved to be a great asset to the scholarship of adult education and has provided a solid theoretical base for understanding complex learning phenomena. However, in the discussions surrounding Mezirow's work, a certain "stuckness" appears which we think is unproductive. Critiques of…

  19. Following Human Footsteps: Proposal of a Decision Theory Based on Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior is a complex nature which depends on circumstances and decisions varying from time to time as well as place to place. The way a decision is made either directly or indirectly related to the availability of the options. These options though appear at random nature, have a solid directional way for decision making. In this paper, a decision theory is proposed which is based on human behavior. The theory is structured with model sets that will show the all possible combinations for making a decision, A virtual and simulated environment is considered to show the results of the proposed decision theory

  20. Toward An Integral Process Theory Of Human Dynamics:Dancing The Universal Tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ross

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an outline toward developing a fuller process theory of human dynamics aimed at practical applications by a diverse audience. The theory represents a transdisciplinary synthesis of a universal pattern and integrates humans’ projection dynamics with complex systems dynamics. Five premises, presented in lay language with examples, capture basic elements involved in the meta process of human development and change: reciprocity, projection, development’s structural limits, oscillations, and structural coupling. Based on a fractal dialectical pattern that shows up wherever complex systems are involved, the theory’s applications are scalable. It could be useful for personal development, public policy design, issue analysis, and systemic action on intransigent issues. It may be a complementary adjunct to developmental stage theories because it deals in an accessible way with the processes involved in stage transitions. Throughout the article, its practical relevance at some individual, social, and political scales is illustrated or mentioned. Readers interested in individual and social change may gain a sense of the human dynamics involved in it, and thus the potential usefulness of a process theory that describes what goes on in human change and development.

  1. Toward An Integral Process Theory Of Human Dynamics: Dancing The Universal Tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ross

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is an outline toward developing a fuller process theory of human dynamics aimed at practical applications by a diverse audience. The theory represents a transdisciplinary synthesis of a universal pattern and integrates humans’ projection dynamics with complex systems dynamics. Five premises, presented in lay language with examples, capture basic elements involved in the meta process of human development and change: reciprocity, projection, development’s structural limits, oscillations, and structural coupling. Based on a fractal dialectical pattern that shows up wherever complex systems are involved, the theory’s applications are scalable. It could be useful for personal development, public policy design, issue analysis, and systemic action on intransigent issues. It may be a complementary adjunct to developmental stage theories because it deals in an accessible way with the processes involved in stage transitions. Throughout the article, its practical relevance at some individual, social, and political scales is illustrated or mentioned. Readers interested in individual and social change may gain a sense of the human dynamics involved in it, and thus the potential usefulness of a process theory that describes what goes on in human change and development.

  2. A Discussion of Students Understanding, Learning and Application of Theory of Science within Humanities and Social Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    and results in there working life. The objective is to develop the theoretical foundation of a didactics of the cross disciplinary discipline ‘theory of science’ that is to discuss the content and function of theory of science within humanities and social science with the aim to provide teaching and learning...... the influence knowledge production might have on human life and human self understanding. Therefore a didactics of theory of science is to be developed where Dewey’s concept of inquiry is to be combined with a hermeneutic view on ontological complexity. Referencer (300 ord) Barnett, R. (ed.). Reshaping......The paper discusses why and how students within humanities and social science in the context of higher education must learn to implement theory of science, in terms of applying methods and approaches from philosophical theories such as positivism, hermeneutics, phenomenology, structuralism etc...

  3. Toward a Theory for the Design of Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche;

    2014-01-01

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least...... the Participatory Design (PD) community – to engage in theorizing design, on the basis of our understanding of design and design practices. This theory could be posi-tioned as an alternative to other attempts to theorize design, for example the influential efforts of the Information Systems (IS) community. We urge...... the PD community to engage in collective theory building, and we present a framework intended to support our shared reflections on the design of human technologies....

  4. Natural Good Theories and the Value of Human Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muders, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    One of the widely recognized facts about human dignity is its vastly divergent applicability-from highly controversial issues in bioethics to broader topics in political philosophy. A group of theories that this article subsumes under the header "natural good theories" appears to be especially fitted for normatively multifaceted notions like dignity. However, the heavy normative weight the concept of dignity has to bear due to the central position it occupies within these theories creates its own difficulties. As is shown in a discussion of Martha Nussbaum's capability conception of dignity, dignity appears to be unable to mirror the special normative relevance people want to assign to it in cases of great moral misconduct. The article provides a suggestion on how to solve this problem by means of paradigmatic cases that work as material constraints regarding the exact boundaries of dignity violations.

  5. Ethics and nursing research. 1: Development, theories and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble-Adams, R

    This article, the first of two looking at nursing ethics and research, outlines the foundations and development of an ethical framework for nursing research. The two dominant theories of ethics--utilitarianism and deontology--are described as they relate to the rights of individuals undergoing the research. Each of these approaches has limitations and in some instances choosing the right action may be difficult. The guiding ethical standards of beneficence/non-maleficence, respect for human dignity, justice, informed consent and vulnerable subjects are reviewed for the reader as they relate to undertaking research. This knowledge will help nurses conduct, participate in, or use research that is based on ethically sound principles. The second article will explore and explain the relationship between these guiding principles and the elemental steps of the research process.

  6. Gifted Children and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2001-01-01

    After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…

  7. The Women of Agabagaya: Education and Post-Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a snapshot ethnography conducted in Uganda with the Agabagaya Women's Group. The purpose of the study was to explore how women share knowledge among themselves to support their communities. Using post-development theory and Freire's critical theory as a lens, I argue that although international development is often focused…

  8. Possible States Theory and Human Destiny in the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Shelley; Brandenburg, John

    Possible States Theory posits a universe of unique objects and unique collections of interactions between them. The interactions are designated the possible states. The states include past, future and possible interactions. The theory concerns the propagation of change in the collections of possible states. Using a few simple assumptions, it becomes possible to generalize about the occurrence of change. The theory is consistent with quantum electrodynamics in a finite and discrete environment; however, in the possible states universe, an interaction does not cause alternative possibilities to disappear. The picture of the universe yielded by the theory differs from the conventional viewpoint in important ways. Past, future and possible states may interact with one another; interactions occur without reference to location in space-time. Given that all possibilities are present, the possible states universe is complete. Per Gšdel's incompleteness theorems, the universe cannot be unambiguously described as information. Many truths, some contradicting each other, can simultaneously exist. The human future already participates in the present, opening possibilities never previously envisaged. To imagine the future, therefore, is to quantum mechanically assemble it. Accordingly, humanity prepares its path to the stars by dreaming of it.

  9. COMPONENTS OF SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to propose new components of measurement of sustainable human development based on the historical-theoretical trajectory of development. The research assumes a ontoepistemological posture based on positivism, addressing the technique of the survey and the written questionnaire instrument applied to thirty-one (31 experts in the area of knowledge, whose analysis allowed to conclude that the traditional models to measure the Insufficient to demonstrate the reality of nations. Therefore, the proposal of measurement is derived in seven components: ethical, spiritual and cultural, in addition to those formally established by Munasinghe (1993, 2011 and the UN (2012: economic, social, environmental, institutional , In total, by the selection of one hundred and fifty-five (155 variables, whose index is denominated ISIDEHUS.

  10. Institutionalization: A Theory of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam McNown Johnson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalism is the syndrome first recognized and described in inpatient psychiatric facilities,which is now used to describe a set of maladaptive behaviors that are evoked by the pressures of living in any institutional setting. This article traces the development of the theory of institutionalization, which predicts and explains an individual’s response to that particular type of environment. The article makes note of key contributors and contributions, and of empirical studies that have advanced the theory. Underlying perspectives and assumptions are identified and earlier theoretical models are reviewed and critiqued. An updated model of the theory, which includes individual vulnerabilities, objective conditions of the institutional placement, and the resident’s perceptions of the environment, is presented. New directions in the field of institutional care and implications for social workers, particularly for those working in nursing home and prison settings, are discussed, along with recommendations for next steps for theory progression.

  11. Theory Emergence in IS Research: The Grounded Theory Method Applied : 10. JAIS Theory Development Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Mueller, Benjamin; Niederman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Where IS research aims at theory building and testing, the vast bulk of theory is borrowed from reference disciplines. While this provides some momentum for research output, it also tends to shift the focus of research away from direct observation of central, core IS issues. The purpose of this pape

  12. Observant, nonaggressive temperament predicts theory of mind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M; Lane, Jonathan D; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L

    2011-03-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3)--lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity--predict children's more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind.

  13. Sampling theory, a renaissance compressive sensing and other developments

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing or approximating objects from seemingly incomplete information is a frequent challenge in mathematics, science, and engineering. A multitude of tools designed to recover hidden information are based on Shannon’s classical sampling theorem, a central pillar of Sampling Theory. The growing need to efficiently obtain precise and tailored digital representations of complex objects and phenomena requires the maturation of available tools in Sampling Theory as well as the development of complementary, novel mathematical theories. Today, research themes such as Compressed Sensing and Frame Theory re-energize the broad area of Sampling Theory. This volume illustrates the renaissance that the area of Sampling Theory is currently experiencing. It touches upon trendsetting areas such as Compressed Sensing, Finite Frames, Parametric Partial Differential Equations, Quantization, Finite Rate of Innovation, System Theory, as well as sampling in Geometry and Algebraic Topology.

  14. Household human development index in Lakshadweep

    OpenAIRE

    I, Sahadudheen

    2014-01-01

    Since the evolution of the human development index in 1990 there has been a vivacious debate on measurement related issues of quality of human life among the nations. It is a long-established verity that the existing HDI presents averages and thus conceals wide discrepancy and disproportion in distribution of human development in overall population and does not take into account the distribution of human development within a population subgroup. This study is intended to look in to human ...

  15. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus in primates and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human hepatitis B virus causes acute and chronic hepatitis and is considered one of the most serious human health issues by the World Health Organization, causing thousands of deaths per year. There are similar viruses belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that infect non-human primates and other mammals as well as some birds. The majority of non-human primate virus isolates were phylogenetically close to the human hepatitis B virus, but like the human genotypes, the origins of these viruses remain controversial. However, there is a possibility that human hepatitis B virus originated in primates. Knowing whether these viruses might be common to humans and primates is crucial in order to reduce the risk to humans. Objective: To review the existing knowledge about the evolutionary origins of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates. Methods: This review was done by reading several articles that provide information about the Hepadnaviridae virus family in non-human primates and humans and the possible origins and evolution of these viruses. Results: The evolutionary origin of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates has been dated back to several thousand years; however, recent analyses of genomic fossils of avihepadnaviruses integrated into the genomes of several avian species have suggested a much older origin of this genus. Conclusion: Some hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus have been debated since the '90s. One theory suggested a New World origin because of the phylogenetic co-segregation between some New World human hepatitis B virus genotypes F and H and woolly B virus in basal sister-relationship to the Old monkey human hepatitis World non-human primates and human hepatitis B virus variants. Another theory suggests an Old World origin of human hepatitis B virus, and that it would have been spread following prehistoric human migrations over 100,000 years ago. A third theory

  16. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development.

  17. Farmers' Motivational Orientation toward Participation in Competence Development Projects: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Lioutas, Evagelos D.; Koutsouris, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we use a self-determination theory (SDT) approach to understand farmers' attitudes toward, and intentions for, participation in competence development projects (CDP). Design/methodology/approach: By applying SDT, we developed two measures. The first one assessed the degree to which the three basic human psychological needs…

  18. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... He published the first Human Development report ... The main objective of human development lies on the freedom of its citizens as well as ... scholarship were Professor S. Ade Ojo, the former Director of the French Language.

  19. [Pain. Evaluation of the developing pain theories. The psychological factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakos, A; Niamonitos, K; Vrotsos, I A

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we presented the different theories and opinions regarding the development of pain. After a very brief historical review including the ideas of Homer, Hippocrates, Aristoteles, St. Thomas Aquinas, we reviewed the 19th century's theories including Whytt, Brodie, Inman and Austie. From the modern period we emphasized the "gate theory" introduced originally by Melzack and Well. The psychological aspects has been also examined and the patient as "a dental patient" also described.

  20. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  1. A Theory for the Origin of Human Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mike; Singh, Rama S.; Stone, John

    2017-01-01

    A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels – ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes – the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing. PMID:28111590

  2. Recent Developments in the Theory of Scarring

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We review recent progress in attaining a quantitative understanding of the scarring phenomenon, the non-random behavior of quantum wavefunctions near unstable periodic orbits of a classically chaotic system. The wavepacket dynamics framework leads to predictions about statistical long-time and stationary properties of quantum systems with chaotic classical analogues. Many long-time quantum properties can be quantitatively understood using only short-time classical dynamics information; these include wavefunction intensity distributions, intensity correlations in phase space and correlations between wavefunctions, and distributions of decay rates and conductance peaks in weakly open systems. Strong deviations from random matrix theory are predicted and observed in the presence of short unstable periodic orbits.

  3. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  4. On the application of motivation theory to human factors/ergonomics: motivational design principles for human-technology interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, James L

    2014-12-01

    Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.

  5. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  6. Values Reflected in the Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) implicitly defines "human development" and ranks countries accordingly. To elucidate the HDI's meaning of "human development," the paper examines the sensitivity of the HDI to changes in its components, namely social indicators of education, longevity and standard of living. The HDI is next compared with two…

  7. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  8. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  9. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  10. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  11. Toward a Theory for the Design of Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche;

    2014-01-01

    Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least the Partic......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. A theory about the pro-cess and practice of design might be important to estab-lish design as a main subject at universities. We believe it is in the interest of many design communities – not least...... the Participatory Design (PD) community – to engage in theorizing design, on the basis of our understanding of design and design practices. This theory could be posi-tioned as an alternative to other attempts to theorize design, for example the influential efforts of the Information Systems (IS) community. We urge...... the PD community to engage in collective theory building, and we present a framework intended to support our shared reflections on the design of human technologies....

  12. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

  13. Contributions of Dynamic Systems Theory to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John P.; Austin, Andrew; Schutte, Anne R.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the contributions of dynamic systems theory to the field of cognitive development, focusing on modeling using dynamic neural fields. After introducing central concepts of dynamic field theory (DFT), we probe empirical predictions and findings around two examples--the DFT of infant perseverative reaching that explains Piaget's A-not-B…

  14. Methodological Barriers Precluding the Development of Comprehensive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, William; King, Stephen

    The authors examine published research in speech communication and evaluate its potential for theory development. Two major suggestions are advanced that will facilitate the quest for viable theory of speech communication. First, research should begin to focus on relevant communication behaviors rather than merely using them as convenient contexts…

  15. Distinguishing between Development and Change: Reviving Organismic-Developmental Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeff, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to contribute to the revival of Heinz Werner's organismic-developmental theory by considering some of its key claims in relation to contemporary developmental theory and research. The organismic-developmental definition of development in terms of differentiation and integration is first discussed in relation to…

  16. Assessment of a Professional Development Program on Adult Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at colleges and universities invested in graduate education must understand and incorporate adult learning theories in their reference and instruction interactions with graduate students to more effectively support the students' learning. After participating in a professional development program about adult learning theory, librarians…

  17. Development of field theory in the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1981-11-01

    This article is devoted to the development of quantum field theory, a discipline that began with quantum electrodynamics which was born in 1927 when P. A. M. Dirac published his famous paper ''The Quantum Theory of the Emission and Absorption of Radiation.''

  18. Designing Teacher Professional Development for Mathematics Teaching with Variation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at demonstrating the power of Variation Theory in exploring the local situation of Indonesian teachers and Teacher Professional Development program. The projection of Variation theory regarding the enterprise of teaching results on the need of sensitivity of students and exemplary teaching strategy that differ with teachers…

  19. Adaptive management theory development in the field of education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borova T.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the development of the adaptive management theory in education systems. The methodology of the adaptive management theory is discussed and the essential characteristics of adaptive management theory that have changed in the context of higher education are highlighted. The comparative analysis of the adaptive management theory components in the field of education of adaptive management Ukrainian and Russian schools is carried out. Application of adaptive management theoretical grounds allows a smooth transition to teaching according to the humanistic principles.

  20. Reintroducing ethics to economics and development theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Frank Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Frank Jan de Graaf argues that the domination of neoclassical economic thinking in academia has contributed to the economic crisis and hindered thinking about sustainable development. Currently, ethics is re-entering the debate about how to develop prosperous open societies. A group of NGOs recently

  1. On the physical basis of a theory of human thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, A. S.; Schindler, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical study of the physical factors which are responsible for thermoregulation in nude resting humans in a physical steady state. The behavior of oxidative metabolism, evaporative and convective thermal fluxes, fluid heat transfer, internal and surface temperatures, and evaporative phase transitions is studied by physiological/physical modeling techniques. The modeling is based on the theories that the body has a vital core with autothermoregulation, that the vital core contracts longitudinally, that the temperature of peripheral regions and extremities decreases towards the ambient, and that a significant portion of the evaporative heat may be lost underneath the skin. A theoretical basis is derived for a consistent modeling of steady-state thermoregulation on the basis of these theories.

  2. Recent Developments in D=2 String Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Michio

    This review article is dedicated to the memory of Robert Marshak, who was a colleague and friend for the past 20 years. Prof. Marshak was an inspiration for all who knew him, especially at CCNY, both for this vision and insight into the fundamental interactions of matter, but also for his concern for social issues. Not only was Prof. Marshak the president of our college in a crucial time in its history, he was also a productive member of our high energy group. It will be hard to replace someone who could combine his many interests so well. He will be sorely missed. We review the recent developments in constructing string field theory in two-dimensions. We analyze the bewildering number of string field theories that have been proposed, all of which correctly reproduce the correlation functions of two-dimensional string theory. We will analyze discrete states, the w(∞) symmetry, and correlation functions in terms of these different string field theories. We will also comment on the relationship between these various field theories, which is still not well understood. (This article is a shortened version of a longer article to appear in the International Journal of Modern Physics.) These string field theories include: • free fermion field theory • collective string field theory • temporal gauge string field theory • non-polynomial string field theory

  3. Conceptual Developments of 20th Century Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian Yu

    1998-06-01

    This volume provides a broad synthesis of conceptual developments of twentieth century field theories, from the general theory of relativity to quantum field theory and gauge theory. The book traces the foundations and evolution of these theories within a historio-critical context. Theoretical physicists and students of theoretical physics will find this a valuable account of the foundational problems of their discipline that will help them understand the internal logic and dynamics of theoretical physics. It will also provide professional historians and philosophers of science, particularly philosophers of physics, with a conceptual basis for further historical, cultural and sociological analysis of the theories discussed. Finally, the scientifically qualified general reader will find in this book a deeper analysis of contemporary conceptions of the physical world than can be found in popular accounts of the subject.

  4. The development of identification in Freudian theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, S; Shakow, C

    1989-01-01

    Once identification achieved its status as a specific psychoanalytic concept it followed a process of reconceptualization that emerged from the different clinical and theoretical contexts in which Freud approached and explained the phenomenon. In tracing the unfolding of the theory of identification throughout Freud's works, we have accounted for the following steps: First, in his correspondence with Fliess, Freud announced topics that would subsequently be theoretically processed. Second, in the first topography, identification was explored in the contexts of hysteria and dreams, and elaborated through reference to two psychic scenes with their respective modes of psychic functioning. Third, in the period of transition to the second topography identification was defined as a substitute for an object relationship and as a preliminary stage of object choice. Interlocked with the concept of narcissism, it produced a reconceptualization of the ego that led to the second topography. Finally, the tripartite model proposed in the second topography manifests the consolidation of the structuring function of identification, since the psychic structure is therein conceived of as resulting from the vicissitudes of object relationships.

  5. The theory of sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Tahiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a phenomenon that has seen a rapid multi fold increase and growth since the middle of the twentieth century. For host communities and countries, the development of tourism has offered numerous advantages, as well as some significant challenges and difficulties. In recent decades, the awareness has been strengthened that tourism needs to be developed following the sustainable development concept. This approach eliminates or significantly decreases the negative impacts of tourism growth and sets the basis for long-term enjoyment of benefits. In the field of tourism, sustainable development translates in two important categories of considerations: conserving natural environment and resources and the biodiversity and conserving the living cultural heritage and traditions. Designing sustainable tourism development strategies should be done in cooperative efforts by the state, businesses and local communities. The strategies need to focus on maximizing the potential positive and eliminating or minimizing potential negative impacts. Impact monitoring and evaluation mechanisms need to be set up, including identification of performance indicators. When tourism growth emerges from a carefully designed and implemented strategy, tourism is documented to contribute to generating foreign exchange earnings, creating employment and income, and stimulating domestic consumption. It also brings about social and cultural development of the host communities. Researches have shown that smaller and developing countries specialized in tourism experience higher economic growth compared to countries without significant tourism industry. Contemporary economic and statistical methods ensure that the contribution of tourism in national economies can be precisely and easily measured, which in itself can be used as an indicator in assessing the impact and effects of tourism growth.

  6. Developments and retrospectives in Lie theory algebraic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Penkov, Ivan; Wolf, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews and updates a prominent series of workshops in representation/Lie theory, and reflects the widespread influence of those  workshops in such areas as harmonic analysis, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.  Many of the contributors have had leading roles in both the classical and modern developments of Lie theory and its applications. This Work, entitled Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory, and comprising 26 articles, is organized in two volumes: Algebraic Methods and Geometric and Analytic Methods. This is the Algebraic Methods volume. The Lie Theory Workshop series, founded by Joe Wolf and Ivan Penkov and joined shortly thereafter by Geoff Mason, has been running for over two decades. Travel to the workshops has usually been supported by the NSF, and local universities have provided hospitality. The workshop talks have been seminal in describing new perspectives in the field covering broad areas of current research.  Mos...

  7. Developments and retrospectives in Lie theory geometric and analytic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Penkov, Ivan; Wolf, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews and updates a prominent series of workshops in representation/Lie theory, and reflects the widespread influence of those  workshops in such areas as harmonic analysis, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.  Many of the contributors have had leading roles in both the classical and modern developments of Lie theory and its applications. This Work, entitled Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory, and comprising 26 articles, is organized in two volumes: Algebraic Methods and Geometric and Analytic Methods. This is the Geometric and Analytic Methods volume. The Lie Theory Workshop series, founded by Joe Wolf and Ivan Penkov and joined shortly thereafter by Geoff Mason, has been running for over two decades. Travel to the workshops has usually been supported by the NSF, and local universities have provided hospitality. The workshop talks have been seminal in describing new perspectives in the field covering broad areas of current re...

  8. Development of cryotribological theories & application to cryogenic devices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2001-03-12

    This is the final report of a research program on low-temperature friction and wear, primarily focused on development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices, particularly superconducting magnets.

  9. The Theory of Relativity: A Metatheory for Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Jan Dynda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews relativity theory in physics to derive a relativistic metatheory applicable to life span developmental psychology. The discussion points out ways in which relativistic thinking might enhance understanding of life span development and epistemology. (Author/DB)

  10. Latest theory developments for top pair production, generators and showering

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    I summarize the state of the art of cross-section computations and of available simulation tools for top-quark pair production in hadron collisions. Particular emphasis is put on recent theory developments relevant for LHC phenomenology.

  11. THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF INDUSTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Ignatyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the stages of the birth and development of the industry markets theory were defined in order to have a full picture of its current goals, objectives and areas of study.

  12. On the development of uniquely African management theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the development of uniquely African management theory. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ...

  13. Continuity and discontinuity in community development theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Kuitenbrouwer (Joost)

    1973-01-01

    textabstractFew experienced fieldwerkers in community development who attend advanced training programmes have any expectation of acquiring a cut-and-dried solution that can be applied to problems in the field. Moreover, it is now wellknown that the advanced nations cannot provide the so-called dev

  14. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  15. The Role of Theory in Developing Psycho-Environmental Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Raúl Palacios Delgado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of psychology is to promote positive change in personal behavior. This article show the usefulness of the theory for behavior change through design effective messages to behavioral change and development programs of psychosocial intervention. The theoretical model focuses in factors of behavioral changing: self-efficacy, skills, disposition and intention (MAHDI. The article describes the theory, shows how they can be applied to the selection environmental behavior, as well as their appropriate application in complementary intervention strategies that includes needs analysis, development and piloting program, applicability, social marketing and evaluation. Finally, how the theory can contribute to design youth intervention programs is discussed.

  16. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methods Use was made of 38 human embryos and fetus

  17. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  18. Human Capital Development: A Family Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1995-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital as an economic construct. Suggests that human capital contributes to economic development, as do physical capital or natural resources, in that its development reinforces individuals' future economic output. Suggests that this perspective may prove useful for human service professionals because funding…

  19. Looking at the ICF and human communication through the lens of classification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Regina

    2011-08-01

    This paper explores the insights that classification theory can provide about the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to communication. It first considers the relationship between conceptual models and classification systems, highlighting that classification systems in speech-language pathology (SLP) have not historically been based on conceptual models of human communication. It then overviews the key concepts and criteria of classification theory. Applying classification theory to the ICF and communication raises a number of issues, some previously highlighted through clinical application. Six focus questions from classification theory are used to explore these issues, and to propose the creation of an ICF-related conceptual model of communicating for the field of communication disability, which would address some of the issues raised. Developing a conceptual model of communication for SLP purposes closely articulated with the ICF would foster productive intra-professional discourse, while at the same time allow the profession to continue to use the ICF for purposes in inter-disciplinary discourse. The paper concludes by suggesting the insights of classification theory can assist professionals to apply the ICF to communication with the necessary rigour, and to work further in developing a conceptual model of human communication.

  20. Social Capital, culture and theories of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De la Peña García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a critical review of the concept of social capital, focusing on the theoretical underpinnings of the communitarian approach. It argues that this approach has a culturalist bias that omits key issues of inequality, conflict and power, making it a tool that is unlikely to contribute significantly to poverty reduction or development. As an example, it describes the adoption of the concept by the World Bank and provides a case study of rural community organization in Ecuador.

  1. Developing a Theory for Dynamic Campaign Planning,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-26

    historical campaigns. THE PURSUIT OF WISDOM AND ART Hermann Hesse . in his novel Siddhartha . develops a situation analogous to the search for a...and that doctrine specifying both the process and product needs to be codified. 3. Hermann Hesse , Siddhartha , New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1974, p. 142...Naval Institute, 1985. Heisenberg, Werner. Philosophic Problems in Nuclear Science. New York: Pantheon Books, Inc, 1952. Hesse , Hermann. Siddhartha . New

  2. Moral calculations game theory, logic, and human frailty

    CERN Document Server

    Mérő, László

    1998-01-01

    Are people ever rational? Consider this: You auction off a one-dollar bill to the highest bidder, but you set the rules so that the second highest bidder also has to pay the amount of his last bid, even though he gets nothing. Would people ever enter such an auction? Not only do they, but according to Martin Shubik, the game's inventor, the average winning bid (for a dollar, remember) is $3.40. Many winners report that they bid so high only because their opponent "went completely crazy." This game lies at the intersection of three subjects of eternal fascination: human psychology, morality, and John von Neumann's game theory. Hungarian game-theorist Laszlo Mero introduces us to the basics of game theory, including such concepts as zero-sum games, Prisoner's Dilemma and the origins of altruism; shows how game theory is applicable to fields ranging from physics to politics; and explores the role of rational thinking in the context of many different kinds of thinking. This fascinating, urbane book will interest ...

  3. The "Chaos" Pattern in Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jean S.

    Piaget's theory of the cognitive development of the child is related to the recently developed non-linear "chaos" model. The term "chaos" refers to the tendency of dynamical, non-linear systems toward irregular, sometimes unpredictable, deterministic behavior. Piaget identified this same pattern in his model of cognitive development in children.…

  4. [Critical overview of theories of development in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ominami, C

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the 3 principal theoretical orientations of thought regarding the economic development of Latin America: the theory of evolution of development, the theory expounded by CEPAL (Economic Commission for Latin America), and the theory of dependent economy. The article is obviously directed to the specialist in Latin American economics, and quotes at length from published work on the subject. One of the problems involved seems to be the contradictions between the various economic propositions, and the existence of a social and political environment favorable to their realization. Countries such as Brazil and Mexico still maintain their superior position in terms of capital and manpower, but countries such as Ecuador, Colombia, and Costa Rica have already enormously improved their position as capitalistic nations. At the present time there is no economic theory capable of explaining the complex phenomenon of Latin American development and underdevelopment.

  5. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  6. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MARKETING THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA NICOLAU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is in a continuous development theoretically and practically, under the influence of a extremely dynamic and competitive global environment. Year by year, marketing budgets, regardless of the field of activity, grow, strengthening the statement of Robert Louis Stevenson: "everybody lives by selling something", andproving that organizations have understood that only in this manner they ca maximize their opportunities.Technological revolution and the Internet have created the premises for the affirmation of new marketing specializations, the latter managing also to be relevant in areas previously considered unattractive, such as those focused on non-profit activities that only reinforce the universality of marketing.

  7. The Backyard Human Performance Technologist: Applying the Development Research Methodology to Develop and Validate a New Instructional Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Development research methodology (DRM) has been recommended as a viable research approach to expand the practice-to-theory/theory-to-practice literature that human performance technology (HPT) practitioners can integrate into the day-to-day work flow they already use to develop instructional products. However, little has been written about how it…

  8. Highlights of Human Resource Development Conferences 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Barbara Benedict; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The articles focus on building interpersonal skills utilizing experiential training to socialize new employees and develop leadership. They also focus on training decision makers, performance appraisal, career development, mobilizing human resources and ego stages in organizational development. (CMG)

  9. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  10. Strategic Human Resource Metrics: A Perspective of the General Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and quantifying strategic human resource outcomes in relation to key performance criteria is essential to developing value-adding metrics. Objectives This paper posits (using a general systems lens that strategic human resource metrics should interpret the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance criteria such as profitability, quality or customer service. Approach Using the general systems model as underpinning theory, the study assesses the variation in response to a Likert type questionnaire with twenty-four (24 items measuring the major attitudinal dispositions of HRM outcomes (employee commitment, satisfaction, engagement and embeddedness. Results A Chi-square test (Chi-square test statistic = 54.898, p=0.173 showed that variation in responses to the attitudinal statements occurred due to chance. This was interpreted to mean that attitudinal human resource outcomes influence performance as a unit of system components. The neutral response was found to be associated with the ‘reject’ response than the ‘acceptance’ response. Value The study offers suggestion on the determination of strategic HR metrics and recommends the use of systems theory in HRM related studies. Implications This study provides another dimension to human resource metrics by arguing that strategic human resource metrics should measure the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance using a systems perspective.

  11. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children’s approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children’s social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory of mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament characteristics (at age 3) – lack of aggressiveness, a shy-withdrawn stance to social interaction, and social-perceptual sensitivity – predict children’s more advanced theory-of-mind understanding two years later. The findings contribute to our understanding of how theory of mind develops in the formative preschool period; they may also inform debates as to the evolutionary origins of theory of mind. PMID:21499499

  12. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism : Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    2016-01-01

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and

  13. Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism : Interrogating Maslow's Applicability in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawere, Munyaradzi; Mubaya, Tapuwa R.; van Reisen, Mirjam; Stam, van Gertjan; Mawere, Munyaradzi; Nhemachena, Artwell

    Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation, the theory has been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of America, where it was crafted and

  14. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  15. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  16. Human Development, Inequality and Poverty: empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Seth; Antonio Villar

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the empirical findings surrounding the design of human development, inequality and poverty measures. We focus on the United Nations Development Program approach to those issues, in particular regarding the human development index and the multidimensional poverty index.

  17. Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    UNDP - UNOPS EDINFODEC Project - Cooperazione italiana,

    2004-01-01

    This report is an excerpt from the sixth UNDP-UNOPS-Cooperazione Italiana Report on Multilateral Human Development Programmes (2004). The Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola began in 1999 and ended in 2003. It focused on the maintenance and consolidation of the Local Economic Development Agencies (LEDAs). The PDHI helped set up the LEDAs in the Provinces of Bengo, Benguela and Kwanza Sul.

  18. The development of theory of mind in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P A; Hosie, J A; Gray, C D; Scott, C; Hunter, N; Banks, J S; Macaulay, M C

    1998-09-01

    Deaf children aged 4 to 16 years were given a false-belief test of theory of mind. Although the children experienced difficulty with the test, relative to hearing children, confirming a report by Peterson and Siegal (1995), performance was age-related, with a significantly higher proportion of 13- to 16-year-olds passing the test. It was concluded that deaf children raised in a spoken language environment show a developmental delay in theory of mind acquisition. This delay is consistent with the assumption that their early opportunities for learning about mental states are relatively restricted and that the normal development of theory of mind is dependent upon such opportunities.

  19. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality.Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  20. Developing and evaluating a cloud service relationship theory

    CERN Document Server

    Huntgeburth, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book develops, evaluates and refines a cloud service relationship theory that explains how cloud users' uncertainties arise in these relationships and how they can be mitigated. To that end, the book employs principal-agent theory and the concepts of bounded rationality and social embeddedness. Beyond advancing IS research, the findings presented can greatly benefit governments, IT departments and IT providers, helping them to better understand cloud service relationships and to adjust their cloud service strategies accordingly.

  1. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-03-22

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success.

  2. Human Resource Development in Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Neyerstani

    2014-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is the domain that performs core function in an organization for the advancement of personal and professional skills, knowledge and abilities of employees. Human resource development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and organization development. HRD has the key role in improving knowledge and skills on huma...

  3. Two Development Theories: Ibn-I-Khaldoun and Wallerstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atousa, Amirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Each day, many different people in different societies are striving within their daily work to advance society. Every society needs to create ideas for further development and in order to become recognised as developed. The purpose of this paper is to show how different cultures at different times created similar ideas and theories to…

  4. Career Counseling: Applying the Systems Theory Framework of Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, career development and career counseling have increasingly been informed by concepts emanating from the constructivist worldview. For example, the Systems Theory Framework (STF; M. McMahon, 2002; M. McMahon & W. Patton, 1995; W. Patton & M. McMahon, 1997, 1999) of career development has been proposed as a metatheoretical account…

  5. How Instruction Influences Conceptual Development: Vygotsky's Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarà, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Although current interpretations of Vygotsky's theory largely assume that instruction pushes development, the issue of how this occurs has yet to be clarified. For example, the notion of "zone of proximal development" has aroused strong disagreement, and the common conceptualization of the notion of "nonspontaneous concept" has…

  6. Children's Career Development: Metaphorical Images of Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This summative article discusses 5 invited contributions on children's career development. The authors of these articles were asked to consider the status quo of children's career development, issues facing this field, and future directions. Several emergent themes focused on theory, research, and practice and their interactive potential in…

  7. Perspective of Game Theory in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of society has attracted a lot of research efforts. A strategic aspect to the society's evolution is introduced by the game theory (Fernandez, 2011, p. 1). The research question is as follows: how to organize the process of teaching and learning in education for sustainable development? The aim of the research is to…

  8. Applying Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in Group Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John A.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that Kohlberg's theory of moral development and his methods of moral education have special relevance to residential treatment because they (1) provide a framework for understanding the moral decision-making process at various levels of development, and (2) encourage child care professionals of any theoretical or clinical persuasion to…

  9. Interpreting Undergraduates' Information-Seeking Behavior through Epistemological Development Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study tests a new model of undergraduates' information-seeking behavior that incorporates the epistemological development theories of college students and suggests stages of cognitive processes that students undertake as they construct knowledge. Results suggest that students' stages of epistemological development directly impact their…

  10. The Development of Evaluation Theories for Foreign Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to carry out a theoretical survey on the development of evaluation theories for foreign language textbooks. This study also focuses on recognizing the importance of textbook development in the field of not only teaching English as a foreign language, but also teaching Korean as a foreign language. Recently, the field of teaching…

  11. How Instruction Influences Conceptual Development: Vygotsky's Theory Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarà, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Although current interpretations of Vygotsky's theory largely assume that instruction pushes development, the issue of how this occurs has yet to be clarified. For example, the notion of "zone of proximal development" has aroused strong disagreement, and the common conceptualization of the notion of "nonspontaneous concept" has…

  12. Two Development Theories: Ibn-I-Khaldoun and Wallerstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atousa, Amirabedini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Each day, many different people in different societies are striving within their daily work to advance society. Every society needs to create ideas for further development and in order to become recognised as developed. The purpose of this paper is to show how different cultures at different times created similar ideas and theories to…

  13. Critical Development Theory: moving out of the twilight zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the onslaught of neoliberal triumphalism from the 1980s onwards, critical development theory increasingly found itself in a sort of academic twilight zone. With few exceptions development research became characterised by an emphasis on empiricism, quantitative methodologies and policy-oriented

  14. Human reactions to reward and punishment: a questionnaire examination of Gray's personality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G D; Barrett, P T; Gray, J A

    1989-11-01

    The development of the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire is described; this is an instrument designed to measure human equivalents of six animal behaviour paradigms--Approach, Active Avoidance, Passive Avoidance, Extinction, Fight and Flight. Although these six scales showed satisfactory internal consistency they failed to link up into the three major systems suggested by Gray's personality theory. The strongest associations were between Fight and Approach and between Flight and Passive Avoidance. This raises questions as to how the neurological systems of activation, inhibition and fight/flight are related to human personality structure.

  15. The use of general systems theory as metatheory for developing and evaluating theories in the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGare, M

    1987-04-01

    The general designations of neural systems and their levels of organization as presently applied in the neurosciences are described as being at variance with rigorous systems thinking. It is proposed that the rule-driven use of systems terminology and hierarchies would facilitate investigations of neural functioning in the natural case. General systems theory with its major propositions for hierarchical organization, open systems, and equifinality, is presented as providing the guidelines for developing systems-type theories for neuroscience investigations. General systems theory as metatheory is also used to evaluate hierarchies and systems designations in the neurosciences as these concepts are now applied in theories, models, and research. The metatheory is comprised of three sets of rules: the criteria for hierarchies; the properties of the open biological system; the criteria for the final conditions of open biological systems. The notion of the discovery of neural systems is contrasted with the apparent design of systems as frequently practiced by neuroscientists. The metatheory is summarized as directions for developing theories and as questions directed toward any neuroscience theory proposing levels of organization and systems.

  16. Mitochondrial theory of aging in human age-related sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Gianni; De Lisio, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Understanding age-related sarcopenia and, more importantly, devising counterstrategies require an intimate knowledge of the underlying mechanism(s) of sarcopenia. The mitochondrial theory of aging (MTA) has been a leading theory on aging for the last decade; however, there is relatively little information from human tissue to support or rebut the involvement of the MTA in aging skeletal muscle. It is believed that mitochondria may contribute to sarcopenia in a stochastic fashion where regions of fibers containing dysfunctional mitochondria are forced to atrophy. Resistance exercise, a known hypertrophic stimulus, has been shown to improve the mitochondrial phenotype of aged skeletal muscle. Furthermore, activation of skeletal muscle stem cells by resistance exercise may attenuate sarcopenia in two ways. First by inducing nuclear addition to postmitotic fibers, and, second, by increasing the proportion of functional mitochondria donated by muscle stem cells in a process termed 'gene shifting'. In this chapter we review the evidence supporting the MTA, the potential to attenuate the MTA with a known hypertrophic stimuli and explore the role of muscle stem cells in gene shifting to determine the connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and age-related sarcopenia. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Orthomolecular enhancement of human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, L.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of molecules introduced into the human body by the way of foods is emphasized. Examples of orthomolecular therapy are given that range from the control of epileptic seizures, the therapy of mental illness, to the prevention of the common cold.

  18. A social network model for the development of a 'Theory of Mind'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    A "Theory of Mind" is one of the most important skills we as humans have developed; It enables us to infer the mental states and intentions of others, build stable networks of relationships and it plays a central role in our psychological make-up and development. Findings published earlier this year have also shown that we as a species as well as each of us individually benefit from the enlargement of the underlying neuro-anatomical regions that support our social networks, mediated by our Theory of Mind that stabilises these networks. On the basis of such progress and that of earlier work, this paper draws together several different strands from psychology, behavioural economics and network theory in order to generate a novel theoretical representation of the development of our social-cognition and how subsequent larger social networks enables much of our cultural development but at the increased risk of mental disorders.

  19. [The development of I. P. Pavlov's conditioned reflex theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, O J

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), a Russian physiologist who presented for the first time the systematic theory of the function of the brain that controls the whole behavior of animals, i.e. higher nervous activity through experimental studies. This paper, principally based on Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes (1928), investigates the development of conditioned reflex theory from its beginning by dividing it into three periods. First, during the period from 1898 to 1906, the fundamental concept of conditioned reflex was established and the study of conditioned reflex became an independent discipline. From 1907 to 1916, the second period, Pavlov theorized on higher nervous activity on the basis of extensive data from his laboratory experiments of conditioned reflex. And Pavlov complemented conditioned reflex theory, during the third period from 1916 to 1928, and extended the boundaries of it through applications of conditioned reflex theory to psychopathology and typology. The study contributes to the understanding that conditioned reflex theory was historically developed, and not presented as a complete form from the beginning, and that Pavlov intended to study the higher nervous activity through the method of neurophysiology.

  20. Inhabiting the sexual landscape: toward an interpretive theory of the development of sexual orientation and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change.

  1. Darwin's contribution to the development of the Panspermia theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, René

    2012-10-01

    The contributions of Svante Arrhenius, William Thomson, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hermann Richter, and Ferdinand Cohn to the development of the Panspermia theory have extensively been reviewed by Arrhenius himself (1908), Oparin ( 1938 ), and Kamminga ( 1982 ). Reading the original publications reveals the pivotal role that Charles Darwin must have played in shaping their ideas-an aspect that has not been highlighted before. It is argued that The Origin of Species not only kick-started the scientific development of the Panspermia theory in the 19(th) century but that biological evolution was an integral building block of it.

  2. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  3. Linking Career Development and Human Resource Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Thomas G.

    When organizations integrate their career development and human resources planning activities into a comprehensive whole, it is the exception rather than the rule. One reason for the frequent dichotomy between career development and human resource planning is the failure to recognize that they are complements rather than synonyms or substitutes.…

  4. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  5. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S

    2015-03-07

    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency.

  6. Seeking a Sustainable Development Scoreboard: Beyond the Agency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ili̇́dio Tomás Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the concept of Sustainable Development (SD is embodied in complexities and intrinsic contradictions. Its boundaries are vague, deriving in an unresolved paradox. Development is, in its genesis, linked to economy features and achievements, and sustainability is traditionally associated with ecology and social progress. However, the merger of both can drive the main human freedoms. Countries and companies should monitor their sustainable development indicators using the capabilities allowed by information and communication technologies and through integrated knowledge management systems. This paper aims to provide a standard and conceptual framework for sustainable development performance analysis.Design/methodology/approach—based on the themes and headline indicators, disclosed by the European Union and the SD indicators included in the listed companies’ management reports, a conceptual framework was designed. A content analysis of the sustainability reports, issued by some Portuguese listed companies, has supported our suggestion for a set of key performance indicators, through a balanced scorecard approach.Findings—through a Balanced Scorecard approach we suggest a dynamic framework, which combines an integrated analysis at the country and corporate levels. A set of key performance indicators are also identified, aggregated and integrated in a proposed sustainability scorecard.Research limitations—the set of key indicators included in the framework proposed are not exclusive and can be changed according to the sector and company specificities. The integrated approach that is proposed is dynamic and should be adjusted according to the information management requirements.Practical implications—a conceptual framework was designed through a Balanced Scorecard approach. Based on the agency theory background, companies can provide a standard framework about sustainability key indicators. Management reports are improved towards a

  7. Seeking a Sustainable Development Scoreboard: Beyond the Agency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ili̇́dio Tomás Lopes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the concept of Sustainable Development (SD is embodied in complexities and intrinsic contradictions. Its boundaries are vague, deriving in an unresolved paradox. Development is, in its genesis, linked to economy features and achievements, and sustainability is traditionally associated with ecology and social progress. However, the merger of both can drive the main human freedoms. Countries and companies should monitor their sustainable development indicators using the capabilities allowed by information and communication technologies and through integrated knowledge management systems. This paper aims to provide a standard and conceptual framework for sustainable development performance analysis. Design/methodology/approach—based on the themes and headline indicators, disclosed by the European Union and the SD indicators included in the listed companies’ management reports, a conceptual framework was designed. A content analysis of the sustainability reports, issued by some Portuguese listed companies, has supported our suggestion for a set of key performance indicators, through a balanced scorecard approach. Findings—through a Balanced Scorecard approach we suggest a dynamic framework, which combines an integrated analysis at the country and corporate levels. A set of key performance indicators are also identified, aggregated and integrated in a proposed sustainability scorecard. Research limitations—the set of key indicators included in the framework proposed are not exclusive and can be changed according to the sector and company specificities. The integrated approach that is proposed is dynamic and should be adjusted according to the information management requirements. Practical implications—a conceptual framework was designed through a Balanced Scorecard approach. Based on the agency theory background, companies can provide a standard framework about sustainability key indicators. Management reports are improved towards

  8. DESIGN METHODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav E. Elkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "human development" and the schematic diagram of the organizational design of regional management systems in relation to human development. Management as an organizational process in the study is considered as part of all social subsystems, specifies regularities of development and formation of new structures and functions. In the study applied the following methods: allocation of levels of models, techniques of domination, the allocation phases of the operation, the construction of generalized indicators, etc. As a result of research design problems of systems management human development revealed that the primary means of successful adaptation of organizations to changing conditions is an effective mechanism for management of human capacity, which will provide the best in current economic terms the end results that allows you to apply the concept of "innovation potential" in relation to the process of human development.

  9. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  10. The recovery process utilizing Erikson's stages of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Scibilia, Suzanne E; McNulty, Kathryn Cohan; Baxter, Beth; Miller, Steve; Dine, Max; Frese, Frederick J

    2009-12-01

    Of current interest to the field are clinical frameworks that foster recovery. The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson's theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps. Understanding recovery in this context allows the client and the practitioner of psychiatric rehabilitation to design and implement a coherent treatment strategy.

  11. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  12. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  13. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  14. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  15. Theories in Developing Oral Communication for Specific Learner Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Marham Jupri

    2016-01-01

    The current article presents some key theories most relevant to the development of oral communication skills in an Indonesian senior high school. Critical analysis on the learners' background is employed to figure out their strengths and weaknesses. The brief overview of the learning context and learners' characteristic are used to identify which…

  16. Moral Stage Development and Knowledge of Kohlberg's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charles S.

    1982-01-01

    A linear regression model was used to test the relationship between the knowledge of Kohlberg's theory and moral stage development. A multiple regression analysis was used to test the multivariate relationship between one dependent and five independent variables. Neither analysis demonstrated a statistically significant relationship. (Author/PN)

  17. Towards a Theory of University Entrepreneurship: Developing a Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a robust theory in a largely atheoretical field of study. The increasing importance of entrepreneurship in delivering the "Third Mission" calls for an enhanced understanding of the university entrepreneurship phenomenon, not solely as a subject of academic interest but also to guide the work of practitioners in the…

  18. Observant, Nonaggressive Temperament Predicts Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lane, Jonathan D.; LaBounty, Jennifer; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Temperament dimensions influence children's approach to and participation in social interactive experiences which reflect and impact children's social understandings. Therefore, temperament differences might substantially impact theory-of-mind development in early childhood. Using longitudinal data, we report that certain early temperament…

  19. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  20. Development of Concepts in the History of Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development of quantum theory from the concept of the discrete stationary states, to the generalized concept of state, to the search for the elementary particle. States that the concept of the elementary particle should be replaced by the concept of a fundamental symmetry. (MLH)

  1. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  2. A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…

  3. An Integrated Theory of Whole Number and Fractions Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Schneider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an integrated theory of acquisition of knowledge about whole numbers and fractions. Although whole numbers and fractions differ in many ways that influence their development, an important commonality is the centrality of knowledge of numerical magnitudes in overall understanding. The present findings with 11- and 13-year-olds…

  4. Fractions: The New Frontier for Theories of Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Fazio, Lisa K.; Bailey, Drew H.; Zhou, Xinlin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on fractions has broadened and deepened theories of numerical development. Learning about fractions requires children to recognize that many properties of whole numbers are not true of numbers in general and also to recognize that the one property that unites all real numbers is that they possess magnitudes that can be ordered on…

  5. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  6. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  7. Local economic development in theories of regional economies and rural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačar Bahrija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is a detailed analysis of the basics in the theory of economic development during the period from mid last century until today. It states the most significant theories, points out their ranges, offers a critical review regarding their treatment of development, especially regional, rural and local one. It observes those theories according to different classifications existing in scientific literature, primarily the ascend theory, stagnation theory, balanced economic growth theory; then, short-term and long-term development and growth theories; traditional and endogenous theories; economic growth stages theory emphasized after the WWII; structural changes theory; dependency theory, neo-classic counter-revolution theory and endogenous theory as a new growth theory. The analysis becomes wider with a study on development in regional economy theories and rural studies and it systematizes the classification of those theories according to regional economy academics. Distancing ourselves from any particular division as the most suitable and acceptable one, the theories are treated separately and in an historic context, in order to encircle the time framework which from modern theories, dealing with local level development difficulties, resulted. It asserts The Community-led Rural Development Theory, often referred to as the Community Development Theory, or marked as Bottom-up Partnership Approach. The analysis of development theories asserts that mixed exogenous - endogenous approach to development links the rural/local development to the globalization process mostly due to fast technology changes of the IT and communication sectors.

  8. A Theory of Human Needs Should Be Human-Centered, Not Animal-Centered: Commentary on Kenrick et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Graham, Jesse; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2010-05-01

    Kenrick et al. (2010, this issue) make an important contribution by presenting a theory of human needs within an evolutionary framework. In our opinion, however, this framework bypasses the human uniqueness that Maslow intended to capture in his theory. We comment on the unique power of culture in shaping human motivation at the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and proximate levels. We note that culture-gene coevolution may be a more promising lead to a theory of human motivation than a mammalcentric evolutionary perspective. © The Author(s) 2010.

  9. Human Development VIII: A Theory of “Deep” Quantum Chemistry and Cell Consciousness: Quantum Chemistry Controls Genes and Biochemistry to Give Cells and Higher Organisms Consciousness and Complex Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it “sees”, and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam’s razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules’ orbitals make one huge “cell-orbital”, which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  10. Development of the asymmetric human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry across the midline is present in many animals, together with the left/right asymmetry of several organs, such as the heart in vertebrates. The development of such asymmetries during embryonic development requires first the specification of the midline and then specification of left/right. One model proposes the transfer of molecular asymmetry to the multicellular level. Nodal expression on the left side in mammals and chicks is a key event, and is due to the release of calcium on the left possibly involving an ion pump and the Notch pathway

  11. Recent Developments in String Theory From Perturbative Dualities to M-Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Haack, M; Lüst, Dieter; Haack, Michael; Kors, Boris; Lust, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    These lectures intend to give a pedagogical introduction into some of the developments in string theory during the last years. They include perturbative T-duality and non perturbative S- and U-dualities, their unavoidable demand for D-branes, an example of enhanced gauge symmetry at fixed points of the T-duality group, a review of classical solitonic solutions in general relativity, gauge theories and tendimensional supergravity, a discussion of their BPS nature, Polchinski's observations that allow to view D-branes as RR charged states in the non perturbative string spectrum, the application of all this to the computation of the black hole entropy and Hawking radiation and finally a brief survey of how everything fits together in M-theory.

  12. Watson’s Human Caring Theory: Pertinent Transpersonal and Humanities Concepts for Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey S. Clark

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and the caring moment are based in part in the concepts of transpersonal psychology. This paper will provide a historical background around transpersonal psychology and how it relates to Watson’s human caring moment. The purpose of explicating these humanities-based concepts is to support nurses and nurse educators in creating a deeper understanding of Watson’s caring-healing moment as a time-space continuum, where the nurse’s caring supports a mutually created environment for healing. The article provides useful background information, as well as outlining simple steps to revising nursing curricula so that they become supportive of nursing students’ growth as transpersonal-caring beings.

  13. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice a...

  14. MODERN AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCE-BASED THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Miroshnychenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of resource-based view is focus on using unique and rare combination of resources, core competences and organizational capabilities of the firm. The new intellectual resources and their combination provide the formation of sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, it seems there is necessity to join in research the application of resource-based theory to creation of new combination of resources in dynamic environment. In this paper modern areas of development of resource-based theory have been considered. The concept of knowledge management, the concept of open innovation, the resource-based view and the system organization of economy have been characterised.

  15. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  16. A Human Capital Theory of Growth: New Evidence for an Old Idea

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore R. Breton

    2014-01-01

    In 1960 Theodore Schultz expounded a human capital theory of economic growth that includes three elements: 1) Countries without much human capital cannot manage physical capital effectively, 2) Economic growth can only proceed if physical capital and human capital rise together, and 3) Human capital is the factor most likely to limit growth. I specify Schultz’s theory mathematically and test it in periods when global financial capital was highly mobile. I find that in 1870, 1910, and 2000, th...

  17. Development theory and changes in the international system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development theory has undergone several changes over the last two decades. However, the international reality has changed more profoundly. The increased heterogeneity of the developing world, the diverse experience of economic success among some developing countries, the new geography of global poverty, the increased multipolarity of the international system and the wider spheres of international public assets are just some of these changes. Thus, it is necessary to think again about the development process and the strategies that are required to promote economic and social change. This article represents an attempt to contribute to that reflection.

  18. Automated Physico-Chemical Cell Model Development through Information Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Ortoleva

    2005-11-29

    The objective of this project was to develop predictive models of the chemical responses of microbial cells to variations in their surroundings. The application of these models is optimization of environmental remediation and energy-producing biotechnical processes.The principles on which our project is based are as follows: chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; automation of calibration through information theory; integration of multiplex data (e.g. cDNA microarrays, NMR, proteomics), cell modeling, and bifurcation theory to overcome cellular complexity; and the use of multiplex data and information theory to calibrate and run an incomplete model. In this report we review four papers summarizing key findings and a web-enabled, multiple module workflow we have implemented that consists of a set of interoperable systems biology computational modules.

  19. Human Intelligence: An Introduction to Advances in Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in three research traditions are summarized: trait theories of intelligence, information-processing theories of intelligence, and general theories of thinking. Work on fluid and crystallized abilities by J. Horn and R. Snow, mental speed, spatial visualization, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and the construct of…

  20. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  1. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  2. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  3. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  4. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  5. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the poor.

  6. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  7. The Contribution of Women's Thought to Developmental Theory: The Elimination of Sex Bias in Moral Development Research and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Carol; And Others

    Investigations of moral development have usually relied on longitudinal research on adolescent males; such research has served as a basis for national educational efforts to foster moral development. To represent female as well as male perspectives in constructing theories of human development, conceptions of morality and conceptions of self and…

  8. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  9. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  10. Development of the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F

    1995-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been claimed to be involved in a great number of physiological functions in development, such as sexual differentiation (gender, sexual orientation) and birth, as well as in various developmental disorders including mental retardation, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), Kallman's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. In this review a number of hypothalamic nuclei have therefore been discussed with respect to their development in health and disease. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the clock of the brain and shows circadian and seasonal fluctuations in vasopressin-expressing cell numbers. The SCN also seems to be involved in reproduction, adding interest to the sex differences in shape of the vasopressin-containing SCN subnucleus and in its VIP cell number. In addition, differences in relation to sexual orientation can be seen in this perspective. The vasopressin and VIP neurons of the SCN develop mainly postnatally, but as premature children may have circadian temperature rhythms, a different SCN cell type is probably more mature at birth. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN, intermediate nucleus, INAH-1) is twice as large in young male adults as in young females. At the moment of birth only 20% of the SDN cell number is present. From birth until two to four years of age cell numbers increase equally rapidly in both sexes. After this age cell numbers start to decrease in girls, creating the sex difference. The size of the SDN does not show any relationship to sexual orientation in men. The large neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the neurohypophysis, where they release vasopressin and oxytocin into the blood circulation. In the fetus these hormones play an active role in the birth process. Fetal oxytocin may initiate or accelerate the course of labor. Fetal vasopressin plays a role in the adaptation to stress--caused by the birth process--by redistribution of the fetal blood flow

  11. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Key words: human development, foreign language, French. Introduction ..... to communicate with each other and exchange ideas. Not only ... This will enable learners have an early exposure to the language which will in turn.

  12. Human Resource Development Strategies: The Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic development of Malaysia is greatly influenced by human resources activities in both the private and public sectors. But the private sector, particularly the industrial sector is the key player for the country’s economic growth. In acknowledging human resources importance in this sector, the country’s developmental plans developed thrusts that support the development of human resources to become skilled, creative and innovative. This article examines the concepts and nature of human resource development (HRD at the national level in Malaysia. In examining HRD from the national perspective, a review of documentary evidence from relevant Governmental reports and documents was utilised. The plans, policies, strategies, roles and responsibilities in HRD at the national level were discussed.

  13. Human Resources Development in the 70s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  14. Entrepreneurship and human development: A capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Thomas; Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal model of entrepreneurship in human development. The framework is provided by the capabilities approach (CA). Hence we extend not only the conceptualisation of entrepreneurship in development, but the reach of the CA into entrepreneurship. From a CA view, entrepreneurship is not only a production factor, or a means to an end, as is often taken to be the case by economists, but also an end in itself. Entrepreneurship can be a human functioning and can contribute towards expa...

  15. Introduction to the Special Issue on the Theory of Human Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Davidov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on human values in the social sciences took of after Schwartz introduced his theory of basic human values in 1992. This special issue includes articles dealing with methods of data analysis applied to measurements of some or all of the values postulated by the theory and of other variables.

  16. Does Human Capital Theory Explain the Value of Higher Education? A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2010-01-01

    A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…

  17. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  18. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  19. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  20. Stagewise cognitive development: an application of catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, H L; Molenaar, P C

    1992-07-01

    In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria correspond to distinct methods used in cognitive developmental research. Such criteria are, for instance, the detection of spurts in development, bimodality of test scores, and increased variability of responses during transitional periods. When a genuine stage transition is present, these criteria are expected to be satisfied. A revised catastrophe model accommodating these criteria is proposed for the stage transition in cognitive development from the preoperational to the concrete operational stage.

  1. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  3. [Evolutionary development of human psyche in Wilber's integral psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberda, Przemysław

    2008-01-01

    Darwin's evolution theory is fundamental for modern biology. But the logic of evolutionary development seems to have a wider context. Several observations and psychological investigations show convincingly that the extent of the development of human psyche is a continuation of the biological evolution. Developmental levels of consciousness, seen both from the individual and collective perspective, are discussed in the writings by the American investigator and philosopher Ken Wilber. His integral model, which has evoIved into integral psychology, forms a logical and inspiring basis for further scientific deliberations in the fields of psychology and medical sciences.

  4. Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.

  5. [Development of delusion in view of Luhmann's systems theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, T

    2003-01-01

    The systems theory of Niklas Luhmann declares itself as a universal theory and therefore claims applicability to any social and psychic phenomenon.In spite of its high complexity, to many it seems too vague and nonspecific. The possible usefulness of this theory should be demonstrated on the example of the development of delusion, still a mysterious and unexplained phenomenon. Within the framework of Luhmann's systems theory, delusion can be considered a communication disorder and therefore a phenomenon within the social system. Both the autopoietic systems society and psyche are based on and processed by meaning but cannot communicate directly, and they are mutually nontransparent and unpredictable. Due to this fact, the interface between the two systems is a potential source of disturbances. Luhmann defines the distinction of information, message, and understanding as the crucial element to connect the social system with the psychic one. If the psychic system fails to recognize the message of an information correctly or is unable to negotiate between understanding and misunderstanding messages, it detaches itself from the social system to which it is normally closely connected. This detachment releases the possibility of unhindered autistic fulfillment of desires and uncontrolled fear. Due to the meaning-based autopoiesis of the psychic system,these released thoughts and emotions still appear in meaningfully condensed form as delusions.

  6. Documenting genomics: Applying archival theory to preserving the records of the Human Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The Human Genome Archive Project (HGAP) aimed to preserve the documentary heritage of the UK's contribution to the Human Genome Project (HGP) by using archival theory to develop a suitable methodology for capturing the results of modern, collaborative science. After assessing past projects and different archival theories, the HGAP used an approach based on the theory of documentation strategy to try to capture the records of a scientific project that had an influence beyond the purely scientific sphere. The HGAP was an archival survey that ran for two years. It led to ninety scientists being contacted and has, so far, led to six collections being deposited in the Wellcome Library, with additional collections being deposited in other UK repositories. In applying documentation strategy the HGAP was attempting to move away from traditional archival approaches to science, which have generally focused on retired Nobel Prize winners. It has been partially successful in this aim, having managed to secure collections from people who are not 'big names', but who made an important contribution to the HGP. However, the attempt to redress the gender imbalance in scientific collections and to improve record-keeping in scientific organisations has continued to be difficult to achieve.

  7. Development Tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.

  8. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  9. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  10. National Cultures and Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Konrad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between basic cultural characteristics of countries and some economic indexes. As cultural characteristics, the data from The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE about the 9 cultural dimensions for 60 countries were used. Two facets of cultural dimensions were measured: the perceptions of actual practices and the perceptions of preferred values. On the other hand, the data about different economic indexes were taken from archival sources such as Human Development Report. Results show that some cultural practices and preferences are related to the development of countries as measured by Human Development Index (HDI. The implications of these results are discussed.

  11. Review on the Development of Human Resource Accounting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEZongjie

    2002-01-01

    A review through the origination,development and prospect of Human resource accounting(HPA) is presented based on the study of plentiful literatures about if.HRA is defined as an accounting procedure and method to discriminate and meaure the data of human resources,aiming to provide information which is concerned with the change of human resources for the outside people to serve human resource management,It is experiencing a nearly frozen period following its hot time in 1970s after its origination in America in 1960s.The theoretic foundation of HRA is classical plutonomy dated back to 17th century,There were two preeminent persons in the higtory of HRA,One was Theodore Schultz who established his human capital theory relating education that improves the human capital value with economy;the other was Eric G.Flamholtz who enriched the concept,research methods and application of HRA,In China,the research on HRA started i 1980s beginning with introducing overseas achievements.Multiple views coexist i the academy on whether human resources should be taken as accounting assets and on where to put the HRA information in financial statements.The application of HRA is constrained by the absence of ull-blown theories and methodological systems about it as well as difficulties in evaluating human resources and the obstacle of conventional understandings,However,with the coming of intellective economy,the globalization of competition and the entry of China into WTO.The day of HRA will surely come.

  12. Liberating methodological thinking in human sciences from grand theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2016-01-01

    focus on the necessity of a “grand unified theory” at the expense of any and all alternative perspectives. Properties of grand theories are discussed on the examples of Giddens and Bourdieu. It is argued that grand theories hamper a more productive focus on concrete phenomena. Robert Merton’s focus...

  13. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  14. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  15. The cognitive development of Galileo's theory of buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Some thirty years ago, in a seminal book, William Shea argued that between 1610 and 1632 Galileo worked out "the methodology of his intellectual revolution", and that hydrostatics was one fundamental area of research Galileo concerned himself with at that time. According to Shea, that methodology was deeply rooted in Archimedean mathematics and basically consisted in mathematically investigating classes of phenomena, such as floating bodies, under certain idealized conditions. I believe that Shea's view is fundamentally correct. I will develop it further, by reconsidering Galileo's methodology in finer detail, specifically in relation to the development of his theory of floating bodies.

  16. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  17. Defining a Strategic National Agenda on the theory of construction for development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the possibility of establishing a theory of construction for development, this paper reviews concepts of theory and theory formulation, contextualises optimal developmental modalities, describes the role of construction within...

  18. The Development of Elementary Quantum Theory from 1900 to 1927

    CERN Document Server

    Capellmann, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Planck's introduction of the quantum of action in 1900 was followed by 25 years of trial and error in quest of the understanding of the quantum world; different ideas and directions had to be pursued until the path leading to the elementary quantum theory was discovered. Radical changes away from traditional perceptions about natural phenomena were necessary, the entire system of basic concepts in classical physics had to be abandoned and replaced by a new mode of thought. Continuity and determinism of classical laws were no longer applicable on the quantum scale, where dynamical behaviour proceeds by discontinuous and statistical quantum transitions. Albert Einstein laid the essential foundations for the new concept; Max Born made the decisive step further leading to the breakthrough in 1925. The development of the ideas, which eventually resulted in the elementary quantum theory in 1925/26, will be described, relying on original publications and letters written during that period in time by the major contri...

  19. Human prefrontal cortex: evolution, development, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffer, Kate; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is critical to many cognitive abilities that are considered particularly human, and forms a large part of a neural system crucial for normal socio-emotional and executive functioning in humans and other primates. In this chapter, we survey the literature regarding prefrontal development and pathology in humans as well as comparative studies of the region in humans and closely related primate species. The prefrontal cortex matures later in development than more caudal regions, and some of its neuronal subpopulations exhibit more complex dendritic arborizations. Comparative work suggests that the human prefrontal cortex differs from that of closely related primate species less in relative size than it does in organization. Specific reorganizational events in neural circuitry may have taken place either as a consequence of adjusting to increases in size or as adaptive responses to specific selection pressures. Living in complex environments has been recognized as a considerable factor in the evolution of primate cognition. Normal frontal lobe development and function are also compromised in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. A phylogenetically recent reorganization of frontal cortical circuitry may have been critical to the emergence of human-specific executive and social-emotional functions, and developmental pathology in these same systems underlies many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  20. Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life, which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research.Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life.

  1. Role of Adult Learning Theories in the Development of Corporate Training in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lytovchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the role of adult learning theories in the development of corporate training in the USA. Considering that corporate education is part of the adult education system in this country, the author examines theories of organizational learning in the context of adult learning. The results of the study have revealed that adult education in the US is based on dif erent learning theories which should be viewed from the perspective of several main orientations: behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, developmental theories, social learning, constructivism, which have dif erent philosophical background and, accordingly, different understanding of the nature and methodology of adult learning. Based on the results of the study it has been concluded that theories of organizational learning which explain motivation of students, their needs and goals, cognitive processes and other aspects of the learning in organizations and have had the main influence on the development of corporate education in the United States should be viewed in the context of the above-mentioned basic orientations to learning, too. From the methodological perspective, the research was based on interdisciplinary and systemic approaches. Thus, we used a set of interrelated research methods: comparative, structural, systemic-functional analyses, comparison and synthesis.

  2. Diabetes: energetics, development and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B C; Cajigal, A

    2001-07-01

    The recent emergence of the thrifty phenotype as an explanation for metabolic efficiency has brought evolutionary perspectives on diabetes, as represented by the thrifty genotype, under scrutiny. However, the logic of natural selection along with evidence from non-human primates supports the role for energetic constraints in the evolution of metabolic efficiency, particularly in skeletal muscle physiology. Environmental fluctuation during human evolution would have provided selective pressures for the development of efficient skeletal muscle starting prenatally and continuing throughout the lifespan. Such mechanisms including, glucose transporters, mitochondrial gene expression, leptin receptors and uncoupling proteins, should be present in all humans, though some living populations may exhibit particular 'thriftier' alleles. A focus on physical activity and the factors underlying efficient muscle physiology has implications for prevention of diabetes in both developing and developed societies. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  3. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  4. Contemporary foundations of the theory of urban development – case study smart, slow and compact city theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysz Kamil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the concept of development and urban planning in an optimal manner is as old as cities. It has not yet been established which human activities are to be considered as conscious and planned space development. It is assumed that the beginnings of rational, thoughtful urban planning should be sought at a time when cities began to be treated as a single organism, which should function smoothly, guarantee the safety of its inhabitants through defence functions and provide a higher standard of living. The effect of these assumptions was the logical placement of buildings, transportation systems and infrastructure, as well as recreational areas so that life in the city was something more than just miserable existence. This article overlooks former planning theories such as the theories of location by J.H. von Thunen or A. Weber, as well as the projects of a garden city by E. Howard and Functional Warsaw by J. Chmielewski and S. Syrkus. Instead, it focuses on what is currently, at the beginning of the 21st century, up to date and combines contemporary concepts of sustainability and new technologies, and treats the city as a resource of limited space, buildings, infrastructure and people representing both purchasing power and the labour force. The article, apart from theoretical considerations, focused on realizations of ideas in practice, quoting both sectoral solutions related to the organization of transportation in the city, as well as to projects of entire cities.

  5. Information System Development Model: Theories Analysis and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Norshita Mat; Badioze Zaman, Halimah

    Development of information system project is one of the IT projects which have been developed to offer the best facilities for publics. Process of system development will go through its own life cycle and every process must be refined in order to fulfill aims and objectives. Eventhough information system development is always correlate with failure but a few key factors will help the systems to succeed. There are multiple success factors being discussed by other researches in the information system development but failure figure still at the higher side. The main purpose of this research is to discuss processes involved in the development of information system which positively contribute towards its success. Model of information system development which has been developed (PADM Model) consists of four fundamental processes; planning, requirement analysis, design and maintenance. All processes will be monitored by a main process namely quality as the key performance indicator. Quality plays a vital role in assessing the ability of information system developed in order to fulfill users' expectations. Analysis of theory can be used as a guideline and measurement base towards the system with hope that percentage of failure will reduce subsequently.

  6. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  7. Reflections on the Field of Human Genetics: A Call for Increased Disease Genetics Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrodi, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Development of human genetics theoretical models and the integration of those models with experiment and statistical evaluation are critical for scientific progress. This perspective argues that increased effort in disease genetics theory, complementing experimental, and statistical efforts, will escalate the unraveling of molecular etiologies of complex diseases. In particular, the development of new, realistic disease genetics models will help elucidate complex disease pathogenesis, and the predicted patterns in genetic data made by these models will enable the concurrent, more comprehensive statistical testing of multiple aspects of disease genetics predictions, thereby better identifying disease loci. By theoretical human genetics, I intend to encompass all investigations devoted to modeling the heritable architecture underlying disease traits and studies of the resulting principles and dynamics of such models. Hence, the scope of theoretical disease genetics work includes construction and analysis of models describing how disease-predisposing alleles (1) arise, (2) are transmitted across families and populations, and (3) interact with other risk and protective alleles across both the genome and environmental factors to produce disease states. Theoretical work improves insight into viable genetic models of diseases consistent with empirical results from linkage, transmission, and association studies as well as population genetics. Furthermore, understanding the patterns of genetic data expected under realistic disease models will enable more powerful approaches to discover disease-predisposing alleles and additional heritable factors important in common diseases. In spite of the pivotal role of disease genetics theory, such investigation is not particularly vibrant.

  8. Human-Computer Interaction and Operators' Performance Optimizing Work Design with Activity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z

    2010-01-01

    Directed to a broad and interdisciplinary audience, this book provides a complete account of what has been accomplished in applied and systemic-structural activity theory. It presents a new approach to applied psychology and the study of human work that has derived from activity theory. The selected articles demonstrate the basic principles of studying human work and particularly computer-based work in complex sociotechnical systems. The book includes examples of applied and systemic-structural activity theory to HCI and man-machine-systems, aviation, safety, design and optimization of human p

  9. Astronomical Theory of Early Human Migration (Milutin Milankovic Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Our climate system varies on a wide range of timescales, from seasons to several millions of years. A large part of this variability is internally generated as a result of instabilities of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice-carbon cycle system. Other modes of variability, such as glacial cycles, are caused by astronomical forcings with periods of 20, 40, 100 thousand years. These so-called Milankovitch Cycles are associated with earth's axis wobble, axis obliquity and shifts in the eccentricity of earth's orbit around the sun, respectively. When these cycles conspire, they can cause the climate system to plunge into an ice-age. This happened last time 110,000 years ago, when Northern Hemisphere summer radiation decreased substantially and ice-sheets started to form as a result. Around 100,000 years ago northern Hemisphere summer moved again closer to the sun and Homo sapiens started to leave Africa across vegetated corridors in Northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. This first migration wave must have been relatively weak, but it left unequivocal traces in the fossil and archaeological record. Why Homo sapiens embarked on its grand journey across our planet during glacial climate conditions has been subject of an intense debate in various scientific communities. Moreover, the archaeological records of an early exodus around 100 thousand years ago seem to be at odds with paleo-genetic evidences, that place the first dispersal out of Africa around 70-60 thousand years ago. To elucidate what role climate and environmental conditions played in the dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans out of Africa, we have developed and applied one of the first integrated climate/human migration computer models. The model simulates ice-ages, abrupt climate change, the "peopling" of our planet and captures the arrival time of Homo sapiens in the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, Southern China and Australia in close agreement with paleo climate reconstructions, fossil and

  10. Human body composition models and methodology: theory and experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human

  11. [Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Rayla Amaral; Veríssimo, Maria de La Ó Ramallo

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension), minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  12. To the Issue of the Practice Theory Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tchapayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theoretical analysis of practical training as one of the two main forms of vocational training. Industrial practice is regarded as poly-systematic, alternative existence of students entering the adults’ world, the means for developing students’ functional responsibility and subjective world outlook, etc. The paper overcomes the existing utilitarian one-sided approach to the place and value of practice, its impact on the specialist’s professional development and opportunities for professional growth being explored. Regarding the practical training as psycho-pedagogical and educational phenomenon, the authors developed the theoretical and methodological bases for its designing and conducting in vocational schools. The research conclu- sions contain some heuristic innovative potential facilitating both the foundation of independent theory of practical training and organization of practice oriented training in vocational schools. 

  13. How Stuttering Develops: The Multifactorial Dynamic Pathways Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-09-18

    We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including genetic/epigenetic factors; motor, linguistic, and emotional features; and advances in neuroimaging studies. We update evidence for our earlier claim: Although stuttering ultimately reflects impairment in speech sensorimotor processes, its course over the life span is strongly conditioned by linguistic and emotional factors. Our current account places primary emphasis on the dynamic developmental context in which stuttering emerges and follows its course during the preschool years. Rapid changes in many neurobehavioral systems are ongoing, and critical interactions among these systems likely play a major role in determining persistence of or recovery from stuttering. Stuttering, or childhood onset fluency disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins when neural networks supporting speech, language, and emotional functions are rapidly developing. The multifactorial dynamic pathways theory motivates experimental and clinical work to determine the specific factors that contribute to each child's pathway to the diagnosis of stuttering and those most likely to promote recovery.

  14. Activity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  15. Contribution of Frenkel's theory to the development of materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović V.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The original and comprehensive research of Yakov Ilich Frenkel in physics and physical chemistry of condensed states, nuclear physics, electrodynamics, science of sintering has significantly contributed to the development of modern scientific knowledge and his scientific ideas are still an inspiration to many scientists. Having in mind the wealth of scientific ideas he had in the research of electroconductivity in metals, crystal structure imperfections and phase transitions and in founding the science of sintering, the contribution of individual theories of Frenkel of significance to materials science are presented in this paper.

  16. TAPSOFT'95: Theory and Practice of Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    theoretical computer scientists and software engineers (researchers and practitioners) with a view to discussing how formal methods can usefully be applied in software development. The volume contains seven invited papers, among them one by Vaugham Pratt on the recently revealed bug in the Pentium chip......This volume presents the proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on the Theory and Practice of Software Engineering, TAPSOFT '95, held in Aarhus, Denmark in May 1995. TAPSOFT '95 celebrates the 10th anniversary of this conference series started in Berlin in 1985 to bring together...

  17. Doctrines and Contemporary Economic Theories in the Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Stefan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary economic theories justify economic polarization, both before and after thesecond world war, through enhanced differences between the rich countries and those in course ofdevelopment. The instrument quantifying this economic gap is represented by the high price forindustrial products and a very low one for essentials thus maintaining at minimal level the purchasingpower of the agrarian countries (of the under-developed states. Through the agency of someinstitutions and specialized organizations like U.N., U.N.E.S.C.O. or the E.U., there are conductedinternational programs for the sectorial support mainly aiming the resolution of all kinds of problems.

  18. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in mortality both at the hospital and pre-hospital levels. Key words: children, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, development stages, training of pediatricians. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:25-27

  19. TRAINING IN ETHICS OF HUMAN CAPITAL TO BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to interpret training in ethics for action business students an introduction to the economy of the Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences at the University of Carabobo, as part of professional development in business studies. The investigation was addressed within the paradigm post positivist using ethnographic and hermeneutic method, descriptive mode of scientific research and technique participant-observation. It concludes that training in ethics management must transcend the economic theories located in the teleological by financial or economic interests toward the teleological including humanism.

  20. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  1. Human-Agent Decision-making: Combining Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Kraus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been conducted both in game theory and logic to model strategic interaction. An important question is whether we can use these theories to design agents for interacting with people? On the one hand, they provide a formal design specification for agent strategies. On the other hand, people do not necessarily adhere to playing in accordance with these strategies, and their behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors. In this paper we will consider the question of whether strategies implied by theories of strategic behavior can be used by automated agents that interact proficiently with people. We will focus on automated agents that we built that need to interact with people in two negotiation settings: bargaining and deliberation. For bargaining we will study game-theory based equilibrium agents and for argumentation we will discuss logic-based argumentation theory. We will also consider security games and persuasion games and will discuss the benefits of using equilibrium based agents.

  2. How to Find Out in: Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Doris F.

    This library handbook was designed to aid the student in human development. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in five categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) handbooks and guides; (3) yearbooks; (4) congresses; and (5) documents. Some…

  3. The Dictionary for Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas H., Comp.

    This dictionary lists and defines approximately 360 words and phrases used in the field of human resource development (HRD). It reflects the opinions and collective expertise of a diverse range of HRD practitioners and faculty. The words and phrases selected were drawn from a search of more than 300 current and recent texts and 10 periodicals in…

  4. Human rights and sustainable spatial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallemaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    What is the relationship between spatial planning and human rights? Though this question may seem highly theoretical at first glance, closer analysis will reveal that there are in fact a number of ways in which public policies in the area of territorial planning and development and the imperative of

  5. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  6. Human Resource Development and Organizational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Arif

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Organizations create mission statements and emphasize core values. Inculcating those values depends on the way employees are treated and nurtured. Therefore, there seems to be a strong relationship between human resource development (HRD) practices and organizational values. The paper aims to empirically examine this relationship.…

  7. How to Find Out in: Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Doris F.

    This library handbook was designed to aid the student in human development. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in five categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) handbooks and guides; (3) yearbooks; (4) congresses; and (5) documents. Some…

  8. Theorizing Strategic Human Resource Development: Linking Financial Performance and Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po

    2007-01-01

    This paper is to explore potential new underlying theory of strategic human resource development based on critiques of current theoretical foundations of HRD. It offers a new definition and model of Strategic HRD based on resource-based view of firm and human resource, with linkage to financial performance and competitiveness. Proposed new model…

  9. Testing the Human Capital Development Model: The Case of Apprenticeships in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…

  10. Testing the Human Capital Development Model: The Case of Apprenticeships in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Taner; Gün, Servet

    2016-01-01

    Human capital theory was developed to study how individual agents make rational choices or how they invest in human capital to maximize their welfare. One of the leading founders of this perspective, Becker, argues that schooling, on-the-job training, medical care, migration and searching for information about prices and incomes are different…

  11. The applicability of the social development and organization development theories at the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvindina Hanna Olexandrivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on how organizational and social changes are shaped and explained is done in the paper. Traditional assumptions and new theories of social development and organizational development were united into classification offered by author through the dichotomy principle of classification. This article combines the existing classification principles and presents new ones. The contribution of the author is the assumption that the characteristics of development theories can be distinguished by the following contrast groups: Evolution – Revolution, Cycle – Wave, Equilibrium – Punctuated Equilibrium, Standard – Paradox. Meanwhile the first three groups are presented and analyzed, the fourth group is left as hypothesis for the next research.

  12. Application of fractal theory in analysis of human electroencephalographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramanathan, P; Uthayakumar, R

    2008-03-01

    In medical discipline, complexity measure is focused on the analysis of nonlinear patterns in processing waveform signals. The complexity measure of such waveform signals is well performed by fractal dimension technique, which is an index for measuring the complexity of an object. Its applications are found in diverse fields like medical, image and signal processing. Several algorithms have been suggested to compute the fractal dimension of waveforms. We have evaluated the performance of the two famous algorithms namely Higuchi and Katz. They contain some problems of determining the initial and final length of scaling factors and their performance with electroencephalogram (EEG) signals did not give better results. In this paper, fractal dimension is proposed as an effective tool for analyzing and measuring the complexity of nonlinear human EEG signals. We have developed an algorithm based on size measure relationship (SMR) method. The SMR algorithm can be used to detect the brain disorders and it locates the affected brain portions by analyzing the behavior of signals. The efficiency of the algorithm to locate the critical brain sites (recurrent seizure portion) is compared to other fractal dimension algorithms. The K-means clustering algorithm is used for grouping of electrode positions.

  13. Development of Human System Integration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Human Systems Integration seeks to design systems around the capabilities and limitations of the humans which use and interact with the system, ensuring greater efficiency of use, reduced error rates, and less rework in the design, manufacturing and operational deployment of hardware and software. One of the primary goals of HSI is to get the human factors practitioner involved early in the design process. In doing so, the aim is to reduce future budget costs and resources in redesign and training. By the preliminary design phase of a project nearly 80% of the total cost of the project is locked in. Potential design changes recommended by evaluations past this point will have little effect due to lack of funding or a huge cost in terms of resources to make changes. Three key concepts define an effective HSI program. First, systems are comprised of hardware, software, and the human, all of which operate within an environment. Too often, engineers and developers fail to consider the human capacity or requirements as part of the system. This leads to poor task allocation within the system. To promote ideal task allocation, it is critical that the human element be considered early in system development. Poor design, or designs that do not adequately consider the human component, could negatively affect physical or mental performance, as well as, social behavior. Second, successful HSI depends upon integration and collaboration of all the domains that represent acquisition efforts. Too often, these domains exist as independent disciplines due to the location of expertise within the service structure. Proper implementation of HSI through participation would help to integrate these domains and disciplines to leverage and apply their interdependencies to attain an optimal design. Via this process domain interests can be integrated to perform effective HSI through trade-offs and collaboration. This provides a common basis upon which to make knowledgeable decisions. Finally

  14. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  15. Does Human Capital Theory Account For Individual Higher Education Choice?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex van der Merwe

    2010-01-01

    South African higher education policy evidently assumes a human capital interpretation of the value of higher education. However, not much local evidence has been provided to support the human capital view that individuals enroll in higher education primarily on the basis of future earnings they expect to flow from such investments. This paper suggests that one reason for this circumstance is that neoclassical economic epistemology, human capital theory’s philosophical paradigm, cannot deal c...

  16. Modeling Mixed Groups of Humans and Robots with Reflexive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    The Reflexive Game Theory is based on decision-making principles similar to the ones used by humans. This theory considers groups of subjects and allows to predict which action from the set each subject in the group will choose. It is possible to influence subject's decision in a way that he will make a particular choice. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how robots can refrain humans from risky actions. To determine the risky actions, the Asimov's Three Laws of robotics are employed. By fusing the RGT's power to convince humans on the mental level with Asimov's Laws' safety, we illustrate how robots in the mixed groups of humans and robots can influence on human subjects in order to refrain humans from risky actions. We suggest that this fusion has a potential to device human-like motor behaving and looking robots with the human-like decision-making algorithms.

  17. A chain of suprasegmental neuroscillatory circuits: a human brain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, V D

    1988-01-01

    A novel electrophysiological model of human brain electrical activity and functions is proposed. It views the human central nervous system as a chain of three suprasegmental neuroscillatory circuits, namely prosencephalic, mesencephalic, and rhombencephalic. Each circuit consists of a network of periventricular paracrine core neurons, efferent motor plate neurons, and sensory-associative alar plate neurons mediating suprasegmental electroclinical phenomena. The model is based on the exponential analyses of well established human data from the fields of electroencephalography, evoked potentials, wake-sleep spectrum, stages of anesthesia, and a variety of human tremors. This neuroscillatory chain is functionally analogous to the chain of cardiac pacemaker neurons.

  18. Interbeing and Mindfulness: A Bridge to Understanding Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Kathleen L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains and compares Thich Naht Hanh's concept of interbeing and mindfulness and Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Describes the application of mindful practices to holistic nursing and nursing education. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  19. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  20. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Developing an OD-Intervention Metric System with the Use of Applied Theory-Building Methodology: A Work/Life-Intervention Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Storberg-Walker, Julia; McMillan, Heather S.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new model, generated through applied theory-building research methods, that helps human resource development (HRD) practitioners evaluate the return on investment (ROI) of organization development (OD) interventions. This model, called organization development human-capital accounting system (ODHCAS), identifies…

  2. The place of development in mathematical evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Sean H

    2012-09-01

    Development plays a critical role in structuring the joint offspring-parent phenotype distribution. It thus must be part of any truly general evolutionary theory. Historically, the offspring-parent distribution has often been treated in such a way as to bury the contribution of development, by distilling from it a single term, either heritability or additive genetic variance, and then working only with this term. I discuss two reasons why this approach is no longer satisfactory. First, the regression of expected offspring phenotype on parent phenotype can easily be nonlinear, and this nonlinearity can have a pronounced impact on the response to selection. Second, even when the offspring-parent regression is linear, it is nearly always a function of the environment, and the precise way that heritability covaries with the environment can have a substantial effect on adaptive evolution. Understanding these complexities of the offspring-parent distribution will require understanding of the developmental processes underlying the traits of interest. I briefly discuss how we can incorporate such complexity into formal evolutionary theory, and why it is likely to be important even for traits that are not traditionally the focus of evo-devo research. Finally, I briefly discuss a topic that is widely seen as being squarely in the domain of evo-devo: novelty. I argue that the same conceptual and mathematical framework that allows us to incorporate developmental complexity into simple models of trait evolution also yields insight into the evolution of novel traits.

  3. Multiple-scattering theory. New developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Arthur

    2007-12-04

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is a very efficient technique for calculating the electronic properties of an assembly of atoms. It provides explicitly the Green function, which can be used in many applications such as magnetism, transport and spectroscopy. This work gives an overview on recent developments of multiple-scattering theory. One of the important innovations is the multiple scattering implementation of the self-interaction correction approach, which enables realistic electronic structure calculations of systems with localized electrons. Combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), this method can be applied for studying the electronic structure of alloys and as well as pseudo-alloys representing charge and spin disorder. This formalism is extended to finite temperatures which allows to investigate phase transitions and thermal fluctuations in correlated materials. Another novel development is the implementation of the self-consistent non-local CPA approach, which takes into account charge correlations around the CPA average and chemical short range order. This formalism is generalized to the relativistic treatment of magnetically ordered systems. Furthermore, several improvements are implemented to optimize the computational performance and to increase the accuracy of the KKR Green function method. The versatility of the approach is illustrated in numerous applications. (orig.)

  4. DFLAT: functional annotation for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Heather C; Drabkin, Harold; Ngu, Huy; Sackman, Michael; Fournier, Craig; Haggett, Jessica; Blake, Judith A; Bianchi, Diana W; Slonim, Donna K

    2014-02-07

    Recent increases in genomic studies of the developing human fetus and neonate have led to a need for widespread characterization of the functional roles of genes at different developmental stages. The Gene Ontology (GO), a valuable and widely-used resource for characterizing gene function, offers perhaps the most suitable functional annotation system for this purpose. However, due in part to the difficulty of studying molecular genetic effects in humans, even the current collection of comprehensive GO annotations for human genes and gene products often lacks adequate developmental context for scientists wishing to study gene function in the human fetus. The Developmental FunctionaL Annotation at Tufts (DFLAT) project aims to improve the quality of analyses of fetal gene expression and regulation by curating human fetal gene functions using both manual and semi-automated GO procedures. Eligible annotations are then contributed to the GO database and included in GO releases of human data. DFLAT has produced a considerable body of functional annotation that we demonstrate provides valuable information about developmental genomics. A collection of gene sets (genes implicated in the same function or biological process), made by combining existing GO annotations with the 13,344 new DFLAT annotations, is available for use in novel analyses. Gene set analyses of expression in several data sets, including amniotic fluid RNA from fetuses with trisomies 21 and 18, umbilical cord blood, and blood from newborns with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, were conducted both with and without the DFLAT annotation. Functional analysis of expression data using the DFLAT annotation increases the number of implicated gene sets, reflecting the DFLAT's improved representation of current knowledge. Blinded literature review supports the validity of newly significant findings obtained with the DFLAT annotations. Newly implicated significant gene sets also suggest specific hypotheses for future

  5. Educational Mismatches and Earnings: Extensions of Occupational Mobility Theory and Evidence of Human Capital Depreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Using a human capital theory framework, this study examines the impact of educational mismatches on earnings and occupational mobility. Occupational mobility theory suggests that overeducated workers observe greater upward occupational mobility and undereducated workers observe lower upward occupational mobility. By extension, this leads to…

  6. Interactions between causal models, theories, and social cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Buchanan, David W; Butterfield, Jesse; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model of social cognitive development based not on a single modeling framework or the hypothesis that a single model accounts for children's developing social cognition. Rather, we advocate a Causal Model approach (cf. Waldmann, 1996), in which models of social cognitive development take the same position as theories of social cognitive development, in that they generate novel empirical hypotheses. We describe this approach and present three examples across various aspects of social cognitive development. Our first example focuses on children's understanding of pretense and involves only considering assumptions made by a computational framework. The second example focuses on children's learning from "testimony". It uses a modeling framework based on Markov random fields as a computational description of a set of empirical phenomena, and then tests a prediction of that description. The third example considers infants' generalization of action learned from imitation. Here, we use a modified version of the Rational Model of Categorization to explain children's inferences. Taken together, these examples suggest that research in social cognitive development can be assisted by considering how computational modeling can lead researchers towards testing novel hypotheses.

  7. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  8. Development of Restorative Justice in China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative justice has become a global social movement for criminal justice reform, with over eighty countries adopting some form of restorative justice program to tackle their crime problems. The theory of restorative justice was introduced to the Chinese academia in 2002. So far, various restorative justice programs have been developed in China. This paper aims to systematically review the development of restorative justice in China by analyzing academic literature on restorative justice and key legislative documentations. Major debates in restorative justice among Chinese scholars and a review of the indigenous restorative justice practice, criminal reconciliation (Xingshi Hejie, are provided. The study also analyzes the impetus of this soaring popularity of restorative justice in China, considering the macro social, political and legal background. Last but not least, a review of the major evaluation studies of current programs reveals that little is known about the process of various restorative justice programs from the parties’ own perspective.

  9. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence.

  10. What can psychoanalysts learn from the development of literary theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2005-01-01

    It is no accident that literary theorists and academicians have become very interested in psychoanalysis. There is a remarkable parallel between the development of literary theory from its origins to the present day and the development of psychoanalysis from the time of Freud to now. The same concerns that have troubled critics of art and literature about how to go about evaluating an artwork are the ones most controversial today in the field of psychoanalysis. The questions, for example, of whether beauty resides in the work of art or in the mind of the audience and its parallel in psychoanalysis, whether the material produced by the patient is essentially from the patient or the product of an interaction between patient and analyst, or even whether it is ever possible to interpret any patient material or artwork all the way down to some basic qualities remain unanswered and polemical today.

  11. On the Development of an Ethical Demand Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amanor-Boadu, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    As an increasing number of consumers shift to demand products on the basis on production practices, animal welfare protocols, human rights initiatives, it is becoming important that we develop new tools for evaluating the decision-making frameworks in the ethical products market place. This paper draws on the behavioral economics and the principal-agent literature to provide a framework for conducting such analyses.

  12. [Evaluation of sustainable development of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone based on MuSIASEM theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Xiao-qing; Zhang, Pan; Liu, Ye

    2010-10-01

    Based on the theory of multiple-scale integrated assessment of societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM), a comprehensive evaluation was made on the human activity time, exosomatic energy input, and added value of Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone in 2000-2007. During the study period, the life quality of local citizens increased year after year, while the agricultural industry dwindled. Manufacturing industry was still the main pillar industry, but its energy consumption was greater. Service industry was at its early stage, falling behind manufacturing industry. The exosomatic metabolic level of the whole zone and its various industries had an obvious increase, and the energy intensity decreased continuously. With the fact that both the human activity time and the exosomatic energy input had a ceaseless decrease, the economic added value increased steadily, and the zone was under its way towards sustainable development.

  13. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  14. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  15. Eye growth and myopia development: Unifying theory and Matlab model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, George K; Mahadas, Kausalendra; Mohammad, Faisal

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to present an updated unifying theory of the mechanisms underlying eye growth and myopia development. A series of model simulation programs were developed to illustrate the mechanism of eye growth regulation and myopia development. Two fundamental processes are presumed to govern the relationship between physiological optics and eye growth: genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback. Cornea/lens is considered to have only a genetically pre-programmed component, whereas eye growth is considered to have both a genetically pre-programmed and a blur feedback component. Moreover, based on the Incremental Retinal-Defocus Theory (IRDT), the rate of change of blur size provides the direction for blur-driven regulation. The various factors affecting eye growth are shown in 5 simulations: (1 - unregulated eye growth): blur feedback is rendered ineffective, as in the case of form deprivation, so there is only genetically pre-programmed eye growth, generally resulting in myopia; (2 - regulated eye growth): blur feedback regulation demonstrates the emmetropization process, with abnormally excessive or reduced eye growth leading to myopia and hyperopia, respectively; (3 - repeated near-far viewing): simulation of large-to-small change in blur size as seen in the accommodative stimulus/response function, and via IRDT as well as nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), leading to the development of myopia; (4 - neurochemical bulk flow and diffusion): release of dopamine from the inner plexiform layer of the retina, and the subsequent diffusion and relay of neurochemical cascade show that a decrease in dopamine results in a reduction of proteoglycan synthesis rate, which leads to myopia; (5 - Simulink model): model of genetically pre-programmed signaling and blur feedback components that allows for different input functions to simulate experimental manipulations that result in hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. These model simulation programs

  16. The Evolution of Human Longevity: Toward a Biocultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Peter J.

    Homo sapiens is the only extant species for which there exists a significant post-reproductive period in the normal lifespan. Explanations for the evolution of this species-specific trait are possible through "non-deterministic" theories of aging positing "wear and tear" or the failure of nature to eliminate imperfection, or…

  17. "Humanizing" childbirth: the discovery and implementation of bonding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, R G

    1984-01-01

    Recent changes in methods of childbirth attendance represent one example of an emerging emphasis on the humanization of medical treatment. Although many have observed this trend toward humanization, the process of medical accommodation--including rationales provided for change, the nature and limitations of humanization, and the consequences of "humanized" medicine--is not well understood. This paper explores the process of medical accommodation by focusing on the ways in which the issue of parent-infant bonding has contributed to the humanization of obstetric care. The bonding issue has provided a rationale for change in a specialty area facing criticisms on several fronts. Acknowledging consumer demands for change in traditional styles of maternity care, medical professionals have responded by offering alternative programs based largely in the conclusions of research on the attachment process. It is demonstrated that these medically proposed alternatives suffer from many organizational constraints and that the emphasis on bonding fostered by these new programs has potentially negative consequences.

  18. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  19. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    This paper addresses the crucial call for upgrading to more value-added production in developing country firms in the light of increased global competition and suggests that such upgrading demands a shift in focus from investment in technology to investment in people, knowledge and learning....... In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  20. On some developments in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, M.W. [Warsaw University, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Pracownia Bioinformatyki, Instytut Medycyny Doswiadczalnej i Klinicznej PAN, Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-03-15

    We consider a condition for charge confinement and gravito-electromagnetic wave solutions in nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein theory. We consider also the influence of the cosmological constant on a static, spherically symmetric solution. We remind the reader of some fundamentals of nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein theory and the geometrical background behind the theory. Simultaneously we make some remarks concerning a misunderstanding connected to several notions of Kaluza-Klein Theory, Einstein Unified Field Theory, geometrization and unification of physical interactions. We reconsider the Dirac field in nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein theory. (orig.)

  1. On some developments in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinowski, M W

    2014-01-01

    We consider a condition for a charge confinement and gravito-electromagnetic wave solutions in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory.We consider also an influence of a cosmological constant on a static,spherically symmetric solution.We remind to the reader some fudamentals of the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory and a geometrcal background behind the theory.Simultaneously we give some remarks concerning misunderstanding connected to several notions of the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory,Einstein Unified Field Theory,geometrization and unification of physical interactions .We reconsider Dirac field in the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory.

  2. The development and experience of epidemiological transition theory over four decades: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailiana Santosa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological transition (ET theory, first postulated in 1971, has developed alongside changes in population structures over time. However, understandings of mortality transitions and associated epidemiological changes remain poorly defined for public health practitioners. Here, we review the concept and development of ET theory, contextualising this in empirical evidence, which variously supports and contradicts the original theoretical propositions. Design: A Medline literature search covering publications over four decades, from 1971 to 2013, was conducted. Studies were included if they assessed human populations, were original articles, focused on mortality and health or demographic or ET and were in English. The reference lists of the selected articles were checked for additional sources. Results: We found that there were changes in emphasis in the research field over the four decades. There was an increasing tendency to study wide-ranging aspects of the determinants of mortality, including risk factors, lifestyle changes, socio-economics, and macro factors such as climate change. Research on ET has focused increasingly on low- and middle-income countries rather than industrialised countries, despite its origins in industrialised countries. Countries have experienced different levels of progress in ET in terms of time, pace, and underlying mechanisms. Elements of ET are described for many countries, but observed transitions have not always followed pathways described in the original theory. Conclusions: The classic ET theory largely neglected the critical role of social determinants, being largely a theoretical generalisation of mortality experience in some countries. This review shows increasing interest in ET all over the world but only partial concordance between established theory and empirical evidence. Empirical evidence suggests that some unconsidered aspects of social determinants contributed to deviations from classic

  3. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  4. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  5. Putting Gino's lesson to work: Actor-network theory, enacted humanity, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thomas; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-02-01

    This article argues that rehabilitation enacts a particular understanding of "the human" throughout therapeutic assessment and treatment. Following Michel Callon and Vololona Rabeharisoa's "Gino's Lesson on Humanity," we suggest that this is not simply a top-down process, but is cultivated in the application and response to biomedical frameworks of human ability, competence, and responsibility. The emergence of the human is at once a materially contingent, moral, and interpersonal process. We begin the article by outlining the basics of the actor-network theory that underpins "Gino's Lesson on Humanity." Next, we elucidate its central thesis regarding how disabled personhood emerges through actor-network interactions. Section "Learning Gino's lesson" draws on two autobiographical examples, examining the emergence of humanity through rehabilitation, particularly assessment measures and the responses to them. We conclude by thinking about how rehabilitation and actor-network theory might take this lesson on humanity seriously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification.

  7. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  8. Theoretical and Ideological Framing: Relative Change Theory and Its Application to Humanitarianism in Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes relative change theory as an alternative to the common theories used in examining education sector development in the developing regions of the world. The theory specifically seeks to explain the persisting limited impact of development aid efforts. It departs from the Marxist informed dependency and world-systems approach in…

  9. [Contribution of epigenetics to understand human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Shand, Beatriz; Santos, Manuel J; Ventura-Juncá, Patricio

    2010-03-01

    Epigenetics refers to the study of how genes produce their effect on the phenotype of the organism. This article is a review on the scope and importance of recently discovered epigenetic mechanisms on human development and their relationship to perinatal epidemiological issues. It shows a general view and present concepts about epigenetics and its contribution to the comprehension of several physiologic and pathological conditions of human beings. Secondly, it analyzes the evidence coming from epidemiological and animal studies, about the influence of events that occur in the perinatal and early postnatal periods on adult life and the possible epigenetic mechanisms involved. Lastly, it underscores the implications of these results of future research and the design of public policies that take into account the importance of events in early life in the future development of individuals.

  10. Theory of Mind Development in Chinese Children: A Meta-Analysis of False-Belief Understanding across Cultures and Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Wellman, Henry M.; Tardif, Twila; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind is claimed to develop universally among humans across cultures with vastly different folk psychologies. However, in the attempt to test and confirm a claim of universality, individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes, sample specificities, and an overwhelming focus on Anglo-European children. The current meta-analysis…

  11. A happiness index of human development

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, Carina da Conceição

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Nowadays many social scientists defend the advantages to define a measure of well being able to complement the GDP per capita. This work project proposes a new index of human development: the happiness index. Many studies have been undertaken in order to determine the best measurement of happiness. Happiness is much more than just...

  12. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence

  13. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  14. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  15. Pragmatic development explains the Theory-of-Mind Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Evan; Carruthers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Henry Wellman and colleagues have provided evidence of a robust developmental progression in theory-of-mind (or as we will say, "mindreading") abilities, using verbal tasks. Understanding diverse desires is said to be easier than understanding diverse beliefs, which is easier than understanding that lack of perceptual access issues in ignorance, which is easier than understanding false belief, which is easier than understanding that people can hide their true emotions. These findings present a challenge to nativists about mindreading, and are said to support a social-constructivist account of mindreading development instead. This article takes up the challenge on behalf of nativism. Our goal is to show that the mindreading-scale findings fail to support constructivism because well-motivated alternative hypotheses have not yet been controlled for and ruled out. These have to do with the pragmatic demands of verbal tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New developments in the theory of flame propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivashinsky, G.I. [City College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Two topics in combustion fluid mechanics are discussed. The first is a theory of the outward propagating spherical flame in the regime of well-developed hydrodynamic instability. In a qualitative agreement with experimental observations it is shown that the flame assumes a fractal-like wrinkled structure resulting in the overall burning rate acceleration. In contrast to hydrodynamically unstable flames, the expanding flame subject exclusively to the effect of diffusive instability does not indicate any disposition toward acceleration. The second topic concerns the dynamics of diffusively unstable flames subjected to radiative heat losses. At high enough heat losses the flame breaks up into separate self-propagating cap-like flamelets while a significant portion of the fuel remains unconsumed.

  17. Development of the modern theory of polymeric complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles E

    2017-01-01

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo the process of complex coacervation, which refers to a liquid-liquid phase separation driven by electrostatic attraction. These materials have demonstrated considerable promise as the basis for complex, self-assembled materials. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the theoretical tools used to understand the physical properties of polymeric coacervates. In particular, we discuss historic theories (Voorn-Overbeek, Random Phase Approximation), and then describe recent developments in the field (Field Theoretic, Counterion Release, Molecular Simulation, and Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model methods). We provide context for these methods, and map out the patchwork of theoretical models that are used to describe a diverse array of coacervate systems. We use this review of the literature to clarify a number of important theoretical challenges remaining in our physical understanding of complex coacervation.

  18. Centre for human development, stem cells & regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreffo, Richard O C

    2014-01-01

    The Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration (CHDSCR) was founded in 2004 as a cross-disciplinary research and translational program within the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton. The Centre undertakes fundamental research into early development and stem cells together with applied translational research for patient benefit. The Centre has vibrant and thriving multidisciplinary research programs that harness the translational strength of the Faculty together with an innovative Stem Cell PhD program, outstanding clinical infrastructure and enterprise to deliver on this vision.

  19. General systems theory, cultural change, and a human science foundation for planning and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, J.L.; Woodfin, T.

    1993-12-31

    This paper integrates the knowledge-base concerning systems, their behavior and structure, and the management of complex systems - to provide insight to physical planning and design in equilibrium and rapidly-changing conditions. It contributes to the redefinition of the professions of physical planning and design; and the establishment of their human science foundations. This paper begins with a description of general systems theory, and the types of organizational structures that emerge in systems that are either in a state of equilibrium, controlled change, or chaos. It addresses the changes in system dynamics that occur as a culture moves from a condition of equilibrium or slow evolutionary change, to one of profound, rapid change. Conceptual approaches to decision-making to address these changing conditions are explored, with a focus on strategies to manage change and retard its rate, or conversely to maximize rate of change with reduced ability to manage that change. The paper presents the recent history of South Africa, Value Systems Theory and the differential manner in which people image the world - in an effort to establish intergroup harmony. It introduces problems that are emerging due to different value systems and need satisfaction; and on-going efforts to facilitate rapid paradigmatic change through equilibrium processes. The paper addresses recent efforts at the national level, roadblocks to change, and {open_quotes}change triggers{close_quotes} that can facilitate that change. It addresses case-study research to identify urbanization {open_quotes}delivery models{close_quotes} that can facilitate change at the local community-planning level. This paper develops the scientific basis within which to address urban planning and design as community facilitation, and as the management of ecological and human health. It establishes the need for a human science foundation for physical planning and design. 116 refs.

  20. Leadership theory: implications for developing dental surgeons in primary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2011-02-12

    The development of leadership in healthcare has been seen as important in recent years, particularly at the clinical level. There have been various specific initiatives focusing on the development of leadership for doctors, nurses and other health care professions: for example, a leadership competency framework for doctors, the LEO programme and the RCN clinical leadership programme for nurses. The NHS has set up a Leadership Council to coordinate further developments. However, there has not been the same focus in dentistry, although the recent review of NHS dental services (Steele review) has proposed a need for leadership initiatives in NHS dentistry as a medium-term action. Central to this will be a need to focus on the leadership role for dental surgeons. Leadership is all the more important in dentistry, given the change of government and the policy of retrenchment, major public sector reform, the emergence of new organisations such as new commissioning consortia, possible changes to the dental contract, new ways of working, and changes to the profession such as the requirements for the revalidation of dental surgeons. The question is: which leadership theory or approach is best for dental surgeons working in primary care? This paper builds on earlier work exploring this question in relation to doctors generally, and GPs, in particular, and planned work on nurses. It will seek to address this question in relation to dental surgeons working in primary care.

  1. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  2. ADN to BSN: lessons from human capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christina M

    2006-01-01

    Currently, approximately 16% of associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates acquire baccalaureate or higher degrees. Human capital analysis demonstrated negative to minimal average returns on investment (ROI) in BSN education. Increasing the ROI may influence ADNs to pursue baccalaureate education and can be an effective strategy for meeting the projected need for BSN-prepared nurses.

  3. Human vision is determined based on information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2016-11-03

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  4. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  5. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  6. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  7. Human vision is determined based on information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, Javier

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that the evolution of the human eye has been driven by the maximum intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun. However, the interpretation of the surrounding environment is constrained not only by the amount of energy received but also by the information content of the radiation. Information is related to entropy rather than energy. The human brain follows Bayesian statistical inference for the interpretation of visual space. The maximization of information occurs in the process of maximizing the entropy. Here, we show that the photopic and scotopic vision absorption peaks in humans are determined not only by the intensity but also by the entropy of radiation. We suggest that through the course of evolution, the human eye has not adapted only to the maximum intensity or to the maximum information but to the optimal wavelength for obtaining information. On Earth, the optimal wavelengths for photopic and scotopic vision are 555 nm and 508 nm, respectively, as inferred experimentally. These optimal wavelengths are determined by the temperature of the star (in this case, the Sun) and by the atmospheric composition.

  8. Theory, Practice, and Specialization: The Case for the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Humanistic studies cultivate types of conceptual fluency and modes of awareness important to thought concerning values. Not all knowledge is scientific knowledge. There is genuine comprehension of some valuative matters--they are not all to be interpreted in expressive or subjective terms. Education in the humanities can encourage value-relevant…

  9. Health care development: integrating transaction cost theory with social support theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajli, M Nick; Shanmugam, Mohana; Hajli, Ali; Khani, Amir Hossein; Wang, Yichuan

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies has already been influential in many industries, and Web 2.0 applications are now beginning to have an impact on health care. These new technologies offer a promising approach for shaping the future of modern health care, with the potential for opening up new opportunities for the health care industry as it struggles to deal with challenges including the need to cut costs, the increasing demand for health services and the increasing cost of medical technology. Social media such as social networking sites are attracting more individuals to online health communities, contributing to an increase in the productivity of modern health care and reducing transaction costs. This study therefore examines the potential effect of social technologies, particularly social media, on health care development by adopting a social support/transaction cost perspective. Viewed through the lens of Information Systems, social support and transaction cost theories indicate that social media, particularly online health communities, positively support health care development. The results show that individuals join online health communities to share and receive social support, and these social interactions provide both informational and emotional support.

  10. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  11. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  12. Young Adulthood to Old Age: Looking at Intergenerational Possibilities from a Human Development Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ReVille, Shari

    1989-01-01

    The potential interface between human development theories and intergenerational programing is explored. Erik Erikson's division of adult development into young, middle, and later adulthood, and Butler and Lewis'"characteristics of older people," are considered. Older people can offer help and encouragement to youth while themselves…

  13. A study of social and economic evolution of human societies using methods of Statistical Mechanics and Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Del Papa

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores some applications of statistical mechanics and information theory tools to topics of interest in anthropology, social sciences, and economics. We intended to develop mathematical and computational models with empirical and theoretical bases aiming to identify important features of two problems: the transitions between egalitarian and hierarchical societies and the emergence of money in human societies. Anthropological data suggest the existence of a correlation ...

  14. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo)

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota; MSc. Petrit Hasanaj

    2012-01-01

    Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumpt...

  15. Regulating social interactions: Developing a functional theory of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Marcela

    A role-playing intervention was developed and implemented in a fifth grade classroom. The goal of the intervention was to address serious problems that researchers have connected to dysfunctional collaborative interactions. These problems include an inability to: engage in important aspects of argumentation and communication, monitor and regulate group processes, and ensure equity in participation. To this end, a comprehensive theory of collaboration was presented to students through the use of four sociocognitive roles: mediation manager, collaboration manager, communication manager, and productivity manager. Each role came with a written guide that included specific goals and strategies related to the role. Metacognitive activities, including planning and reflection, were also used during class sessions to support students' understanding and role-use. Each of the students in the class was assigned one of the roles to manage during a two part collaborative science project. Students took quizzes on the roles and provided verbal and written feedback about their role-use and metacognitive activities. Students from one of the video-recorded groups were also interviewed after the intervention. Analyses of data from video sessions, quizzes, and interviews supported three important findings: (1) students were able to learn goals, and strategies for all of the roles, even though they only managed a single role, (2) students demonstrated the ability to take the information they learned and put it into practice, and (3) when students employed the roles while their group was working, members of the group accepted the role-use. These findings related to the learning and utilization of the roles are important because they: (1) imply that the intervention was successful at developing students' knowledge of the theory of collaboration that the roles represented, (2) indicate that students used this knowledge to monitor and regulate behaviors in an authentic context, and (3

  16. Leveraging Human Assets: Interpersonal Skill Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    considering the impact of motivation on interpersonal skills. Expectancy theory ( Vroom , 1964) includes expectancy and instrumentality. Expectancy is...to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort (Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, & Sager, 1993). Expectancy theory provides a framework for...that motivates behavior. The components of expectancy theory can be applied to understanding the motivation to use social skills. Individuals

  17. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  18. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  19. Theories of human violence: implications for health care safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2004-01-01

    Violence is a complex, multifactorial entity with no single source of explanation. Although much research is underway into the nature and causes of violence, much of this research is done in isolation and published in highly specialized journals. Thus, there has been no journal review article for the administrator, clinician, or safety officer in health care settings who must address issues of safety on a daily basis. This paper provides that review by examining major cultural, biological, sociological, and psychological theories of violence. The review includes risk management strategies for, and the role of, health care facilities as societal institutions to curb violence. Many of the risk management strategies noted for health care settings may also be fielded in schools, courts, businesses, and other settings in which emergency services personnel are asked to respond.

  20. Adopting level set theory based algorithms to segment human ear

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Human identification has always been a topic that interested researchers around the world. Biometric methods are found to be more effective and much easier for the users than the traditional identification methods like keys, smart cards and passwords. Unlike with the traditional methods, with biometric methods the data acquisition is most of the times passive, which means the users do not take active part in data acquisition. Data acquisition can be performed using cameras, scanners or sensor...

  1. Protein dynamics in individual human cells: experiment and theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Aharon Cohen

    Full Text Available A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells. As a model system, we choose three stable proteins displaying cell-cycle-dependant dynamics. We find that protein accumulation with time per cell is quadratic for proteins with long mRNA life times and approximately linear for a protein with short mRNA lifetime. Both behaviors correspond to a classical model of transcription and translation. A stochastic model, in which genes slowly switch between ON and OFF states, captures measured cell-cell variability. The data suggests, in accordance with the model, that switching to the gene ON state is exponentially distributed and that the cell-cell distribution of protein levels can be approximated by a Gamma distribution throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that relatively simple models may describe protein dynamics in individual human cells.

  2. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  3. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, C.R.; Mair, F.; Finch, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Dowrick, C.; Treweek, S.; Rapley, T.; Ballini, L.; Ong, B.N.; Rogers, A.; Murray, E.; Elwyn, G.; Legare, F.; Gunn, J.; Montori, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday pract

  4. Implications and Applications of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gladys C.

    1977-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explains some of the moral confusion emerging from the diverse, yet justifiable, reasoning in our complex society. This interview attempts to clarify Kohlberg's moral theory and relate its meaning to educational practice. (Editor/RK)

  5. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  6. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  7. Physical biology of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view toward surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level toward form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  8. The development of I. P. Pavlov's conditioned reflex theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, O J

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), a Russian physiologist who presented for the first time the systematic theory of the function of the brain that controls the whole behavior of animals, i.e...

  9. Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning: The Test of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have become increasingly influential in the psychology of reasoning. Though the distinction they introduced between intuitive and reflective thinking should have strong developmental implications, the developmental approach has rarely been used to refine or test these theories. In this article, I review several contemporary…

  10. Strengthening Academic Advising by Developing a Normative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Hilleary A.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions on academic advising theory have centered on application from many disciplines; however, academic advising is unlike any other field, and therefore, theories from other disciplines do not correspond with all of the unique goals of advising: assisting students in understanding the meaning of higher education, supporting students in…

  11. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  13. Development of cue integration in human navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Marko; Jones, Peter; Bedford, Rachael; Braddick, Oliver

    2008-05-06

    Mammalian navigation depends both on visual landmarks and on self-generated (e.g., vestibular and proprioceptive) cues that signal the organism's own movement [1-5]. When these conflict, landmarks can either reset estimates of self-motion or be integrated with them [6-9]. We asked how humans combine these information sources and whether children, who use both from a young age [10-12], combine them as adults do. Participants attempted to return an object to its original place in an arena when given either visual landmarks only, nonvisual self-motion information only, or both. Adults, but not 4- to 5-year-olds or 7- to 8-year-olds, reduced their response variance when both information sources were available. In an additional "conflict" condition that measured relative reliance on landmarks and self-motion, we predicted behavior under two models: integration (weighted averaging) of the cues and alternation between them. Adults' behavior was predicted by integration, in which the cues were weighted nearly optimally to reduce variance, whereas children's behavior was predicted by alternation. These results suggest that development of individual spatial-representational systems precedes development of the capacity to combine these within a common reference frame. Humans can integrate spatial cues nearly optimally to navigate, but this ability depends on an extended developmental process.

  14. The Development of Bimodal Bilingualism: Implications for Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of linguistic phenomena contribute to our understanding of the architecture of the human linguistic system. In this paper we present a proposal dubbed Language Synthesis to capture bilingual phenomena including code-switching and 'transfer' as automatic consequences of the addition of a second language, using basic concepts of Minimalism and Distributed Morphology. Bimodal bilinguals, who use a sign language and a spoken language, provide a new type of evidence regarding possible bilingual phenomena, namely code-blending, the simultaneous production of (aspects of) a message in both speech and sign. We argue that code-blending also follows naturally once a second articulatory interface is added to the model. Several different types of code-blending are discussed in connection to the predictions of the Synthesis model. Our primary data come from children developing as bimodal bilinguals, but our proposal is intended to capture a wide range of bilingual effects across any language pair.

  15. Cognitive representation of human action: theory, applications, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSeegelke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory (LTM as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures, and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions.

  16. A control theory model for human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  17. Non-linearities in Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Research on Theory-of-Mind (ToM) has mainly focused on ages of core ToM development. This article follows a quantitative approach focusing on the level of ToM understanding on a measurement scale, the ToM Storybooks, in 324 typically developing children between 3 and 11 years of age. It deals with the eventual occurrence of developmental non-linearities in ToM functioning, using smoothing techniques, dynamic growth model building and additional indicators, namely moving skewness, moving growth rate changes and moving variability. The ToM sum-scores showed an overall developmental trend that leveled off toward the age of 10 years. Within this overall trend two non-linearities in the group-based change pattern were found: a plateau at the age of around 56 months and a dip at the age of 72–78 months. These temporary regressions in ToM sum-score were accompanied by a decrease in growth rate and variability, and a change in skewness of the ToM data, all suggesting a developmental shift in ToM understanding. The temporary decreases also occurred in the different ToM sub-scores and most clearly so in the core ToM component of beliefs. It was also found that girls had an earlier growth spurt than boys and that the underlying developmental path was more salient in girls than in boys. The consequences of these findings are discussed from various theoretical points of view, with an emphasis on a dynamic systems interpretation of the underlying developmental paths. PMID:28101065

  18. VERNADSKY'S V.I. THEORY OF NOOSPHERE AS THE BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To implement Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky's teachings of noospheric outlook as the basis for sustainable development of the world community.Discussion. The theory of noosphere has become the philosophical basis of the concept for sustainable development of society, a strategy for balanced economic development and natural resource management, and continues to have great influence on modern environmental awareness and as often happens with great scientists, that walk ahead of their time, Vernadsky’s scientific legacy will still be comprehended and creatively developed by the next generations. Vernadsky suggested the change of attitudes and ideological principles, i.e. noospheric thinking, as the solution for environmental problems. Therefore, today, Vernadsky's teachings of biosphere-noosphere transition is of particular relevance that could be the basis for fundamental research of environmental issues and practical search for their resolution. According to Vernadsky, the basic prerequisites for the development of the noosphere are the following: humanity should be united; means of communication and exchange should be transformed; the discovery of new energy sources; the rise of well-being, equality of all people; conflict-free society.Conclusion. The knowledge of the development of the biosphere is the key to rational nature management. Vernadsky concludes that humanity, in the course of its development, is transformed into a powerful new geological force, and with thought and action it changes the face of the planet. Accordingly, for the purpose of its preservation, the humanity will have to take responsibility for the development of the biosphere turning into noosphere, and it will require a certain social organization and new environmental and humanistic ethics at the same time.

  19. Progress and development in thermodynamic theory of friction and wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Tribology theory lags well behind engineering needs because of those complex and multi-dimensional characteristics associated with friction and wear. The mechanism of friction is reviewed and discussed from a static thermodynamics perspective; research methods on the process of friction and wear and thermodynamic studies within the field of tribology are also reviewed. We propose that entropy can be a critical parameter in describing the evolution of friction and wear, and the entropy balance equation could be considered as a fundamental cornerstone for a systematic tribology theory. Applications of irreversible thermodynamic theory of tribology to various fields are reviewed.

  20. Progress and development in thermodynamic theory of friction and wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI ZhenDong; XUE QunJi

    2009-01-01

    Tribology theory lags well behind engineering needs because of those complex and multi-dimensional characteristics associated with friction and wear. The mechanism of friction is reviewed end discussed from a static thermodynamics perspective; research methods on the process of friction and wear and thermodynamic studies within the field of tribology are also reviewed. We propose that entropy can be a critical parameter in describing the evolution of friction and wear, and the entropy balance equation could be considered as a fundamental cornerstone for a systematic tribology theory. Applications of irreversible thermodynamic theory of tribology to various fields are reviewed.