WorldWideScience

Sample records for human development indicative

  1. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  2. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  3. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Serghini, Mansour

    2006-12-28

    The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators) are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High). Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal mortality and infant mortality which are really challenging health

  4. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

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    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  5. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

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    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  6. Can biodiversity, human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators be linked?

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    S.A. Mainka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A mission to reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity as a contribution to poverty reduction was agreed as part of the Strategic Plan for the Convention on Biological Diversity, adopted by the Conference of the Parties in 2002. As 2010 draws to a close it is clear that this target will not be met. To continue and build on momentum generated by the 2010 target, the conservation community has been discussing a potential post-2010 framework that again includes explicit reference to the link between human wellbeing and conservation, and also considers the links with human wellbeing and sustainable development. Given this agreement, we reviewed several human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators compared to existing biodiversity status and trends indicators to determine if clear correlations can be found that could be used to track progress in a new framework. We undertook this review at both the global and continental levels. The indicators for protected area and forest cover showed significant positive correlation across all continents. We found a significant negative correlation between changes in protected area (PA cover and tonnage of greenhouse gas emissions released (GHGe between 1990 and 2005 for all the continents. At the global level we found no other correlation across the indicators reviewed. However, we found that correlations between the biodiversity and human wellbeing and sustainable development indicators varied across continents. As the only indicators for which global level correlations exist, we suggest that either protected area coverage or forest cover may be relevant biodiversity indicators for global analyses of biodiversity-human wellbeing or sustainable development relationships, and that the relationship between protected area cover and greenhouse gases could be one indicator for links between biodiversity and sustainable development. More research is needed to better understand factors involved in the

  7. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

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    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  8. An application of fuzzy AHP for ranking human resources development indices

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    Mehdi Paktinat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Human Development Index (HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices, which is implemented to rank countries into different items of human development including life expectancy, education, living standards. This paper uses fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank five influencing factors including income, culture, healthcare, knowledge and civil rights in Iran. Using a questionnaire in linguistic form, the study asks some experts to make judgment about the relative importance of each pair of five items and it ranks them based on fuzzy AHP technique. The results indicate that income is number priority followed by knowledge, culture, civil rights and healthcare affairs.

  9. Are we like as we behave? Importance of socio-environmental indicators for human scale development

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    Christian Henríquez Zuñiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussing about development processes can generate a reflection about objective and subjective indicators, as well as revealing the importance of using socio-environmental indicators for understanding what we call as development. Using GDP as an indicator, or rather as a “marker” to differentiate between developed and developing countries, is discussed in this paper. It is present in this context a theoretical discussion which allows reflecting about socio-environmental indicators, or on a different development. This article mix exploratory studies and bibliographic research, it has been made in the context of a master’s dissertation. It concludes that the GDP has been used for a long time to measure the wealth of nations, and finally has been subject to criticism due to its limited global application, what does not answer contemporary needs. The socio-environmental indicators can improve the understanding of the processes for regional sustainable development, from a critical way, interdisciplinary and on a human scale.JEL-Code | O15; Q01; Q56.

  10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS OF AREAS ASSESSED BY A FOREST FOMENTATION PROGRAM.

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    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Index of Human Development – IDH – was proposed by PNUD for measuring the development of population life quality. The IDH takes into consideration the income, the education level and the longevity. The monitoring of this index, over time, can constitute in an analysis tool for measuring the influences of the public policy on human development in a region. In the Minas Gerais State the forest activity has been promoted by the fomentation program called Asiflor-IEF in various regions as way to indicate social and and economic development. This work built a report base using the characterization of the current indexes of IDH of counties assisted by each regional office of IEF to serve as future comparisons to indicate the contribution of the forest fomentation in the improvement of IDH. The Atlas of Human Development of Brazil was used to define the areas of interest, i.e., the involved regional offices and to establish the on going IDH indexes. For all offices, the component of the IDH that determined the lowest value was income. The Regional of the Alto Paranaíba presented the most homogeneous IDH distribution for all counties and the counties belonging to Rio Doce Regional office presented the lowest IDH indexes. It is expected that the forest fomentation program will affect positively and more directly the income variable in future IDH evaluations.

  11. Multivariate Analysis of Countries according to Subdimensions of Human Development and Gender Inequality Indices

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    Selay Giray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Development Index (HDI is an index aiming to measure human development by taking into account a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The 2013 Human Development Report presents HDI values and ranks, the Inequality-adjusted HDI the Gender Inequality Index (GII and the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate countries according to their similarities and differences using the indicators contained in the 2013 human development report. A figure created in two dimensional space was used by evaluation. Locations of Turkey, OECD and Eurasian countries are analyzed and interpreted elaborately. Multidimensional scaling is a statistical technique provides visual representation of the objects using proximity patterns. The most recent data of countries were analyzed by Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS. Stress value obtained from metric multidimensional scaling application was found in desired range. Also it was determined that we can trust the interpretations made of the map. To begin with, comparison by country groups was made, then remarkable points were interpreted on the basis of country. As examination of the map obtained from MDS application with HDI and GII indexes, it was remarked that OECD countries were grouped on the left hand side and Eurasian countries were grouped on the right hand side. Turkey, a member of OECD, located far away from other OECD countries and located closer to Eurasian countries. According to HDI and GII indexes Mexico is closest country to Turkey. Also Mexico is the country, which is perceived similar to Turkey.

  12. Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator

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    Reig-Martinez, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

  13. Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig-Martinez, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

  14. The relationship between financial development indicators and human capital in Iran

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    Hamed Adeli Nik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is considered as one of the major factors to promote economic stability, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, one of the most important factors in developing human capital is taking the advantage of facilities and economic capabilities in the Instruction Sector. Development of financial system provides such abilities for the prospective countries. This paper studies the influence of financial development on human capital in Iran over period 1977-2010 with the application of a VAR model. The results show that the cash flow in Iran has a negative effect on human capital, which could be because of the increase in inflation and ends increase in costs of long-term investment and human capital is taken into account as long term investment. However, the facilities provided by the banking system has negative effect on human capital due to the lack of the best financial resource allocation. However, since most of university graduate students in Iran practically have adequate skills and education, they do not have enough capital to start a business. Providing financial assistance for the private sector can lead to a business in which they can use their skills and education towards promoting production.

  15. Patterns of Human Development Indicators across Constitutional Analysis of Children's Rights to Protection, Provision, and Participation

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    Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…

  16. Patterns of Human Development Indicators across Constitutional Analysis of Children's Rights to Protection, Provision, and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Wright, Lynne; Hathcoat, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines children's images in constitutions and/or amendments as articulated in the Convention on the Rights of the Child while they intersect with the three dimensions of the Human Development Index (HDI) of 2008: life expectancy, educational index, and GDP. The connection between the images of the child and the fulfillment of the…

  17. Sustainable development indicators for cities

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    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  18. Monitoring Human Development Goals: A Straightforward (Bayesian) Methodology for Cross-National Indices

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    Abayomi, Kobi; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We offer a straightforward framework for measurement of progress, across many dimensions, using cross-national social indices, which we classify as linear combinations of multivariate country level data onto a univariate score. We suggest a Bayesian approach which yields probabilistic (confidence type) intervals for the point estimates of country…

  19. Monitoring Human Development Goals: A Straightforward (Bayesian) Methodology for Cross-National Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, Kobi; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We offer a straightforward framework for measurement of progress, across many dimensions, using cross-national social indices, which we classify as linear combinations of multivariate country level data onto a univariate score. We suggest a Bayesian approach which yields probabilistic (confidence type) intervals for the point estimates of country…

  20. Pollen indicators of human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing

    2008-01-01

    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  1. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

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    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  2. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

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    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  3. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    Rehabilitation care is fundamental to health and human dignity and a human right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The provision of rehabilitation is important for reducing the need for formal support and enabling persons with disabilities to lead an independent life. Increasingly scholars and advocacy groups voice concerns over the significant barriers facing people with disabilities in accessing appropriate and quality rehabilitation. A growing body of research highlights a "respond-need" gap in the provision of rehabilitation and assistive technologies and underscore the lack of indicators for assessing performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring States compliance with human rights standards in rehabilitation service planning and programming. While research on human rights and health monitoring has increased exponentially over the last decade far too little attention has been paid to rehabilitation services. The proposed research aims to reduce this knowledge gap by developing a human rights based monitoring framework with indicators to support human rights accountability and performance assessment in rehabilitation. Concept mapping, a stakeholder-driven approach will be used as the core method to identify rights based indicators and develop the rehabilitation services monitoring framework. Concept mapping requires participants from various stakeholders groups to generate a list of the potential indicators through on line brainstorming, sort the indicators for conceptual similarity into clusters and rate them against predefined criteria. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster data analysis will be performed to develop the monitoring framework while bridging analysis will provide useful insights about patterns of agreement or disagreement among participants views on indicators. This study has the potential to influence future practices on data collection and measurement of compliance with

  4. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...

  5. Sustainable development assessment through indicators evolving

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    L.V. Zharova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The sustainable development indicators perform an essential function of incorporating knowledge about the development of human society into decision-making at all stages from planning and application to evaluation of policy impacts. The article devoted to analysis of sustainable development indicators (SDI evolution and peculiarities of designing the set of SDI for Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia and other countries. It is illustrated that sustainable countries demonstrate success in economic and social development and in institutional support of developing. The necessity of unified set of sustainable development indicators for planning and evaluation is stressed. The results of the analysis. The paper provides an overview of evolution and application experience of sustainability measuring practice. Researchers analyze the directions of measurement approach progress. Modern trends of indicators’ using are explored. The research proofed that the more commonly used nowadays frameworks for evaluation sustainability of human development are Pressure-State-Response (PSR and its variations, limited mostly to the environmental pillar; human well-being/ecosystem well-being; issue or theme based frameworks; and capital accounting based frameworks, centered on the economic and environmental pillar of sustainable development. Research identified the complexity of overview of the large variety of national and international programs of compiling and publishing social, environmental and sustainable development indicators. It concluded that in general these programs include some or all of the following topics: population (growth, migration, refugees; human needs (health, food, housing, education, equity, security, etc.; renewable and non-renewable natural resources; environmental quality (air, water, land; ecosystems (acidification, eutrophication, biodiversity; economic sectors (and their impacts, including emissions, natural resource use

  6. The qualitative indicators in human resource accounting

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    R. Zámečník

    2016-12-01

    industry within the countries of V4 (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary. 2. The use of factor analysis in order to explain the clusters of motivational factors found within the cluster analysis in a better way. 3. The use of time series analysis – the outputs of mathematical analysis of motive development by using time series will be used when planning and preparing further motivational programmes. The period of the analysis will enable us to compare as well as detect changes in employees´ motivational structure. 4. Finally, the proposal and application of a strategic system of human resources performance measurement reflecting the enterprise strategy, and combining the quantitative as well as qualitative performance indicators. Conclusions and perspectives for further research. The results demonstrate that HRA is a term, which is more and more often to be found in the vocabularies of HR managers. It is associated with the growing effort by Czech and Slovak enterprises to measure the value of human capital, to direct and manage performance in line with the overall commercial strategy, and to compare its data regarding personnel practices with that of other enterprises. With the assistance of HRA, it is possible to analyse not only the economic (financial, but also the social consequences of measures which in the first instance influence performance and employee motivation within an enterprise.

  7. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  8. Human Development Report 1991: Financing Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    1991-01-01

    Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real barrier to human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

  9. Revitalizing urban waterfronts: identifying indicators for human well-being

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    Jungho Nam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.

  10. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon; Roh, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods: This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organiza...

  11. Developing Social Accountability Indicators at Medical Schools

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    Jalilian hamed Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is constantly discussed by experts due to its close relationship with the public health from the perspectives of relevance, appropriateness and responsiveness to community needs. There is no consistent general model to evaluate the social accountability of medical schools. This study was conducted to develop indicators of social accountability in medical schools. Methods: Criteria and indicators of social accountability were developed during three stages. In the first stage, after a deep review on the Global Consensus on Social Accountability of Medical Schools (GCSA and several papers we developed baseline areas, criteria and indicators. In the second stage, during the first round of the Delphi, the tables draft was sent to twenty medical education experts. Then, comments were collected and classified in the first meeting of the focus group discussions and necessary reforms were implemented in the tables. In the third stage and second round of Delphi, the set of revisions were sent the same selected experts. The suggested reforms were applied after collecting the instructors’ comments in the second focus group discussions. Five members of the focus group discussions were selected based on their relevant knowledge and experience in social accountability issues. Results: Ten areas, twenty-eight criteria and ninety-five indicators were developed after three stages of study with two rounds using the Delphi method and two focus group sessions. To clarify the criteria and indicators, we tried to make the developed indicators and criteria practical so that they could be used in the social accountability evaluation of medical schools. Conclusion: According to the importance and key role of social accountability in the medical schools mission, using comprehensive indicators can result in better accreditation and evaluation of medical schools .This study has prepared applicable and comprehensive indicators for evaluation

  12. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper...... investigates the use of key performance indicators as an approach for measuring the success of global product development projects. With the conclusions from a survey and workshop together with observations during a global development project, the need for an alternative approach to measurement than...... in conventional product development is highlighted....

  13. STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

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    Bhoomi P. Shah*, Suresh Jain, Krishna K. Prajapati and Nasimabanu Y. Mansuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most accurate methods widely used for the quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of drug product and is used for determining drug product stability. Stability indicating HPLC methods are used to separate various drug related impurities that are formed during the synthesis or manufacture of drug product. This article discusses the strategies and issues regarding the development of stability indicating HPLC system for drug substance. A number of key chromatographic factors were evaluated in order to optimize the detection of all potentially relevant degradants. The method should be carefully examined for its ability to distinguish the primary drug components from the impurities. New chemical entities and drug products must undergo forced degradation studies which would be helpful in developing and demonstrating the specificity of such stability indicating methods. At every stage of drug development practical recommendations are provided which will help to avoid failures.

  14. [Environmental health and inequalities: building indicators for sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil.

  15. New emergy indices for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-fang; Lan, Sheng-fang; Li, Lei; Peng, Shao-lin

    2003-07-01

    The emergy indices for the evaluation of system's sustainable development ability were studied. Results indicated that the emergy indices are simplified and merged, and a new emergy index for sustainable development (EISD) is deduced. Employing EISD, two cases are conducted. The first one is to compare three different dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes, which are: melon-melon-cabbage-four domestic fishes (mode I), melon-melon-cabbage-pig-four domestic fishes (mode II) and melon-melon-cabbage-pig-four domestic fishes combined with Siniperca chuatsi B. (mode III). The result is that the EISD of mode I is 0.53. Mode II's EISD is 5.26 times of mode I, and mode III's EISD is 6.83 times of mode I. The second one is to evaluate the development of Zhongshan City, Pearl Delta, during 1996 to 2000. The result indicated that the EISD of Zhongshan had appreciably declined from 1996 to 1998, and quickly improved from 1998 to 2000, partly because of its environment protection and product construction. Both of the two cases studies showed that EISD can assessment the sustainable development ability more roundly, with the consideration of environmental impact and social-economic effect at the same time.

  16. Selecting indicators of future corporate business development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dvořáček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents applications of discriminate analysis to predicting corporate economy future developments. The discriminate analysis was applied employing 5 to 8 input indicators (discriminators. Attaining maximum accuracy, 7 discriminators suffice. A final choice of discriminators was made by further discriminate analysis applications, and by searching causes of erroneous classification, which concerned a closer examination of input data files.

  17. Better energy indicators for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter G.; Abdalla, Kathleen; Quadrelli, Roberta; Vera, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    The UN Sustainable Development Goal 7 aims to deliver affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Tracking progress towards the targets under this goal can spur better energy statistics and data gathering capacity, and will require new indicators that also consider the interplay with other goals.

  18. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  19. New emergy indices for sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The emergy indices for the evaluation of system' s sustainable development ability were studied. Results indicated that the emergyindices are simplified and merged, and a new emergy index for sustainable development(EISD) is deduced. Employing EISD, two cases areconducted. The first one is to compare three different dike-pond agro-ecological engineering modes, which are: melon-melon-cabbage-fourdomestic fishes (mode Ⅰ ), melon-melon-cabbage-pig-four domestic fishes (mode Ⅱ ) and melon-melon-cabbage-pig-four domestic fishescombined with Siniperca chuatsi B. ( mode Ⅲ ). The result is that the EISD of mode Ⅰ is 0.53. Mode Ⅱ ' s EISD is 5.26 times of mode Ⅰ ,and mode Ⅲ 's EISD is 6.83 times of mode Ⅰ . The second one is to evaluate the development of Zhongshan City, Pearl Delta, during 1996to 2000. The result indicated that the EISD of Zhongshan had appreciably declined from 1996 to 1998, and quickly improved from 1998 to2000, partly because of its environment protection and product construction. Both of the two cases studies showed that EISD can assessment thesustainable development ability more roundly, with the consideration of environmental impact and social-economic effect at the same time.

  20. Development of future indications for BOTOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Mitchell F

    2009-10-01

    Since the late 1970s, local injections of BoNT have provided clinical benefit for patients with inappropriately contracting muscles with or without pain or sensory disturbance. Marketing authorization for some BoNTs, depending on country, include core indications of dystonia (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia), large muscle spastic disorders (not yet approved in the United States, e.g., adult post-stroke spasticity and equinus foot deformity), hyperhidrosis and aesthetic. Subsequent development has extended to selected conditions characterized by recurrent or chronic pain (migraine headache), and urologic indications (neurogenic/idiopathic overactive bladder; prostate hyperplasia), with multiple additional opportunities available. Portfolio management requires a careful individual opportunity assessment of scientific and technical aspects (basic science foundation, potential to treat unmet medical need, product-specific risk in specific populations, therapeutic margin/safety profile, and probability of successful registration pathway). This article describes ongoing development targets for BOTOX.

  1. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  2. Towards human and social sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink HBM; LOK

    2004-01-01

    Ever since the Brundtland Commission presented its report on sustainable development in 1987, various institutions have either adopted or tried to refine the approach used in the report. Currently, there is a broad collection of concepts that are often highly related to sustainable development. Thes

  3. Towards human and social sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink HBM; LOK

    2004-01-01

    Ever since the Brundtland Commission presented its report on sustainable development in 1987, various institutions have either adopted or tried to refine the approach used in the report. Currently, there is a broad collection of concepts that are often highly related to sustainable development.

  4. HOMELESSNESS AS AN INDICATOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládek Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text presents analysis of the census of homeless and it discusses other experiments to bring an overview of the number of this people and information of their problems. It is looking for answers on the questions to what specifically can this census and information about homeless of regional management serve and how to effectively use this data for improving a situation of people affected by social exclusionand whether such attempts have a factual meaning. The text discusses the possibility of a theoretical concept of homelessness as an important indicator about the state of human society which can be used for planning of social policy. The text is based on thetheoretical definition of the concept of social exclusion and poverty. It is necessary to proceed in the data collection among the homeless in accordance with ethical principles of research and it is also necessary to interpreted data as well.

  5. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  6. [Effects of heavy metals on snail development. Use of snails as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution for the preservation of human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomot, A

    1997-01-01

    The use of snails as biological indicators is particularly appropriate for metals, which they accumulate in their organs. The aim of the present experiment was to carry out a rigorous experimentation in the laboratory and in the wild in order to develop a methodology for the use of snails at a known stage of growth that would give precise information on the toxicity of heavy metals for different concentrations and durations of exposure. We have developed a test of toxicity based on the effects of a noxious and carcinogenic element, cadmium, on the land-snail Helix aspersa aspersa (H.a.a) of one month of age. Five concentrations (50 to 800 micrograms/g), were selected to estimate the concentrations causing 50% inhibition of growth (EC 50) at 14 days: 190 micrograms/g and at 28 days: 180 micrograms/g. A soil matrix contaminated with metals (soil including 800 micrograms/g Cr, 20 micrograms/g Cd, 800 micrograms/g Pb and 2000 micrograms/g Zn) was incorporated into the food at 50 and 75%, it too inhibited the growth of juvenile snails compared to incorporation of control soil. An accurate and rapid (2 to 4 weeks) method is therefore available for the evaluation of the toxicity of pollutants by ingestion. The first trials of this method in the wild consisted of placing batches of 2-month-old snails, identical to those used in the first lab tests, in locations that were either polluted or not. Differences in growth were observed depending on the locations; analysis of the levels of metal in the organs of the snails should enable us to check if there is a correlation between these levels and the growth rates. The results obtained with cadmium compared to those of other authors working with earthworms and soil arthropods show that snails give responses to concentrations comparable to those of earthworms and much more rapidly and with more sensitivity than those of collembolla for example. The ease of handling snails and the perfect control of their breeding are essential

  7. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE HUMAN RESOURCE CONTROLLING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dugelova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human resource controlling represents a company’s strategic method to support its role is planning, checking, and managing—including information supplement for human resources department. Human resource controlling helps with optimization and transformation of human resource functions and with general human resource management. Our survey deals with the implementation of human resource controlling in information technology companies. The selection of appropriate human resource controlling tools is the most important part of implementation. This article deals with the problem of human resource indicators selection as the most frequently used human resource controlling tool. Many international authors have solved the problem of performance appraisal measurement, and there are numerous demonstrations on how to choose key performance indicators. Our motivation to draft the complex methodology of human resource indicators selection is based on non-existing solution among the authors. To solve the problem and find appropriate methodology, we use the methods comparison, abstraction, and concretization. The result is a creation of the right human resource indicators selection in line with human resource controlling aim. We use the Balanced Scorecard, Deloitte human resource strategy framework, and partial solution of Kleinhempel (2010. These results constitute the basis for our future research and for drafting the whole methodology of human resource controlling implementation in information technology companies.

  8. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  9. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  10. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  11. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  12. A Case for Developing Community Drug Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Hilda; McCann, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The EU Action Plan on Drugs (2005-2008) calls for member states of the European Union to provide information on five key epidemiological indicators. These are: general population surveys, prevalence and patterns of problem drug use, drug related infectious diseases, drug related deaths and mortality of drug users, and demand for drug treatment.…

  13. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate s

  14. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  15. Values Reflected in the Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) implicitly defines "human development" and ranks countries accordingly. To elucidate the HDI's meaning of "human development," the paper examines the sensitivity of the HDI to changes in its components, namely social indicators of education, longevity and standard of living. The HDI is next compared with two…

  16. Development of a radiation-sensitive indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; El-Kelany, M.; Abdel-Rehim, F.

    1996-10-01

    A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film containing acid-sensitive dye (bromophenol red, BPR) and water soluble chlorine-containing substance [CCl 3COONa or chloral hydrate (CCl 3CH(OH) 2, 2,2,2-trichloroethan-1,1-diol)] may be useful as a radiation-sensitive indicator. The acid-sensitive dye in the film changes its color from violet to pale yellow by irradiation due to the consequent lowering of the pH of the film caused by the HCl generated from the radiolysis of the Cl-containing substance. This film can be used as a dosimeter in a relatively low dose range up to 5 kGy. This response range makes this film useful in some food irradiation, pasteurization and water purification applications. The effects of temperature and relative humidity during irradiation and post-irradiation storage on the response of the film are discussed. It is inexpensive, does not require toxic solvents in preparation and easy to prepare in a laboratory.

  17. Corrections to the human development index and alternative indicators of sustainability%人类发展指数的修正与可持续发展的替代指标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉振(翻译); Alexander Gorobets

    2012-01-01

    本文确认了全球社会-生态问题(过度消费,道德危机)的主要根源并提出了新的可持续发展的愿景,重点要关注精神、道德、心理、生理和人的智力开发(而代替以消费为导主的理念)。讨论了人类发展指标不足所涉及到的因素(寿命预期、人均国内生产总值),提出了测量人类可持续发展的替代指标,即:健康人口的比例。生态效率也被建议作为转化可持续发展的必要条件,人的精神,根据生态中心立场(社会-生态幸福)。通过适当的教育和体制政策而实现环境和人类健康、公平和整个人类的发展。%In this paper, the major roots of the global socio-ecological problems are identified(over consumption, moral crisis)and a new vision of sustainable development, focused on holistic spiritual, moral, psychological, physical and intellectual human development(instead of dominating consumerism)is proposed. The shortcoming of the human development index related to its components (life expectancy at birth and gross domestic product per capita) are discussed and some alternative indicators for measuring sustainable human development are proposed, e.g. proportion of population in full health. While eco-efficiency is suggested as the necessary condition of transition to sustainability, human mentality, based on the eco-centric grounds (socio-ecological wellbeing), environmental and human health, justice and holistic human development is considered as its key condition that can be achieved through an appropriate educational and institutional policy.

  18. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  19. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  20. [Job Satisfaction: a quality indicator in nursing human resource management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vera Thânia Alves; Kurcgant, Paulina

    2012-02-01

    This descriptive study addresses the job satisfaction of nurse managers and clinical nurses working at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Services of a public hospital in São Paulo. The study objectives were to identify the factors that caused job satisfaction among nurse managers and clinical nurses, and support the results in the development of indicators to evaluate the quality of nursing human resource management. The components of the study were: autonomy, interaction, professional status, job requirements, organizational norms and remuneration. Participants were 44 nurses. Data were collected using a Job Satisfaction Index (JSI) questionnaire. In conclusion, this study permitted the identification of the clinical nurse group, which was the most satisfied, with a JSI of 10.5; the managerial group scored 10.0. Regarding the satisfaction levels in regards to the current activity, 88.9% of the nurse managers reported feeling satisfied, as did 90.9% of clinical nurses. For both groups, autonomy was the component with the highest level of professional satisfaction.

  1. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  2. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  3. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  4. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining...... such as No Observed Effect Levels (NOEL). NOELs, and similar data, are determined in laboratory studies using rodents and are then extrapolated to more relevant human measures. Many examples also exist of measures and methods beyond potency-based indicators that attempt to account for differences in expected severity......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...

  5. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment.

  6. Thermal imaging to detect physiological indicators of stress in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Carl B.; Skipper, Julie A.; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2013-05-01

    Real-time, stand-off sensing of human subjects to detect emotional state would be valuable in many defense, security and medical scenarios. We are developing a multimodal sensor platform that incorporates high-resolution electro-optical and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras and a millimeter-wave radar system to identify individuals who are psychologically stressed. Recent experiments have aimed to: 1) assess responses to physical versus psychological stressors; 2) examine the impact of topical skin products on thermal signatures; and 3) evaluate the fidelity of vital signs extracted from thermal imagery and radar signatures. Registered image and sensor data were collected as subjects (n=32) performed mental and physical tasks. In each image, the face was segmented into 29 non-overlapping segments based on fiducial points automatically output by our facial feature tracker. Image features were defined that facilitated discrimination between psychological and physical stress states. To test the ability to intentionally mask thermal responses indicative of anxiety or fear, subjects applied one of four topical skin products to one half of their face before performing tasks. Finally, we evaluated the performance of two non-contact techniques to detect respiration and heart rate: chest displacement extracted from the radar signal and temperature fluctuations at the nose tip and regions near superficial arteries to detect respiration and heart rates, respectively, extracted from the MWIR imagery. Our results are very satisfactory: classification of physical versus psychological stressors is repeatedly greater than 90%, thermal masking was almost always ineffective, and accurate heart and respiration rates are detectable in both thermal and radar signatures.

  7. Performance management in healthcare: performance indicator development, task uncertainty, and types of performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geer, Eric; van Tuijl, Harrie F J M; Rutte, Christel G

    2009-11-01

    In healthcare, performance indicators are increasingly used to measure and control quality and efficiency of care-providing teams. This article demonstrates that when controllability is emphasized during indicator development, the level of task uncertainty influences the type of resulting performance indicators. We report findings from a field study in a medical rehabilitation centre in The Netherlands, where four low task uncertain teams ('hand trauma', 'heart failure', 'amputation', 'chronic pain'), and four high task uncertain teams ('children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD)', 'parkinson's disease', 'young children (0-4 years) with developmental disorders', and 'acquired brain injuries') participated in the development of performance indicators using the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES) method. Results show that teams higher on task uncertainty developed relatively more process indicators compared to outcome indicators, whereas the reverse was true for teams lower on task uncertainty. Additionally, process indicators developed by high task uncertain teams were more of a problem solving nature than process indicators developed by low task uncertain teams, which had a more procedural character. The study expands existing knowledge by providing a framework which explicates the task processes to be executed under different levels of task uncertainty, and in line with that appropriate performance indicators for healthcare teams.

  8. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  9. Sustainable development indicators: Case study for South Morava river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Nebojša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is elaboration and evaluation of indicators of sustainable development in the field of river basin management. Aggregate indicator entitled Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is identified by calculation of average value by the procedure of leveling of proportion changes of three key indicators (demographic emission index, water quality index, industrial production index. Developed aggregate indicator of sustainable development is calculated and analyzed for South Morava river basin in Serbia, for the period from 1980 to 2010. The beneficiaries of these indicators are the experts from the field of environmental protection and water management who should use it for elaboration of reports directed towards the creators of economic development policy and river basin management planning. Elaborated according to the given methodology, the indicator Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is available for the decision makers on the national level, internationally comparative and it provides the conditions for further elaboration and application.

  10. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  11. [Development of performance measure indicators in hospital nursing units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong-Hwa; Kim, In-Sook

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units based on a Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This study was a methodological study. The development process consisted of 3 stages. The first stage was setting up strategies for nursing units from a nursing department's mission and vision. The second stage was developing performance measure indicators after a validity check. The third stage was modifying developed performance measure indicators and classifying them. 7 strategies were set up according to 4 perspectives of a BSC. 15 performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units were developed, and the indicators were divided into 8 independent indicators and 7 shared indicators according to the degree of performance responsibility. In addition, they were classified into two groups, 7 leading indicators and lagging indicators. The result of this study suggests that performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units provide a framework and method for nursing organizations' performance management. Also, the developed indicators are expected to provide valuable information for successful organization management.

  12. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  13. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...... lost (mortality) and years of impaired life (morbidity). Qualitative severity approaches tend to arrange potency-based indicators in categories, avoiding the need to quantitatively express differences in severity. Based on the proposed criteria and current state of the knowledge, toxicological potency...

  14. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  15. Renewable resources: Sustainable development indicators : Phase 1: Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-26

    This report is part of a series of reports prepared for the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) Initiative. It is used to evaluate and develop sustainable development indicators (SDIs), with the emphasis on renewable natural resources. A comparative analysis was not performed, but rather key information was made available for each indicator or indicator set. The development of a recommended set of SDIs will be prepared with this document used as a tool. Two conceptually similar resources, but distinct, were addressed in the report: marine fisheries and forests. The feasibility of developing a national indicator of marine ecosystem health (biodiversity and other ecosystem factors) and the feasibility of determining stock estimates and indicators of commercially exploited marine species represented the mandate for the marine fisheries portion. As for the section dealing with forests, the report discussed the development of a stock estimate and indicators of commercially exploitable forest resources, examined the feasibility of determining an indicator of the quality of timber stocks, and the development of a national indicator that would best represent the health of all forest ecosystems (diversity and environmental services provided by the forests). Canadian SDIs and related databases were investigated, and where appropriate, the SDIs developed by foreign jurisdictions were included. The two categories were dealt with separately, and the overall health of the supporting ecosystems and the supply of resources were discussed. refs.

  16. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  17. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  18. Sustainable development indicators for Sweden - a first set 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    equal distribution of prosperity enables a broader-based contribution and can also influence the development of both the economy and the environment. A society characterised by involvement and concern can boost its potential for productive, efficient and environmentally responsible action. Equality in terms of decreasing injustice - between rich and poor, men and women, ethnic groups, age groups or people living in different regions - is also an important aspect of the idea of sustainable development. Society as a whole has the potential to develop and adapt new technologies and to make adjustments in how things are done in response to new conditions. The way this is done is reflected by the theme Adaptability. This theme interacts with the themes of Efficiency and Contribution and Equality. Incentives in the form of laws, taxes and grants as well as individual choices play an important role in the adjustments that are needed to meet the goal of passing on values and resources to coming generations. A rising interest for entrepreneurship contributes to increased potential for economic diversity. Adaptation to the use of renewable resources proceeds slowly. Nevertheless, there has been an adaptation in energy usage. For example, the housing sector today is much more energy efficient than previously. Sweden has the highest proportion of renewable energy/total energy among the member states of the EU. We also note a significant increase in the area under cultivation for organic farming. Sustainable development as formulated in 'Our Common Future' implies that our way of life must not be allowed to jeopardise the opportunities of future generations to satisfy their needs. The indicators here give some idea of what we hand over to coming generations, their manoeuvrability, when it comes to economic resources, ecological resources and human resources. The predominant impression is that Sweden is not passing on to coming generations a similarly large or greater set

  19. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  20. Indicators for sustainable development 2010; Indikatorer for baerekraftig utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Kolshus, Kristine E.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents an updated set of Norwegian sustainable development indicators and describes the development of the indicators together with relevant supplementary information. Whilst compiling the report, we have had an effective collaboration with a number of institutions, which have supplied data, text and assessments for various subject areas. A number of divisions and departments in Statistics Norway have made contributions to their respective specialist areas. The main responsibility for compiling the report has rested with the Division for environmental statistics in the Department of economics, energy and the environment. The report has been edited by senior advisers Frode Brunvoll and Kristine E. Kolshus. Main findings within the policy areas of the Norwegian strategy for sustainable development: International cooperation for sustainable development and combating poverty. Norwegian official development aid is increasing. In 2010, Norway contributed over 1 per cent of GNI as official development assistance. Following a decrease in 2009, the imports to Norway from developing countries increased again in 2010. However, the imports from the least developed countries decreased substantially. Climate, ozone and long-range air pollution The two-year decrease in Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions was followed by a new increase in 2010, when the emissions amounted to 53.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalents. This is 4.8 per cent more than in 2009, and 3.6 million tonnes CO2 equivalents above the Norwegian Kyoto target. In 2010, Norway's emissions of NOX increased by 4 per cent. This is 20 per cent above the obligation for 2010 set in the Gothenburg Protocol. However, the emissions of the other acidifying gases and NMVOCs were below the obligations. Biodiversity and cultural heritage. In mountain areas and cultural landscapes the populations of nesting birds have decreased. The figures for forest birds show no clear trend. The water quality in Norway, also

  1. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE HUMAN RESOURCE CONTROLLING INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Dugelova; Mariana Strenitzerova

    2015-01-01

    Human resource controlling represents a company’s strategic method to support its role is planning, checking, and managing—including information supplement for human resources department. Human resource controlling helps with optimization and transformation of human resource functions and with general human resource management. Our survey deals with the implementation of human resource controlling in information technology companies. The selection of appropriate human resource controlling too...

  2. Methodology for development of risk indicators for offshore platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, K.; Sklet, S. [SINTEF Industrial Management Safety and Reliability (Norway)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a generic methodology for development of risk indicators for petroleum installations and a specific set of risk indicators established for one offshore platform. The risk indicators should be used to control the risk during operation of platforms. The methodology is purely risk-based and the basis for development of risk indicators is the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). In order to identify high risk contributing factors, platform personnel are asked to assess whether and how much the risk influencing factors will change. A brief comparison of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants and quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for petroleum platforms is also given. (au)

  3. Indicators for sustainable development 2012; Indikatorer for baerekraftig utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Homstvedt, Svein; Kolshus, Kristine E.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents the updated set of Norwegian sustainable development indicators and describes the development of the indicators together with relevant supplementary information. This report is the result of a fruitful collaboration with a number of institutions, which have supplied data, text and assessments for various subject areas. A number of divisions and departments in Statistics Norway have also made contributions from their respective specialist areas. The main responsibility for compiling the report has rested with the Division for energy and environmental statistics in the Department of economics, energy and the environment. Main findings: Economic capital, The net national income per capita shows an increasing trend in the period from 1985, The generational accounts indicate a need to tighten public finances with an amount equivalent to between 7.8 and 10 per cent of GDP to ensure balanced long-term public finances. Social and human capital: Life expectancy in Norway continues to increase, The level of education in Norway has increased substantially over the last 30-40 years, The household income distribution in 2010 is at about the same level as in the 1990s. The income inequality in Norway is small compared to many other European countries and in a global context, Unemployment is low in Norway by international standards. About 10 per cent of the population receives a disability pension. Still, few other countries have a higher labour force participation rate. Natural resources and environmental capital: The energy intensity of the economy is decreasing, but the total energy use is still increasing. The percentage renewable energy is not significantly higher today than it was thirty years ago. Several important fish stocks in Norwegian waters are currently at high levels, and they are being harvested sustainably. The size of the spawning stock of Northeast Arctic cod is now at the highest level seen during the whole times series which goes back to

  4. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Tracy A.; Besner, Amanda C.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Albano, Anthony D.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Language skills developed during preschool contribute strongly to later reading and academic achievement. Effective preschool assessment and intervention should focus on core components of language development, specifically oral language skills. The Early Language and Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) are a set of…

  5. Developing biodiversity indicators on a stakeholders' opinions basis: the gypsum industry Key Performance Indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Carline; Mahy, Grégory; Vermeulen, Cédric; Marlet, Christine; Séleck, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. In order to integrate different opinions and to reach a consensus framework, an original participatory process approach has been developed among different stakeholder groups: Eurogypsum, European and regional authorities, university scientists, consulting offices, European and regional associations for the conservation of nature, and the extractive industry. The strategy is developed around four main steps: (1) building of a maximum set of indicators to be submitted to stakeholders based on the literature (Focus Group method); (2) evaluating the consensus about indicators through a policy Delphi survey aiming at the prioritization of indicator classes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and of individual indicators; (3) testing acceptability and feasibility through analysis of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and visits to three European quarries; (4) Eurogypsum final decision and communication. The resulting framework contains a set of 11 indicators considered the most suitable for all the stakeholders. Our KPIs respond to European legislation and strategies for biodiversity. The framework aims at improving sustainability in quarries and at helping to manage biodiversity as well as to allow the creation of coherent reporting systems. The final goal is to allow for the definition of the actual biodiversity status of gypsum quarries and allow for enhancing it. The framework is adaptable to the local context of each gypsum quarry.

  6. DESIGN METHODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav E. Elkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "human development" and the schematic diagram of the organizational design of regional management systems in relation to human development. Management as an organizational process in the study is considered as part of all social subsystems, specifies regularities of development and formation of new structures and functions. In the study applied the following methods: allocation of levels of models, techniques of domination, the allocation phases of the operation, the construction of generalized indicators, etc. As a result of research design problems of systems management human development revealed that the primary means of successful adaptation of organizations to changing conditions is an effective mechanism for management of human capacity, which will provide the best in current economic terms the end results that allows you to apply the concept of "innovation potential" in relation to the process of human development.

  7. The development of quality indicators for community pharmacy care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, J. de; Kijlstra, N.B.; Daemen, B.J.G.; Bouvy, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To develop a national system of quality indicators for community pharmacy care, reported by community pharmacies. Methods: After preliminary validation, an online consensus study was conducted. Pharmacy practice experts (round 1) and practising pharmacists (round 2) were approached.

  8. An Ontology for Insider Threat Indicators Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    J. A. Blake, D. Botstein, H. Butler, J. M. Cherry, et al., " Gene Ontology : tool for the unification of biology," Nature genetics, vol. 25, pp. 25-29...An Ontology for Insider Threat Indicators Development and Applications Daniel L. Costa, Matthew L. Collins, Samuel J. Perl, Michael J. Albrethsen...cert.org Abstract—We describe our ongoing development of an insider threat indicator ontology . Our ontology is intended to serve as a standardized

  9. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  10. Investigation of Tear Biomarkers as an Indicator of Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephen; Tucker, Bethany; Crucian, Brian; Steinberg, Susan; Hagan, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Scientific literature suggests that tear biomarkers can be used as a guide towards clinical diagnosis of human health (Hagan et al., 2016). This study will investigate whether tear biomarkers represents a research and clinical opportunity to assess human health prior to, during, and after exposure to the spaceflight environment. The focus of this study is to compare biomarkers previously identified as potentially relevant to both ocular and brain health against unique physiological outcomes of exposure to the space flight environment. Study subjects suffering from terrestrial conditions thought to be similar to Spaceflight Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS: formerly VIIP), e.g. patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and optic neuritis may be relevant to conditions associated with spaceflight. This study will review methodologies, tear biomarkers related to state of ocular and brain health, the strengths and weakness of using tear fluid biomarkers versus other body fluid samples, and will survey current tear fluid biomarker knowledge in research and clinical practice. A strength of using tear biomarkers is that sampling is non-invasive and used as a guide in understanding pathologies, including ocular and systemic inflammatory conditions (Cocho et al., 2016)., Salvisberg et al., 2014). Moreover, tear biomarkers may reflect diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) (Salvisberg et al., 2014). For example, in multiple sclerosis (MS), the concordance rate between tear biomarkers versus cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is approximately 83%, indicating that, in the majority of cases, tears are at least as effective as CSF in potentially identifying novel MS biomarkers (Devos et al., 2001).

  11. Regional knowledge economy development indicative planning system conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Davidovna Vaisman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the processes of Russian knowledge economy development, its progress on the regional level is taken as a theme, which determined the purpose of research: development of the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model. The methodological base of the research is the knowledge economy concept and supply and demand theory, the methods of comparative and system analysis and theoretical modeling; common generalization and classification methods and regression models are used in the work. As a result, we managed to create the regional knowledge economy development indicative planning method conceptual model, which includes the choice of the types of indicative plans and the justification for the complex of indicators according to the stated requirements to this complex. The model of supply and demand for knowledge dependency from the knowledge cost, allowing to determine the acceptable range for the indicators proceeding from the demand and supply levels and their interrelation, is developed. The obtained results may be used by the regional government authorities while planning the regional innovative development and consulting companies while making the proposals for this development

  12. Can We Improve Indicator Design for Complex Sustainable Development Goals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burford, Gemma; Tamas, P.A.; Harder, Marie K.

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual framework was constructed for United Nations’ complex Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 4.7 focusing on education for sustainable development (ESD), and used to analyse the usefulness and character of indicators produced from a values-based approach called ESDinds, compared to a

  13. Sustainable Development Indicators in Poland: Measurement and System Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urbaniec

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the strategic foundations related to the sustainable development measurement and to evaluate the current system of indicators for sustainable development monitoring in Poland. A review of mainstream literature on Sustainable Development Indicators (SDIs was conducted along with document-based descriptive analysis of secondary data and further critical literature analysis. Statistical databases have been used for the analysis. This research paper draws on several strands within the economic, social, environmental, as well as the institutional and political dimensions of sustainability measurement. The results indicate that Polish monitoring system of sustainable development is based on numerous strategic documents. There is no integrated strategy of sustainable development in Poland. The findings also suggest SDI structure has been dominated by social indicators. The evaluation of the Polish measurement system can help to find solutions that support change processes aimed at improving the implementation of sustainable development principles in policy making. This article contributes to existing literature on measurement and monitoring of sustainable development by applying SDIs in the public statistics as well as in the practices of decision making at policy level. Overall, this study extends the understanding of the importance of SDIs and implications of measurement by focusing on the importance of the sustainable development areas.

  14. Development of key indicators to quantify the health impacts of climate change on Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    June J.Cheng; Berry, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed at developing a list of key human health indicators for quantifying the health impacts of climate change in Canada. Methods A literature review was conducted in OVID Medline to identify health morbidity and mortality indicators currently used to quantify climate change impacts. Public health frameworks and other studies of climate change indicators were reviewed to identify criteria with which to evaluate the list of proposed key indicators and a rating scale was d...

  15. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Developing, Implementing, and Using Winning KPIs

    CERN Document Server

    Parmenter, David

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at how to create and use key performance indicators (KPIs), from the King of KPIs â€" now updated and expanded! By exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David Parmenter has developed a methodology that is breathtaking in its simplicity and yet profound in its impact. Now in an updated and expanded Second Edition, Key Performance Indicators is a proactive guide representing a significant shift in the way KPIs are developed and used, with an abundance of implementation tools, including: The four foundation stones that lead the development and use of KPIs; A 12-ste

  16. Bacteriological Indicators on The Environment and in Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background.Mexico has public health problems due to its inadequate systems for sewage treatment, sanitation means and low income and economic levels, which influence the increase of disease manifestation. Objective.Determine seasonal variations, frequency and distribution of enterobacteriaairborne aerosols incoming from “San Juan de Dios” River. It is worth mentioning that, these bacteria possess antimicrobial and heavy metals resistance, such as to Pb, Cr, and Cd, and their hemolytic profile.Materials and Methods.Therefore, an ecological study was conducted during the seasons of summer and autumn. Results.822 enterobacteria strains were collected,from which 723 were identified under 18 genres and 40 species, from which 63.90% corresponding to summer and 36.09% to the autumn season. As a critical sampling, point number 2 showed to have 265 colony forming units during summer and 124 during autumn. 48 strains had beta-hemolytic profile; the 68.57% of identified strains showed resistance to more than two antibiotics in reference of Pb, Cd and Cr to which also showed resistance. Conclusion. Enter bacteriological recoverability shows values above 1x103 Gram negative/m3 of air, as risk factors for human health; which allows (due to their characteristics their implementation as useful indicators of risk exposure.

  17. Financial Openness and Financial Development: An Analysis Using Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkok, Zeynep

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the link between financial openness and financial development through panel data analysis on advanced and emerging market countries. Using indices, financial openness together with institutional and educational variables explains a large part of the variation in financial development across countries and over time. Our analysis demonstrates that different indexing strategies serve in finding better measures for financial openness and financial development in comparison to ...

  18. Human Potential Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Edna J.

    This paper describes the organization and implementation of 16 seminars on the subject of developing the potentials inherent in the individuals involved. The stated goals of this group project for teacher corps interns are: (1) identify and use personal strengths and potential in many areas; (2) understand achievement patterns and the way in which…

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  20. Indicators of the development of defense logistics as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice, there are several approaches in discussing the achieved level of development of a scientific discipline. One group of them concentrates on external indicators of the development of a scientific discipline, i.e. its research network, while the other group analyzes the science structure, i.e. its elements. The achieved level of the development of the defense system and its (external and internal environment, general knowledge on the development and the systematic treatment of science as well as the present situation in the society require an insight into the internal and external indicators of the development of defense logistics as a scientific discipline (Defense Science. General knowledge on the creation, development and interdependence of sciences as well as internal and external indicators of the achieved development level of Defense Logistics show that it should be developed in the network environment as a multidisciplinary science, in close cooperation with other special disciplines of logistics, within defense science. It could thus contribute to the improvement of the defense as an important public function as well as to closer contacts of the scientific disciplines dealing with technical systems and technologies with the so-called. orthodox military disciplines.

  1. Linkages between biodiversity loss and human health: a global indicator analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, M.M.T.E.; Martens, P.; Groot, de R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The association between health and biodiversity loss was explored by means of regression analysis on a global scale, with control for confounding by socio-economic developments. For this we selected indicators of human health (life expectancy, disability adjusted life expectancy, infant mortality

  2. Evaluation of Sustainable Development (Economic Indicators in Parand New City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Razavian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainable development has been an important part of urban management and lack of attention to this issue can seriously threaten the life of the city and its citizens in long-term. Large cities confront high population growth and frame development, and lack of attention to sustainable development has made the cities to face issues and problems such as the separation of workplace from the residential areas, being away from nature, reducing recreational areas and spending leisure time, reducing open space and finally confront lack of liveliness. Attitude of sustainable development, in practice, can be raised in terms of sustainable development of natural resources (renewable and non-renewable, efficient use of resources, less pollution for the environment and sustainable society.Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the economic factors affecting the sustainable development indicators in the industrial city of Parand and investigating the status of sustainable development in this industrial city.Methodology: This is an applied descriptive-survey. The study population consists all residents of Parand city whose number is unknown and unlimited. The sample population was obtained as 384 through simple random sampling and Krejcieand Morgan Table. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, median and chi-square test.Findings: As the results indicated, the economic indicators of sustainable development in the new industrial city of Parand are in a very good situation.Conclusion:It is necessary for the city managers and practitioners to attend more to promote the developmental indicators in this city regarding the mentioned indicators.

  3. MUNICIPAL INDICATORS SYSTEM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Saccol Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators of sustainable development in the municipalities of Chapeco , Joaçaba , Port Union and Mafra, which developed the urban and territorial expansion of the West and North of the Santa Catarina region during the twentieth century . Thus, the objective of the analysis is to identify the similarities and differences of municipal sustainable development of each municipality , proposing alternative ways to improve these indexes, through the concepts Sachs (1997. The work is guided by a comparative analysis of data considering the indicators in 2012 and 2014 , through a survey of documentary approach . From this analysis , identified and demonstrated the points with disabilities, but at the same time essential to raise the indices of sustainability of municipalities in socio-cultural terms, economic, environmental and political

  4. Development of Outcome-based, Multipollutant Mobile Source Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Jorge E.; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Hu, Yongtao; Mulholland, James A.; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2013-01-01

    Multipollutant indicators of mobile source impacts are developed from readily available CO, NOx, and elemental carbon (EC) data for use in air quality and epidemiologic analysis. Two types of outcome-based integrated mobile source indicators (IMSI) are assessed. The first is derived from analysis of emissions of EC, CO and NOx such that pollutant concentrations are mixed and weighted based on emission ratios for both gasoline and diesel vehicles. The emission-based indicators (IMSIEB) capture the impact of mobile sources on air quality estimated from receptor models and their uncertainty is comparable to measurement and source apportionment uncertainties. The IMSIEB have larger correlation between two different receptor sites impacted by traffic than single pollutants, suggesting they are better indicators of the local impact of mobile sources. A sensitivity analysis of fractions of pollutants in a two-pollutant mixture and the inclusion in an epidemiologic model is conducted to develop a second set of indicators based on health outcomes. The health-based indicators (IMSIHB) are weighted combinations of CO, NOx and EC pairs that have the lowest p-value in their association with cardiovascular disease emergency department visits, possibly due to their better spatial representativeness. These outcome-based, multipollutant indicators can provide support for the setting of multipollutant air quality standards and other air quality management activities. PMID:22616285

  5. Developing human resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last eight years, the growth of the market for independent energy facilities in the United States has been spectacular. A combined capacity of about 29,300 MW, from over 2,500 independent energy facilities, has come on line since 1980 and the industry has experienced an annual growth of more than 15 percent per year. This trend is not limited to the United States, however, Governments around the world are recognizing the benefits of privately-owned independent energy plants. The interest is growing as the need for new capacity increases and as more projects are built and operated successfully using private capital. There are several reasons for the trends toward private power around the world. First, in developed countries, a growing need for new power capacity emerged after the 1983-1987 freeze when most utilities in developed countries reaped the benefits of increased energy conservation and halted any further construction. Now the demand is catching up and most large utilities are experiencing the same hesitations as their U.S. counterparts. Second, in less developed countries (LDCs), the increasing demand for new generating capacity stems from high annual growth rates in power demand -generally between four percent and seven percent per year. At the same time, these countries are expanding their power grid, which increases the opportunities for new plants in regions with limited service where delegation of power generation authority to third-parties can be more easily justified. Third, an increasing number of countries worldwide are eying industrial cogeneration and private power facilities favorably. Finally, lending institutions and donor agencies are becoming more interested in promoting cogeneration and private power, often as part of larger privatization schemes.

  6. Development of Reliability Indices for Electric Distribution Network in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliability indices (RIs are the elemental benchmark used by Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC, and the Electric Utility and Consumer Protection Regulatory Agency (Egypt ERA to evaluate the continuity and compliance of supply, which surpasses the customer's requirements and satisfaction. The power system is very complex, mixing huge different types of generating resources and clusters to supply electric power through transmission and distribution system to a number of customers with varying requirements.The main function of electric system is to supply customers with electric energy that has an acceptable degree of reliability and quality. The power system continuity of supply level is controlled through system indices. The most widely used reliability indices are SAIFI, SAIDI and CAIDI (IEEE std. 1366-2000.Historical electrical indices, reliability indices threshold and satisfaction index are used as guide for electric network performance, which measure the adequate and secure power supply.The paper presents the reliability indices, relation between indices and satisfaction area to highlight the appropriate guideline values for electric systems, also presents the development of indices since 2011 to now for distribution network in Egypt.

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  8. INDICATORS APPLIED TO HIGHLIGHT THE VALORIZATION OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN SHIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIP NISTOR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the shipping companies reconsidered their position regarding the importance of human capital because of the new trend in shipbuilding in conjunction with the enforcement of tighter regulations in shipping. Increasing profit of shipping companies was the result of valorization of human capital on board ships through acquirement of new skills and knowledge in accordance with technologies implemented on the new ships by training and development. Thus, identification of indicators that can be used to highlight the valorization of human capital in shipping is helpful. Measurement of indicators presented in this article can assist decision makers in identifying the best courses of action to improve human capital in shipping.

  9. Development: an Analysis of Concepts, Measurement and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Soares Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of a comprehensive analysis of the main forms of development measurement. Recognizing the level of complexity that the subject involves, aspects related to interpretations and dominant ideologies in development/growth concepts are shown initially. The second part of this work constitutes a critical analysis of forty-three of the most well-known national and international indicators used to measure thisphenomenon. It is imagined that this analysis can show the state of the art for constructing development indicators. The development process covers a complexity of relationships. Its analysis, therefore, cannot be restricted only to the economic dimension because, as a rule, the question is presented both in the media and aconsiderable part of specialized literature. Emphasis on this dimension has historic origins, which have already shown the fragility of this approach.

  10. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  11. Developing Disability-Inclusive Indicators in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlin, Chris; Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Sprunt, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Island nations are in the process of transforming education to support all learners through the application of more inclusive approaches. In order to measure progress, they are working collaboratively to develop a set of local and contextually applicable indicators for inclusive education. This article reports the initial step in this…

  12. Developing an Evaluation Framework of Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from the continuous process of developing an evaluation framework of quality indicators for learning analytics (LA). Building on a previous study, a group concept mapping approach that uses multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, the study presented here

  13. Composite Indices of Development and Poverty: An Application to MDGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pasquale; Mazziotta, Matteo; Pareto, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of development or poverty as multidimensional phenomena is very difficult because there are several theoretical, methodological and empirical problems involved. The literature of composite indicators offers a wide variety of aggregation methods, all with their pros and cons. In this paper, we propose a new, alternative composite…

  14. Developing an Evaluation Framework of Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from the continuous process of developing an evaluation framework of quality indicators for learning analytics (LA). Building on a previous study, a group concept mapping approach that uses multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, the study presented here app

  15. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Schmitt, Braden A.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success.…

  16. Developing and Using Dashboard Indicators in Student Affairs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua J.; Ryder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Dashboard systems are increasingly popular as assessment and performance management tools in higher education. This chapter examines the use of dashboards in student affairs, including examples of key indicators and considerations for developing and implementing these tools. The chapter begins with an overview of the origins of dashboards, from…

  17. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  18. Composite Indices of Development and Poverty: An Application to MDGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pasquale; Mazziotta, Matteo; Pareto, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of development or poverty as multidimensional phenomena is very difficult because there are several theoretical, methodological and empirical problems involved. The literature of composite indicators offers a wide variety of aggregation methods, all with their pros and cons. In this paper, we propose a new, alternative composite…

  19. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  20. Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development Objective Neuroeconomic game trials have detected a present-bias in human decision making which represents a serious shortcoming facing the long termed nature of complex problems in a globalized economy i.e. regional residual poverty, ecological...... threats and personal stress. So far, the evidence-based findings on human resource development (HRD) seem not to match these huge challenges. The aim of this study is to identify cost-effective means of mental training to recover sufficiently from the present bias to enable more sustainable decisions...... of Western decision makers to a level of sustainable development. In order to support the dissemination of non-dogmatic medical meditation an international scientific monitoring program for various competing medical meditation settings might be useful. Western psychology rooted in the Western humanities...

  1. Human development, heredity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Takasato, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    From March 27-29 2017, the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology held a symposium entitled 'Towards Understanding Human Development, Heredity, and Evolution' in Kobe, Japan. Recent advances in technologies including stem cell culture, live imaging, single-cell approaches, next-generation sequencing and genome editing have led to an expansion in our knowledge of human development. Organized by Yoshiya Kawaguchi, Mitinori Saitou, Mototsugu Eiraku, Tomoya Kitajima, Fumio Matsuzaki, Takashi Tsuji and Edith Heard, the symposium covered a broad range of topics including human germline development, epigenetics, organogenesis and evolution. This Meeting Review provides a summary of this timely and exciting symposium, which has convinced us that we are moving into the era of science targeted on humans. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  3. Assessing nanocellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Henrique Milanez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nanocellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nanocellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nanomaterials. Scientific and technological future developments in nanocellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nanocellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nanocellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nanocellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nanocellulose S&T advances in the coming years.

  4. A Kantian approach to a sustainable development indicator for climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Stoknes, Per Espen; Alfsen, Knut H.; Ericson, Torgeir

    2012-11-01

    How can the informed citizen know if the government is implementing a good-enough climate change policy? Most developed democracies have their own set of indicators for sustainable development, including indicators for climate change. These include yearly national emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), global concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere and time series for global temperatures. However, without some kind of benchmark neither national emissions of GHGs nor global concentration of GHGs or temperatures, make it possible for the general public to evaluate the current climate policy of a nation state. In this paper we propose a benchmark for national climate policy based on a remaining Co2 budget allocated by egalitarian principles. Moreover, based on Kantian ethics we argue that this benchmark should be used as a sustainable development indicator for climate change. One way of interpreting Kantian ethics is to demand that each nation state should act as if a just global treaty on climate change were in place. We discuss possible important elements in a global treaty, and show how the different elements can be integrated in a forward-looking indicator of national climate policy.(auth)

  5. Using Standardized Health Consumer Indicators as a Policy Development Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ovidiu BABA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relations between the European Union standardized health indicators and the community-based health policy. One of the goals of the European Commission is to provide standardized information on health in order to make it comparable at a trans-national level. Hence, numerous projects aimed at developing health indicators, and improving databases relating to these were supported by the Program of Community Action in the Field of Public Health. In this paper the authors argue that standardized health indicators can provide more than a prototype for a future health monitoring system. Bearing in mind that the production of comparable information on health is based upon four different tasks (the analysis of data needs in a specific area, definition of indicators and quality assurance, reporting and analysis, and promotion of the results the authors assert that all of these tasks are important steps towards the development of community-based health policy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze their utility as premises for policy development.

  6. The Asymmetric Impact of Growth Fluctuation on Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Bedir

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the impact of economic growth fluctuation on human development indicators. Using the per capita growth rate and human development indicators for 131 countries between 1974 and 2007, we find that growth acceleration and deceleration have significant impact on the human development indicators. We also find that the effects are asymmetric. This asymmetric effect is valid both in terms of acceleration and deceleration periods and countries which are classified accordi...

  7. Developing the Use of Quality Indicators in Sterilization Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mehrabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated infections are a major threat to the safety of patient care. Control of such problem is a major criterion for hospital accreditation. This study was aimed to determine the developing use of chemical (class 6 products and biological indicators in Tabriz district hospitals since 1997 to 2011.Methods: We conducted this time-trend interventional study with all of the public and private hospitals, which counted to 21 in Tabriz district as a sample. The situations of indicator use were presented for each time in the base of indicator groups. Furthermore, the results were showed in the base of hospital groups.Results: All of district hospital (n=21 with 74 autoclave machine and 22 central sterilization room were studied. The result of second time study in 2008 showed a markedly improvement in the control of sterilization processes. Furthermore, we continued our intervention results 6 month later in 2009 and 2 years later in 2011. The most striking result were use of chemical indicator in 100% of hospitals. However, there are defects in the use of biological indicators (63.65%.Conclusion: The most obvious finding was significant improvement in sterilization control especially in development the use of chemical indicators. The finding of this study has a number of important implications for hospital managers and infection control practitioners such as continuous practical training of CSSD personnel in hospitals and mandating of indicator using in all sterilization process with controlling of this subject in evaluation and accreditation of hospital programs.

  8. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  9. The effectiveness of domestic Scientific research on Iran development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ehsani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. Meanwhile, research policy makers of different societies have concentrated, more and more, on "the effectiveness of researches" and today, their main concern is to ensure that researches are truly contributing to achieve development goals. The issue of "use of research to improve society" has also been emphasized by Iran high-ranking managers and consultants in superior governmental documents, implying their agreement on the importance and necessity of it. Experts' view about the necessity for science to play a fundamental role in the process of society improvement, research impact assessment specialists' models in which they directly emphasize on "promotion of development scale" as the research final expected effect, and the proven high correlation between scientific progress and economic development of societies, create a reasonable expectation that as a consequent of "remarkable progress in research", Iran has experienced a tangible improvement in other aspects and this improvement has been reflected in development indicators. This expectation leads to a question which has been the main reason for this study to be implemented. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Iran increasingly research growth in recent three decades on the country development. The study uses a Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data have been the base of analyses. At first, the reliable development indicators for which data were available for a number of countries in an appropriate timeframe were selected. Next, the rank of Iran determined in any indicator among 215 countries (based on the number of countries in World Bank Web site. Then, the trend of Iran's research position was compared with the trend of Iran's position in terms of each development

  10. Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

    2011-11-01

    Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system.

  11. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEVEL INDICES SYSTEM OF UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem R. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show possible variants of audit in the higher educational institution while processes of internationalisation (procedures of definition of its level; to find out an estimation method of the received results in the given sphere.Methods. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, range and systematization of information concerning the discussed problem.Results and scientific novelty. The necessity of universities participating in internationalization processes is proved. Existing approaches to internationalization evaluation levels are reviewed, as well as best practices for each criterion. Level indicators of considered process are proposed due to summarising the results of the given review, and also as a result of the coordination of criteria NAFSA and authors’ system of indicators: international programs supporting by a university administration, curricular changes, faculty involving into international research, faculty involving into teaching process, students participation, abroad study support, international students and teachers support. The research demonstrates that to improve the adequacy the system of indicators has to be supplemented with some indicators to evaluate the conformity of a university’s internationalization to its mission; the conformity of a university’s internationalization to the government geopolitics; extracurricular activities of students; cultural aspects of internationalization including communication with local ethnical groups; attractiongetting mechanisms for international students.Practical significance. The proposed system of indicators can be used for an estimation of high school development in internationalisation sphere, and under certain correction and improvement for efficiency definition of development of its academic divisions in the given field.

  13. Development of a system of indicators for sustainable port management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Mora, E; Diez Orejas, J M; Subirats, A; Ibáñez, S; Alvarez, P

    2005-12-01

    The 1998 project ECOPORT, "Towards A Sustainable Transport Network", developed by the Valencia Port Authority (VPA), established the bases for implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) in industrial harbours. The use of data and information shall always be required to develop an efficient EMS. The objective of the present research (INDAPORT) study is to propose a system of sustainable environmental management indicators to be used by any port authorities. All activities performed within a port area are analysed for any potential environmental impacts and risks. An environmental analysis of port activities has been carried out with the objective of designing the indicators system. Twenty-one corresponding activities have been identified for large industrial ports. Subsequently, the same methodology developed to date will be later applied to other Spanish and European ports. The study has been developed by using an original system and a methodology, which simultaneously use stage diagrams and systemic models (material and energy flow charts). Multi-criteria analysis techniques were used to evaluate potential impacts (identification of factors and evaluation of impacts).

  14. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  15. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  16. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  17. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  18. Development of thermochromic strips as a water pasteurization indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishtiaq A. Qazi; M. Ali Awan; M. Anwar Baig

    2003-01-01

    Boiling of water, for purification, commonly practiced in the world, has many problems associated with it like danger of scalding,scaling in the vessels, removal of useful minerals and blandness of taste etc. Water can be made safe for drinking simply by heating at 65℃ for 6 minutes. A colour indicating strip was developed which changes colour from red to purple at 67℃. Use of this strip can help in pasteurizing water without the above problems and with considerable energy saving.

  19. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and…

  20. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field.

  1. Population and human resources development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1992-06-01

    The concern of this discourse on social development planning was that individuals be part of human resources development. Population growth is an obstacle to social development, but so is national expenditures on the military rather than diverting funds for social improvements. There are important benefits for society in social development: a valued consumption good, increased productivity, and reduced fertility. Dissatisfaction with an economic growth model of development occurred during the 1960s, and by the mid-1980s, human resource development was capsuled in Asia and the Pacific Region in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development and adopted in 1988. Earlier approaches favored the supply side. This article emphasizes "human" development which considers people as more than inputs to productivity. The quality of human resources is dependent on the family and society, the educational system, and individual levels of health and nutrition. Differences in income levels between East and South Asia have been attributed by Oshima to full use of the labor force and mechanization and training of workers. Ogawa, Jones, and Williamson contend that huge investment in infrastructure, efficient absorption of advanced technology, a stable political environment, and commitment to human capital formation are key to development. Demographic transition and decline in fertility at one point reflect growth and engagement in the labor force and resource accumulation. Although East Asia had higher levels of literacy and educational attainment than many developing countries, South Asia still has high fertility. Human resource development is dependent on reduced population growth rates, but rapid population growth is not an insurmountable obstacle to achieving higher levels of education. Rapid population growth is a greater obstacle in poorer countries. The impact can be reflected in increased costs of attaining educational targets of universal primary education or in

  2. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Karen L; Spack, Edward G

    2009-06-12

    Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonization. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s). Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot Program provide funding and

  3. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spack Edward G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonisation. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s. Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot

  4. How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    "Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…

  5. How Do National Economic Competitiveness Indices View Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesus Alquezar; Johansen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    "Economic competitiveness" is at the top of national, regional and global political and economic agendas. Several countries in all regions of the world have established policies and institutions devoted to economic competitiveness, including in developing and transition countries. This leads to the question of how to define national economic…

  6. THE PROGRESS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA A COMPARISON OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC INDICATORS BETWEEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Akyuwen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global awareness and concept on the environmental friendly development has been emerged since early 1970s. However, the progress on its implementation was varied across countries. In Indonesia, sustainable development indicators have been studied and published by the Central Statistics Board (BPS since 2002. Based on the recommendation of the United Na-tions Commission on Sustainable Development, those indicators were classified into two groups, i.e. environment indicators and social economic indicators. This paper is aimed to compare the progress of social economic indicators among provinces in Indonesia by using descriptive ap-proach. Observed indicators were including population, per capita gross domestic product (GDP, open unemployment, poverty, energy consumption, transportation, and agriculture. In addition, regional fiscal capacity and human development index among provinces were also analyzed. Although the fund transfer from central to local governments has increased signifi-cantly since the implementation of local autonomy and fiscal decentralization in 2001, however, in general, the improvement of social economic indicators were varied between provinces. Sev-eral provinces with high fiscal capacity were not able to improve its social economic indicators significantly. On the contrary, the other provinces with low fiscal capacity have achieved better social economic indicators. This phenomenon has proved the importance of having appropriate capability in managing local economic development.

  7. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  8. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  9. Enzymes approved for human therapy: indications, mechanisms and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Research and drug developments fostered under orphan drug product development programs have greatly assisted the introduction of efficient and safe enzyme-based therapies for a range of rare disorders. The introduction and regulatory approval of 20 different recombinant enzymes has enabled, often for the first time, effective enzyme-replacement therapy for some lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher (imiglucerase, taliglucerase, and velaglucerase), Fabry (agalsidase alfa and beta), and Pompe (alglucosidase alfa) diseases and mucopolysaccharidoses I (laronidase), II (idursulfase), IVA (elosulfase), and VI (galsulfase). Approved recombinant enzymes are also now used as therapy for myocardial infarction (alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase), cystic fibrosis (dornase alfa), chronic gout (pegloticase), tumor lysis syndrome (rasburicase), leukemia (L-asparaginase), some collagen-based disorders such as Dupuytren's contracture (collagenase), severe combined immunodeficiency disease (pegademase bovine), detoxification of methotrexate (glucarpidase), and vitreomacular adhesion (ocriplasmin). The development of these efficacious and safe enzyme-based therapies has occurred hand in hand with some remarkable advances in the preparation of the often specifically designed recombinant enzymes; the manufacturing expertise necessary for commercial production; our understanding of underlying mechanisms operative in the different diseases; and the mechanisms of action of the relevant recombinant enzymes. Together with information on these mechanisms, safety findings recorded so far on the various adverse events and problems of immunogenicity of the recombinant enzymes used for therapy are presented.

  10. ENTROPY OF LANGUAGE SYSTEM AS MAIN DEVELOPMENT INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the research of language system entropy. It is one of the main concept of synergetics and synergy. Entropy can be applied to description of language processes and detection of functioning and development features of language. Bilateral representation of entropy is caused by dichotomy of language and speech and it is feature of transference of entropy concept to linguistics area. Entropy can be representing by language entropy and speech entropy. These concepts are interdependent and interconnected, but not coinciding phenomena. Entropy existence is caused by language nature and it abilities to express all thoughts of native speakers. Entropy of natural language aspires to infinity. But language system never becomes language chaos, because negentropy counteracts entropy. Negentropy is negative entropy and it is measure of language system organization. Negentropy makes language by universal means of communication, which is cleared to all native speakers. Negentropy stabilizes system, but on the contrary entropy destabilizes system and staticizes changes in it. It process results in language development. Entropy of natural language will be never equal to zero, because zero indicator will be testify about impossibility of further development of language. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-12-4

  11. ENERGY INTENSITY - A KEY INDICATOR FOR THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX-CONSTANTIN BURCEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy intensity represents one of the main indicators for economic development and is expressed as the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and gross domestic product (GDP. The least energy-intensive economies in the EU are Denmark, Ireland and the UK. Among the most energy-intensive economies are Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In socialist times, eastern European Member States had economies with high shares of energy-intensive industries as well as an energy-inefficient infrastructure serving these industries. In this paper we will perform an analyze at Romanian level by comparing the obtained results with the one’s at Europe 27 level and we will determine the decouple degree between energy consumption and economic growth.

  12. Environmental problems indicator under environmental modeling toward sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sutthichaimethee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to apply a model to the study and analysis of environmental and natural resource costs created in supply chains of goods and services produced in Thailand, and propose indicators for environmental problem management, caused by goods and services production, based on concepts of sustainable production and consumer behavior. The research showed that the highest environmental cost in terms of Natural Resource Materials was from pipelines and gas distribution, while the lowest was for farming coconuts. The highest environmental cost in terms of Energy and Transportation was for iron and steel. The highest environmental cost in the category of Fertilizer and Pesticides was for oil palm. For Sanitation Services, the highest environmental cost was movie theaters. Overall, the lowest environmental cost for all categories, except Natural Resource Materials, was for petroleum and refineries. Based on the cost index, coconut farming gained the highest Real Benefit to the farm owner, while pipelines and gas distribution had the lowest Real Benefit. If Thailand were to use a similar environmental problem indicator, it could be applied to formulate efficient policy and strategy for the country in three areas, namely social, economic, and environmental development.

  13. Effects of Three Oral Nutritional Supplements on Human Hydration Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lindsay A; Yates, Brandon A; McKenzie, Amy L; Muñoz, Colleen X; Casa, Douglas J; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-08-01

    Urine color (Ucol) as a hydration assessment tool provides practicality, ease of use, and correlates moderately to strongly with urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm). Indicative of daily fluid turnover, along with solute and urochrome excretion in 24-hr samples, Ucol may also reflect dietary composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of Ucol as a hydration status biomarker after nutritional supplementation with beetroot (880 mg), vitamin C (1000 mg), and riboflavin (200 mg). Twenty males (Mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 2 y; body mass, 82.12 ± 15.58 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m) consumed a standardized breakfast and collected all urine voids on one control day (CON) and 1 day after consuming a standardized breakfast and a randomized and double-blinded supplement (SUP) over 3 weeks. Participants replicated exercise and diet for one day before CON, and throughout CON and SUP. Ucol, Usg, Uosm, and urine volume were measured in all 24-hr samples, and Ucol and Usg were measured in all single samples. Ucol was a significant predictor of single sample Usg after all supplements (p < .05). Interestingly, 24-hr Ucol was not a significant predictor of 24-h Usg and Uosm after riboflavin supplementation (p = .20, p = .21). Further, there was a significant difference between CON and SUP 24-h Ucol only after riboflavin supplementation (p < .05). In conclusion, this investigation suggests that users of the UCC (urine color chart) should consider riboflavin supplementation when classifying hydration status and use a combination of urinary biomarkers (e.g., Usg and Ucol), both acutely and over 24 hr.

  14. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  15. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  16. Indicators of Economic Progress: The Power of Measurement and Human Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress; wrong or imprecise measurement a source of hazard and even havoc. The essential purpose of economic activity is the promotion of human development, welfare and well-being in a sustainable manner, and not growth for growth’s sake, yet we lack effective measures to monitor progress toward these objectives. Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours. On one side, rising social tensions, recurring financial crises and ecological disaster; on the other, the progressive unfolding and development of human capacity in harmony with Nature. The deficiencies of GDP as a measure are well-documented by leading economists Kuznets, Tobin, Tinbergen and many others; but, unfortunately, decision-making still remains largely based on GDP, valid during 1930-70 perhaps, but certainly inappropriate today. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. We propose new composite indicator, HEWI, which can be used to guide decision-making, which retains the strengths associated with GDP, while substantially enhancing its value as a measure of human economic development. HEWI monitors progress on factors that contribute prominently to present economic welfare — household consumption, government welfare-related expenditure, income inequality and unemployment — as well as factors that have the potential to significantly enhance long term sustainability — education, fossil fuel energy efficiency and net household savings. The index

  17. Selection and development of international indicators on staffing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelsvoort, van H.W.C.H. Gonnie; Hendriks, Maria A.; Scheerens, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    International comparisons of indicators on staffing are regarded as a useful information base to policymakers. Politically relevant staffing indicators in relation to the costs, planning and quality of education deal with training, working conditions, staff characteristics, and stability and mobilit

  18. Selection and development of international indicators on staffing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amelsvoort, H.W.C.H.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Scheerens, Jaap

    2000-01-01

    International comparisons of indicators on staffing are regarded as a useful information base to policymakers. Politically relevant staffing indicators in relation to the costs, planning and quality of education deal with training, working conditions, staff characteristics, and stability and

  19. A review of frameworks for developing environmental health indicators for climate change and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambling, Tammy; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2011-07-01

    The role climate change may play in altering human health, particularly in the emergence and spread of diseases, is an evolving area of research. It is important to understand this relationship because it will compound the already significant burden of diseases on national economies and public health. Authorities need to be able to assess, anticipate, and monitor human health vulnerability to climate change, in order to plan for, or implement action to avoid these eventualities. Environmental health indicators (EHIs) provide a tool to assess, monitor, and quantify human health vulnerability, to aid in the design and targeting of interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. Our aim was to identify the most suitable framework for developing EHIs to measure and monitor the impacts of climate change on human health and inform the development of interventions. Using published literature we reviewed the attributes of 11 frameworks. We identified the Driving force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework as the most suitable one for developing EHIs for climate change and health. We propose the use of EHIs as a valuable tool to assess, quantify, and monitor human health vulnerability, design and target interventions, and measure the effectiveness of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for the future development of EHIs as a multidisciplinary approach to link existing environmental and epidemiological data and networks. Analysis of such data will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the relationship between climate change and human health.

  20. Indicators analysis and objectives for the development sustainable and sustainability environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gabriel Noboa Romero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article is product of a research qualitative, descriptive and analytical of the indicators and objectives aimed to the development sustainable. The main objective of this essay is to analyze sustainability indicators: index of human development (IDH, sustainable development goals (SDGS, objectives of the Millennium Goals (MDGS and the index of Multidimensional poverty (IPM; through a review of research and work on these issues, in order to establish progress and results that have been generated during the use of these indicators in the field of health education, technology, and environment. Demonstrate that there is inequality between Nations, the approach is oriented to a development in the short term, benefit exclusively to current generations, exhausting natural resources, regardless of a vision in the long term for the future generations.

  1. Indicators of children’s social health: development a conceptual framework to assess equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social health is important to be assessed as a dimension of health. In this study we tried to determine areas and sub-areas of children social health indicators.  Methods: In a structured way, we reviewed the main social health databases and documents since 1995, both Iranian and international were reviewed to develop conceptual framework and to extract indicators.  Results: According to reviewed documents, indicators of social health were categorized into four groups. In first category indicators are related to system capacities such as facilities and institutions, financial, and human resources. Social system functions are classified as group two. The main subcategories of social health functions are policy development and enforcement, social marketing, community organizing, coalition building and collaboration, education, case management, screening, surveillance, and investigation. In group three, named as social factors, the main determined areas are life skills, early child development, family functioning, and social networks. Indicators related to social outcomes are categorized as group four. The main related positive social outcomes are social wellbeing and happiness and the main negative outcomes are physical health outcome (injuries, infectious diseases, etc., mental health outcomes, development and learning outcomes, risky behaviors, academic outcomes, and legal outcomes.  Conclusion: Our recommended model develops a conceptual framework for child social health indicators. This framework and extracted indicators can be used to compare different populations to assess inequity for evidence based policy making and to implement proper interventions.

  2. THE EXTENSION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PROTECTION: NECESSARY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Rahmah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the need of extension of Geographical Indication (GI protection since the current protection under Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS is insufficient to cover all products as a result of discriminatory provisions in TRIPS regulating a greater protection to wines and spirits only and different level of GI protection under Article 22 and Article 23 TRIPS. This paper then assumes that the extensive GI protection for all products should be supported because it would give greater benefits particularly to developing countries such as prevent the free riding, attract regional investment and obtain market power.   Perlindungan Indikasi Geografis (IG perlu diperluas tidak hanya pada produk tertentu seperti wines danspiritskarena perlindungan IG diatur di dalam TRIPS tidak cukup memberikan perlindungan kepada semua produk sebagai akibat perbedaan pengaturan di TRIPS yang memberikan perlindungan lebih kepada wines danspirits saja dan adanya perbedaan tingkat perlindungan pada Pasal 22 dan 23 TRIPS. Perluasan perlindungan IG harus didukung karena akan memberikan manfaat khususnya kepada negara berkembang. Perluasan perlindungan IG dapat melarang pemboncengan reputasi, menarik investasi dan meningkatkan kekuatan produk negara berkembang di pasaran.

  3. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and natural resources but also on human resource development in the relevant sector. The main purpose of the present research was to study and recognize agricultural development indicators from agriculture experts’ viewpoints (including researchers, trainers and extension experts in six provinces in Iran on the basis of Adjacent Provinces Plan. The study was designed with three phases of theoretical foundations, field operations and data analysis. The statistical population was 863 experts, out of which 198 experts were selected by stratified sampling. The validity and reliability of measurement tool (questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software package. The study was a correlation-descriptive study in which factor analysis statistics was used in addition to descriptive statistics. Experts grouped indicators of future agricultural development in nine groups (access to inputs, application of technologies for the development of human resource and sustainability; reduction of losses; economical development; improvement of infrastructures; agricultural mechanization; social status; improvement of marketing; land reform; yield increase. Results about the difference in respondents’ viewpoints revealed significant differences in experts’ viewpoints in six studied province about relevant variables and in their viewpoints about the components of agricultural development (infrastructure improvement, marketing, optimum management and sustainability, human resource development and economical

  4. Sanitation in constructed wetlands: A review on the removal of human pathogens and fecal indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Müller, Jochen A; Manoj, Valsa Remony; Dong, Renjie

    2016-01-15

    Removal of human pathogens from wastewater is a critical factor with linkage to human health. Constructed Wetlands (CWs) are environmental friendly ecosystems that are applicable not only for chemical pollution control, but also for the reduction of pathogens from wastewater. Yet the knowledge on the fate and removal of such indicator bacteria in CWs is still not sufficient due to the complexity of removal mechanisms and influencing factors. This review serves to provide a better understanding of this state-of-the-art technology, which is necessary for further investigations and design development. The fecal indicator bacteria in CWs mainly come from three sources, namely, influent wastewaters, regrowth within the CWs, and animal activities. The properties of microbial contamination vary depending on the different sources. The removal of pathogens is a complex process that is influenced by operational parameters such as hydraulic regime and retention time, vegetation, seasonal fluctuation, and water composition. The most frequent and well-validated removal mechanisms include natural die-off due to starvation or predation, sedimentation and filtration, and adsorption. The concentration of the main fecal indicator bacteria in the effluent was found to be exponentially related to the loading rate. Generally, horizontal subsurface flow CWs have better reduction capacity than free water surface flow CWs, and hybrid wetland systems were found to be the most efficient due to a longer retention time. Further improvement of fecal indicator bacteria removal in CWs is needed, however, levels in CW effluents are still higher than most of the regulation standards for reuse.

  5. Abundance of sewage-pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria in a tropical estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagvenkar, G.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    Studies on abundance and types of various pollution indicator bacterial populations from tropical estuaries are rare. This study was aimed to estimate current levels of pollution indicator as well as many groups of human pathogenic bacteria...

  6. DEVELOPING SAFETY INDICATORS ON THE BASIS OF THE ICAO RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers direct use of the recommendations of SMM ICAO Doc.9859, 3rd ed. 2013, for calculation the target and alert levels of safety indicators. Examples of calculation based on data of 2011 and monitoring of the current indicators during 2012 are presented. Safety indicators for airlines in terms of “numbers of incidents per 1000 flight hours” could be calculated on the basis of the state values through the «coefficient of conformity».

  7. COMPONENTS OF SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyda Ibañez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to propose new components of measurement of sustainable human development based on the historical-theoretical trajectory of development. The research assumes a ontoepistemological posture based on positivism, addressing the technique of the survey and the written questionnaire instrument applied to thirty-one (31 experts in the area of knowledge, whose analysis allowed to conclude that the traditional models to measure the Insufficient to demonstrate the reality of nations. Therefore, the proposal of measurement is derived in seven components: ethical, spiritual and cultural, in addition to those formally established by Munasinghe (1993, 2011 and the UN (2012: economic, social, environmental, institutional , In total, by the selection of one hundred and fifty-five (155 variables, whose index is denominated ISIDEHUS.

  8. The development of accessibility indicators for distance learning programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to explore program policies and practices related to the accessibility of American distance learning courses to qualified students with disabilities. A literature review was conducted, a draft list of accessibility indicators was created, examples of applications of the indicators in existing distance learning programs were collected, the indicators were systematically applied to one distance learning program, input from a variety of distance learning programs was used to further refine the indicators, and these programs were encouraged to adopt the indicators and make use of resources provided by the project. Results of this exploratory work suggest that incorporating accessibility considerations into policies, procedures and communications of a program requires consideration of the unique needs of students, course designers, instructors and evaluators; involves approval and implementation at a variety of administrative levels; and is an ongoing process that may be implemented in incremental steps.

  9. Development of land degradation spectral indices in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Chabrillat; Palacios-Orueta, A.; Mueller, A; Ehlers, M.; Posa, F.; Hermann Kaufmann; Michel, U.; G. De Carolis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop remote sensing desertification indicators for drylands, in particular using the capabilities of imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imagery) to derive soil and vegetation specific properties linked to land degradation status. The Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in SE Spain presents a still-preserved semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem that has undergone several changes in landscape patterns and vegetation cover due to human activity. Previous studies have rev...

  10. COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE APPROACH TO DEVELOPING URBAN SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Klostermann, Judith; Groot, annemarie; Breil, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    In the urban context the quest to enhance economic growth and social well-being is challenged by the need to protect and manage natural resources. In order to promote sustainable urban planning, sustainability objectives are commonly embedded into planning policies, and the associated indicators used to evaluate planning interventions and monitor implementation of such objectives. The applicability of indicators is commonly tied in to their ability to address context-specific issues and monit...

  11. Household human development index in Lakshadweep

    OpenAIRE

    I, Sahadudheen

    2014-01-01

    Since the evolution of the human development index in 1990 there has been a vivacious debate on measurement related issues of quality of human life among the nations. It is a long-established verity that the existing HDI presents averages and thus conceals wide discrepancy and disproportion in distribution of human development in overall population and does not take into account the distribution of human development within a population subgroup. This study is intended to look in to human ...

  12. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  13. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development.

  14. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  15. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... He published the first Human Development report ... The main objective of human development lies on the freedom of its citizens as well as ... scholarship were Professor S. Ade Ojo, the former Director of the French Language.

  16. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  17. Goals, processes, and indicators of development: a project description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galtung, J.

    1978-01-01

    The five features listed below were studied to contribute to new theories and practices of development: focus is on development of people in security, welfare, identity, and freedom; a developed country guarantees an acceptable minimum of these basic needs in conformity with constraints set by nature and ecological balance; a methodological emphasis on dialog between people and planners interacting to create a world network for integrated research projects. A suggested format for the first year is presented. (PSB)

  18. Development of Corporate Governance Performance Indicators for Czech Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavláková Docekalová Marie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective corporate governance is a key element in achieving long-term success for any company. The codes of conduct that corporate governance adopts directly determine the sustainability of business activities. With this in mind, this paper aims to demonstrate the results of research that identifies a set of key indicators of corporate governance performance. The presented research is quantitative. In order to identify key performance indicators, factor analysis was employed. It was found that corporate governance performance is influenced by two factors. For the first factor, the relationship between corporate governance and stakeholders is measured by key indicators: percentage of women within CG, contributions to political parties, politicians and related institutions and number of complaints received from stakeholders. The second factor, strategy & compliance, is generated from the following: percentage of strategic objectives met and total number of sanctions for breaching the law. This research aims to assist both academic and corporate practitioners who want to improve corporate governance performance and, through the use of key performance indicators, support the transparency and sustainability of their business.

  19. Community of practice approach to developing urban sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Donnelly, A.; Jones, M.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Groot, A.M.E.; Breil, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the urban context the quest to enhance economic growth and social well-being is challenged by the need to protect and manage natural resources. In order to promote sustainable urban planning, sustainability objectives are commonly embedded into planning policies, and the associated indicators

  20. Efficient Fourier based Algorithm Development for Airborne Moving Target Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how the signal model that is commonly used as a starting point in multi-channel Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for airborne Moving Target Indication (MTI) formally corresponds to a model that can be derived from a bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) model extended for

  1. Community of practice approach to developing urban sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, A.; Donnelly, A.; Jones, M.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Groot, A.M.E.; Breil, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the urban context the quest to enhance economic growth and social well-being is challenged by the need to protect and manage natural resources. In order to promote sustainable urban planning, sustainability objectives are commonly embedded into planning policies, and the associated indicators use

  2. Projecting Global Biodiversity Indicators under Future Development Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Baisero, Daniele; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Joppa, Lucas; Alkemade, Rob; Marco, Di Moreno; Santini, Luca; Hoffmann, Michael; Maiorano, Luigi; Pressey, Robert L.; Arponen, Anni; Boitani, Luigi; Reside, April E.; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, governments have set strategic objectives and have adopted indicators to monitor progress toward their achievement. Projecting the likely impacts on biodiversity of different policy decisions allows decision makers to understand if and how these

  3. Projecting Global Biodiversity Indicators under Future Development Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Baisero, Daniele; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H M; Joppa, Lucas; Alkemade, Rob; Di Marco, Moreno; Santini, Luca; Hoffmann, Michael; Maiorano, Luigi; Pressey, Robert L.; Arponen, Anni; Boitani, Luigi; Reside, April E.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, governments have set strategic objectives and have adopted indicators to monitor progress toward their achievement. Projecting the likely impacts on biodiversity of different policy decisions allows decision makers to understand if and how these

  4. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  5. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  6. Developing a school infrastructure Performance Indicator System (SIPIS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sebake, TN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available for both high quality education and community development support in rural areas of South Africa. It consisted of the construction and / or renovation of nine schools, one school in each province....

  7. Development of key indicators to quantify the health impacts of climate change on Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, June J; Berry, Peter

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at developing a list of key human health indicators for quantifying the health impacts of climate change in Canada. A literature review was conducted in OVID Medline to identify health morbidity and mortality indicators currently used to quantify climate change impacts. Public health frameworks and other studies of climate change indicators were reviewed to identify criteria with which to evaluate the list of proposed key indicators and a rating scale was developed. Total scores for each indicator were calculated based on the rating scale. A total of 77 health indicators were identified from the literature. After evaluation using the chosen criteria, 8 indicators were identified as the best for use. They include excess daily all-cause mortality due to heat, premature deaths due to air pollution (ozone and particulate matter 2.5), preventable deaths from climate change, disability-adjusted life years lost from climate change, daily all-cause mortality, daily non-accidental mortality, West Nile Disease incidence, and Lyme borreliosis incidence. There is need for further data and research related to health effect quantification in the area of climate change.

  8. BUSINESS VALUATION IN TERMS OF INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The indexes regarding the sustainable development have an important role in the decision-making process and that is why several bodies and institutions are concerned about their development. This fact happens not only at macro-level, but also at micro-level, the entities being encouraged to take into account the sustainable development principles and to relate its individual performances to the environment in which they operate (local, regional, global. The usage of the indexes regarding the sustainable development offers information regarding the evolution in time helps at identifying the possibilities of improving the activity and the weaknesses; they can be used in order to establish and achieve the objectives, the values being easily communicated both within and outside the company. A main disadvantage is the aggregation level, which hinders comparisons. This paper analyzes the information regarding the sustainable development published by the companies ranked at the Stock Exchange of Bucharest in the 1st category and the subsidiaries of 30 national companies.

  9. Associations between and development of welfare indicators in organic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Riber, Anja Brinch; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    abscess (P = 0.037) and pale combs (P = 0.020) decreased. No significant differences were found for other foot damages or for skin damage. In conclusion, back feathering at end of lay provided information about a possible helminth infection, but this is not a useful indicator in daily on-farm management......, keel bone damages, back feathering, body feathering, foot damages, comb colour and wounds on the body. An observational study with 12 organic egg farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with a total of 214 hens assessed individually at the peak and the end of lay. Insufficient data were obtained...

  10. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  11. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose stratigraphic framework provided by the indicator models.

  12. Indicators for monitoring sustainable development goals: An application to oceanic development in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, Wilfried; Dovern, Jonas; Hoffmann, Julia; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a set of 17 sustainable development goals (SDG) with 169 specific targets. As such, it could be a step forward in achieving efficient governance and policies for global sustainable development. However, the current indicator framework with its broad set of individual indicators prevents straightforward assessment of synergies and trade-offs between the various indicators, targets, and goals, thus, heightening the significance of policy guidance in achieving sustainable development. With our detailed analysis of SDG 14 (Ocean) for European Union (EU) coastal states, we demonstrate how the (complementary) inclusion of composite indicators that aggregate the individual indicators by applying a generalized mean can provide important additional information and facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in general and in the SDG context in particular. Embedded in the context of social choice theory, the generalized mean varies the specification of substitution elasticity and thus allows: (a) for a straightforward distinction between a concept of weak and strong sustainability and (b) for straightforward sensitivity analysis. We show that while in general the EU coastal states have a fairly balanced record at the SDG 14 level, certain countries like Slovenia and Portugal with a fairly balanced and a fairly unbalanced showing, respectively, rank very differently in terms of the two concepts of strong sustainability.

  13. Impacts of Human Activity on Biodiversity——An Approach to Driving Force indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RichardDawson; CaoZhiping

    2005-01-01

    The impact of human activity on biodiversity is very complicated, making it difficult to design practical indicators for assessment. Currently, state and response indicators are listed within Chapter 15 of Agenda 21, but no mention is made of driving force indicators and how they relate to biodiversity protection. This paper represents an effort to identify and then operationalize the idea of driving force indicators at national level. Five human induced factors affecting blodiversity were discussed: (a) habitat toss and fragmentation; (b) overexploitation of resources; (c) species introduction; (d) pollution; and (e) climate change. From these five factors, a subset was selected to serve as possible driving force indicators: (1) habitat loss, (2) the ratio of exotic species to indigenous ones, and (3) the change in pollution status. Although the three indicators are relatively simple, they cover the most important human impacts on biodiversity and offer the potential for further redefinition and ultimate use within the spirit of biodiversity protection.

  14. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  15. Neurophysiological indices of strategy development and skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M E; McEvoy, L K; Gevins, A

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine neurophysiological changes associated with the development of cognitive and visuomotor strategies and skills, spectral features of the EEG were measured as participants learned to perform new tasks. In one experiment eight individuals practiced working memory tasks that required development of either spatial or verbal rehearsal and updating strategies. In a second experiment six individuals practiced a video game with a difficult visuomotor tracking component. The alpha rhythm, which is attenuated by functional cortical activation, was affected by task practice. In both experiments, a lower-frequency, centrally distributed alpha component increased between practice sessions in a task-independent fashion, reflecting an overall decrease in the extent of cortical activation after practice. A second, higher-frequency, posterior component of the alpha rhythm displayed task-specific practice effects. Practice in the verbal working memory task resulted in an increase of this signal over right posterior regions, an effect not seen after practice with the spatial working memory task or with the video game. This between-task difference presumably reflects a continued involvement of the posterior region of the right hemisphere in tasks that invoke visuospatial processes. This finding thus provides neurophysiological evidence for the formation of a task-specific neurocognitive strategy. In the second experiment a third component of the alpha rhythm, localized over somatomotor cortex, was enhanced in conjunction with acquisition of tracking skill. These alpha band results suggest that cortical regions not necessary for task performance become less active as skills develop. In both experiments the frontal midline (Fm) theta rhythm also displayed increases over the course of test sessions. This signal is associated with states of focused concentration, and its enhancement might reflect the conscious control over attention associated with maintenance of a task

  16. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methods Use was made of 38 human embryos and fetus

  17. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  18. Human Capital Development: A Family Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1995-01-01

    Examines the concept of human capital as an economic construct. Suggests that human capital contributes to economic development, as do physical capital or natural resources, in that its development reinforces individuals' future economic output. Suggests that this perspective may prove useful for human service professionals because funding…

  19. INCREASE TAX BASE AS INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iu. Padalkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article analyzed the tax burden as an indicator of growth of production and security of financial activity of working capital. The most important duty of the enterprise - the taxpayer in accordance with paragraph 1 of art. 3 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation is the responsibility to pay the legally established taxes and fees. However, according to article 45 of the Tax Code to claim 1 tax liability must be carried out within the period prescribed by law. Under the tax in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 8 of the Tax Code is understood mandatory, individually gratuitous payment collected from organizations and individuals in the form of alienation of their right to property, economic or operational management of funds for financial support of the state and (or municipalities. Tax regulation - measures the indirect impact on the economy of the state, economic and social processes by changing the types of taxes, tax rates, tax incentives to establish, reduce or increase the overall level of tax payments to the budget. So, tax cuts can stimulate production, and raising taxes - to restrain or even suppress some activities.

  20. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshwater rooted macrophyte species. An approach is presented that empirically derives threshold epiphyte loads which are likely to cause specified levels of decrease in macrophyte response metrics such as biomass, shoot density, percent cover, production and growth. Data from 36 studies of 10 macrophyte species were pooled to derive relationships between epiphyte load and -25 and -50% seagrass response levels, which are proposed as the primary basis for establishment of critical threshold values. Given multiple sources of variability in the response data, threshold ranges based on the range of values falling between the median and the 75th quantiles of observations at a given seagrass response level are proposed rather than single, critical point values. Four epiphyte load threshold categories - low, moderate, high, very high, are proposed. Comparison of values of epiphyte loads associated with 25 and 50% reductions in light to macrophytes suggest that the threshold ranges are realistic both in terms of the principle mechanism of impact to macrophytes and in terms of the magnitude of resultant impacts expressed by the macrophytes. Some variability in response levels was observed among

  1. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robey, T.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose a secondary set of deterministic geologic features on the overall stratigraphic framework provided by the indictor models.

  2. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  3. Differential Decay of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of different human fecal pollution sources is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decay of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fe...

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme: an indicator of bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter G; Rømer, F K; Cortes, Dina

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical or radiolog......In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical...... or radiological evidence of pulmonary damage. While the static and dynamic lung function parameters were unchanged, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during a total of 126 days of pulsed regimen, indicating damage to the alveolar-endothelial membrane. S-ACE...... was unchanged within each treatment course but increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from the initial value to the last treatment course. Two months after cessation of treatment S-ACE returned to pretreatment values. Although the changes were modest they might mirror treatment-associated endothelial damage....

  5. Chinese astronomy as an indicator of technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí-Ribas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ilustra la cerrada relación entre el desarrollo tecnológico y el progreso científico. Ejemplos de estas conexiones se pueden ver en el caso de estudio de la astronomía china. Aspectos remarcables en el historial de las contribuciones al conocimiento de los cuerpos celestes, el papel de China en la moderna astronomía y el papel de los astrónomos en tiempos recientes. Únicamente en las últimas décadas China ha iniciado su desarrollo en proyectos astronómicos (telescopios ópticos, estaciones de radio…. Estos avances, y su uso, permiten excelentes capacidades para estudiar la astronomía a través de diferentes ventanas. Además, los astrónomos chinos son miembros activos a través de diversas colaboraciones internacionales.Palabras clave: China, astronomía, tecnología, telescopios._______________________Abstract:This paper illustrated the close relationship between technology development and progress in science. Examples of this connection are discussed using Chinese Astronomy as a study case. Despite remarkable historical contributions to the knowledge of celestial bodies, the role of China in modern Astronomy and Astrophysics did not start until relatively recent times. Only in the last decades has China started to develop impressive astronomical projects (optical telescopes, interferometric radio networks, Cherenkov detector arrays, etc. in parallel with the country's growth.These facilities provide, or will soon provide, excellent capabilities for observational astronomy in different windows of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, Chinese astronomers are currently active members of the major international astronomical collaborations.Keywords: China, astronomy, technology, telescopes.

  6. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  7. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential

  8. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential deprivatio

  9. Un indice per lo sviluppo sostenibile (An Index for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Casadio Tarabusi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As a possible improvement to the United Nations' Human Development Index (HDI, we propose including in the set of individual variables some of an environmental or social nature. Thus, by rescaling all the variables non-linearly it is possible to mitigate the effect of outliers and synthesize by principal components, or alternatively by a different averaging method that takes sustainability into account and penalizes unbalances among different aspects of development. Both methods are easy to implement and calibrate. The ensuing effect on the ranking of world countries is compared to the HDI ranking. Come possibile miglioramento dell'Indice di Sviluppo Umano (ISU elaborato dall'Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite proponiamo di includere nell'insieme di variabili individuali alcune di natura ambientale o sociale, di riscalare opportunamente tutte le variabili non linearmente in modo da mitigare l'effetto deglioutliers, e di sintetizzare mediante le componenti principali, oppure attraverso un diverso metodo di media che, tenendo conto della sostenibilità, penalizza gli squilibri tra diversi aspetti dello sviluppo. Entrambi i metodi sono facili da implementare e da calibrare. Il loro effetto sulla graduatoria dei paesi mondiali viene raffrontata con quella dell'ISU.  JEL Codes: I31, O47Keywords: Development, Human Development, Indice

  10. SOME INDICATORS OF CONSULTATIVE SERVICES DEVELOPMENT IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna PARAUSIC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition process and Serbia's entering into the European Union is possible to hasten by adequate and timely consultative services, before all during the programs and methodologies creation for conducting the enterprises' restructuring processes. In such conditions, the consultative organizations help the enterprises in accomplishing their goals, solving problems in business and management, identifying and using new possibilities, increasing their knowledge and applying suggested changes in the practice. Consulting is a result of manager need for integrated and complex business information. To obtain the transfer of consultant knowledge and manager skills development, a certain conditions must be fulfilled. First of all, business integrity and consultant competence are the most important. Business integrity, i.e. consultant ethics contributes image and reputation and is important competitiveness factor on consultant services market. Regarding actual consulting trends in countries within our region, as well as developmental level of consulting in EU countries, the market of consultative services in Serbia has not significantly changed in previous period (as we saw, the acknowledgement of it was got also by empirical research. The owners and managers of enterprises still do not feel a need for external services, in order to solve business problems. Having in mind a level and quality of demand, neither a supply of consultative services had not reached satisfactory level.

  11. The evolution of Zipf's law indicative of city development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-02-01

    Zipf's law of city-size distributions can be expressed by three types of mathematical models: one-parameter form, two-parameter form, and three-parameter form. The one-parameter and one of the two-parameter models are familiar to urban scientists. However, the three-parameter model and another type of two-parameter model have not attracted attention. This paper is devoted to exploring the conditions and scopes of application of these Zipf models. By mathematical reasoning and empirical analysis, new discoveries are made as follows. First, if the size distribution of cities in a geographical region cannot be described with the one- or two-parameter model, maybe it can be characterized by the three-parameter model with a scaling factor and a scale-translational factor. Second, all these Zipf models can be unified by hierarchical scaling laws based on cascade structure. Third, the patterns of city-size distributions seem to evolve from three-parameter mode to two-parameter mode, and then to one-parameter mode. Four-year census data of Chinese cities are employed to verify the three-parameter Zipf's law and the corresponding hierarchical structure of rank-size distributions. This study is revealing for people to understand the scientific laws of social systems and the property of urban development.

  12. Highlights of Human Resource Development Conferences 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Barbara Benedict; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The articles focus on building interpersonal skills utilizing experiential training to socialize new employees and develop leadership. They also focus on training decision makers, performance appraisal, career development, mobilizing human resources and ego stages in organizational development. (CMG)

  13. Facilitating Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals through Open Scientific Data and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to a shared future encompassing sustainable management of the planet and significant improvement in the human condition around the world. The scientific community has both an ethical responsibility and substantial self-interest—as residents of this planet—to help the world community to better understand the complex, interlinked behavior of human and environmental systems and to elucidate pathways to achieve long-term sustainability. Critical to making progress towards the SDGs is the open availability of timely, reliable, usable, and well integrated data and indicators relevant to all SDGs and associated targets. Such data and indicators will not only be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of progress, but also in developing policies and making decisions on environmental and societal issues affecting sustainability from local to global scales. The open availability of such data and indicators can help motivate performance, promote accountability, and facilitate cooperation. A range of scientific, technical, organizational, political, and resource challenges need to be addressed in developing a coherent SDG monitoring and indicator framework. For example, assembling and integrating diverse data on consistent spatial and temporal scales across the relevant natural, social, health, and engineering sciences pose both scientific and technical difficulties, and may require new ways to interlink and organize existing cyberinfrastructure, reconcile different data policy regimes, and fund integration efforts. New information technologies promise more timely and efficient ways of collecting many types of data, but may also raise privacy, control, and equity issues. Scientific review processes to ensure data quality need to be coordinated with the types of quality control and review employed by national statistical agencies for trusted economic and social statistics. Although

  14. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of p53 as a new indicator of DNA damage in human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Raimondo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if a p53 ELISA assay could be a new indicator of DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: 103 human semen samples were evaluated using both Acridine Orange test and p53 ELISA and results were compared. Results: A clear correlation between the values measured by two methods was obtained. Conclusions: If this hypothesis will be confirmed by further studies, the p53 ELISA assay could become a new and more precise indicator of DNA damage in human spermatozoa.

  16. Human Development, Inequality and Poverty: empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Seth; Antonio Villar

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the empirical findings surrounding the design of human development, inequality and poverty measures. We focus on the United Nations Development Program approach to those issues, in particular regarding the human development index and the multidimensional poverty index.

  17. Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    UNDP - UNOPS EDINFODEC Project - Cooperazione italiana,

    2004-01-01

    This report is an excerpt from the sixth UNDP-UNOPS-Cooperazione Italiana Report on Multilateral Human Development Programmes (2004). The Integrated Human Development Programme in Angola began in 1999 and ended in 2003. It focused on the maintenance and consolidation of the Local Economic Development Agencies (LEDAs). The PDHI helped set up the LEDAs in the Provinces of Bengo, Benguela and Kwanza Sul.

  18. Development of the Iranian provinces in health indices using Morris Model and linear TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Bahrami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health is a central pillar of sustainable development and an inseparable part of the prosperity and improved quality of life. Protecting and promoting public health is necessity for every action to be considered in socio-economic planning. Providing appropriate facilities for physical, psychological, social and spiritual health in all stages of life is a basic to human rights and needs. This article aims to determine the distribution and availability of health services in all Iran provinces. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, a total of 14 institutional and specialized variables were used. To explain the indicators using Excel and SPSS software, linear TOPSIS method and Human Development Index were used. Results: At national level, 13 provinces were haves, 5 semi-haves and 13 other provinces have-nots. The research results show that distribution of facilities and health services followed the center –periphery theory. Often, the central provinces are haves and marginal provinces are have-nots. Conclusion: In order to improve the health indicators, the government should review the distribution manner of medical and health services. To this end, the priority should be given to development of clinics, revision of distribution of general surgeon, pediatrician, internist and pharmacist. Most of the provinces had limitations in this regard.

  19. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  20. Physical biology of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view toward surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level toward form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  1. Human Resource Development in Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Neyerstani

    2014-01-01

    Human Resource Development (HRD) is the domain that performs core function in an organization for the advancement of personal and professional skills, knowledge and abilities of employees. Human resource development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification and organization development. HRD has the key role in improving knowledge and skills on huma...

  2. Transient Oral Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Indicate Inefficient Viral Spread from Very Few Initially Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Swan, David; Ferrenberg, James; Simmons, Karen; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Schiffer, Joshua T; Gantt, Soren

    2017-06-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication, as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. We estimated the likelihood of transient oral CMV infections by comparing their observed frequency to that of established primary infections, characterized by persistent high-level shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. We developed mathematical models of viral dynamics upon initial oral CMV infection and validated them using clinical shedding data. Transient infections comprised 76 to 88% of oral CMV shedding events. For this high percentage of transient infections to occur, we identified two mathematical prerequisites: a very small number of initially infected oral cells (1 to 4) and low viral infectivity (<1.5 new cells infected/cell). These observations indicate that oral CMV infection in infants typically begins with a single virus that spreads inefficiently to neighboring cells. Thus, although the incidence of CMV infection is high during infancy, our data provide a mechanistic framework to explain why multiple CMV exposures are typically required before infection is successfully established. These findings imply that a sufficiently primed immune response could prevent CMV from establishing latent infection in humans and support the achievability of a prophylactic CMV vaccine.IMPORTANCE CMV infects the majority of the world's population and is a major cause of birth defects. Developing a vaccine to prevent CMV infection would be extremely valuable but would be facilitated by a better understanding of how natural human CMV infection is acquired. We

  3. Orthomolecular enhancement of human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, L.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of molecules introduced into the human body by the way of foods is emphasized. Examples of orthomolecular therapy are given that range from the control of epileptic seizures, the therapy of mental illness, to the prevention of the common cold.

  4. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  5. Developing measurement indices to enhance protection and resilience of critical infrastructure and key resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald E; Norman, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is developing indices to better assist in the risk management of critical infrastructures. The first of these indices is the Protective Measures Index - a quantitative index that measures overall protection across component categories: physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures and dependencies. The Protective Measures Index, which can also be recalculated as the Vulnerability Index, is a way to compare differing protective measures (eg fence versus security training). The second of these indices is the Resilience Index, which assesses a site's resilience and consists of three primary components: robustness, resourcefulness and recovery. The third index is the Criticality Index, which assesses the importance of a facility. The Criticality Index includes economic, human, governance and mass evacuation impacts. The Protective Measures Index, Resilience Index and Criticality Index are being developed as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection initiative that DHS protective security advisers implement across the nation at critical facilities. This paper describes two core themes: determination of the vulnerability, resilience and criticality of a facility and comparison of the indices at different facilities.

  6. The Asymmetric Impact of Growth Fluctuation on Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Bedir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we re-examine the impact of economic growth fluctuation on human development indicators. Using the per capita growth rate and human development indicators for 131 countries between 1974 and 2007, we find that growth acceleration and deceleration have significant impact on the human development indicators. We also find that the effects are asymmetric. This asymmetric effect is valid both in terms of acceleration and deceleration periods and countries which are classified according to human development. Namely, the negative impact of economic deceleration on human development outcomes is greater than the positive impact of economic acceleration for all countries. The same is true for medium and low human development countries. The positive impact of economic acceleration and negative impact of economic deceleration are greater than the impacts on very high and high development countries. Therefore, economic growth must be provided, which will reach everyone and ensure everyone's utilization of economic opportunities in order to achieve the 2023 Millennium Goals.

  7. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  8. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  9. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  10. Linking Career Development and Human Resource Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Thomas G.

    When organizations integrate their career development and human resources planning activities into a comprehensive whole, it is the exception rather than the rule. One reason for the frequent dichotomy between career development and human resource planning is the failure to recognize that they are complements rather than synonyms or substitutes.…

  11. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  12. A comparison and appraisal of a comprehensive range of human thermal climate indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C. R.; Grigorieva, E. A.

    2017-03-01

    Numerous human thermal climate indices have been proposed. It is a manifestation of the perceived importance of the thermal environment within the scientific community and a desire to quantify it. Schemes used differ in approach according to the number of variables taken into account, the rationale employed, and the particular design for application. They also vary considerably in type and quality, method used to express output, as well as in several other aspects. In light of this, a three-stage project was undertaken to deliver a comprehensive documentation, classification, and overall evaluation of the full range of existing human thermal climate indices. The first stage of the project produced a comprehensive register of as many thermal indices as could be found, 165 in all. The second stage devised a sorting scheme of these human thermal climate indices that grouped them according to eight primary classification categories. This, the third stage of the project, evaluates the indices. Six evaluation criteria, namely validity, usability, transparency, sophistication, completeness, and scope, are used collectively as evaluation criteria to rate each index scheme. The evaluation criteria are used to assign a score that varies between 1 and 5, 5 being the highest. The indices with the highest in each of the eight primary classification categories are discussed. The work is the final stage of a study of the all human thermal climatic indices that could be found in literature. Others have considered the topic, but this study is the first detailed, genuinely comprehensive, and systematic comparison. The results make it simpler to locate and compare indices. It is now easier for users to reflect on the merits of all available thermal indices and decide which is most suitable for a particular application or investigation.

  13. Impacts of a participatory approach to developing national level sustainable development indicators in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Ulla; Kyllönen, Simo

    2007-08-01

    The paper explores the role of a participatory approach in the outcome of the Finnish sustainable development indicator (SDI) exercise in 1998-2002. The process is analysed through three main objectives: to achieve stronger democracy, better quality of the end product and a more effective process. The analysis is further structured by a set of criteria needed for successful participation and differentiation of types of participants. The criteria comprise three main aspects: fairness, competence and social learning. In addition to the normally mentioned stakeholders (e.g. citizens and interest groups) participants also include experts and civil servants. Using the set of criteria above the participatory approach of the Finnish SDI process is then evaluated, and in the light of this evaluation the paper also discusses the specifications needed as evaluation criteria for national level policy programme processes like developing the SDIs. The results are based on documentation of the indicator task force meetings, written comments and a study of the putative end-users conducted after the publication of the indicators. The results show that the intense and broad participation of experts and civil servants increased the competence of the outcome and led to greater efficiency in working methods. However, this led to technocratic participation, absence of democratic participation and absence of social learning. Thus the ultimate goal of SDIs to contribute to achieving sustainability was not reached.

  14. Comparative Study of Sustainable Development Indicators in CEE Countries (2000 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Ursache

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment is the basic factor to continue human survival and long-term prosperity of mankind is unthinkable if we are not able to ensure that future generations can enjoy the full benefits of nature. At the same time, development is needed to tackle poverty in developing countries and to empower people everywhere to live in a civilized manner in a more favorable environment. The aim of this article is to examine if the sustainable development indicators (greenhouse gas emissions, resource productivity and people at risk of poverty or social exclusion have an impact on the economic growth and if there are significant discrepancies between countries in 2010 compared to the base year of analysis (2000, using this indicators. The analysis focuses particularly on the countries situated in Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia. Based on the result obtained, the author shall try to trace, in the conclusion, a few guiding lines which could be of strategic importance for stimulating action and awareness that environmental protection and economic development must be contemporary concerns.

  15. Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

  16. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  17. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  18. Development of a Leading Performance Indicator from Operational Experience and Resilience in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela F. Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of operational performance indicators is of utmost importance for nuclear power plants, since they measure, track, and trend plant operation. Leading indicators are ideal for reducing the likelihood of consequential events. This paper describes the operational data analysis of the information contained in the Corrective Action Program. The methodology considers human error and organizational factors because of their large contribution to consequential events. The results include a tool developed from the data to be used for the identification, prediction, and reduction of the likelihood of significant consequential events. This tool is based on the resilience curve that was built from the plant's operational data. The stress is described by the number of unresolved condition reports. The strain is represented by the number of preventive maintenance tasks and other periodic work activities (i.e., baseline activities, as well as, closing open corrective actions assigned to different departments to resolve the condition reports (i.e., corrective action workload. Beyond the identified resilience threshold, the stress exceeds the station's ability to operate successfully and there is an increased likelihood that a consequential event will occur. A performance indicator is proposed to reduce the likelihood of consequential events at nuclear power plants.

  19. Development of Vulnerability Indicators for Deltaic Social-Ecological Systems Facing Multiple Environmental and Anthropogenic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Hagenlocher, M.; Haas, S.; Renaud, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas are low-lying coastal areas that form where rivers flow into the ocean. Hosting dense populations, featuring rich biodiversity and being hot spots of both agricultural and industrial production, they are considered of great economic and ecological importance. Long-term sustainability of deltas is increasingly under threat due to the consequences of natural and man-made hazards, including large-scale human interventions such as dam construction and extraction of underground resources. Understanding prevailing vulnerabilities in these deltaic systems is becoming increasingly important for the development of spatially-targeted adaptation options at the sub-delta scale (coastal regions, floodplains etc.) which is imperative for the sustainability and in some cases even for the survival of deltaic social-ecological systems (SES). We developed an inclusive SES-centered framework for vulnerability assessments, allowing for different sets of vulnerability indicators to be identified which can then be combined for deltas globally in a modular way. The modular structure allows being responsive to the specific multi-hazard settings of a given delta SES while also considering the interactions between the hazards in one given location. It therefore represents a departure from the usual fixed set of indicators used in existing vulnerability assessments. We present (1) the methods applied for indicator development, including local stakeholder consultations and a systematic literature review, as well as (2) the resulting modular set of indicators to be used in future spatially explicit vulnerability assessments. The approach aims to provide a ʾblueprintʿ for delta vulnerability assessments worldwide. Due to its modular structure it fosters both transferability and reproducibility. This work is part of a global project on 'Catalyzing action towards sustainability of deltaic systems (DELTAS)' funded by the Belmont Forum and the 2015 Sustainable Deltas Initiative, endorsed

  20. Differential decomposition of bacterial and viral fecal indicators in common human pollution types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjugi, Pauline; Sivaganesan, Mano; Korajkic, Asja; Kelty, Catherine A; McMinn, Brian; Ulrich, Robert; Harwood, Valerie J; Shanks, Orin C

    2016-11-15

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water quality management practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, the decomposition of select cultivated and molecular indicators of fecal pollution originating from fresh human feces, septage, and primary effluent sewage in a subtropical marine environment was assessed over a six day period with an emphasis on the influence of ambient sunlight and indigenous microbiota. Ambient water mixed with each fecal pollution type was placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ in a submersible aquatic mesocosm. Genetic and cultivated fecal indicators including fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, E. coli, and Bacteroidales), coliphage (somatic and F+), Bacteroides fragilis phage (GB-124), and human-associated genetic indicators (HF183/BacR287 and HumM2) were measured in each sample. Simple linear regression assessing treatment trends in each pollution type over time showed significant decay (p ≤ 0.05) in most treatments for feces and sewage (27/28 and 32/40, respectively), compared to septage (6/26). A two-way analysis of variance of log10 reduction values for sewage and feces experiments indicated that treatments differentially impact survival of cultivated bacteria, cultivated phage, and genetic indicators. Findings suggest that sunlight is critical for phage decay, and indigenous microbiota play a lesser role. For bacterial cultivated and genetic indicators, the influence of indigenous microbiota varied by pollution type. This study offers new insights on the decomposition of common human fecal pollution types in a subtropical marine environment with important implications for water quality management applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Development of the asymmetric human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry across the midline is present in many animals, together with the left/right asymmetry of several organs, such as the heart in vertebrates. The development of such asymmetries during embryonic development requires first the specification of the midline and then specification of left/right. One model proposes the transfer of molecular asymmetry to the multicellular level. Nodal expression on the left side in mammals and chicks is a key event, and is due to the release of calcium on the left possibly involving an ion pump and the Notch pathway

  2. The effect of rearing temperature in larval development of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis: morphological indicators of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Chalde

    Full Text Available It is well known that in pejerrey water temperature not only affects growth rates but also directs the sexual differentiation process. This fact rise the question of how different the development of pejerrey larvae of the same age is when reared at different temperatures. A description of developmental stages for the embryonic and larval periods of the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, and the influence of rearing temperature on larval development are presented. Then, larval development was studied at three rearing temperatures, and changes in general morphology, fin morphology, and caudal fin structure have been taken into consideration within the thermal range involved in the temperature sex determination of this species. Fin fold reabsorption, caudal fin formation, and body shape were selected to follow the events leading to the acquisition of the juvenile morphology. The juvenile phenotype was defined when the fin fold was reabsorpted and the caudal fin acquired its definitive homocercal structure. The moment at which the juvenile phenotype was achieved, was evaluated in relation to larval age, size and, shape. The size resulted as the best indicator of development in pejerrey.

  3. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  4. Effect of carbofuran on some biochemical indices of human erythrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Jaiswal, S K; Siddiqi, N J; Sharma, B

    2012-12-22

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops. Its widespread use in agriculture represents a threat not only to the environment but also to human populations exposed to them. Erythrocytes serve as an excellent model system to study the interaction of pro-oxidants. Organocarbamates are known to produce free radical species and to induce toxicity to different body systems resulting into hematological and biochemical perturbations. The information available relating to the effect of organocarbamates on the biochemical indices of human erythrocytes is scanty. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide, on some key biochemical indices of human erythrocytes' membrane. The oxidative potential of the pesticide was assessed in vitro by monitoring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in human erythrocytes exposed to different sub-acute concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 and 50μM) of carbofuran for different time intervals; maximally up to 120 min. It was observed that the level of MDA was elevated and that of GSH was significantly decreased after treatment of erythrocytes with carbofuran. The results indicated the negative impact of carbofuran in concentration and time dependent manner. Carbofuran was also found to sharply inhibit the activity of membrane bound Na(+)K(+)-ATPase at higher carbofuran concentrations (10, 25 and 50μM). Further, carbofuran at aforesaid concentrations was also found to cause significant rise in the osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes indicating adverse effect on membrane fluidity. The results of present study suggested that carbofuran was able to alter the oxidative balance and the stability of human erythrocytes membrane.

  5. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Glasser, Jay; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-08-01

    Life expectancy (LE) is a major marker of individual survival. It also serves as a guide to highlight both the progress and the gaps in total social and societal health. Comparative LE in concert with measures of gender-specific experience, indices of empowerment and societal happiness and development offer a comparative tool to examine trends and similarities of societal progress as seen through the lens of cross-national experience. To determine the gender gaps in LE (GGLE) trends, we performed a longitudinal analysis, covering a period of 49 years (1960-2008). To examine the association of GGLE with development indices, we used the 2007 GGLE data, the newest happiness data mostly drawn from 2006; the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) data and the 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) data. It revealed that most of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries had a GGLE trend that occurred in an inverted U-curve fashion. We divided them into three subgroups based on the peak years of respective GGLE. The earlier the peak year, the happier the countries, the higher the HDI and the smaller the current GGLE are. Association analysis indicates that Happiness, HDI and GEM are all negatively associated with GGLE. This pattern suggests that GGLE undergoes three phases of growth, peak and stability and decline. Japan will soon be seeing its GGLE gradually shrinking in the foreseeable future. The continuing increases in Happiness, HDI and GEM are associated with a decrease in GGLE, which should be carefully taken into consideration.

  6. Human enteric viruses–potential indicators for enhanced monitoring of recreational water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin; Allmann; Updyke; Zi; Wang; Si; Sun; Christina; Connell; Marek; Kirs; Mayee; Wong; Yuanan; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recreational waters contaminated with human fecal pollution are a public health concern, and ensuring the safety of recreational waters for public use is a priority of both the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC). Current recreational water standards rely on fecal indicator bacteria(FIB) levels as indicators of human disease risk. However present evidence indicates that levels of FIB do not always correspond to the presence of other potentially harmful organisms, such as viruses. Thus, enteric viruses are currently tested as water quality indicators, but have yet to be successfully implemented in routine monitoring of water quality. This study utilized enteric viruses as possible alternative indicators of water quality to examine 18 different fresh and offshore recreational waters on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, by using newly established laboratory techniques including highly optimized PCR, real time PCR, and viral infectivity assays. All sample sites were detected positive for human enteric viruses by PCR including enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male specific FRNA coliphage. A six time-point seasonal study of enteric virus presence indicated significant variation in virus detection between the rainy and dry seasons. Quantitative PCR detected the presence of norovirus genogroup II at levels at which disease risk may occur, and there was no correlation found between enteric virus presence and FIB counts. Under the present laboratory conditions, no infectious viruses were detected from the samples PCR-positive for enteric viruses. These data emphasize both the need for additional indicators for improved monitoring of water quality, and the feasibility of using enteric viruses as these indicators.

  7. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  8. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  9. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  10. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the poor.

  11. Social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Gault, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators. The approach deals separately with the development process and with the use of the indicators that result. Underlying the discussion is an assumption that indicators are a technology, a product, which governs behaviour, is modified by users (outside of the producer community), and develops in response to user needs. Science and technology indicators are considered separately from innova...

  12. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  13. Hegel's Hold on Conceptions of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulryan, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    The use of "development" is ubiquitous in everyday language, and theories regarding it can be found in the social sciences and humanities. Although much work has been done to examine the meaning of development and its history, little attention has been paid to Hegel's role as the philosophical anchor for the modern life of "development". By…

  14. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  15. Cultural Development through Human Resource Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the framework for developing a cultural human resources management (HRM) perspective. Central to this framework is modifying HRM programs to reinforce the organization's preferred practices. Modification occurs through selection, orientation, training and development, performance appraisal, career development, and compensation and…

  16. Development of the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaab, D F

    1995-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been claimed to be involved in a great number of physiological functions in development, such as sexual differentiation (gender, sexual orientation) and birth, as well as in various developmental disorders including mental retardation, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), Kallman's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. In this review a number of hypothalamic nuclei have therefore been discussed with respect to their development in health and disease. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the clock of the brain and shows circadian and seasonal fluctuations in vasopressin-expressing cell numbers. The SCN also seems to be involved in reproduction, adding interest to the sex differences in shape of the vasopressin-containing SCN subnucleus and in its VIP cell number. In addition, differences in relation to sexual orientation can be seen in this perspective. The vasopressin and VIP neurons of the SCN develop mainly postnatally, but as premature children may have circadian temperature rhythms, a different SCN cell type is probably more mature at birth. The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN, intermediate nucleus, INAH-1) is twice as large in young male adults as in young females. At the moment of birth only 20% of the SDN cell number is present. From birth until two to four years of age cell numbers increase equally rapidly in both sexes. After this age cell numbers start to decrease in girls, creating the sex difference. The size of the SDN does not show any relationship to sexual orientation in men. The large neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to the neurohypophysis, where they release vasopressin and oxytocin into the blood circulation. In the fetus these hormones play an active role in the birth process. Fetal oxytocin may initiate or accelerate the course of labor. Fetal vasopressin plays a role in the adaptation to stress--caused by the birth process--by redistribution of the fetal blood flow

  17. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Key words: human development, foreign language, French. Introduction ..... to communicate with each other and exchange ideas. Not only ... This will enable learners have an early exposure to the language which will in turn.

  18. Human Resource Development Strategies: The Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic development of Malaysia is greatly influenced by human resources activities in both the private and public sectors. But the private sector, particularly the industrial sector is the key player for the country’s economic growth. In acknowledging human resources importance in this sector, the country’s developmental plans developed thrusts that support the development of human resources to become skilled, creative and innovative. This article examines the concepts and nature of human resource development (HRD at the national level in Malaysia. In examining HRD from the national perspective, a review of documentary evidence from relevant Governmental reports and documents was utilised. The plans, policies, strategies, roles and responsibilities in HRD at the national level were discussed.

  19. Human Resources Development in the 70s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  20. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-03-09

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences.

  1. Entrepreneurship and human development: A capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Thomas; Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal model of entrepreneurship in human development. The framework is provided by the capabilities approach (CA). Hence we extend not only the conceptualisation of entrepreneurship in development, but the reach of the CA into entrepreneurship. From a CA view, entrepreneurship is not only a production factor, or a means to an end, as is often taken to be the case by economists, but also an end in itself. Entrepreneurship can be a human functioning and can contribute towards expa...

  2. Homuncular organization of human motor cortex as indicated by neuromagnetic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, D; Kristeva, R; Deecke, L

    1991-01-14

    Sources of neural activity identified using non-invasive measurements of cerebral magnetic fields (magnetoencephalography) were found to confirm the somatotopic organization of primary motor cortex for movements of different parts of the body in normal human subjects. Somatotopic maps produced with this technique showed slight differences to the 'classic' homunculus obtained from studies using direct cortical stimulation. These findings indicate that neuromagnetic recordings are capable of localizing cortical activity associated with voluntarily produced movements without the use of external stimulation and provide a new method for studying the functional organization of human motor cortex and its role in voluntary movement.

  3. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Gill, J. A.; Baldwin, David H.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; French, Barbara L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory.

  4. Indicações da vacina contra o papilomavirus humano Indications for human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto Manzione Nadal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que 20% da população adulta esteja contaminada pelo Papilomavírus humano (HPV e que anualmente surjam 500 mil novos casos de câncer da cérvix uterina, 70% deles em países em desenvolvimento, além de inúmeros casos de carcinoma anal, quase todos relacionados ao vírus em questão. Esses dados indicam a necessidade de reforçar a prevenção desses tumores e suas lesões precursoras, e as vacinas oferecem essa oportunidade. Dispomos de produtos que imunizam contra os tipos virais 16 e 18, mais freqüentes nos carcinomas, e 6 e 11, relacionados às verrugas anogenitais. Estão indicados em mulheres dos 11 aos 25 anos de idade desde que não tenham contato prévio com a infecção viral. Conferem imunidade superior à da imunização naturalmente adquirida, embora o tempo de duração dessa imunidade não está bem estabelecido. Por enquanto, não é indicada para homens. A vacinação não afasta a necessidade dos exames periódicos para rastreamento do câncer anogenital.Many studies estimate that 20% of people are infected by human papillomavirus (HPV worldwide, and 500.000 new cases of cervical carcinoma appear yearly, 70% in developing countries, almost all associated to this virus, as so several cases of anal carcinoma. These data indicate the necessity of reinforced screening for anogenital carcinomas and their precursors, and vaccines offer this opportunity. Nowadays, there is vaccination against viral types 16/18, the most associated to neoplasia, and 6/11 that provoke condylomas. Vaccines are indicated to women among 11 and 25 years old since they did not have previous contact with HPV. Vaccines induce immunization superior to that naturally acquired, although, its duration period is not well established. They are not yet indicated to males. Vaccination does not exclude necessity for periodical screening tests for anogenital cancer.

  5. The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G.; Shen, Y. (Science Applications International Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. 32 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Developing an Indicator System for Schools of Choice: A Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard S.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Liu, Sunny

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an indicator system that goes beyond a single indicator of school progress or performance. The system relies on a set of school indicators that uses data that public schools routinely report to state agencies for compliance purposes. The framework for the indicator system is based on the idea of…

  7. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  8. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Using indicators to assess sustainable development in the European Union, Finland, Malta and Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.; Rinne, J.; Kautto, P.; Assmuth, T. (eds.)

    2011-01-15

    This report examines the use and influence of sustainable development indicators. The focus is on the role of indicators in assessing national and EU-level sustainable development strategies. The use of indicators is assessed through three country studies in Finland, Malta and Slovakia, all of which have developed such indicators and strategies during the past decade. The use is explored through document analysis and interviews of developers, regulators and other civil servants and other expected end-users. Attention is given to the characteristics and relevance of the indicators and to the motivation to use indicators. Based on the results the methods used to produce, disseminate and communicate the indicators are discussed. Barriers to their use and potential ways to increase and improve the use are investigated. Finally, conclusions are formulated in order to enhance and enrich the use of indicators. (orig.)

  10. The effect of rearing temperature in larval development of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis: morphological indicators of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Chalde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in pejerrey water temperature not only affects growth rates but also directs the sexual differentiation process. This fact rise the question of how different the development of pejerrey larvae of the same age is when reared at different temperatures. A description of developmental stages for the embryonic and larval periods of the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, and the influence of rearing temperature on larval development are presented. Then, larval development was studied at three rearing temperatures, and changes in general morphology, fin morphology, and caudal fin structure have been taken into consideration within the thermal range involved in the temperature sex determination of this species. Fin fold reabsorption, caudal fin formation, and body shape were selected to follow the events leading to the acquisition of the juvenile morphology. The juvenile phenotype was defined when the fin fold was reabsorpted and the caudal fin acquired its definitive homocercal structure. The moment at which the juvenile phenotype was achieved, was evaluated in relation to larval age, size and, shape. The size resulted as the best indicator of development in pejerrey.A temperatura da água não afeta apenas as taxas de crescimento no peixe-rei, mas também direciona o processo de diferenciação sexual. Este fato levanta o questionamento de quão diferente é o desenvolvimento de larvas do peixe-rei da mesma idade quando criadas em temperaturas diferentes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar uma descrição do de desenvolvimento de embriões e larvas do peixe-rei, Odontesthes bonariensis, e a influência da temperatura de criação no desenvolvimento das larvas. Neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento das larvas foi estudado em três temperaturas diferentes de cultivo. Foram consideradas as alterações ocorridas na morfologia geral, assim como na morfologia e na estrutura da nadadeira caudal dentro da variação termal da

  11. Development Tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.

  12. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  13. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  14. Human Resources Management & Development Handbook. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, William R., Ed.

    This revised handbook on the theory and practice of human resources management and development (HRM/D) focuses on people management and the personnel development processes. The book's 18 parts and 102 chapters by 107 contributors provide authoritative and comprehensive information on every aspect of modern HRM/D. Part 1 provides an overview of…

  15. National Cultures and Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Konrad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between basic cultural characteristics of countries and some economic indexes. As cultural characteristics, the data from The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE about the 9 cultural dimensions for 60 countries were used. Two facets of cultural dimensions were measured: the perceptions of actual practices and the perceptions of preferred values. On the other hand, the data about different economic indexes were taken from archival sources such as Human Development Report. Results show that some cultural practices and preferences are related to the development of countries as measured by Human Development Index (HDI. The implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Economic assessment of human life as a diagnostic indicator of the crisis phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yevgenyevna Shipitsyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper to reveal the essence of the term “economic assessment of human life” the methodological approaches used in the economic theory and estimation theory are applied, the categorical apparatus revealing the meaning of the economic cost, price and value of human life is created. To define the cost of human life, the income, cost-based, and comparative approaches are analyzed. Various types of living costs depending on the purpose of assessment application are allocated. For the state purposes and definition of social payments, the concept of cadastral value of human life is introduced. The introduction of the macroeconomic indicator reflecting level and quality of life in the country is substantiated. The author's technique of the economic assessment of human life is given in the article and is approved on the example of the Russian Federation. Besides, the interrelations between manifestations of the crisis phenomena and their tendencies in society, quality of life and a size of life assessment at the calculation of regional coefficients for an assessment of risks to the citizens' life or health are revealed

  17. Prehistoric Human Adaptation to Tibetan Plateau Environment indicated by 151 site in the Qinghai Lake Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongju; Dong, Guanghui; Wang, Qianqian; Ren, Xiaoyan; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    Current study indicates that Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP) is one of the first widely occupied places by prehistory people on the Tibetan Plateau, which makes NETP very important to understand the human history on the plateau and human adaptation to high elevation environment. Hence, 151 site, a paleo- to Epi-Paleolithic site in the Qinghai Lake basin on NETP, is chosen to excavate. Thousands pieces of animal bones, hundreds pieces of stone artifacts and several possible hearths were unearthed and obtained during two excavation seasons. Carefully redating of the site shows that it was first occupied shortly around 15 ka BP, then reoccupied from 9000-6000 a BP more intensely. Preliminary study of the site suggest that the first appearance of human in Qinghai Lake basin is closely related to the amelioration of the Last Deglaciation and the prevalence of microlithic technology in North China, which may enlighten the study of early human migration on to whole plateau; however, the latter more intense human occupation in 151 site is not only closely related to the warm and stable early-mid Holocene climate but also provoked by early millet agriculture in neighbor low-elevation Loess plateau.

  18. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  19. The development of human nature in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Simonovski

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of human nature in children from 4 to 12 years of age. The concept of human nature is described by Oerter (Oerter, 1991, 1994; Oerter, Oerter, Agostiani, Kim, in Wibowo, 1996 in his theory of development of implicit anthropology. Two procedures were applied in the research: an interview on adulthood and a social dilemma story, which was followed by a guided interview. The distribution of the developmental stages of the concept of human nature in children of different age is presented, along with the frequency of higher-stage answers that progressively rises with subject's age. The frequency of the answers on the first, the second and the third developmental stage is compared between sexes. Higher level of conceptualisation of human nature in girls was found when compared with boys. The intering in personality, social and action theory are explained.

  20. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  1. Understanding the Representativeness of Mobile Phone Location Data in Characterizing Human Mobility Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of big data has aided understanding of the driving forces of human mobility, which is beneficial for many fields, such as mobility prediction, urban planning, and traffic management. However, the data sources used in many studies, such as mobile phone location and geo-tagged social media data, are sparsely sampled in the temporal scale. An individual’s records can be distributed over a few hours a day, or a week, or over just a few hours a month. Thus, the representativeness of sparse mobile phone location data in characterizing human mobility requires analysis before using data to derive human mobility patterns. This paper investigates this important issue through an approach that uses subscriber mobile phone location data collected by a major carrier in Shenzhen, China. A dataset of over 5 million mobile phone subscribers that covers 24 h a day is used as a benchmark to test the representativeness of mobile phone location data on human mobility indicators, such as total travel distance, movement entropy, and radius of gyration. This study divides this dataset by hour, using 2- to 23-h segments to evaluate the representativeness due to the availability of mobile phone location data. The results show that different numbers of hourly segments affect estimations of human mobility indicators and can cause overestimations or underestimations from the individual perspective. On average, the total travel distance and movement entropy tend to be underestimated. The underestimation coefficient results for estimation of total travel distance are approximately linear, declining as the number of time segments increases, and the underestimation coefficient results for estimating movement entropy decline logarithmically as the time segments increase, whereas the radius of gyration tends to be more ambiguous due to the loss of isolated locations. This paper suggests that researchers should carefully interpret results derived from this type of

  2. Human prefrontal cortex: evolution, development, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffer, Kate; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is critical to many cognitive abilities that are considered particularly human, and forms a large part of a neural system crucial for normal socio-emotional and executive functioning in humans and other primates. In this chapter, we survey the literature regarding prefrontal development and pathology in humans as well as comparative studies of the region in humans and closely related primate species. The prefrontal cortex matures later in development than more caudal regions, and some of its neuronal subpopulations exhibit more complex dendritic arborizations. Comparative work suggests that the human prefrontal cortex differs from that of closely related primate species less in relative size than it does in organization. Specific reorganizational events in neural circuitry may have taken place either as a consequence of adjusting to increases in size or as adaptive responses to specific selection pressures. Living in complex environments has been recognized as a considerable factor in the evolution of primate cognition. Normal frontal lobe development and function are also compromised in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. A phylogenetically recent reorganization of frontal cortical circuitry may have been critical to the emergence of human-specific executive and social-emotional functions, and developmental pathology in these same systems underlies many psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and schizophrenia.

  3. 77 FR 1705 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... & Human Development (NICHD); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Health and Human Development Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Human Development Council. Date: January 26, 2012. Open: January 26, 2012, 8 a.m. to 12:30 p.m....

  4. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  5. Global analysis of overweight prevalence by level of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen D Ng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less developed countries are increasingly afflicted with over–nutrition, and the escalating overweight prevalence has become a global problem. However, a problem as global as this may not be amenable to a general set of remedial interventions applicable to all countries. I use data from various sources, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank, to test the association of overweight prevalence with economic, social, and demographic indicators. I then split the countries up by human development index to investigate to what extent these associations vary between development levels. On a global scale, overweight prevalence is most associated with gross domestic product (GDP per capita, the proportion of a country that is rural, the proportion of elderly in a country's population, and the average years of schooling. At what magnitude, and even in which direction, these relationships go vary with a country's level of development. Generally, GDP per capita has a positive association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of very high human development more than twice of that for countries of low human development. However, proportion rural has a negative association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of low human development nearly twice of that for countries of very high human development. All four of these variables have statistically significant association with overweight prevalence in countries with low human development. I make policy suggestions to combat increasing overweight prevalence, based on the models that are developed, paying special attention to the differences in magnitude and direction of the regressors between human development levels.

  6. Global analysis of overweight prevalence by level of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carmen D

    2015-12-01

    Less developed countries are increasingly afflicted with over-nutrition, and the escalating overweight prevalence has become a global problem. However, a problem as global as this may not be amenable to a general set of remedial interventions applicable to all countries. I use data from various sources, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank, to test the association of overweight prevalence with economic, social, and demographic indicators. I then split the countries up by human development index to investigate to what extent these associations vary between development levels. On a global scale, overweight prevalence is most associated with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the proportion of a country that is rural, the proportion of elderly in a country's population, and the average years of schooling. At what magnitude, and even in which direction, these relationships go vary with a country's level of development. Generally, GDP per capita has a positive association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of very high human development more than twice of that for countries of low human development. However, proportion rural has a negative association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of low human development nearly twice of that for countries of very high human development. All four of these variables have statistically significant association with overweight prevalence in countries with low human development. I make policy suggestions to combat increasing overweight prevalence, based on the models that are developed, paying special attention to the differences in magnitude and direction of the regressors between human development levels.

  7. Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. (Univ. of Zimbabwe (South Africa))

    1989-10-01

    Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

  8. Effect of UVA Fluence Rate on Indicators of Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hoerter, Christopher S. Ward, Kyle D. Bale, Admasu N. Gizachew, Rachelle Graham, Jaclyn Reynolds, Melanie E. Ward, Chesca Choi, Jean-Leonard Kagabo, Michael Sauer, Tara Kuipers, Timothy Hotchkiss, Nate Banner, Renee A. Chellson, Theresa Ohaeri, L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a day human skin is exposed to solar UV radiation that fluctuates in fluence rate within the UVA (290-315 nm and UVB (315-400 nm spectrum. Variables affecting the fluence rate reaching skin cells include differences in UVA and UVB penetrating ability, presence or absence of sunscreens, atmospheric conditions, and season and geographical location where the exposure occurs. Our study determined the effect of UVA fluence rate in solar-simulated (SSR and tanning-bed radiation (TBR on four indicators of oxidative stress---protein oxidation, glutathione, heme oxygenase-1, and reactive oxygen species--in human dermal fibroblasts after receiving equivalent UVA and UVB doses. Our results show that the higher UVA fluence rate in TBR increases the level of all four indicators of oxidative stress. In sequential exposures when cells are exposed first to SSR, the lower UVA fluence rate in SSR induces a protective response that protects against oxidative stress following a second exposure to a higher UVA fluence rate. Our studies underscore the important role of UVA fluence rate in determining how human skin cells respond to a given dose of radiation containing both UVA and UVB radiation.

  9. Diabetes: energetics, development and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B C; Cajigal, A

    2001-07-01

    The recent emergence of the thrifty phenotype as an explanation for metabolic efficiency has brought evolutionary perspectives on diabetes, as represented by the thrifty genotype, under scrutiny. However, the logic of natural selection along with evidence from non-human primates supports the role for energetic constraints in the evolution of metabolic efficiency, particularly in skeletal muscle physiology. Environmental fluctuation during human evolution would have provided selective pressures for the development of efficient skeletal muscle starting prenatally and continuing throughout the lifespan. Such mechanisms including, glucose transporters, mitochondrial gene expression, leptin receptors and uncoupling proteins, should be present in all humans, though some living populations may exhibit particular 'thriftier' alleles. A focus on physical activity and the factors underlying efficient muscle physiology has implications for prevention of diabetes in both developing and developed societies. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  11. Development and validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P. J.; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Kleefstra, Nanno; Bouma, Margriet; Meulepas, Marianne; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Denig, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Quality indicators are used to measure whether healthcare professionals act according to guidelines, but few indicators focus on the quality of pharmacotherapy for diabetes. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality indicators (PQIs) for type 2 diabetes in p

  12. Developing of Indicators of an E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Khow, Jirasak

    2014-01-01

    This study was the development of e-learning indicators used as an e-learning benchmarking model for higher education institutes. Specifically, it aimed to: 1) synthesize the e-learning indicators; 2) examine content validity by specialists; and 3) explore appropriateness of the e-learning indicators. Review of related literature included…

  13. Development and validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Kleefstra, Nanno; Bouma, Margriet; Meulepas, Marianne; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J G; Denig, Petra

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Quality indicators are used to measure whether healthcare professionals act according to guidelines, but few indicators focus on the quality of pharmacotherapy for diabetes. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality indicators (PQIs) for type 2 diabetes in p

  14. Development and validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P. J.; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Kleefstra, Nanno; Bouma, Margriet; Meulepas, Marianne; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Denig, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Quality indicators are used to measure whether healthcare professionals act according to guidelines, but few indicators focus on the quality of pharmacotherapy for diabetes. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality indicators (PQIs) for type 2 diabetes in p

  15. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring.

  16. Road-networks, a practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in Tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, T.; Yamada, T.; Okuda, T.

    2014-02-01

    Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests.

  17. Developing quality indicators for family support services in community team-based mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serene Olin, S; Kutash, Krista; Pollock, Michele; Burns, Barbara J; Kuppinger, Anne; Craig, Nancy; Purdy, Frances; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Wisdom, Jennifer; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality indicators for programs integrating parent-delivered family support services for children's mental health have not been systematically developed. Increasing emphasis on accountability under the Affordable Care Act highlights the importance of quality-benchmarking efforts. Using a modified Delphi approach, quality indicators were developed for both program level and family support specialist level practices. These indicators were pilot tested with 21 community-based mental health programs. Psychometric properties of these indicators are reported; variations in program and family support specialist performance suggest the utility of these indicators as tools to guide policies and practices in organizations that integrate parent-delivered family support service components.

  18. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  19. Development of land degradation spectral indices in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Kaufmann, Hermann J.; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia; Escribano, Paula; Mueller, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study is to develop remote sensing desertification indicators for drylands, in particular using the capabilities of imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imagery) to derive soil and vegetation specific properties linked to land degradation status. The Cabo de Gata-Nijar Natural Park in SE Spain presents a still-preserved semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem that has undergone several changes in landscape patterns and vegetation cover due to human activity. Previous studies have revealed that traditional land uses, particularly grazing, favoured in the Park the transition from tall arid brush to tall grass steppe. In the past ~40 years, tall grass steppes and arid garrigues increased while crop field decreased, and tall arid brushes decreased but then recovered after the area was declared a Natural Park in 1987. Presently, major risk is observed from a potential effect of exponential tourism and agricultural growth. A monitoring program has been recently established in the Park. Several land degradation parcels presenting variable levels of soil development and biological activity were defined in summer 2003 in agricultural lands, calcareous and volcanic areas, covering the park spatial dynamics. Intensive field spectral campaigns took place in Summer 2003 and May 2004 to monitor inter-annual changes, and assess the landscape spectral variability in spatial and temporal dimension, from the dry to the green season. Up to total 1200 field spectra were acquired over ~120 targets each year in the land degradation parcels. The targets were chosen to encompass the whole range of rocks, soils, lichens, and vegetation that can be observed in the park. Simultaneously, acquisition of hyperspectral images was performed with the HyMap sensor. This paper presents preliminary results from mainly the field spectral campaigns. Identifying sources of variability in the spectra, in relation with the ecosystem dynamics, will allow the definition of spectral indicators of

  20. The development of a vulnerabilities indicator library for coastal flood risk management at a European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Damon; Viavattene, Christophe; Priest, Sally; Micou, Paula; Parker, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Recent and historic low-frequency, high-impact events (Xynthia, Ligurian Flash Floods, the 1953 North Sea storm surge etc) have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas in Europe. The hazard probability is likely to increase due to a changing climate with more frequent and violent instances of surge-driven floods, wind damage, erosion, overtopping and rain-driven flash flooding. The number and value of receptors in the coastal area also increases due to continued economic development and population growth. As part of the FP7 EU RISCKIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts toolkit) project, a coastal vulnerability indicator library has been produced incorporating ecosystems, built environment, human population, critical infrastructure and the overall characteristics of the coastal system. The library will include data at European, national and local levels and will be gathered, in large part, through a multitude of interviews with various members of the coastal community at 11 case study sites across Europe. The presentation will give a brief outline of the challenges in developing vulnerability indicators - particularly for countries where specific data is limited or lacking - and how the library will be organised to facilitate the use of the data. Finally, the presentation will describe how the vulnerability library will feed into a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF). The CRAF will evaluate coastal risk at regional scale and identify "hot spots" to assist coastal practitioners to choose the best prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures for their coast. The work described in this abstract was supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of RISC-KIT, contract no. 603458, and by contributions by the partner institutes.

  1. Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shidhani, Thuraya Ahmed; Arora, Vinita

    2012-08-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin, with an estimated overall worldwide prevalence of 5-10% of the population. It is characterised by difficulties in reading, accuracy, fluency, spelling and decoding abilities. The majority of publications reviewed indicated that screening is performed at the preschool level. Screening can also be conducted at birth or the first year of life. Understanding human development theory, for example, Piaget's human development theory, may help determine at which stage of childhood development dyslexia is more detectable, and therefore guide the management of this disability. The objective of this review is to provide a brief and updated overview of dyslexia and its management in children through human development issues.

  2. Social and Economic Indicators of Rural Development from a Sociological Viewpoint. A Suggested Empirical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Leslie D.; And Others

    An empirical approach to the development of a system of social indicators was suggested in this paper. The paper also suggested research developed around a more inductive approach to social indicator research with 3 methodological phases representing increasing levels of methodological sophistication. The first steps attempted to conceptualize…

  3. Remotely-Sensed Urban Wet-Landscapes AN Indicator of Coupled Effects of Human Impact and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the concept of urban wet-landscapes (loosely-defined wetlands) as against dry-landscapes (mainly impervious surfaces). The study is to examine whether the dynamics of urban wet-landscapes is a sensitive indicator of the coupled effects of the two major driving forces of urban landscape change - human built-up impact and climate (precipitation) variation. Using a series of satellite images, the study was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area of the United States. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed to identify fine-scale, hidden wetlands that could not be appropriately detected based on their spectral differentiability by a traditional image classification. The spatial analyses of wetland changes were implemented at the scales of metropolitan, watershed, and sub-watershed as well as based on the size of surface water bodies in order to reveal urban wetland change trends in relation to the driving forces. The study identified that wet-landscape dynamics varied in trend and magnitude from the metropolitan, watersheds, to sub-watersheds. The study also found that increased precipitation in the region in the past decades swelled larger wetlands in particular while smaller wetlands decreased mainly due to human development activities. These findings suggest that wet-landscapes, as against the dry-landscapes, can be a more effective indicator of the coupled effects of human impact and climate change.

  4. Seeking consensus on universal health coverage indicators in the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddock, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    There is optimism that the inclusion of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals advances its prominence in global and national health policy. However, formulating indicators for Target 3.8 through the Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Indicators has been challenging. Achieving consensus on the conceptual and methodological aspects of universal health coverage is likely to take some time in multi-stakeholder fora compared with national efforts to select indicators.

  5. Modeling the effects of physician emigration on human development.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of physician emigration on human development indicators in developing countries. First, the geographical distribution of physician brain drain was documented for the period 1991–2004. Second, random and fixed effects models were employed to investigate the effects of physicians in the home countries and abroad on child mortality and vaccination rates. Third, models were estimated to investigate migration-induced incentives in the medical sector that would increase the ...

  6. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-01-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicator...

  7. Integrating Methods for Developing Sustainability Indicators to Facilitate Learning and Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Dougill

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bossel's (2001 systems-based approach for deriving comprehensive indicator sets provides one of the most holistic frameworks for developing sustainability indicators. It ensures that indicators cover all important aspects of system viability, performance, and sustainability, and recognizes that a system cannot be assessed in isolation from the systems upon which it depends and which in turn depend upon it. In this reply, we show how Bossel's approach is part of a wider convergence toward integrating participatory and reductionist approaches to measure progress toward sustainable development. However, we also show that further integration of these approaches may be able to improve the accuracy and reliability of indicators to better stimulate community learning and action. Only through active community involvement can indicators facilitate progress toward sustainable development goals. To engage communities effectively in the application of indicators, these communities must be actively involved in developing, and even in proposing, indicators. The accuracy, reliability, and sensitivity of the indicators derived from local communities can be ensured through an iterative process of empirical and community evaluation. Communities are unlikely to invest in measuring sustainability indicators unless monitoring provides immediate and clear benefits. However, in the context of goals, targets, and/or baselines, sustainability indicators can more effectively contribute to a process of development that matches local priorities and engages the interests of local people.

  8. An assessment of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms as indicators of human faecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, K; Stickler, D J

    1985-01-01

    Membrane filtration techniques were used to enumerate Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) organisms and Escherichia coli in a variety of natural waters, the influents and effluents from three types of sewage treatment plants and faeces of various animals. The results suggest that BFG organisms die off more rapidly than E. coli in water and that animal faeces are not a significant source of BFG. It is suggested that the ratio of BFG to E. coli in water may be used to indicate the proximity of a source of human faecal contamination.

  9. Indicators to Identify Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jessica; Ambagtsheer, Frederike

    2016-02-01

    This article presents indicators to support transplant professionals, judicial and law enforcement authorities and victim support workers with the identification of trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal. It outlines the legal and illegal service providers that facilitate trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and guides the reader through the following criminal process: recruitment, transport, entrance, documents, housing, transplant, aftercare, and finance. Identification of illegal transplant activities by transplant professionals can support police and judiciary with the investigation, disruption, and prosecuting of trafficking networks.

  10. Framework and indicator testing protocol for developing and piloting quality indicators for the UK quality and outcomes framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Martyn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality measures should be subjected to a testing protocol before being used in practice using key attributes such as acceptability, feasibility and reliability, as well as identifying issues derived from actual implementation and unintended consequences. We describe the methodologies and results of an indicator testing protocol (ITP using data from proposed quality indicators for the United Kingdom Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF. Methods The indicator testing protocol involved a multi-step and methodological process: 1 The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method, to test clarity and necessity, 2 data extraction from patients' medical records, to test technical feasibility and reliability, 3 diaries, to test workload, 4 cost-effectiveness modelling, and 5 semi-structured interviews, to test acceptability, implementation issues and unintended consequences. Testing was conducted in a sample of representative family practices in England. These methods were combined into an overall recommendation for each tested indicator. Results Using an indicator testing protocol as part of piloting was seen as a valuable way of testing potential indicators in 'real world' settings. Pilot 1 (October 2009-March 2010 involved thirteen indicators across six clinical domains and twelve indicators passed the indicator testing protocol. However, the indicator testing protocol identified a number of implementation issues and unintended consequences that can be rectified or removed prior to national roll out. A palliative care indicator is used as an exemplar of the value of piloting using a multiple attribute indicator testing protocol - while technically feasible and reliable, it was unacceptable to practice staff and raised concerns about potentially causing actual patient harm. Conclusions This indicator testing protocol is one example of a protocol that may be useful in assessing potential quality indicators when adapted to specific country health

  11. EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN RESUSCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zabolotina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of human resuscitation development history is the first step in understanding modern approaches to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A significant increase in survival parameters is driven by accumulation of knowledge, expertise, improvement in resuscitation technologies. Development of cardiopulmonary resuscitation structure, development of recommendations approved for study and practical use, addressing these issues at the state level are accompanied with a significant reduction in mortality both at the hospital and pre-hospital levels. Key words: children, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, development stages, training of pediatricians. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:25-27

  12. Development of on package indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shukla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to develop an indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality and to compare the response of indicator sensor with meat quality parameters at ambient temperature. Materials and Methods: Indicator sensor was prepared using bromophenol blue (1% w/v as indicator solution and filter paper as indicator carrier. Indicator sensor was fabricated by coating indicator solution onto carrier by centrifugation. To observe the response of indicator sensor buffalo meat was packed in polystyrene foam trays covered with PVC film and indicator sensor was attached to the inner side of packaging film. The pattern of color change in indicator sensor was monitored and compared with meat quality parameters viz. total volatile basic nitrogen, D-glucose, standard plate count and tyrosine value to correlate ability of indicator sensor for its suitability to predict the meat quality and storage life. Results: The indicator sensor changed its color from yellow to blue starting from margins during the storage period of 24 h at ambient temperature and this correlated well with changes in meat quality parameters. Conclusions: The indicator sensor can be used for real-time monitoring of meat quality as the color of indicator sensor changed from yellow to blue starting from margins when meat deteriorates with advancement of the storage period. Thus by observing the color of indicator sensor quality of meat and shelf life can be predicted.

  13. How to Find Out in: Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Doris F.

    This library handbook was designed to aid the student in human development. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in five categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) handbooks and guides; (3) yearbooks; (4) congresses; and (5) documents. Some…

  14. The Dictionary for Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas H., Comp.

    This dictionary lists and defines approximately 360 words and phrases used in the field of human resource development (HRD). It reflects the opinions and collective expertise of a diverse range of HRD practitioners and faculty. The words and phrases selected were drawn from a search of more than 300 current and recent texts and 10 periodicals in…

  15. Human rights and sustainable spatial development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallemaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    What is the relationship between spatial planning and human rights? Though this question may seem highly theoretical at first glance, closer analysis will reveal that there are in fact a number of ways in which public policies in the area of territorial planning and development and the imperative of

  16. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  17. Human Resource Development and Organizational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Arif

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Organizations create mission statements and emphasize core values. Inculcating those values depends on the way employees are treated and nurtured. Therefore, there seems to be a strong relationship between human resource development (HRD) practices and organizational values. The paper aims to empirically examine this relationship.…

  18. How to Find Out in: Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Doris F.

    This library handbook was designed to aid the student in human development. It lists reference materials basic to general research and gives their location in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials are listed in five categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) handbooks and guides; (3) yearbooks; (4) congresses; and (5) documents. Some…

  19. Development of sustainability indicators by communities in China: a case study of Chongming County, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W; James, P; Hodgson, K; Hutchinson, S M; Shi, C

    2003-07-01

    Public participation as a means of identifying sustainability indicators for Chongming County, Shanghai, China was evaluated by an international group drawing on established best practice. An initial 'long list' of 86 sustainability indicators, based on previous indicator systems developed in China, was identified. This 'long list' was reduced via consultations with local academics and local-government officers from Shanghai City and Chongming County to a 'short list' of 17 indicators. This short-list was subjected to further community consultation involving 159 local-government officers, teachers, students (aged 12-14 years), farmers and workers. Data from the consultations indicated differences in the understanding of sustainable development among the different sectors. By combining the data from the different sectors it was possible to identify a consensus around 4 core and 7 additional indicators. These are proposed as indicators which could be used to steer local activities directed towards sustainable development. The list of indicators produced by the people of Chongming Island was compared to local indicator systems in Europe. In comparison with European lists the Chongming list was found to have a greater emphasis on economic development but a similar level of concern for environmental matters. This study has special significance as it reports on the implementation of a process involving local resident participation in the process of sustainable development in China.

  20. Development of Human System Integration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McGuire, Kerry; Thompson, Shelby; Vos, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Human Systems Integration seeks to design systems around the capabilities and limitations of the humans which use and interact with the system, ensuring greater efficiency of use, reduced error rates, and less rework in the design, manufacturing and operational deployment of hardware and software. One of the primary goals of HSI is to get the human factors practitioner involved early in the design process. In doing so, the aim is to reduce future budget costs and resources in redesign and training. By the preliminary design phase of a project nearly 80% of the total cost of the project is locked in. Potential design changes recommended by evaluations past this point will have little effect due to lack of funding or a huge cost in terms of resources to make changes. Three key concepts define an effective HSI program. First, systems are comprised of hardware, software, and the human, all of which operate within an environment. Too often, engineers and developers fail to consider the human capacity or requirements as part of the system. This leads to poor task allocation within the system. To promote ideal task allocation, it is critical that the human element be considered early in system development. Poor design, or designs that do not adequately consider the human component, could negatively affect physical or mental performance, as well as, social behavior. Second, successful HSI depends upon integration and collaboration of all the domains that represent acquisition efforts. Too often, these domains exist as independent disciplines due to the location of expertise within the service structure. Proper implementation of HSI through participation would help to integrate these domains and disciplines to leverage and apply their interdependencies to attain an optimal design. Via this process domain interests can be integrated to perform effective HSI through trade-offs and collaboration. This provides a common basis upon which to make knowledgeable decisions. Finally

  1. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  2. Selecting Indicators For The Sustainable Development of Residential Neighborhoods in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgadi, Ahmed. A.; Hakim Ismail, Lokman; Bargi, Walid A. Al; Suliman. Ali, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    The government of Libya aims to position Libya as one of the most sustainable countries in the region, with the hope that this success will create an inspiring example for surrounding countries. To achieve this, an indicator based assessment framework needs to be developed to assess neighborhood sustainability in Libya as it is important in achieving sustainable urban development. The aim of this paper is to identify a significant set of indicators to assess the sustainable development in Tripoli, Libya. Firstly, a number of indicators for sustainable development from various studies were collected into a preliminary list. The list of indicators was then assessed and filtered by experts in the industry, thus resulting in 50 assessment indicators that are relevant to the sustainable development in Tripoli, Libya. Based on measurement issues, 50 indicators were then grouped into 30 main indices or themes that reflect either sustainable economic, environmental, social, or institutional indicators. Therefore, the final sustainable neighborhood assessment framework will hopefully be used as assessment framework or guidelines in strategic planning for the development of sustainable neighborhood in Tripoli, Libya.

  3. Reframing E-Government Development Indices with Respect to New Trends in ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máchová Renáta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-government readiness is an important indicator of the quality of a country’s technological and telecommunication infrastructure and the ability of its citizens, businesses and governments to adopt, use and benefit from modern technologies. To measure and compare selected countries, a lot of benchmarking and ranking indices have been introduced since the beginning of the century. With the increasing importance of trends such as cloud computing, open (big data, participation tools or social media, new indicators and approaches need to be introduced in the measuring of the e-government development, and the existing indices should to be updated, redefined and restructured. Therefore, this article explores the structure of the existing e-government development indices to show the main indicators and trends. Then, it proposes and implements a new framework to evaluate e-government development using these new trends in ICT. It also examines and compares a basic background on the e-government development, benefits and risks of cloud computing, open (big data and participation tools in the public sector. Based on the newly proposed framework, the e-government development index is calculated for each EU Member State to clearly identify the indicators to have an influence on the e-government development. In the last part, these results are compared to the already existing indices to validate the conformity of the rank methods using Kendall rank correlation coefficient.

  4. Formulating Assessment Indices and Strategies for the Transition to Local Industrial Development in Taoyuan City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Local industries are crucial for enhancing urban competitiveness and are closely related to national economic performance. To sustainably develop local industries, a set of assessment indices should be formulated in addition to factors such as geographical environments, cultural history, development processes, and industrial structures for governments to promote development policies while satisfying the goal of sustainable industrial development. This study first adopted the fuzzy Delphi method to construct the indices for assessing local industrial development, referred to the action plans for the six key industries formulated by the Executive Yuan of Taiwan, and subsequently integrated the analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process to determine the order of priority for policies facilitating local industrial development for future reference. The results indicated that infrastructure, innovative research and development, and government policies are crucial bases for local industrial development. Furthermore, this study adopted Taoyuan to verify these indices and compiled expert suggestions to indicate that the government should prioritize the development of the biotechnology, green energy, and medical care industries. When developing local industries in the future, a set of assessment standards and policy analyses should be established for the government to enhance local industrial development and thus increase international competitive advantages by fully ascertaining the factors for industrial success and the characteristics of local advantages.

  5. Heavy metals in human teeth dentine: A bio-indicator of metals exposure and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Binti Baharudin, Nurul Atiqah; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Bradley, D A; Mahmoud, Okba

    2017-06-01

    With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc. Analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), most samples indicating the presence of the following trace elements, placed in order of concentration, from least to greatest: As, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Sb, Al, Sr, Sn. The concentrations have been observed to increase with age. Among the ethnic groups, the teeth of ethnic Chinese showed marginally greater metal concentrations than those of the Indians and Malays, the teeth dentine of females generally showing greater concentrations than that of males. Greater concentrations of Hg, Cu and Sn were found in molars while Pb, Sr, Sb and Zn were present in greater concentrations in incisors. With the elevated concentration levels of heavy metals in tooth dentine reflecting pollution from industrial emissions and urbanization, it is evident that human tooth dentine can provide chronological information on exposure, representing a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution.

  6. DFLAT: functional annotation for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Heather C; Drabkin, Harold; Ngu, Huy; Sackman, Michael; Fournier, Craig; Haggett, Jessica; Blake, Judith A; Bianchi, Diana W; Slonim, Donna K

    2014-02-07

    Recent increases in genomic studies of the developing human fetus and neonate have led to a need for widespread characterization of the functional roles of genes at different developmental stages. The Gene Ontology (GO), a valuable and widely-used resource for characterizing gene function, offers perhaps the most suitable functional annotation system for this purpose. However, due in part to the difficulty of studying molecular genetic effects in humans, even the current collection of comprehensive GO annotations for human genes and gene products often lacks adequate developmental context for scientists wishing to study gene function in the human fetus. The Developmental FunctionaL Annotation at Tufts (DFLAT) project aims to improve the quality of analyses of fetal gene expression and regulation by curating human fetal gene functions using both manual and semi-automated GO procedures. Eligible annotations are then contributed to the GO database and included in GO releases of human data. DFLAT has produced a considerable body of functional annotation that we demonstrate provides valuable information about developmental genomics. A collection of gene sets (genes implicated in the same function or biological process), made by combining existing GO annotations with the 13,344 new DFLAT annotations, is available for use in novel analyses. Gene set analyses of expression in several data sets, including amniotic fluid RNA from fetuses with trisomies 21 and 18, umbilical cord blood, and blood from newborns with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, were conducted both with and without the DFLAT annotation. Functional analysis of expression data using the DFLAT annotation increases the number of implicated gene sets, reflecting the DFLAT's improved representation of current knowledge. Blinded literature review supports the validity of newly significant findings obtained with the DFLAT annotations. Newly implicated significant gene sets also suggest specific hypotheses for future

  7. QSTR with extended topochemical atom indices. 10. Modeling of toxicity of organic chemicals to humans using different chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Ghosh, Gopinath

    2008-11-01

    In this communication, we have developed quantitative predictive models using human lethal concentration values of 26 organic compounds including some pharmaceuticals with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices applying different chemometric tools and compared the extended topochemical atom models with the models developed from non-extended topochemical atom ones. Extended topochemical atom descriptors were also tried in combination with non-extended topochemical atom descriptors to develop better predictive models. The use of extended topochemical atom descriptors along with non-extended topochemical atom ones improved equation statistics and cross-validation quality. The best model with sound statistical quality was developed from partial least squares regression using extended topochemical atom descriptors in combination non-extended topochemical atom ones. Finally, to check true predictability of the ETA parameters, the data set was divided into training (n = 19) and test (n = 7) sets. Partial least squares and genetic partial least squares models were developed from the training set using extended topochemical atom indices and the models were validated using the test set. The extended topochemical atom models developed from different statistical tools suggest that the toxicity increases with bulk, chloro functionality, presence of electronegative atoms within a chain or ring and unsaturation, and decreases with hydroxy functionality and branching. The results suggest that the extended topochemical atom descriptors are sufficiently rich in chemical information to encode the structural features for QSAR/QSPR/QSTR modeling.

  8. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-03-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicators for all districts in Malawi. Other stakeholders implementing health interventions could use these baseline indicators for planning purposes.

  9. Development of the indicator-photopolymer chemistries for multianalyte sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, B.G.; Chadha, S.; Walt, D.R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Max Tishler Laboratory for Organic Chemistry; Richards, J.B.; Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Remediation of ground and waste water facilities requires the analysis of the pollutants. Multianalyte fiber-optic chemical sensors based on indicators have been developed, with multiple indicators immobilized at the distal end of a single imaging fiber. By coupling the imaging fibers to a charge coupled device detector, one can spatially and spectrally discriminate the multiple sensing sites and hence monitor multiple analyte concentrations simultaneously. This report describes the development of the indicator chemistry and immobilization procedures developed for pH, Al{sup 3+}, and hydrocarbons. A polymer matrix is used to mass transfer the analyte to the indictor.

  10. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Gasga, José, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L., E-mail: esmemapi@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois, E-mail: galoisborre@yahoo.com [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E., E-mail: gab0409@yahoo.com.mx [Unidad Académica de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Edificio E7, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); García-García, Ramiro, E-mail: ramiro@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2013-12-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI){sub XRD} index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI){sub FTIR} index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI){sub XRD} value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI){sub FTIR} indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. - Highlights: • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices for tooth enamel and synthetic HAP were obtained. • SEM and TEM images were more correlated with (CI){sub XRD} than with (CI){sub FTIR}. • Regardless of the temperature, (CI){sub XRD} and (CI){sub FTIR} showed similar behavior. • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices resulted in a fast and qualitative measurement.

  11. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    This paper addresses the crucial call for upgrading to more value-added production in developing country firms in the light of increased global competition and suggests that such upgrading demands a shift in focus from investment in technology to investment in people, knowledge and learning....... In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  12. Education, Human Development and Quality of Life: Measurement Issues and Implications for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the measurement of indicators and variables in the construction of education index in Human Development Index (HDI) at the global, national and 18 sub-national human development reports in India since 1990. The results show non-comparability of measurement of the education indicators and variables. This implies…

  13. Education, Human Development and Quality of Life: Measurement Issues and Implications for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and compares the measurement of indicators and variables in the construction of education index in Human Development Index (HDI) at the global, national and 18 sub-national human development reports in India since 1990. The results show non-comparability of measurement of the education indicators and variables. This implies…

  14. “BRAINSTORM” OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEXES AND INDICATORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VOLGA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kostina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – development of management strategies ensuring sustainable development of the territories of the Volga river basin and its administrative units.Methods. In the research we used various methods of mathematical statistics, systematic principles. We propose the conception of "brainstorming" for the assessment of the territory using indices and indicators of sustainable development.Results. We selected nine indicators and indices. We have conducted a correlation analysis of the selected indices and indicators of sustainable development, all of which reflect the state of social, ecological and economic systems. For an integrated assessment of the two objects one introduced the "critical" and the "reference" state and fixed values for each index and indicator under the review. Factor analysis in the space of two principal components is conducted as well as one carried out the calculation of generalized desirability function for each administrative unit of the Volga river basin. "Brainstorm", taking into consideration indices and indicators of sustainable development, showed similarities in the administrative units of the Volga river basin, which primarily reflects approximately the same socio-ecological-economic development, defined by a single policy and economic decisions.Conclusion. The analysis revealed different management strategies of sustainable development of regions. The first group (strategy A includes the Republic of Tatarstan, and Chuvashia, Moscow and Samara regions, which should pay special attention to investments in improving the "life quality" by stabilizing and reducing the degree of anthropogenic load on the territory. The second group (strategy B: Astrakhan, Volgograd, Kirov, Tver and Kostroma and Perm regions - it is advisable to do finance and investment of resources in public education, increase the average lifetime, increase the incomes of the population. For the remaining areas optimally

  15. [A Study on the Classification of Nursing Management Competencies and Development of related Behavioral Indicators in Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeol; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to classify nursing management competencies and develop behavioral indicators for nurse managers in hospitals. Also, levels of importance and performance based on developed criteria were to be identified and compared. Using expert survey we classified nursing management competencies and behavioral indicators with data from 34 nurse managers and professors. Subsequently, data from a survey of 216 nurse managers in 7 cities was used to analyze the importance-performance comparison of the classified nursing management competencies and behavioral indicators. Forty-two nursing management competencies were identified together with 181 behavioral indicators. The mean score for importance of nursing management competency was higher than the mean score for performance. According to the importance-performance analysis, 5 of the 42 nursing management competencies require further development: vision-building, analysis, change management, human resource development, and self-management competency. The classification of nursing management competencies and behavioral indicators for nurse managers in hospitals provides basic data for the development and evaluation of programs designed to increase the competency of nurse managers in hospitals.

  16. Towards a standardized method of developing quality indicators for palliative care: protocol of the Quality indicators for Palliative Care (Q-PAC) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leemans, Kathleen; Cohen, Joachim; Francke, Anneke L; Vander Stichele, Robert; Claessen, Susanne Jj; Van den Block, Lieve; Deliens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    .... In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive and valid quality indicator set which can contribute to a standardized method for use in other countries...

  17. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  18. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  19. Regional, spatial and environmental indicators for an assessment of regional development, structure and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article brings theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of adopting regional, spatial and environmental data, indicators and criteria for the assessment of regional structure, potentials and development within the context of regional and spatial planning. The proposal of the system of indicators is presented on the basis of the CONSPACE project.

  20. Regional, spatial and environmental indicators for an assessment of regional development, structure and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kušar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article brings theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of adopting regional, spatial and environmental data, indicators and criteria for the assessment of regional structure, potentials and development within the context of regional and spatial planning. The proposal of the system of indicators is presented on the basis of the CONSPACE project.

  1. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  2. AREVA sustainable development indicators guidelines; Guide methodologique des indicateurs developpement durable AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    These guidelines set out the procedures used to measure and report the sustainable development and continuous progress data and indicators used within the Areva Group. It defines the scope of the guide, the list of indicators, the measurement and calculation procedures, the internal and external audits. (A.L.B.)

  3. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  4. Development and Validation of Evaluation Indicators for Teaching Competency in STEAM Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang-Hee; Kim, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the evaluation indicators of teaching competency in STEAM education. The teaching competencies in STEAM education were drawn up utilizing both behavioral event interview (BEI) and a literature review. The initial evaluation indicators were then reviewed by 15 experts and two pilot tests were…

  5. Developing a Performance Assessment Framework and Indicators for Communicable Disease Management in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Communicable disease management (CDM) is an important component of disaster public health response operations. However, there is a lack of any performance assessment (PA) framework and related indicators for the PA. This study aimed to develop a PA framework and indicators in CDM in disasters. In this study, a series of methods were used. First, a systematic literature review (SLR) was performed in order to extract the existing PA frameworks and indicators. Then, using a qualitative approach, some interviews with purposively selected experts were conducted and used in developing the PA framework and indicators. Finally, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for weighting of the developed indicators. The input, process, products, and outcomes (IPPO) framework was found to be an appropriate framework for CDM PA. Seven main functions were revealed to CDM during disasters. Forty PA indicators were developed for the four categories. There is a lack of any existing PA framework in CDM in disasters. Thus, in this study, a PA framework (IPPO framework) was developed for the PA of CDM in disasters through a series of methods. It can be an appropriate framework and its indicators could measure the performance of CDM in disasters.

  6. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  7. Development of disease-specific quality indicators for danish chiropractic patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line P; Krog, Birgitte R; Kongsted, Alice;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop disease-specific quality indicators for Danish chiropractic patients with low back pain (LBP) as an initial effort to include chiropractors in the Danish Health Care Quality Programme.......The purpose of this study is to develop disease-specific quality indicators for Danish chiropractic patients with low back pain (LBP) as an initial effort to include chiropractors in the Danish Health Care Quality Programme....

  8. Developing Urban Environment Indicators for Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment in Tripoli-Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgadi, Ahmed. A.; Hakim Ismail, Lokman; Abass, Fatma; Ali, Abdelmuniem

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability assessment frameworks are becoming increasingly important to assist in the transition towards a sustainable urban environment. The urban environment is an effective system and requires regular monitoring and evaluation through a set of relevant indicators. The indicator provides information about the state of the environment through the production value of quantity. The indicator creates sustainability assessment requests to be considered on all spatial scales to specify efficient information of urban environment sustainability in Tripoli-Libya. Detailed data is necessary to assess environmental modification in the urban environment on a local scale and ease the transfer of this information to national and global stages. This paper proposes a set of key indicators to monitor urban environmental sustainability developments of Libyan residential neighborhoods. The proposed environmental indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of an urban environment through 13 sub-categories consisting of 21 indicators. This paper also explains the theoretical foundations for the selection of all indicators with reference to previous studies.

  9. ANTHROPOGENIC POLLEN INDICATORS (API FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AS LOCAL EVIDENCE OF HUMAN-INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS IN THE ITALIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mercuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data from twenty-six archaeological sites are reviewed to investigate the development of human-induced environments through the presence of selected Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API. The sites are located in six Italian regions - Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Basilicata, Calabria, and Sicily - and in the Republic of San Marino. Their chronology spans from the Bronze to the Renaissance ages, from approximately 4200 to 500 years BP. The API which are common in these sites are properly considered important markers of human activity and anthropization in the Mediterranean area. The most frequent API taxa in pollen spectra are seven: Artemisia, Centaurea, Cichorieae and Plantago are ubiquitous and therefore they have the major relevance, followed by cereals and Urtica, and by Trifolium type. The spread of plants producing these pollen grains is sometimes marked by high percentage values in pollen spectra. Pollen records show that, as expected, cereals and wild synanthropic herbs were widespread near archaeological sites but local differences are evident. Ecological and chrono-cultural reasons may be at the base of the observed differences. In general, the synanthropic plants well represent the xeric environments that developed as a result of the continuous human pressure and changes in soil compositions. These changes have occurred especially during the mid and late Holocene.

  10. Anisotropic Anomalous Diffusion assessed in the human brain by scalar invariant indices

    CERN Document Server

    De Santis, S; Bozzali, M; Maraviglia, B; Macaluso, E; Capuani, S

    2010-01-01

    A new method to investigate anomalous diffusion in human brain is proposed. The method has been inspired by both the stretched-exponential model proposed by Hall and Barrick (HB) and DTI. Quantities extracted using HB method were able to discriminate different cerebral tissues on the basis of their complexity, expressed by the stretching exponent gamma and of the anisotropy of gamma across different directions. Nevertheless, these quantities were not defined as scalar invariants like mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, which are eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor. We hypotesize instead that the signal may be espressed as a simple stretched-exponential only along the principal axes of diffusion, while in a generic direction the signal is modeled as a combination of three different stretched-exponentials. In this way, we derived indices to quantify both the tissue anomalous diffusion and its anisotropy, independently of the reference frame of the experiment. We tested and compare our new method with DT...

  11. [Contribution of epigenetics to understand human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Shand, Beatriz; Santos, Manuel J; Ventura-Juncá, Patricio

    2010-03-01

    Epigenetics refers to the study of how genes produce their effect on the phenotype of the organism. This article is a review on the scope and importance of recently discovered epigenetic mechanisms on human development and their relationship to perinatal epidemiological issues. It shows a general view and present concepts about epigenetics and its contribution to the comprehension of several physiologic and pathological conditions of human beings. Secondly, it analyzes the evidence coming from epidemiological and animal studies, about the influence of events that occur in the perinatal and early postnatal periods on adult life and the possible epigenetic mechanisms involved. Lastly, it underscores the implications of these results of future research and the design of public policies that take into account the importance of events in early life in the future development of individuals.

  12. Bacteriophages as indicators of human and animal faecal contamination in raw and treated wastewaters from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M; Hmaied, F; Jebri, S; Jofre, J; Hamdi, M

    2015-05-01

    We aimed at quantifying bacteriophages in raw and treated wastewaters of human and animal origin in Tunisia to assess their usefulness for tracking the origin of faecal pollution and in the follow-up of effectiveness of water treatments process. The concentrations of bacteriophages in wastewater samples were determined by double layer agar technique. Somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages were present in all types of samples in high concentrations. The values of Escherichia coli were variable depending on geographical location. On the other hand, bacteriophages infecting strain GA17 were detected preferably when human faecal contamination was occurred. Bacteriophages appear as a feasible and widely applicable manner to detect faecal contamination in Tunisia. On the other hand, phages infecting GA17 could be good markers for tracking the origin of faecal pollution in the area studied. The reuse of treated wastewaters can be a solution to meet the needs of water in the geographical area of study. Bacteriophages seem to predict differently the presence of faecal contamination in water than bacterial indicators. Consequently, they can be a valuable additional tool to improve water resources management for minimizing health risks. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Human bocavirus infections are common in Beijing population indicated by sero-antibody prevalence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lin-qing; QIAN Yuan; ZHU Ru-nan; DENG Jie; WANG Fang; DONG Hui-jin; SUN Yu; LI Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified human parvovirus that was originally detected in the respiratory secretions of children with respiratory infections. This study aimed to learn about the importance of HBoV infections by revealing the prevalence of serum antibodies against HBoV in Beijing population.Methods Two batches of serum specimens collected in different periods were tested by Western blotting for specific IgG against HBoV using recombinant VP2 as antigen.Results Out of 677 serum specimens collected during April 1996 to March 1997, 400 (59.1%) were positive and antibody positive rate for another batch of 141 serum specimens collected in August, 2005 from adults aged from 20 years to over 60 years was 78.7% (111/141). Comparison of the sero-prevalence profiles for serum specimens collected during 1996-1997 to those collected in 2005 indicated that the antibody positive rate for specimens collected in 2005 was higher than that of the corresponding age groups collected during 1996-1997.Conclusions The data suggest that HBoV has been circulating in Beijing population for at least over 10 years, and most of children had been exposed to HBoV by age of 7 years. Higher HBoV antibody positive rate shown in the serum specimens collected in 2005 suggested that infections by HBoV have been increased in Beijing population in recent years.

  14. A happiness index of human development

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, Carina da Conceição

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Nowadays many social scientists defend the advantages to define a measure of well being able to complement the GDP per capita. This work project proposes a new index of human development: the happiness index. Many studies have been undertaken in order to determine the best measurement of happiness. Happiness is much more than just...

  15. Measurability of Social Development. Reflections on the Applicability of Social Progress Indices with Reference to Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanyos János

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question is how the global and local economic actors’ innovation-based local social and environmental objectives and results can modify the social cohesion strategies, how the disparities in economic and social development can be measured and evaluated at regional level in addition to a comparison across countries. We have seen that any one indicator in itself is not enough since it does not provide sufficient explanation for either the development disparities or their reasons. Anyway, in addition to GDP per capita, it is worth applying - and it is important to apply - such indicators as SPI and Well-Being, and various indices of social progress.

  16. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply-Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Debora Regina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Filipak Neto, Francisco; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; Garcia, Juan Esquivel; Costa, Daniele Dietrich Moura; Liebel, Samuel; Campos, Sandro Xavier; Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene-environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of

  17. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L; Yourick, Jeffrey J

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72h after exposure to 0.25mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment.

  18. A Framework for Selecting Indicators to Assess the Sustainable Development of the Natural Heritage Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable world heritage management represents an approach for managing the resources of a property by integrating environmental, economic, and social issues. It aims to provide sustainable benefits for future generations, while protect the property and minimize the possible adverse social, economic and environmental impacts. Indicators of sustainable development, which summarize information for decision-making, are invaluable to learn the efficiency and effectiveness of property management. Scientists in many fields devised several conceptual models of environmental statistics and indicators, of which, DPSIR (Driving forces - Pressure - State - Impact - Response)is thought to be the best available one in identifying and developing indicators of sustainable development. Based on the DPSIR conceptual model and indicator selection criteria, the present paper proposed a methodology framework for selecting indicators to assess the sustainable development of a natural heritage site.The proposed framework included a multi-level hierarchical structure for various indicators and indexes, a modified DPSIR frame to identify key issues in property management and a set of indicators for evaluating the sustainability in Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries.

  19. Centre for human development, stem cells & regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreffo, Richard O C

    2014-01-01

    The Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration (CHDSCR) was founded in 2004 as a cross-disciplinary research and translational program within the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Southampton. The Centre undertakes fundamental research into early development and stem cells together with applied translational research for patient benefit. The Centre has vibrant and thriving multidisciplinary research programs that harness the translational strength of the Faculty together with an innovative Stem Cell PhD program, outstanding clinical infrastructure and enterprise to deliver on this vision.

  20. Development of safety assessment of nuclear power plants using indicators; Ydinvoimalaitosten turvallisuuden arvioinnin kehittaeminen tunnuslukujen avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiippana, P.

    1997-11-01

    The study is based on an indicator system which is under development at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The goal of this study was to define and develop both PSA-based indicators and indicators from failure statistics. As PSA-based indicators the possibility was studied to define and express the risk importance of exemptions from the Technical Specifications, failures, preventive maintenance and other disconnections of devices covered by the Technical Specifications, operating events covered by Guide YVL 1.5 and plant modifications. In this piece of research the applicability of plant specific living PSA-models used for calculation of indicators was examined. The research included both Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in Finland. 47 refs.

  1. Developing Indicators of Service Quality Provided for Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Cardiac Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases leading to high degrees of mortality and morbidity worldwide and in Iran. The aim of the current study was to determine and develop appropriate indicators for evaluating provided service quality for cardiovascular patients admitted to Cardiac Care Units (CCU in Iran. Methods: In order to determine the indicators for evaluating provided service quality, a four-stage process including reviewing systematic review articles in premier bibliographic databases, interview, performing two rounds of Delphi technique, and holding experts panel by attendance of experts in different fields was adopted. Finally, after recognizing relevant indicators in resources, these indicators were finalized during various stages using ideas of 27 experts in different fields. Results: Among 2800 found articles in the text reviewing phase, 21 articles, which had completely mentioned relevant indicators, were studied and 48 related indicators were extracted. After two interviews with a cardiologist and an epidemiologist, 32 items of the indicators were omitted and replaced by 27 indicators coping with the conditions of Iranian hospitals. Finally, 43 indicators were added into the Delphi phase and after 2 rounds of Delphi with 18 specialists, 7 cases were excluded due to their low scores of applicability. In the experts’ panel stage, 6 items were also omitted and 10 new indicators were developed to replace them. Eventually, 40 indicators were finalized. Conclusion: In this study, some proper indicators for evaluating provided service quality for CCU admissions in Iran were determined. Considering the informative richness of these indicators, they can be used by managers, policy makers, health service providers, and also insurance agencies in order to improve the quality of services, decisions, and policies.

  2. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  3. Transforming Our World: Implementing the 2030 Agenda Through Sustainable Development Goal Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bandy X; Kjaerulf, Finn; Turner, Shannon; Cohen, Larry; Donnelly, Peter D; Muggah, Robert; Davis, Rachel; Realini, Anna; Kieselbach, Berit; MacGregor, Lori Snyder; Waller, Irvin; Gordon, Rebecca; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Lee, Grace; Gilligan, James

    2016-09-01

    The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes violence as a threat to sustainability. To serve as a context, we provide an overview of the Sustainable Development Goals as they relate to violence prevention by including a summary of key documents informing violence prevention efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA) partners. After consultation with the United Nations (UN) Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators (IAEG-SDG), we select specific targets and indicators, featuring them in a summary table. Using the diverse expertise of the authors, we assign attributes that characterize the focus and nature of these indicators. We hope that this will serve as a preliminary framework for understanding these accountability metrics. We include a brief analysis of the target indicators and how they relate to promising practices in violence prevention.

  4. Theoretical justification of indicators system to estimate the regional stability level considering its development peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granovska Lyudmyla Mykolayivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical analysis of the indicators system concept, observes in details such components of this system as society, nature, economy. The general indicators of social, ecological, and economic system development are considered. It has been found that indicators are the indexes system of ecological, economical, and social development and give the possibility to analyze and control the implementation of areas sustainable development statement. The system of indicators, which characterize the level of the region stability on the basis of domestic and foreign experience considering region peculiarities, has been improved. At that, the regional peculiarities of both the natural and resource potential and the economical activity impact on the natural and resource potential have been taken into account.

  5. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies - Conceptual Approach and Key Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Africa, and some other countries. It concludes that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being. Several policy goals related to sustainable development, energy, and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals......The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South...

  6. Impact of Human Resources Management on Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasan Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decisive role played by Human Resources Management (HRM in the emergence and sustenance of entrepreneurship development in an organisation cannot be misplaced as it ensures optimum deployment and development of personnel towards the actualization of set organisational objectives. Using a primary data sourced through a well-structured and self- administered questionnaires served to sixty HR managers and supervisors, and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, this study investigates the role of (HRM in entrepreneurship development. The tested hypotheses revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.44 which indicate the existence of a moderate positive relationship between Human Resources Management (HRM and entrepreneurship development. This indicates that HRM can facilitate entrepreneurship development in an organization. Hence HR managers must seek as much as possible measures that will ensure that their human resource are adequately compensated, rewarded and motivated to enhance their performance which will translate to improved performance that will influence the overall performance of the organisation.

  7. Effects of the "Positive Action" Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of "Positive Action," a school-based social-emotional and character development intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school…

  8. Indicators of small town tourism development potential: the case of Fouriesburg, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Halseth, G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of Clarens has developed a substantial tourism economy, we pose the question of whether there are already indicators that Fouriesburg may be poised for similar change. The findings suggest that, while Fouriesburg has potential for developing a tourism...

  9. Effects of the "Positive Action" Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of "Positive Action," a school-based social-emotional and character development intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school…

  10. [Quality of care indicators for the care of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, adapted to the pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Palacín, Pere; Provens, Ana Clara; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Espiau, María; Fernández-Polo, Aurora; Figueras, Concepció

    2014-03-01

    Since infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first described, there have been many advances in its diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. However, few contributions are related to the area of health care quality. In this sense, the Spanish Study Group on AIDS (GESIDA) has developed a set of quality care indicators for adult patients living with HIV infection that includes a total of 66 indicators, 22 of which are considered to be relevant. Standards were calculated for each of them in order to reflect the level of the quality of care offered to these patients. Similar documents for pediatric patients are currently lacking. Preparation of a set of quality care indicators applicable to pediatric patients based on the GESIDA document and the Spanish Guidelines for monitoring of pediatric patients infected with HIV. Each indicator was analysed with respect to the required standards in all patients under 18 years of age followed-up in our Unit, with the aim of evaluating the quality of care provided. A total of 61 indicators were collected (51 from the GESIDA document and 10 from currently available pediatric guidelines), 30 of which were considered to be relevant. An overall compliance of 81%-83% was obtained when assessing the relevant indicators. The availability of health care quality standards is essential for the care of pediatric HIV-infected patients. The assessment of these indicators in our Unit yielded satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species indicate potential diagnostic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus species 1-4 (HBoV1-4 have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated HBoV1-3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides--P1 (¹MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT²⁰, and P2 (¹⁶²EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL¹⁸⁰--that are conserved among HBoV1-4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1-4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4. Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools.

  12. Human development report 2010: Changes in parameters and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Manju

    2011-01-01

    Human Development Report (HDR) 2010 in its 20 th year contains several significant changes. Indicators to measure the three dimensions of Human Development Index (HDI) have been changed: Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Index have been replaced by Gender Inequality Index (GII) and Human Poverty Index has been replaced by Multi-dimensional Poverty Index. Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI) has been introduced for the first time. Between 1980 and 2010, India's HDI rose by 1.6% annually from 0.320 to 0.519. While India's HDI value has improved over time, the rank has not improved as much as compared to other developing countries. On GII, India ranked at 122 with a GII value of 0.748 (ranges between 0 and 1) in 2010 HDR (based on data of 2008), revealing considerable loss in achievements in three dimensions of human development - reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market - due to inequality between genders. Multi-dimensional Poverty Index was 0.296 (2000-2008) and IHDI was 0.365 (2000-2007).

  13. Determining The Relationship Between Happiness And Human Development: Multivariate Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Murat, Dilek; GÜRSAKAL, Sevda

    2015-01-01

    It has been understood that it is not enough to consider just certain macro-economic indicators to determine the development level of countries. Human Development Index (HDI), which is a part of the Human Development Report (HDR) published by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is a complex index prepared for this end with a focus on education and health as well as income. Yet, once it was realized that this index had certain limitations, some other indices were created. Happy Planet ...

  14. Towards a standardized method of developing quality indicators for palliative care: protocol of the Quality indicators for Palliative Care (Q-PAC) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Cohen, J.; Francke, A.L.; Stichele, R. Vander; Claessen, S.J.J.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there have been several studies, using a wide variety of methods, aimed at developing quality indicators for palliative care. In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive an

  15. Towards a standardized method of developing quality indicators for palliative care: protocol of the Quality indicators for Palliative Care (Q-PAC) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Cohen, J.; Francke, A.L.; Stichele, R. Vander; Claessen, S.J.J.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there have been several studies, using a wide variety of methods, aimed at developing quality indicators for palliative care. In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive

  16. Does the A-not-B error in adult pet dogs indicate sensitivity to human communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Topál, József; Gácsi, Márta; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Miklósi, Adám; Virányi, Zsófia

    2012-07-01

    Recent dog-infant comparisons have indicated that the experimenter's communicative signals in object hide-and-search tasks increase the probability of perseverative (A-not-B) errors in both species (Topál et al. 2009). These behaviourally similar results, however, might reflect different mechanisms in dogs and in children. Similar errors may occur if the motor response of retrieving the object during the A trials cannot be inhibited in the B trials or if the experimenter's movements and signals toward the A hiding place in the B trials ('sham-baiting') distract the dogs' attention. In order to test these hypotheses, we tested dogs similarly to Topál et al. (2009) but eliminated the motor search in the A trials and 'sham-baiting' in the B trials. We found that neither an inability to inhibit previously rewarded motor response nor insufficiencies in their working memory and/or attention skills can explain dogs' erroneous choices. Further, we replicated the finding that dogs have a strong tendency to commit the A-not-B error after ostensive-communicative hiding and demonstrated the crucial effect of socio-communicative cues as the A-not-B error diminishes when location B is ostensively enhanced. These findings further support the hypothesis that the dogs' A-not-B error may reflect a special sensitivity to human communicative cues. Such object-hiding and search tasks provide a typical case for how susceptibility to human social signals could (mis)lead domestic dogs.

  17. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiugong, E-mail: xiugong.gao@fda.hhs.gov; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  18. Tourist Traffic and Tourism Profit of Sarajevo city as Reliable Indicators of Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    , L. Žunić

    2012-01-01

    Considering that tourism is of great importance for the city development, Sarajevo tourism analysis indicators are necessary to define the basic problems of contemporary tourism, as well as to improve the overall tourism and city affirmation of Sarajevo as the capital of Bosnia & Herzegovina. Research is based on tourism statistics of tourist arrivals and overnight stays, as well as revenues of tourism in a longer period of time, and also includes other tourism indicators or tourism d...

  19. Developing indicators for evaluation of age-friendly communities in Canada: process and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Orpana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2006, the World Health Organization launched the Global Age-Friendly Cities Project to support active aging. Canada has a large number of age-friendly initiatives; however, little is known about the effectiveness and outcomes of age-friendly community (AFC initiatives. In addition, stakeholders report that they lack the capacity and tools to develop and conduct evaluations of their AFC initiatives. In order to address these gaps, the Public Health Agency of Canada developed indicators to support the evaluation of AFC initiatives relevant to a wide range of Canadian communities. These indicators meet the varied needs of communities, but are not designed to evaluate collective impact or enable cross-community comparisons. Methods: An evidence-based, iterative consultation approach was used to develop indicators for AFCs. This involved a literature review and an environmental scan. Two rounds of key expert and stakeholder consultations were conducted to rate potential indicators according to their importance, actionability and feasibility. A final list of indicators and potential measures were developed based on results from these consultations, as well as key policy considerations. Results: Thirty-nine indicators emerged across eight AFC domains plus four indicators related to long-term health and social outcomes. All meet the intended purpose of evaluating AFC initiatives at the community level. A user-friendly guide is available to support and share this work. Conclusion: The AFC indicators can help communities evaluate age-friendly initiatives, which is the final step in completing a cycle of the Pan-Canadian AFC milestones. Communities are encouraged to use the evaluation results to improve their AFC initiatives, thereby benefiting a broad range of Canadians.

  20. [Development and validation of indicators for best patient safety practices: the ISEP-Brazil Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesus; Ribeiro, Denise Nieuwenhoff Cardoso; Freitas, Marise Reis de; Medeiros, Paulo José de; Batista, Almária Mariz; Barreto, Analúcia Filgueira Gouveia; Lira, Benize Fernandes; Medeiros, Carlos Alexandre de Souza; Vasconcelos, Cilane Cristina Costa da Silva; Silva, Edna Marta Mendes da; Faria, Eduardo Dantas Baptista de; Dantas, Jane Francinete; Neto, José Gomes; Medeiros, Luana Cristina Lins de; Sicolo, Miguel Angel; Fonseca, Patrícia de Cássia Bezerra; Costa, Rosângela Maria Morais da; Monte, Francisca Sueli; Melo, Veríssimo de

    2016-09-19

    Efficacious patient safety monitoring should focus on the implementation of evidence-based practices that avoid unnecessary harm related to healthcare. The ISEP-Brazil project aimed to develop and validate indicators for best patient safety practices in Brazil. The basis was the translation and adaptation of the indicators validated in the ISEP-Spain project and the document Safe Practices for Better Healthcare (U.S. National Quality Forum), recommending 34 best practices. A 25-member expert panel validated the indicators. Reliability and feasibility were based on a pilot study in three hospitals with different management formats (state, federal, and private). Seventy-five best practice indicators were approved (39 structure; 36 process) for 31 of the 34 recommendations. The indicators were considered valid, reliable, and useful for monitoring patient safety in Brazilian hospitals.

  1. Geo-diversity as an indicator of natural resources for geopark in human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2017-04-01

    Geo-diversity is a concept of richness and number of different landscapes in a small area. The higher geo-diversity the potential attraction is higher. Many geoparks will make use of those landscapes for sustainable development. The purpose of this study is trying to evaluate the geomorphic resources for geoparks in Taiwan. For the sustainable development, the concept of geopark is one of the tool for the development of society. The evaluation of geo-diversity helps our understanding of local resources and for future management. Therefore, the geomorphic resources should be evaluated systematically and aim to help the sustainable development of the geopark. The indicators of geo-diversity can be classified into four characters to review: 1. number of landscapes within geopark; 2. accessibility to the sites of geopark, 3. dynamic processes of the landforms, 4. method of landform evolution. Taiwan geoparks should make use of these four characters for conservation, management and education purposes. Yehliu, Matsu and Penghu geoparks are three typical cases for demonstration in this paper.

  2. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  3. On Prerequisites for the Application of Sustainable Development Indicators in Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Palme

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-structured interviews with 47 key actors were conducted in Swedish water utilities on why Sustainable Development Indicators (SDIs are or are not used. Important influencing aspects identified included organizational inertia, social capital, the national water sector and authorities. Divergent views of SD and indicators appear to hinder SDI initiatives. Possible explanations are that: (a not all actors look at decision-making as the kind of rational process the focus on indicators implies, and (b, Swedish urban water systems are widely regarded as sustainable. The water sector itself and regulation are identified as the strongest potential drivers for increased use of SDIs.

  4. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption: outcome of the expert workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential de...

  5. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption: outcome of the expert workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential de...

  6. Effect of propolis on mitotic and cellular proliferation indices in human blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M.; Villaescusa, J. [Valencia Hospital Univ. la Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Barquinero, J. [Barcelona Univ. Autonom, Servicio de Dosimetria Biologica, Unidad de Antropologia, Dept. de Biologia Animal, Vegetal y Ecologia, barcelona (Spain); Barrios, L. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Dept. de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia. Unidad de Biologia Celular (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Perez, J. [Hospital la Fe, Seccion de Radiofisica, Servicio de Radioterapia, valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The study of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations per cell is the tool used in Biological dosimetry studies. Using dose-effect calibration curve obtained in our laboratory, we can evaluate the radioprotector effect of the EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) in cultures in vitro. Propolis is the generic name for resinous substance collected by honeybees. The results showed a reduction in chromosomal aberrations's frequency of up to 50 %. The following study consisted of analyzing human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 2 Gy {gamma} rays, in presence and absence of EEP, the change in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was analysed with biological dosimetry. The protection against the formation of dicentric and ring was dose-dependent, but there seemed to be a maximum protection, i.e. a further increase in the concentration of EEP does not show additional protection. This work studies the effect of the EEP of the cellular cycle using the mitotic and cellular proliferation index, as an alternative for the screening cytostatic activity. The results indicate that the lymphocytes which were cultures in presence of EEP exhibited a significant and dependent-concentration decrease in mitotic index and proliferation kinetics. The possible mechanisms involved in the radioprotective influence of EEP are discussed. (authors)

  7. Development and pilot study of an essential set of indicators for general surgery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Aledo, Victor; Angel-Garcia, Daniel; Martinez-Nicolas, Ismael; Rebasa Cladera, Pere; Cabezali Sanchez, Roger; Pereira García, Luis Francisco

    2016-11-01

    At present there is a lack of appropriate quality measures for benchmarking in general surgery units of Spanish National Health System. The aim of this study is to present the selection, development and pilot-testing of an initial set of surgical quality indicators for this purpose. A modified Delphi was performed with experts from the Spanish Surgeons Association in order to prioritize previously selected indicators. Then, a pilot study was carried out in a public hospital encompassing qualitative analysis of feasibility for prioritized indicators and an additional qualitative and quantitative three-rater reliability assessment for medical record-based indicators. Observed inter-rater agreement, prevalence adjusted and bias adjusted kappa and non-adjusted kappa were performed, using a systematic random sample (n=30) for each of these indicators. Twelve out of 13 proposed indicators were feasible: 5 medical record-based indicators and 7 indicators based on administrative databases. From medical record-based indicators, 3 were reliable (observed agreement >95%, adjusted kappa index >0.6 or non-adjusted kappa index >0.6 for composites and its components) and 2 needed further refinement. Currently, medical record-based indicators could be used for comparison purposes, whilst further research must be done for validation and risk-adjustment of outcome indicators from administrative databases. Compliance results in the adequacy of informed consent, diagnosis-to-treatment delay in colorectal cancer, and antibiotic prophylaxis show room for improvement in the pilot-tested hospital. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling Indicator Systems for Evaluating Environmental Sustainable Development Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; CHEN Xiaoling; HE Ying; HE Xiaorong; CAI Xiaobin; XU Keyan

    2006-01-01

    Indicator systems of environmental sustainable development in the Poyang Lake Basin are established from 51 elementary indexes by factor analysis, which is composed of four steps such as the factor model, the parameter estimation, the factor rotation and the factor score. Under the condition that the cumulative proportion is greater than 85%, 5 explicit factors of environmental sustainable development as well as its factor score by region are carried out. The result indicates some impact factors to the basin environmental in descending sort order are volume of water, volume of waste gas discharge, volume of solid wastes, the degree to comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes, the emission volume of waste gas, waste water and solid wastes. It is helpful and important to provide decision support for constituting sustainable development strategies and evaluate the sustainable development status of each city.

  9. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Hayley A; Dila, Deborah K; Bootsma, Melinda J; Corsi, Steven R; McLellan, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson's r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200-1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  11. Disparities in the Quality of HIV Care When Using US Department of Health and Human Services Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N.; Rebeiro, Peter; Brooks, John T.; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly; Martin, Jeffrey; Hogg, Robert; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Klein, Marina; Gill, M. John; Sterling, Timothy R.; Yehia, Baligh; Silverberg, Michael J.; Crane, Heidi; Justice, Amy C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Moore, Richard; Kitahata, Mari M.; Horberg, Michael A.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Benson, Constance A.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Collier, Ann C.; Boswell, Stephen; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Hogg, Robert S.; Richard Harrigan, P.; Montaner, Julio SG; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Brooks, John T.; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Moore, Richard D.; Moore, Richard D.; Carey, John T.; Horberg, Michael A.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Goedert, James J.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Klein, Marina B.; Rourke, Sean B.; Burchell, Ann N.; Rachlis, Anita R.; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.; Mayor, Angel M.; Gill, M.John; Deeks, Steven G.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Saag, Michael S.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Willig, James; Eron, Joseph J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.; Justice, Amy C.; Dubrow, Robert; Fiellin, David; Sterling, Timothy R.; Haas, David; Bebawy, Sally; Turner, Megan; Gange, Stephen J.; Anastos, Kathryn; Moore, Richard D.; Saag, Michael S.; Gange, Stephen J.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Althoff, Keri N.; McKaig, Rosemary G.; Justice, Amy C.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Moore, Richard D.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Lent, Carol; Kitahata, Mari M.; Van Rompaey, Stephen E.; Crane, Heidi M.; Morton, Liz; McReynolds, Justin; Lober, William B.; Gange, Stephen J.; Althoff, Keri N.; Abraham, Alison G.; Lau, Bryan; Zhang, Jinbing; Jing, Jerry; Golub, Elizabeth; Modur, Shari; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Wong, Cherise; Mendes, Adell

    2014-01-01

    We estimated US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)–approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) indicators. Among patients, 71% were retained in care, 82% were prescribed treatment, and 78% had HIV RNA ≤200 copies/mL; younger adults, women, blacks, and injection drug users had poorer outcomes. Interventions are needed to reduce retention- and treatment-related disparities. PMID:24463281

  12. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Hayley A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  13. Development of prognostic indicators using Classification And Regression Trees (CART) for survival

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, Martha E.; Fan, Juanjuan; Su, Xiaogang; McGuire, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an accurate prognosis is an integral component of treatment planning in the practice of periodontics. Prior work has evaluated the validity of using various clinical measured parameters for assigning periodontal prognosis as well as for predicting tooth survival and change in clinical conditions over time. We critically review the application of multivariate Classification And Regression Trees (CART) for survival in developing evidence-based periodontal prognostic indicator...

  14. Effects of the Positive Action Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development Among Urban Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of Positive Action, a school-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school level. A multiple-measure self-report protocol assessed four key strengths and resources for PYD: self-concept, peer affiliations, ethics, and social skills....

  15. Developing Health-Related Indicators of Climate Change: Australian Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Hansen, Alana; Nitschke, Monika; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Pisaniello, Dino

    2017-05-22

    Climate-related health indicators are potentially useful for tracking and predicting the adverse public health effects of climate change, identifying vulnerable populations, and monitoring interventions. However, there is a need to understand stakeholders' perspectives on the identification, development, and utility of such indicators. A qualitative approach was used, comprising semi-structured interviews with key informants and service providers from government and non-government stakeholder organizations in South Australia. Stakeholders saw a need for indicators that could enable the monitoring of health impacts and time trends, vulnerability to climate change, and those which could also be used as communication tools. Four key criteria for utility were identified, namely robust and credible indicators, specificity, data availability, and being able to be spatially represented. The variability of risk factors in different regions, lack of resources, and data and methodological issues were identified as the main barriers to indicator development. This study demonstrates a high level of stakeholder awareness of the health impacts of climate change, and the need for indicators that can inform policy makers regarding interventions.

  16. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  17. Development of cue integration in human navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Marko; Jones, Peter; Bedford, Rachael; Braddick, Oliver

    2008-05-06

    Mammalian navigation depends both on visual landmarks and on self-generated (e.g., vestibular and proprioceptive) cues that signal the organism's own movement [1-5]. When these conflict, landmarks can either reset estimates of self-motion or be integrated with them [6-9]. We asked how humans combine these information sources and whether children, who use both from a young age [10-12], combine them as adults do. Participants attempted to return an object to its original place in an arena when given either visual landmarks only, nonvisual self-motion information only, or both. Adults, but not 4- to 5-year-olds or 7- to 8-year-olds, reduced their response variance when both information sources were available. In an additional "conflict" condition that measured relative reliance on landmarks and self-motion, we predicted behavior under two models: integration (weighted averaging) of the cues and alternation between them. Adults' behavior was predicted by integration, in which the cues were weighted nearly optimally to reduce variance, whereas children's behavior was predicted by alternation. These results suggest that development of individual spatial-representational systems precedes development of the capacity to combine these within a common reference frame. Humans can integrate spatial cues nearly optimally to navigate, but this ability depends on an extended developmental process.

  18. Sleep complaints among Brazilian senior citizens from municipalities with different Human Development Indices Quejas de sueño entre mayores brasileños de municipios con diferentes índices de desarrollo humano Queixas de sono entre idosos brasileiros de municípios com diferentes índices de desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariene Angelini dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the occurrence of sleep complaints among senior citizens resident in the local communities of two municipalities with differing Human Development Indices (HDIs: Campinas, State of São Paulo (IDH = 0.852 and Parnaíba, State of Piauí (IDH = 0.674. METHOD: Descriptive study as part of the multicentric project going by the name of Frailty among Brazilian Senior Citizens (Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros - FIBRA. A total of 988 senior citizens were analysed, making use of a social and demographic questionnaire about sleep problems (Nottingham Health Profile; questions about naps (Minnesota Leisure Activity Questionnaire. The Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney tests were used in the analysis of the data, at a significance level of 5% (pOBJETIVO: comparar la ocurrencia de quejas de sueño en mayores residentes en la comunidad de dos municipios con diferentes Índices de Desarrollo Humano (IDH: Campinas (IDH=0,852 y Parnaíba (IDH=0,674. MÉTODO: estudio descriptivo parte integrante del proyecto multicéntrico Fragilidad en Mayores Brasileños (FIBRA. Fueron evaluados 988 de edad, utilizándose cuestionario sociodemográfico, cuestiones sobre quejas de sueño (Perfil de Salud de Nottingham; cuestiones sobre sueños (Minnesota Leisure Activity Questionnaire. Los testes Jue-cuadrado y Mann Whitney fueron utilizados en el análisis de datos, con nivel de significancia del 5% (pOBJETIVO: comparar a ocorrência de queixas de sono em idosos residentes na comunidade de dois municípios com diferentes índices de desenvolvimento humano (IDH: Campinas, SP, (IDH=0,852 e Parnaíba, PI, (IDH=0,674. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo, parte integrante do projeto multicêntrico Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (Fibra. Foram avaliados 988 idosos, utilizando-se questionário sociodemográfico, questões sobre queixas de sono (Perfil de Saúde de Nottingham; questões sobre cochilo (Minnesota Leisure Activity Questionnaire. Os testes qui-quadrado e Mann

  19. A Clinical Indications Prediction Scale Based on TWIST1 for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaraju V. Boregowda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their stem/progenitor properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs also exhibit potent effector (angiogenic, antiinflammatory, immuno-modulatory functions that are largely paracrine in nature. It is widely believed that effector functions underlie most of the therapeutic potential of MSCs and are independent of their stem/progenitor properties. Here we demonstrate that stem/progenitor and effector functions are coordinately regulated at the cellular level by the transcription factor Twist1 and specified within populations according to a hierarchical model. We further show that manipulation of Twist1 levels by genetic approaches or by exposure to widely used culture supplements including fibroblast growth factor 2 (Ffg2 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma alters MSC efficacy in cell-based and in vivo assays in a predictable manner. Thus, by mechanistically linking stem/progenitor and effector functions our studies provide a unifying framework in the form of an MSC hierarchy that models the functional complexity of populations. Using this framework, we developed a CLinical Indications Prediction (CLIP scale that predicts how donor-to-donor heterogeneity and culture conditions impact the therapeutic efficacy of MSC populations for different disease indications.

  20. Developing Emergency Room Key Performance Indicators: What to Measure and Why Should We Measure It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Room (ER) performance has been a timely topic for both healthcare practitioners and researchers. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia worked on developing a comprehensive set of KPIs to monitor, evaluate and improve the performance of the ER. A combined approach using quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect and analyze the data. 34 KPIs were developed and sorted into the three components of the ER patient flow model; input, throughput and output. Input indicators included number and acuity of ER patients, patients leaving without being seen and revisit rates. Throughput indicators included number of active ER beds, ratio of ER patients to ER staff and the length of stay including waiting time and treatment time. The turnaround time of supportive services, such as lab, radiology and medications, were also included. Output indicators include boarding time and available hospital beds, ICU beds and patients waiting for admission.

  1. Quality indicators for physiotherapy care in hip and knee osteoarthritis: development and clinimetric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, W.F.; Wees, P.J. van der; Hendriks, E.J.; Bie, R.A. de; Verhoef, J.; Jong, Z. de; Bodegom-Vos, L. van; Hilberdink, W.K.H.A.; Vlieland, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop process quality indicators for physiotherapy care based on key recommendations of the Dutch physiotherapy guideline on hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Guideline recommendations were rated for their relevance by an expert panel, transf

  2. Development and initial validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; van Ittersum, Frans J; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assessment is a key element for improving the quality of care. Currently, a comprehensive indicator set for measuring the quality of medication treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is lacking. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality ind

  3. Development and initial validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; van Ittersum, Frans J; Voorham, Jaco; Navis, Gerjan; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality assessment is a key element for improving the quality of care. Currently, a comprehensive indicator set for measuring the quality of medication treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is lacking. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of prescribing quality ind

  4. Rural Development Alternative Analysis Through the Use of Discriminant Function and Socioeconomic Indicator Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. N.; Cleland, C. L.

    One approach to the use of socioeconomic indicators for analyzing rural development alternative strategies is presented in this paper. The underlying assumptions of such an analysis are discussed. Necessary analytic information include (1) data on rural opinions about each facet of the socioeconomic environment and selected socioeconomic…

  5. 78 FR 76285 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Panel Member Survey To Develop Indicators of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... shape the tourism industry's ability to adapt to or bounce back from external shocks such as natural... resiliency and/ or the tourism industry in two geographic areas: (1) The Central North Carolina Coast, and (2... Member Survey To Develop Indicators of Resilient Coastal Tourism AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. The development of candidate composite disease activity and responder indices for psoriatic arthritis (GRACE project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Fitzgerald, O.; Fransen, J.; Gladman, D.D.; Kreuger, G.G.; Callis-Duffin, K.; McHugh, N.; Mease, P.J.; Strand, V.; Waxman, R.; Azevedo, V.F.; Beltran Ostos, A.; Carneiro, S.; Cauli, A.; Espinoza, L.R.; Flynn, J.A.; Hassan, N.; Healy, P.; Kerzberg, E.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Lubrano, E.; Marchesoni, A.; Marzo-Ortega, H.; Porru, G.; Moreta, E.G.; Nash, P.; Raffayova, H.; Ranza, R.; Raychaudhuri, S.P.; Roussou, E.; Scarpa, R.; Song, Y.W.; Soriano, E.R.; Tak, P.P.; Ujfalussy, I.; Vlam, K. de; Walsh, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop new composite disease activity indices for psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Data from routine clinic visits at multiple centres were collected in a systematic manner. Data included all domains identified as important in randomised controlled trials in PsA. Decisions to chang

  7. Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118): Development, factor structure, reliability, and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.; Andrea, H.; Berghout, C.C.; Dolan, C.V.; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Kroft, P.J.A.; Batemen, A.W.; Fonagy, P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies involving 2,730 participants on the development and validity testing of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire covering important core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 fa

  8. Developing a national performance indicator framework for the Dutch health system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbroek, A.H.A. ten; Arah, O.A.; Geelhoed, J.; Custers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To report on the first phase of the development of a national performance indicator framework for the Dutch health system. Methods. In January 2002, we initiated an informed interactive process with the intended users-policymakers at the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport—and academics

  9. Developing the Principal Technology Leadership Competency Indicators for Technical High Schools in K-12 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop principal technology leadership competency indicators for technical high schools in K-12 in Taiwan in order to improve the effectiveness of school administration and teaching. In the first part of the study, five experts in the technology leadership field are interviewed to explore the technology leadership…

  10. Developing an Indicator System for Monitoring, Analyzing, and Assessing Airport Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with developing an indicator system for monitoring, analyzing, and assessing sustainability of airports. The sustainability implies simultaneous increasing of the overall socialeconomic benefits and increasing at a slower rate, stagnating, and/or diminishing of the negative impacts

  11. The Relationship of Culture Value Orientation Change and Rorschach Indices of Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papajohn, John C.; Spiegel, John P.

    1971-01-01

    The relationship of culture value orientation change and Rorschach indices of psychological development was investigated using a sample of second-generation Greek-Americans undergoing the acculturation process by comparing the families with psychotic member with a matched group of families in which there was no history of psychopathology. (JM)

  12. Tracking the Development of China's Top Universities Using Scientometric Indicators, 1997-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Niancai

    2008-01-01

    This study reviews the developments of 9 Chinese top universities supported by "985 Project" during 1997-2005 based on the analysis of a series of scientometric indicators, including the total number of publications indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, the cumulated impact factor of publications,…

  13. EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS ON THE BASIS OF STATISTICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using information WEF, UNDP, OECD investigated differences in the characteristics of education as a factor of competitiveness and level of development of countries, formed the group of OECD countries and their partners, significantly differ in indicators of education, studied Russian position among OECD countries and BRICS, formulated conclusions about ways of improving the educational potential of the country

  14. Development of a database system for the calculation of indicators of environmental pressure caused by transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannouli, Myrsini; Samaras, Zissis; Keller, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to summarise a methodology developed for TRENDS (TRansport and ENvironment Database System-TRENDS). The main objective of TRENDS was the calculation of environmental pressure indicators caused by transport. The environmental pressures considered are associated with air...

  15. Group assessment of key indicators of sustainable waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, Bojana; Vujić, Goran; Srđević, Zorica; Ubavin, Dejan; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries. An assessment is performed by 43 decision makers from both developed and developing countries, and the applied methodology is based on a combined use of the analytic hierarchy process, from the multi-criteria decision-making set of tools, and the preferential voting method known as Borda Count, which belongs to social choice theory. Pairwise comparison of indicators is performed with the analytic hierarchy process, and the ranking of indicators once obtained is assessed with Borda Count. Detailed analysis of the final results showed that the Institutional-Administrative indicator was the most important one, with the maximum weight as derived by both groups of decision makers. The results also showed that the combined use of the analytic hierarchy process and Borda Count contributes to the credibility and objectivity of the decision-making process, allowing its use in more complex waste management group decision-making problems to be recommended.

  16. Integrating ecological, carbon and water footprint into a "footprint family" of indicators: Definition and role in tracking human pressure on the planet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, A.; Wiedmann, T.O.; Ercin, Ertug; Knoblauch, D.; Ewing, B.R.; Giljum, S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to develop an integrated Footprint approach for the assessment of the environmental impacts of production and consumption. In this paper, we provide for the first time a definition of the “Footprint Family” as a suite of indicators to track human pressure on

  17. RISA progress in the development of drought indicators to support decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, S.; Simpson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Communities around the country are increasingly recognizing the need to plan for water shortages and long-term drought. To build preparedness and help communities manage risk, researchers funded by NOAA's National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Coping with Drought initiative through the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program are working to better understand these impacts across the country and work with communities and resource managers to develop adaptation strategies that meet their needs. The Coping with Drought initiative supports research involving the use of climate predictions and forecast information in decision-making across a range of sectors including agriculture, natural and water resources management, and public health. As a component of this initiative, the RISA program supported research and engagement to develop indicators of drought designed to be of most use to managers and planners grappling with severe and in some cases ongoing drought in their regions. Indicators are being developed for coastal ecosystems in the Carolinas, water management in California, and native communities in Arizona. For instance, the California Nevada Applications Program (CNAP) RISA developed a percentile-based indicator system for analyzing historic droughts and characterizing the ongoing California drought. And in the Southwest, the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) RISA has been working with the Hopi community on drought monitoring and planning to develop the first-ever Hopi Quarterly Drought Status Report which integrates scientific and local knowledge about drought. This presentation will discuss RISA's role in developing drought indicators based on engagement with decision makers and how this work fits into the larger role that RISAs are playing in the development of the NIDIS Regional Drought Early Warning Systems across the U.S.

  18. Environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia: unity in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Arif; Azam, Muhammad; Abdullah, Alias Bin; Malik, Ihtisham Abdul; Khan, Anwar; Hamzah, Tengku Adeline Adura Tengku; Faridullah; Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq; Zahoor, Hina; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Environmental quality indicators are crucial for responsive and cost-effective policies. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia. For this purpose, the number of environmental quality indicators has been used, i.e., air pollution measured by carbon dioxide emissions, population density per square kilometer of land area, agricultural production measured by cereal production and livestock production, and energy resources considered by energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, which placed an impact on the financial development of the country. The study used four main financial indicators, i.e., broad money supply (M2), domestic credit provided by the financial sector (DCFS), domestic credit to the private sector (DCPC), and inflation (CPI), which each financial indicator separately estimated with the environmental quality indicators, over a period of 1975-2013. The study used the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to minimize the simultaneity from the model. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions exert the positive correlation with the M2, DCFC, and DCPC, while there is a negative correlation with the CPI. However, these results have been evaporated from the GMM estimates, where carbon emissions have no significant relationship with any of the four financial indicators in Malaysia. The GMM results show that population density has a negative relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, in case of M2, this relationship is insignificant to explain their result. Cereal production has a positive relationship with the DCPC, while there is a negative relationship with the CPI. Livestock production exerts the positive relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, this relationship with the CPI has a more elastic relationship, while the remaining relationship is less elastic with the three financial indicators in a country

  19. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  20. [Development of human embryonic stem cell model for toxicity evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-yan; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Hong-wei; Peng, Shuang-qing; Deng, Xu-liang; Li, Sheng-lin; Liu, He; Zou, Xiao-hui; Fu, Xin; Peng, Hui; Wang, Xiao-ying; Zhan, Yuan

    2013-02-18

    The current international standard for toxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials recommend the use of immortalized cell lines because of their homogeneous morphologies and infinite proliferation which provide good reproducibility for in vitro cytotoxicity screening. However, most of the widely used immortalized cell lines are derived from animals and may not be representative of normal human cell behavior in vivo, in particular in terms of the cytotoxic and genotoxic response. Therefore, It is vital to develop a model for toxicity evaluation. In our studies, two Chinese human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as toxicity model were established. hESC derived tissue/organ cell model for tissue/organ specific toxicity evaluation were developed. The efficiency and accuracy of using hESC model for cytoxicity, embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation were confirmed. The results indicated that hESCs might be good tools for toxicity testing and biosafety evaluation in vitro.

  1. Social Development Indicators and their Association with Crime: A Case of Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the time-series evidence of the effects of changing social development factors on crime for different types of crime. The study area of Bihar, a state in India, has been chosen for the present investigation. The correlation and regression analysis has been performed for establishing the fact that the crime shows relation with the social development factors; specific violent crime, such as murder and robbery, also display sensitivity to the development indicators over time. The paper concludes with a unified interpretation of the time-series data.

  2. Robust TLR4-induced gene expression patterns are not an accurate indicator of human immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is widely accepted as an essential event for defence against infection. Many TLRs utilize a common signalling pathway that relies on activation of the kinase IRAK4 and the transcription factor NFκB for the rapid expression of immunity genes. Methods 21 K DNA microarray technology was used to evaluate LPS-induced (TLR4) gene responses in blood monocytes from a child with an IRAK4-deficiency. In vitro responsiveness to LPS was confirmed by real-time PCR and ELISA and compared to the clinical predisposition of the child and IRAK4-deficient mice to Gram negative infection. Results We demonstrated that the vast majority of LPS-responsive genes in IRAK4-deficient monocytes were greatly suppressed, an observation that is consistent with the described role for IRAK4 as an essential component of TLR4 signalling. The severely impaired response to LPS, however, is inconsistent with a remarkably low incidence of Gram negative infections observed in this child and other children with IRAK4-deficiency. This unpredicted clinical phenotype was validated by demonstrating that IRAK4-deficient mice had a similar resistance to infection with Gram negative S. typhimurium as wildtype mice. A number of immunity genes, such as chemokines, were expressed at normal levels in human IRAK4-deficient monocytes, indicating that particular IRAK4-independent elements within the repertoire of TLR4-induced responses are expressed. Conclusions Sufficient defence to Gram negative immunity does not require IRAK4 or a robust, 'classic' inflammatory and immune response. PMID:20105294

  3. Assessing Environmental Impact Indicators in Road Construction Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Marzouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main concerns in the construction industry. Environmental pollution has become a major challenge to construction projects due to the huge amount of pollution caused by construction projects. There are different types of environmental impact indicators, such as the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP, human health (HH particulate, ozone depletion, and smog. Each of these environmental impact indicators can be linked to different phases of the construction projects. The overall environmental impact indicators can be divided into direct, indirect, and operational emissions. This paper presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-based methodology for the assessment of environmental impacts in road construction projects. The model takes into account the overall life cycle of the road construction project, which is divided into: manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, maintenance phase, operational phase, recycling phase, and deconstruction phase. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The proposed model solves a major problem for road construction project teams who want to assess the environmental impact indicators associated with their project prior to the start of the execution of their projects.

  4. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  5. Characterisation of social impacts in LCA. Part 1: Development of indicators for labour rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2010-01-01

    and collective bargaining, forced labour). Furthermore, actual violations of these rights somewhere in the product chain are very difficult to substantiate and hence difficult to measure directly. Materials and Methods Based on a scorecard, a multi-criteria indicator model has been developed for assessment...... of steps into a company performance score which is translated into a risk of social impacts actually occurring. This translation of the scorecard results into a company risk score constitutes the characterisation of the developed Social LCA methodology. The translation from performance score to risk...... involves assessment of the context of the company in terms of geographical location and industry and of the typical level of social impacts that these entail, and interpretation of the company’s management effort in the light of this context. Discussion The developed indicators in Social LCA are discussed...

  6. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, Dorice, E-mail: d.agol@uea.a.c.uk [University of East Anglia, School of International Development, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Latawiec, Agnieszka E., E-mail: a.latawiec@iis-rio.org [International Institute for Sustainability, Estrada Dona Castorina 124, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Opole University of Technology, Department of Production Engineering and Logistics, Luboszycka 5, 45-036 Opole (Poland); University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Strassburg, Bernardo B.N., E-mail: b.strassburg@iis-rio.org [International Institute for Sustainability, Estrada Dona Castorina 124, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Geography and the Environment, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The

  7. Experimental human muscle damage: morphological changes in relation to other indices of damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Newham, D J; Round, J M; Tolfree, S E

    1986-06-01

    The effects of eccentric exercise have been examined in human calf and biceps muscles. Release of muscle creatine kinase and uptake of technetium pyrophosphate have been followed for up to 20 days after the exercise and the results are related to the morphological changes seen in needle biopsy samples. The response to exercise was variable, all subjects developing pain and tenderness in the exercised muscles after 1-2 days and this was followed, in most subjects, by a large increase in plasma creatine kinase 4-6 days after the exercise. This was paralleled by an increased uptake of technetium pyrophosphate into the exercised muscle. Biopsies of the affected muscles showed little or no change in the first 7 days after the exercise but later degenerating fibres were seen, as well as infiltration by mononuclear cells and eventually, by 20 days, signs of regeneration. Very extensive changes were seen in the calf muscle of one subject; changes in the biceps were qualitatively similar but not so severe. In the severely affected calf muscle type II fibres were preferentially damaged. Mononuclear cell infiltration both between and within degenerating fibres was maximal well after the time of peak plasma creatine kinase and it is likely that in eccentrically exercised muscle infiltrating mononuclear cells act to scavenge cellular debris rather than to cause damage to the muscle.

  8. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  9. Developing farm-level sustainability indicators for Ireland using the Teagasc National Farm Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an expanding, export-dependent agri-food sector, indicators of sustainable development and intensification are necessary to measure, assess and verify the comparative advantage afforded by Ireland’s natural pastoral-based food production systems. Such indicators are also necessary to ensure that we produce more food with less adverse impacts on the Irish environment, climate and society. This article outlines the development of farm-level indicators that refect the multifaceted nature of sustainability, which is encompassed in economic, environmental and social indicators. The role of innovation in farm sustainability was also examined. A comparison of indicators across Irish farm systems showed that dairy farms, followed by tillage farms, tended to be the most economically and socially sustainable farm systems. In relation to greenhouse gas emissions in particular, the top-performing dairy farms, in an economic sense, also tended to be the best-performing farms from an environmental sustainability perspective. This trend was also evident in relation to the adoption of innovative practices on farm, which was found to be strongly correlated with economic performance.

  10. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  11. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J

    2016-06-15

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Information and Communication Technologies as an Indicator of Development of a Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present time the term «knowledge economy» is widely used to determine the type of economy in which the decisive role is played by knowledge and the generation of new knowledge becomes a source of socio-economic development. The emergence of the knowledge economy was predetermined by the rapid development of information and communication technologies. Therefore, different approaches to the of knowledge economy measurement define the level of the information-communication technologies development as one of the most important indicators. The state programs of infotelecommunication development support are an important tool to affect global rating of the country according to the level of development of the knowledge economy.

  13. VSX2 and ASCL1 Are Indicators of Neurogenic Competence in Human Retinal Progenitor Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda S Wright

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D culture techniques are frequently used for CNS tissue modeling and organoid production, including generation of retina-like tissues. A proposed advantage of these 3D systems is their potential to more closely approximate in vivo cellular microenvironments, which could translate into improved manufacture and/or maintenance of neuronal populations. Visual System Homeobox 2 (VSX2 labels all multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs and is known to play important roles in retinal development. In contrast, the proneural transcription factor Acheate scute-like 1 (ASCL1 is expressed transiently in a subset of RPCs, but is required for the production of most retinal neurons. Therefore, we asked whether the presence of VSX2 and ASCL1 could gauge neurogenic potential in 3D retinal cultures derived from human prenatal tissue or ES cells (hESCs. Short term prenatal 3D retinal cultures displayed multiple characteristics of human RPCs (hRPCs found in situ, including robust expression of VSX2. Upon initiation of hRPC differentiation, there was a small increase in co-labeling of VSX2+ cells with ASCL1, along with a modest increase in the number of PKCα+ neurons. However, 3D prenatal retinal cultures lost expression of VSX2 and ASCL1 over time while concurrently becoming refractory to neuronal differentiation. Conversely, 3D optic vesicles derived from hESCs (hESC-OVs maintained a robust VSX2+ hRPC population that could spontaneously co-express ASCL1 and generate photoreceptors and other retinal neurons for an extended period of time. These results show that VSX2 and ASCL1 can serve as markers for neurogenic potential in cultured hRPCs. Furthermore, unlike hESC-OVs, maintenance of 3D structure does not independently convey an advantage in the culture of prenatal hRPCs, further illustrating differences in the survival and differentiation requirements of hRPCs extracted from native tissue vs. those generated entirely in vitro.

  14. Development of Indicators of the National Judo Coaches Selection: Athletes and Coaches` Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Afsanepurak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and develop National Coaches' Selection indicators in Judo from experts` viewpoints carried out through a descriptive field method. The statistical population included all managers, coaches and athletes involved in judo. A questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability (α= 0.76 was distributed among the samples. The respective samples (59 coaches and 63 athletes responded to the questionnaire consisting of two parts: a Personal characteristics and b 50 questions included 10 indicators. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including Mann Whitney U Test and Friedman Test were used to analyze the data. There were ten criteria selected for the national team coaches from of the Delphi method. These indicators included Communicational, Psychological, Motivational, Personality-Moral, Supportive-Feedback, Goal setting, Experimental-Technique, Efficacy, Leadership and Management and Performance Assessment indicators. Data analysis results showed that there were no significant differences among statistical samples regarding Coaches' Selection indicators (p> 0.05. Also there were different priorities about Coaches' Selection indicators in samples (p <0.05.

  15. Development of efficiency indicators of operating room management for multi-institutional comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masayuki; Lee, Jason; Ikai, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of a hospital's operating room (OR) management can affect its overall profitability. However, existing indicators that assess OR management efficiency do not take into account differences in hospital size, manpower and functional characteristics, thereby rendering them unsuitable for multi-institutional comparisons. The aim of this study was to develop indicators of OR management efficiency that would take into account differences in hospital size and manpower, which may then be applied to multi-institutional comparisons. Using administrative data from 224 hospitals in Japan from 2008 to 2010, we performed four multiple linear regression analyses at the hospital level, in which the dependent variables were the number of operations per OR per month, procedural fees per OR per month, total utilization times per OR per month and total fees per OR per month for each of the models. The expected values of these four indicators were produced using multiple regression analysis results, adjusting for differences in hospital size and manpower, which are beyond the control of process owners' management. However, more than half of the variations in three of these four indicators were shown to be explained by differences in hospital size and manpower. Using the ratio of observed to expected values (OE ratio), as well as the difference between the two values (OE difference) allows hospitals to identify weaknesses in efficiency with more validity when compared to unadjusted indicators. The new indicators may support the improvement and sustainment of a high-quality health care system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. APPROACHES ON MEASURING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD – BEYOND CLASSICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALECU ALEXANDRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sustainable development in the contemporary world represents a topic of wide approach in the context of transformations which global economic environment has experienced over the last half-century. The necessity of identification of new indicators that provide a more faithful image of economic life has imposed the construction of new indicators for measuring. In this context, the central objective of the paper is to achieve a synthesis of some of these indicators, analysing their evolution in the context of existing economic realities but also highlighting further correlations, limitations and disputes to which they are subjected to lately. Thus in this paper are presented and analyzed, considering the arguments above, a series of indicators such as the ecological footprint, biocapacity, happy planet index or other segnificant indicators. Another objective of the paper is also the identification of possible solutions for the application of these indicators in the foundation for sustainable economic policies in the context of global economic transformations

  17. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  18. Development of a new quality fair access best value performance indicator (BVPI) for recycling services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, M K; Stantzos, N; Woodard, R; Read, A

    2008-01-01

    Recycling schemes are being used worldwide to reduce the impact of municipal waste. Those using public funds are usually obliged to set performance indicators by which the standards of such schemes can be measured. In the UK, a set of statutory Best Value Performance Indicators (BVPI) must be reported annually, such as the Quality of Fair Access, which monitors the public's access to recycling facilities within 1000 m (known as BVPI 91). This work shows that BVPI 91, and performance indicators like it, quantify only very basic recycling services. A much more sensitive performance indicator is developed in this paper, labelled as the Maximum Practicable Recycling Rate Provision (MPRRP) achievable by a local authority. It indicates the percentage of local waste that could be reasonably recycled using the services provided, calculated on the basis of the average composition of the local waste, the local population coverage for collection of any materials, and nationally provided information stating how much of each material stream is generally suitable (practical) for recycling. Evidence for the usefulness of this new quantity is presented. Although this paper refers a particular performance indicator in the UK, its findings are applicable to all urban areas worldwide needing to monitor recycling service. Furthermore, the MPRRP could be used for planning purposes, and for determining the level of performance of an existing service, by comparing its predicted recycling rate to that actually obtained. Further work is now being carried out on this.

  19. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  20. Human Development and Poverty - a Perspective Across Indian States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonu Madan

    2012-01-01

    ... indicatorsof longevity, literacy and a decent standard of living. Human development is about enlarging choices, whereas poverty implies denial to the opportunities and choices most basic to human development...

  1. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  2. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  3. Outcomes of Human Resource Development Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslinda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Malaysia, Human Resource Development (HRD plays an important role in the economic development of the country. Despite government policies encouraging the implementation of HRD activities, as well as the substantial infrastructural and financial support provided, the benefits or outcomes of the HRD activities being implemented and provided to employees have not been examined. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of HRD interventions using the fundamental aspects of HRD’s definitions. Approach: This study utilised a mixed method approach, combining questionnaire surveys and interviews with HR practitioners. Results: The findings suggested that HRD programs and activities being implemented and provided to employees in manufacturing firms in Malaysia generate individual and team development as well as work process improvement, but do not support HRD strategic planning for organizational change. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study implied that HRD programs and activities implemented had not been strategically planned and aligned with organizational goals and objectives. The limitations of the study and recommendations for further research were discussed.

  4. [The effect of sensory stimuli of varying modality on the human body functioning and indices of tense muscular activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭdalin, V S; Kamchatnikov, A G; Sentiabrev, N N; Katuntsev, V P

    2007-01-01

    The work had a purpose to study benefits of aromatic blends of tonic and relaxing essences and functional music on some of the psychophysiological properties of the human functional state and motor activeity. Participants were 30 sprinters (18-22 y.o. males) having the first-class and master ranks. The psychophysiological indices of the athletes' functional state were evaluated with the use of the "CAH" and Spilberger situational anxiety tests, calculated Cardeu vegetative index, time for simple motor reaction and reaction to a moving object. Motor activity was evaluated by top running speed determined with a photo-electronic time-keeper and by duration of pedaling on bicycle ergometer at maximal power. The running step parameters were recorded with electropodography. It was shown that the positive effect of the aromatic essence blends and functional music on motor activity developed fairly rapidly but did not last long. The article discusses features and possible ways the aromatic blends and music effect human organism.

  5. Development and application of indices using large volcanic databases for a global hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Auker, Melanie; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Delgado Granados, Hugo; Loughlin, Sue; Ortiz Guerrero, Natalie; Sparks, Steve; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Taskforce, Indices

    2015-04-01

    The Global Volcano Model (GVM) and IAVCEI were commissioned by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction to produce a global assessment of volcanic hazard and risk for the Global Assessment Report 2015 (GAR15). This involved presenting both an introduction to volcanology and developing indices to assess hazard and risk on a global scale. To this end two open-access databases were of utmost importance: the Global Volcanism Program's Volcanoes of the World (http://www.volcano.si.edu) and the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions database (LaMEVE; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/vogripa/). Indices were developed to enable a relative global assessment cognisant of data uncertainty and availability to broadly identify how hazard and risk varies around the world, the extent of monitoring and strengths and limitations in knowledge. The accessibility of both physical (e.g. volcano, eruption) and social data is crucial to our understanding of past behaviour, forecasting probable future behaviour and the potential impacts on communities. Such data is regionally highly variable and the eruption record worsens back in time. The Volcanic Hazard Index (VHI) was designed to quantify hazard levels globally, based on the Holocene eruption record. Vulnerability to eruptions was measured using the Population Exposure Index, which weights the population within 100 km of volcanoes by area and historical fatalities. The combination of these indices provides an indicator of population risk at individual volcanoes. The VHI was also combined with the total populations living within 30 km of volcanoes in each country to develop an understanding of the global distribution of volcano threat, and to rank countries by this measure. About half of the historically active volcanoes have insufficient information to adequately calculate VHI and these are highlighted as requiring future research. A database currently in development, GLOVOREMID, collates monitoring data to understand

  6. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively.

  7. Assessment and analysis of indices of urban sustainable development in small cities (case study of Soran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Irandegani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available density and villagers migrate to the cities attention and emphasis was planning to strengthen and grow small towns. The study by researchers in different countries shows that small towns are one of the most successful examples of settlement in the area of sustainable development. Soran and the social and physical areas of urban sustainability indicators in urban areas is presented. The research method of this study is survey method and the data has been obtained from the questionnaire. The results of findings show that in terms of urban sustainability indices, the city of Soran has not a desirable situation in relation to the medium of urban system but it is in the same state in terms of more social, economic and physical indices in relation to urban system of country which it is noticeable clearly.

  8. Dominant Indicators of Bank Crises: Comparative Analysis for States with Different Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of

  9. The central role of RNA in human development and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, John S

    2011-06-06

    It appears that the genetic programming of humans and other complex organisms has been misunderstood for the past 50 years, due to the assumption that most genetic information is transacted by proteins. However, the human genome contains only about 20,000 protein-coding genes, similar in number and with largely orthologous functions as those in nematodes that have only 1000 somatic cells. By contrast, the extent of non-protein-coding DNA increases with increasing complexity, reaching 98.8% in humans. The majority of these sequences are dynamically transcribed, mainly into non-protein-coding RNAs, with tens if not hundreds of thousands that show specific expression patterns and subcellular locations, as well as many classes of small regulatory RNAs. The emerging evidence indicates that these RNAs control the epigenetic states that underpin development, and that many are dysregulated in cancer and other complex diseases. Moreover it appears that animals, particularly primates, have evolved plasticity in these RNA regulatory systems, especially in the brain. Thus, it appears that what was dismissed as 'junk' because it was not understood holds the key to understanding human evolution, development, and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of forced degradation and stability indicating studies of drugs-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blessy Mn; Ruchi D. Patel; Prajesh N. Prajapati; Y.K. Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Forced degradation is a degradation of new drug substance and drug product at conditions more severe than accelerated conditions. It is required to demonstrate specificity of stability indicating methods and also provides an insight into degradation pathways and degradation products of the drug substance and helps in elucidation of the structure of the degradation products. Forced degradation studies show the chemical behavior of the molecule which in turn helps in the development of formulation and package. In addition, the regulatory guidance is very general and does not explain about the performance of forced degradation studies. Thus, this review discusses the current trends in performance of forced degradation studies by providing a strategy for conducting studies on degradation mechanisms and also describes the analytical methods helpful for development of stability indicating method.

  11. Key Performance Indicators in Irish Hospital Libraries: Developing Outcome-Based Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dalton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To develop a set of generic outcome-based performance measures for Irishhospital libraries.Methods – Various models and frameworks of performance measurement were used as atheoretical paradigm to link the impact of library services directly with measurablehealthcare objectives and outcomes. Strategic objectives were identified, mapped toperformance indicators, and finally translated into response choices to a single-questiononline survey for distribution via email.Results – The set of performance indicators represents an impact assessment tool whichis easy to administer across a variety of healthcare settings. In using a model directlyaligned with the mission and goals of the organization, and linked to core activities andoperations in an accountable way, the indicators can also be used as a channel throughwhich to implement action, change, and improvement.Conclusion – The indicators can be adopted at a local and potentially a national level, asboth a tool for advocacy and to assess and improve service delivery at a macro level. Toovercome the constraints posed by necessary simplifications, substantial further research is needed by hospital libraries to develop more sophisticated and meaningful measures of impact to further aid decision making at a micro level.

  12. Quality management: where is the evidence? Developing an indicator-based approach in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, Helen; Nafula, Maureen; Kandie, Charles; Brodowski, Marc; Marx, Irmgard; Kubaj, Sandy; Omogi, Irene; Zurkuhlen, Alexia; Herrler, Claudia; Goetz, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Marx, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda emphasizes the importance of quality of care in the drive to achieve universal health coverage. Despite recent progress, challenges in service delivery, efficiency and resource utilization in the health sector remain. The Ministry of Health Department of Standards and Regulations sought to operationalize the Kenya Quality Assurance Model for Health. To this end, the European Practice Assessment (EPA) was adapted to the area of Reproductive and Maternal and Neonatal Health. The adaptation process made use of a ten step-modified RAND Corporation/University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method. The steps included a scoping workshop, definition of five critical domains of quality in the Kenyan context ('People, Management, Clinical Care, Quality & Safety, Interface between inpatients and outpatients care'), a review of policy documents, management and clinical guidelines, grey and scientific literature to identify indicators in use in the Kenyan health system and an expert panel process to rate their feasibility and validity. The resulting 278 indicators, clustered across the five domains, were broken-down into 29 dimensions and assigned measure specifications. A set of data collection tools were developed to furnish the indicators and piloted at two health facilities. They were subsequently finalized for use in 30 health facilities in 3 counties. The integrative and indicator-based aspects of the EPA process could be readily adapted to facilitate the operationalization of a practical quality assurance approach in Kenya.

  13. Developing Two Spectral Disease Indices for Detection of Wheat Leaf Rust (Pucciniatriticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Ashourloo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spectral vegetation indices (SVIs have been widely used to detect different plant diseases. Wheat leaf rust manifests itself as an early symptom with the leaves turning yellow and orange. The sign of advancing disease is the leaf colour changing to brown while the final symptom is when the leaf becomes dry. The goal of this work is to develop spectral disease indices for the detection of leaf rust. The reflectance spectra of the wheat’s infected and non-infected leaves at different disease stages were collected using a spectroradiometer. As ground truth, the ratio of the disease-affected area to the total leaf area and the fractions of the different symptoms were extracted using an RGB digital camera. Fractions of the various disease symptoms extracted by the digital camera and the measured reflectance spectra of the infected leaves were used as input to the spectral mixture analysis (SMA. Then, the spectral reflectance of the different disease symptoms were estimated using SMA and the least squares method. The reflectance of different disease symptoms in the 450~1000 nm were studied carefully using the Fisher function. Two spectral disease indices were developed based on the reflectance at the 605, 695 and 455 nm wavelengths. In both indices, the R2 between the estimated and the observed was as highas 0.94.

  14. Alternative Composite Lisbon Development Strategy Indices: A Comparison of EU, USA, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongEun Oh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the measurement of two composite Lisbon strategy indices that quantifies the level and patterns of development for ranking countries. The first index is nonparametric labelled as Lisbon strategy index (LSI. It is composed of six components: general economics, employment, innovation research, economic reform, social cohesion and environment, each generated from a number of Lisbon indicators. LSI by reducing the complexity of the set of indicators, it makes the ranking procedures quite simple. The second and parametric index is based on principal component analysis. Despite the difference in the ranking by the two indices, it is shown that the United States outperformed most EU-member states. Our investigations also show evidence of significant dynamic changes taking place, as the countries of the Union struggle to achieve the Lisbon goals. The necessity of a real reform agenda in several old and new members and candidate countries emerges from our analysis. We briefly refer to two important European phenomena emerging from our data analysis and discuss the possible lessons learned from the Korean development strategy

  15. Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    163 p. Work described in the doctoral thesis entitled ¿Development of practical methodology and indicators for on-farm animal welfare assessment¿ was conducted within the frame of Work Package 1 of the AWIN project by Joanna Marchewka. The research project aimed to optimize strategies for welfare assessment including pain in turkeys and sheep. Due to scarce knowledge on turkeys¿ welfare and lack of methodology for its evaluation, the first part of work concentrated on the development of a ...

  16. Development of Real-Time Error Ellipses as an Indicator of Kalman Filter Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    S q often than 3 to 5 seconds. However, before the HP-86 can e considered feasible for real-time Kalman filtr procssinz, more investigaz ion i: needi...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Development of Real-Time Error Master’s Thesis; Ellipses as an Indicator of Kalman March 1984 Filter...SUPP.LEETARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Cmntine on reveo ole, It ndeeaey md Identil by block number) Error Ellipsoids; Kalman Filter; Extended Kalman Filter

  17. Pollution of bogs in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia as an indicator of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Mezhibor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in the climatic balance of our planet. Thus, their protection from anthropogenic pollution is an important target for sustainable development of environment. Wetlands have a special significance for the Siberian region of Russia where they take great territories. Peat bogs, being unique ecosystems among wetlands, have properties to save the history of atmospheric pollution. The particularity of peat bogs is determined by their nutrition - they receive chemical elements mostly from the atmosphere. Some peat bogs in Siberia (Tomsk region, Russia were studied to determine the degree of environment pollution during the last century and the change of geochemical composition of peat in time. These studies determined the increase of pollution in the region from the middle of 20th century because of the sharp industrial development. The data on the pollution of peat bogs allow concluding that the geochemical peculiarities of different parts of Tomsk region influenced by different types of industry: nuclear facility, coal-burning power stations and oil refineries. This method can be used together with other methods implemented for the detection of anthropogenic pollution and the results can be used as indicative parameters in environmental change. The results of the studies can be used for the development of recommendations in the decrease of the industry influence for the sustainable development of Siberian region.Keywords: upland peat, air pollution, Tomsk region, indicators of sustainable development

  18. Expression of aquaporin isoforms during human and mouse tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felszeghy, S; Módis, L; Németh, P; Nagy, G; Zelles, T; Agre, P; Laurikkala, J; Fejerskov, O; Thesleff, I; Nielsen, S

    2004-04-01

    Previously, we described the development of hyaluronan (HA) deposition in human tooth germ tissues that are consistent with water transport in different stages of tooth development. The aquaporins (AQP) constitute a family of membrane water channels that are expressed in many organs. However, there are no data available about the expression pattern of aquaporin water channels in dental structures. In the present study we have characterised the expression of six different aquaporin isoforms (AQP1-5, AQP-9) in developing human and mouse tooth germs by immunohistochemistry using isoform specific antibodies. In the "bell stage" AQP1 was expressed in endothelial cells of small vessels whereas no other structures of the tooth primordial were labeled. AQP2, AQP3 and AQP9 immunoreactivity was not observed in tooth germs, whereas strong AQP4 and AQP5 expression was observed in dental lamina, inner enamel epithelium, stratum intermedium, stellate reticulum and the outer enamel epithelium. Oral epithelium also exhibited AQP4 and AQP5 immunolabeling. During development of the matrices of the dental hard tissues AQP4 and AQP5 immunostaining was observed in the odontoblasts and their processes, as well as in the secretory ameloblast and their apical processes. Immunolabeling controls were negative. In conclusion, AQP4 and AQP5 are expressed in tooth germ tissues in early development in cells that previously have been shown to express HA and/or CD44, indicating that AQP water channels may play a role for ECM hydration during tooth development.

  19. New Financial Development Indicators: With a Critical Contribution to Inequality Empirics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment of financial development indicators without due consideration to country/regional specific financial development realities remains an issue of substantial policy relevance. Financial depth in the perspective of money supply is not equal to liquid liabilities in every development context. This paper introduces complementary indicators to the existing Financial Development and Structure Database (FDSD. Dynamic panel system GMM estimations are applied. Different specifications, non-overlapping intervals and control variables are used to check the consistency of estimated coefficients. Our results suggest that from an absolute standpoint (GDP base measures, all financial sectors are pro-poor. However, three interesting findings are drawn from measures of sector importance. (1 The expansion of the formal financial sector to the detriment of other financial sectors has a disequalizing income effect. (2 Growth of informal and semi-formal financial sectors at the expense of the formal financial sector has an income equalizing effect. (3 The positive income redistributive effect of semi-formal finance in financial sector competition is higher than the corresponding impact of informal finance. It unites two streams of research by contributing at the same time to the macroeconomic literature on measuring financial development and responding to the growing field of economic development by means of informal financial sector promotion and microfinance. The paper suggests a practicable way to disentangle the effects of the various financial sectors on economic development. The equation of financial depth in the perspective of money supply to liquid liabilities has put on the margin the burgeoning informal financial sector in developing countries. The phenomenon of mobile banking is such an example

  20. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research: Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting and an opportunity for public comment on...

  1. The Development of Indicator Cotton Swabs for the Detection of pH in Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Schaude

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicator cotton swabs have been developed in order to enable faster, less expensive, and simpler information gathering of a wound status. Swabs are normally used for cleaning the wound, but here, they were covalently functionalized with indicator chemistry. Thus, they in principle enable simultaneous wound cleaning and wound pH detection. Using an indicator dye with a color change from yellow to red, combined with an inert dye of blue color, a traffic light color change from green to red is induced when pH increases. The indicator cotton swabs (ICSs show a color change from green (appropriate wound pH to red (elevated wound pH. This color change can be interpreted by the naked eye as well as by an optical color measurement device in order to obtain quantitative data based on the CIE L*a*b* color space. Two types of swabs have been developed—indicator cotton swabs ICS1 with a sensitive range from pH 5 to 7 and swabs ICS2 with a sensitive range from 6.5 to 8.5. The swabs are gamma-sterilized and the effect of sterilization on performance was found to be negligible. Furthermore, cytotoxicity testing shows cell viability and endotoxin levels to be within the allowable range.

  2. The development and application of water management sustainability indicators in Brazil and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioris, Antonio A R; Hunter, Colin; Walker, Susan

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the formulation and application of a framework of catchment-level water resource management indicators designed to integrate environmental, economic and social aspects of sustainability. The framework of nine indicators was applied to the River Dee and River Sinos catchments in Scotland and Brazil, respectively, following an indicator selection process that involved inputs from water management professionals in both countries, and a pilot exercise in Scotland. The framework was found to capture a number of key sustainability concerns, and was broadly welcomed by water resource managers and experts as a means of better understanding sustainable water resource management. Issues relating to poor water quality and public water supply were particularly prominent in the findings for the Sinos, while findings for the Dee suggested that more attention might be focused on building institutional capacity and public participation in catchment management. The use of some proxy indicators was required in both catchments due to poor data availability, and this problem may hinder the further development of indicator frameworks that attempt to better integrate environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainability.

  3. Development of a gear vibration indicator and its application in gear wear monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chongqing; Smith, Wade A.; Randall, Robert B.; Peng, Zhongxiao

    2016-08-01

    Gear tooth wear is an inevitable phenomenon and has a significant influence on gear dynamic features. Although vibration analysis has been widely used to diagnose localised gear tooth faults, its techniques for gear wear monitoring have not been well-established. This paper aims at developing a vibration indicator to evaluate the effects of wear on gear performance. For this purpose, a gear state vector is extracted from time synchronous averaged gear signals to describe the gear state. This gear state vector consists of the sideband ratios obtained from a number of tooth meshing harmonics and their sidebands. Then, two averaged logarithmic ratios, ALR and mALR, are defined with fixed and moving references, respectively, to provide complementary information for gear wear monitoring. Since a fixed reference is utilised in the definition of ALR, it reflects the cumulated wear effects on the gear state. An increase in the ALR value indicates that the gear state deviates further from its reference condition. With the use of a moving reference, the indicator mALR shows changes in the gear state within short time intervals, making it suitable for wear process monitoring. The efficiency of these vibration indicators is demonstrated using experimental results from two sets of tests, in which the gears experienced different wear processes. In addition to gear wear monitoring, the proposed indicators can be used as general parameters to detect the occurrence of other faults, such as a tooth crack or shaft misalignment, because these faults would also change the gear vibrations.

  4. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators in a Rural District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change represents a significant and growing threat to population health. Rural areas face unique challenges, such as high rates of vulnerable populations; economic uncertainty due to their reliance on industries that are vulnerable to climate change; less resilient infrastructure; and lower levels of access to community and emergency services than urban areas. This article fills a gap in public health practice by developing climate and health environmental public health indicators for a local public health department in a rural area. We adapted the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network's framework for climate and health indicators to a seven-county health department in Western Kentucky. Using a three-step review process, we identified primary climate-related environmental public health hazards for the region (extreme heat, drought, and flooding) and a suite of related exposure, health outcome, population vulnerability, and environmental vulnerability indicators. Indicators that performed more poorly at the county level than at the state and national level were defined as “high vulnerability.” Six to eight high vulnerability indicators were identified for each county. The local health department plans to use the results to enhance three key areas of existing services: epidemiology, public health preparedness, and community health assessment. PMID:28352286

  5. Groundwater Development Stress: Global-Scale Indices Compared to Regional Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Clark, Brian R; Ely, David M; Faunt, Claudia C

    2017-08-15

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Development of a set of process and structure indicators for palliative care: the Europall project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitha Kathrin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By measuring the quality of the organisation of palliative care with process and structure quality indicators (QIs, patients, caregivers and policy makers are able to monitor to what extent recommendations are met, like those of the council of the WHO on palliative care and guidelines. This will support the implementation of public programmes, and will enable comparisons between organisations or countries. Methods As no European set of indicators for the organisation of palliative care existed, such a set of QIs was developed. An update of a previous systematic review was made and extended with more databases and grey literature. In two project meetings with practitioners and experts in palliative care the development process of a QI set was finalised and the QIs were categorized in a framework, covering the recommendations of the Council of Europe. Results The searches resulted in 151 structure and process indicators, which were discussed in steering group meetings. Of those QIs, 110 were eligible for the final framework. Conclusions We developed the first set of QIs for the organisation of palliative care. This article is the first step in a multi step project to identify, validate and pilot QIs.

  7. Stress degradation studies on citicoline sodium and development of a validated stability-indicating HPLC assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmi A Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High performance liquid chromatography presents a useful aspect for the development of stability indicating assays. Objective of the current study was to establish inherent stability of citicoline sodium through stress studies under a variety of international conference on harmonization recommended test conditions and to develop a stability-indicating assay. Materials and Methods: Thermal stability studies were performed in a hot air oven (Hicon and photo stability studies were carried out under the sunlight. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a reverse phase phenomenox C18 (250 mm΄4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 ΅m column. The chromatographic method was fine tuned using the sample generated from forced degradation studies. Mobile phase consists of mixture of buffer (potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, tetra butyl ammonium, triethyl amine; pH 5.5; 0.002M and methanol (95:5, v/v. Results: Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to degradation products and the analyte was achieved on 5 ΅, 250 mm΄4.6 mm i.d., C18 column (Luna, phenomenox, USA. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, and selectivity. Conclusion: The study shows that citicoline sodium is a labile molecule in acid, oxidative, and alkali conditions. It is stable to light and dry heat. A stability-indicating method was developed and is recommended for analysis of the drug and degradation products in stability samples.

  8. The system of criteria and indicators for evaluating effectiveness of innovative developments implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Tsapuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the ways of innovative development improvement and to update its components in order to improve the innovations commercialization process in industrial market; it is based on necessarily of criteria and indicators system developing which is supposed to evaluate effectiveness of innovative developments, to find ways and tools how to increase the level of its implementation, etc.The results of the analysis. The development of a modern economy is characterized by intensification of globalization, integration economic extending and becomes more dependent on the ideas of generation efficient, researches and innovative products commercialization. Implementation of innovative developments in the priority sectors of the economy is becoming one of the most important backgrounds for sustainable development.Management of the innovative implementation must be focus on effective innovation implementation on the industrial market and to predict the impact of negative factors. The most challenging aspect of this process is operational identify problems that arise at each stage of innovation. Thus, the implementation of the innovation process is impossible without using the system of criteria and indicators for evaluating effectiveness of innovation, which is suggested in the article. The study produced the following results:main directions of the innovation effectiveness process within the modern scientific markets were observed;problems of the innovation implementation in the industrial management context were analyzed;system of criteria and indicators in the context of the effects of its implementation was proposed. It allows evaluating the effectiveness of innovative development, and provides the ability to identify not only strategic alternatives but also the ways to improve the process of introducing innovations in the industrial market.Successful implementation of innovation facilitates helps

  9. Postnatal development of the human sternum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, M L; Dwornik, J J; Ganey, T M; Ogden, J A

    1998-01-01

    Postnatal development and maturation of the human sternum are highly variable. Endochondral ossification centers (sternebrae) form within each cartilaginous segment of the sternum, with each center enveloped by a spherical growth plate. Within a cartilaginous center there may be either one or two ossification centers, those with two centers retaining and reflecting features of their bilateral embryonic origin. Malaligned bifid centers are clearly associated with rib articulation asymmetry as well. Expansion of individual ossification centers progresses within the peripheral cartilaginous domains of the sternum. With respect to the rostrocaudal axis, sternebrae form between the costosternal articulations. Consistent with the biology of endochondral transition, cartilage canals are evident throughout unossified regions of the hyaline matrix. Expanding ossification of adjacent sternebrae results in depletion of the common area of cartilage between the two sternebrae, and eventually in physiologic epiphysiodesis. Fusion of the mesosternebrae reciprocates the initial pattern of sternebral ossification site appearance, proceeding in a caudal-to-cranial direction. Union of adjacent sternebrae, initiated through a central osseous bridge, progresses through anterior, lateral, cephalocaudal, and posterior domains to achieve synostosis. Accessory and bifid centers of ossification within the same intercostal space coalesce prior to adjoining adjacent sternebrae. Manubriosternal fusion is rare due to the presence of a fibrocartilaginous joint restricting ossification. The xiphoid process remains connected to the most caudal mesosternum via a common zone of hyaline cartilage that ossifies by middle to late adulthood. A single pattern of development does not appear fundamental to successful growth of the sternum, as morphological variants were common.

  10. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  11. Differential Decomposition of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water qualitymanagement practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, thedecomposition of select cultiva...

  12. Indicators to Identify Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Jong, Jessica; Ambagtsheer, Frederike

    2016-01-01

    ... for the purpose of organ removal. It outlines the legal and illegal service providers that facilitate trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and guides the reader through the following criminal process...

  13. Differential Decomposition of Bacterial and Viral Fecal Indicators in Common Human Pollution Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the decomposition of microorganisms associated with different human fecal pollution types is necessary for proper implementation of many water qualitymanagement practices, as well as predicting associated public health risks. Here, thedecomposition of select cultiva...

  14. Employing the Components of the Human Development Index to Drive Resources to Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Annibal Parracho; de Araujo Ribeiro, Rodrigo Otavio; Dutt-Ross, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A new form of composition of the indicators employed to generate the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) is presented here. This form of composition is based on the assumption that random errors affect the measurement of each indicator. This assumption allows for replacing the vector of evaluations according to each indicator by vectors…

  15. Development of an urban green space indicator and the public health rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Uscila, Valdas; Barrdahl, Maria; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Staatsen, Brigit; Swart, Wim; Kruize, Hanneke; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Egorov, Andrey I

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the aim was to develop and test an urban green space indicator for public health, as proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, in order to support health and environmental policies. We defined the indicator of green space accessibility as a proportion of an urban population living within a certain distance from a green space boundary. We developed a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based method and tested it in three case studies in Malmö, Sweden; Kaunas, Lithuania; and Utrecht, The Netherlands. Land use data in GIS from the Urban Atlas were combined with population data. Various population data formats, maximum distances to green spaces, minimum sizes of green spaces, and different definitions of green spaces were studied or discussed. Our results demonstrated that with increasing size of green space and decreased distance to green space, the indicator value decreased. As compared to Malmö and Utrecht, a relatively bigger proportion of the Kaunas population had access to large green spaces, at both shorter and longer distances. Our results also showed that applying the method of spatially aggregated population data was an acceptable alternative to using individual data. Based on reviewing the literature and the case studies, a 300 m maximum linear distance to the boundary of urban green spaces of a minimum size of 1 hectare are recommended as the default options for the indicator. The indicator can serve as a proxy measure for assessing public accessibility to urban green spaces, to provide comparable data across Europe and stimulate policy actions that recognise the importance of green spaces for sustainable public health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  17. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-11-18

    In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security and human development by diminishing the chances of

  18. Expression Analysis of the Hippo Cascade Indicates a Role in Pituitary Stem Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Lodge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland is a primary endocrine organ that controls major physiological processes. Abnormal development or homeostatic disruptions can lead to human disorders such as hypopituitarism or tumours. Multiple signalling pathways, including WNT, BMP, FGF and SHH regulate pituitary development but the role of the Hippo-YAP1/TAZ cascade is currently unknown. In multiple tissues, the Hippo kinase cascade underlies neoplasias; it influences organ size through the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and has roles in determining stem cell potential. We have used a sensitive mRNA in situ hybridisation method (RNAscope to determine the expression patterns of the Hippo pathway components during mouse pituitary development. We have also carried out immunolocalisation studies to determine when YAP1 and TAZ, the transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, are active. We find that YAP1/TAZ are active in the stem/progenitor cell population throughout development and at postnatal stages, consistent with their role in promoting the stem cell state. Our results demonstrate for the first time the collective expression of major components of the Hippo pathway during normal embryonic and postnatal development of the pituitary gland.

  19. Indications and outcome of childhood preventable bowel resections in a developing country

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    Uchechukwu Obiora Ezomike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While many bowel resections in developed countries are due to congenital anomalies, indications for bowel resections in developing countries are mainly from preventable causes. The aim of the following study was to assess the indications for, morbidity and mortality following preventable bowel resection in our centre. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of bowel resection deemed preventable in children from birth to 18 years from June 2005 to June 2012. Results: There were 22 preventable bowel resections with an age range of 7 days to 17 years (median 6 months and male:female ratio of 2.1:1. There were 2 neonates, 13 infants and 7 older children. The indications were irreducible/gangrenous intussusceptions (13, abdominal gunshot injury (2, gangrenous umbilical hernia (2, blunt abdominal trauma (1, midgut volvulus (1, necrotizing enterocolitis (1, strangulated inguinal hernia (1, post-operative band intestinal obstructions (1. There were 16 right hemicolectomies, 4 small bowel resections and 2 massive bowel resections. Average duration of symptoms before presentation was 3.9 days (range: 3 h-14 days. Average time to surgical intervention was 42 h for survivors and 53 h for non-survivors. Only 19% presented within 24 h of onset of symptoms and all survived. For those presenting after 24 h, the cause of delay was a visit to primary or secondary level hospitals (75% and ignorance (25%. Average duration of post-operative hospital stay is 14 days and 9 patients (41% developed 18 complications. Seven patients died (31.8% mortality which diagnoses were irreducible/gangrenous intussusceptions (5, necrotising enterocolitis (1, midgut volvulus (1. One patient died on the operating table while others had overwhelming sepsis. Conclusion: There is a high rate of morbidity and mortality in these cases of preventable bowel resection. Typhoid intestinal perforation did not feature as an indication for bowel resection in this

  20. Analysis of Main Social Indicators Developments Regarding Labour Market in 2007-2009 in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Marian ANTOHI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Labor markets at international level, European and equally in Romania, registered in terms of globalization, European integration and the global financial crisis, many transformations while maintaining sustainable competitiveness, new challenges andmajor risks for the viability of social protection systems. Thus, must be considered: the dynamics of employment rates, occurrence or loss of paid employment, more flexible occupational system, motivational payment, development of new skills for new jobs,promote a professional and geographical mobility, all having major implications for social protection functionality, now and especially in the future. Employment and human capital management in Romania, extends far beyond the actual policies of the labor market, because the employment policy of Romania must be formed in a component of national growth and development strategy, adapted to employmentpolicies of the European Union, globalization of economies, in the context of the current financial crisis.

  1. A Global View on Output and Outcomes of Cataract Surgery With National Indices of Socioeconomic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yan, William; Müller, Andreas; He, Mingguang

    2017-07-01

    Cataract blindness accounts for a substantial proportion of blindness worldwide. Understanding the correlations between national levels of socioeconomic development with the quantity and quality of cataract surgery may provide insight for the prioritization and resource allocation for blindness prevention programs. The relationships between human development index (HDI), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and visual outcome of cataract surgery were examined in a multinational study utilizing secondary data from the repository for Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease, United Nations, and the World Bank. A total of 266 RAAB studies across 73 countries/territories were retrieved. Linear regression model results revealed strong associations of HDI with prevalence of cataract blindness (β = -7.056, P service delivery.

  2. Development and validation of a specific stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna Rao, B; Sangaraju, Sivaiah; Srinivasu, M K; Madhavan, P; Lalitha Devi, M; Rajendra Kumar, P; Chandrasekhar, K B; Arpitha, Ch; Satya Balaji, T

    2006-06-16

    A gradient, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of rizatriptan benzoate, used to treat relieves migraine headache symptoms. The developed method can be also employed for the related substance determination in bulk samples. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of rizatriptan benzoate using acid (0.5 N hydrochloric acid), base (0.1 N sodium hydroxide), oxidation (3.0% hydrogen peroxide), water hydrolysis, heat (60 degrees C) and photolytic degradation. Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed in base hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during oxidative stress. The chromatographic method was fine tuned using the samples generated from forced degradation studies. Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to degradation products and the analyte was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-CN (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of aqueous potassium di hydrogen ortho phosphate (pH 3.4), acetonitrile and methanol. The stress sample solutions were assayed against the qualified reference standard of rizatriptan benzoate and the mass balance in each case was close to 99.7% indicating that the developed method is stability indicating. Validation of the developed method was carried out as per ICH requirements.

  3. Identifying and Structuring Values to Guide the Choice of Sustainability Indicators for Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Alcántara Maya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, the National Trust for Tourism Promotion (FONATUR needs to lead development of Integrally Planned Tourist Centers (IPC towards sustainability. As the development of these IPCs leads to changes in local communities and their environment, it is necessary to define how to establish a path towards sustainability and how to measure progress towards that goal. The objective of this study is to contribute toward identifying the main stakeholder’s values, defining sustainability indicators at a local level, and to discuss their adequacy in the context of tourism development. The study was performed in a Mexican community facing its probable inclusion in tourism development and special attention was given to the values of stakeholders in defining which objectives to monitor. Using Value-Focused Thinking as a framework, a series of interviews were analyzed and the opinions were organized in a tree of values, encompassing environmental, economic, social and political/institutional aspects. A set of indicators associated with these objectives was subsequently proposed. This information may serve as a guide to design and monitor plans that are more appealing from a sustainability perspective and as an aid in the identification of future information needs.

  4. Developing quality indicators for the appropriateness of resuscitation in prehospital atraumatic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzen, Corita R; Liddicoat, Rebecca; Hoffman, Jerome R; Koenig, William; Lorenz, Karl A; Asch, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims do not survive or suffer severe neurological impairment. We sought to develop a set of straightforward clinical indicators that paramedics could use to better match resuscitation attempts to those most likely to benefit. In partnership with the Los Angeles County Emergency Medical Services, we used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method of quantifying expert opinion regarding the risks and benefits of medical procedures. We presented available scientific evidence related to potential indicators of the quality of resuscitative care to stakeholder-nominated experts. Forty-one candidate indicators incorporated key variables, including initial rhythm, patient preferences, presence of witnesses, and place of arrest. Nine panelists, including palliative care and emergency medical specialists, rated the appropriateness of paramedic use of each indicator by using a 1-9 scale. An indicator was considered appropriate if the potential benefits outweighed the potential harm to the patient or their family. Indicators were retained if median score was >/=7. The expert panel voted to retain 28 quality indicators. Three addressed signs of irreversible death (e.g., dependent lividity), 8 addressed patient preferences (e.g., inquiring about DNR status), and the remainder addressed combinations of initial rhythm and other prognostic signs (e.g., "If initial rhythm is asystole and patient is known by apparent surrogate decision maker to have a terminal illness, then forgo resuscitation."). Our experts recommended a series of much more liberal criteria for forgoing resuscitation than is currently practiced. This includes ascertaining and honoring patient preferences, either through written documents or family members, and combinations of clinical criteria that predict poor neurological outcome, such as asystole, terminal illness, age greater than 70, and response time greater than 15 minutes. These quality indicators expand on

  5. Human Capital Development and Economic Growth: The Nigeria Experience

    OpenAIRE

    God’stime Osekhebhen Eigbiremolen; Uchechi Shirley Anaduaka

    2014-01-01

    This study employs the augmented Solow human-capital-growth model to investigate the impact of human capital development on national output, a proxy for economic growth, using quarterly time-series data from 1999-2012. Empirical results show that human capita development, in line with theory, exhibits significant positive impact on output level. This implies that human capital development is indispensable in the achievement of sustainable economic growth in Nigeria, as there is an increase in...

  6. Process-related key performance indicators for measuring sustainability performance of ecodesign implementation into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    Developing products with improved environmental performance is regarded as a crucial component of companies' commitment towards sustainable development. The potential benefits derived from ecodesign are constantly highlighted in the literature, and go beyond the pure environmental dimension....... However, the primary focus has been positioned on evaluating those benefits in terms of product-related environmental performance, which leaves an open potential for capturing performance from a broader managerial perspective. Consequently, the major challenges tackled by this paper relate to the limited...... focus on process-oriented perspectives that cover all dimensions of the triple bottom line and offer a systematized view on ecodesign performance measurement. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive set of process-related key performance indicators for product development, based on a three...

  7. Development and validation of stability-indicating HPLC method for determination of cefpirome sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Bednarek-Rajewska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The stability-indicating LC assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of cefpirome sulfate (CPS) in the presence of degradation products formed during the forced degradation studies. An isocratic HPLC method was developed with Lichrospher RP-18 column, 5 μm particle size, 125 mm x 4 mm column and 12 mM ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (90 : 10 v/v) as a mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelength was 270 nm and temperature was 30 degrees C. Cefpirome sulfate as other cephalosporins was subjected to stress conditions of degradation in aqueous solutions including hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The developed method was validated with regard to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and robustness. The method was applied successfully for identification and determination of cefpirome sulfate in pharmaceuticals and during kinetic studies.

  8. The role of higher education in equitable human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-04-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's achievements are increasingly dependent upon personal effort, choice and initiative rather than predetermined characteristics such as race, gender and socioeconomic background. As such, equity becomes an issue of moral equality based on the belief that people should be treated as equals, with equal access to life chances. This ideal pursues equal access to public services, infrastructure and rights for all citizens, including the right to education. While evidence suggests that education builds healthier, richer, more equitable societies, research on this has focused predominantly on primary and secondary schooling. The authors of this paper begin with an extensive review of existing research and relevant literature. In the second part of their article, they then report on their own study which furthers the discussion by exploring connections between tertiary education and development using equity as a reflection of human development - a holistic extension of economic development. After extracting relevant data from a number of available world reports by the United Nations, the World Bank and other organisations, they carried out a cross-national statistical analysis designed to examine the relationship between tertiary enrolment levels and a composite equity variable. Their results indicate a strong association between higher post-secondary education levels and higher levels of social equity.

  9. Development of a regionally sensitive water-productivity indicator to identify sustainable practices for sugarcane growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, Kate A; Viart, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Standards that credibly and effectively certify sustainable commodity production are important to both producers and consumers. Agriculture is the dominant user of water worldwide, so water sustainability in agriculture is an area of particular interest. In conjunction with Bonsucro, a sustainability standard setting body for the sugarcane sector, an indicator was developed to ensure that water consumed in sugarcane cultivation is used productively (i.e., that producers achieve high "crop per drop"). To be easily measurable, sugarcane water productivity was adapted so that yield could be compared within a climate zone in which water demand is assumed to be uniform. The indicator identifies efficient performers, defined as those exceeding median historical yield in each climate zone, with rainfed and irrigated systems evaluated separately. Both the expert-driven and stakeholder-driven aspects of standard development are discussed. We address the advantages and the limitations of this new indicator, its potential application to other crops, and the possibility of improvement to include further criteria. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:811-820. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Human head orientation and eye visibility as indicators of attention for goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; McElligott, Alan G

    2017-01-01

    Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take into account head orientation alone. In the second experiment, goats (N = 24) could choose to approach one of two experimenters, while only one was paying attention to them. Goats preferred to approach humans that oriented their body and head towards the subject, whereas head orientation alone had no effect on choice behaviour. In the third experiment, goats (N = 32) were transferred to a separate test arena and were rewarded for approaching two experimenters providing a food reward during training trials. In subsequent probe test trials, goats had to choose between the two experimenters differing in their attentional states. Like in Experiments 1 and 2, goats did not show a preference for the attentive person when the inattentive person turned her head away from the subject. In this last experiment, goats preferred to approach the attentive person compared to a person who closed their eyes or covered the whole face with a blind. However, goats showed no preference when one person covered only the eyes. Our results show that animals bred for production rather than companionship show differences in their approach and choice behaviour depending on human attentive state. However, our results contrast with previous findings regarding the use of the head orientation to attribute attention and show the importance

  11. Development and assessment of indices to determine stream fish vulnerability to climate change and habitat alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Nicholas A.; Paukert, Craig P.; Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the future impacts of climate and land use change are critical for long-term biodiversity conservation. We developed and compared two indices to assess the vulnerability of stream fish in Missouri, USA based on species environmental tolerances, rarity, range size, dispersal ability and on the average connectivity of the streams occupied by each species. These two indices differed in how environmental tolerance was classified (i.e., vulnerability to habitat alteration, changes in stream temperature, and changes to flow regimes). Environmental tolerance was classified based on measured species responses to habitat alteration, and extremes in stream temperatures and flow conditions for one index, while environmental tolerance for the second index was based on species’ traits. The indices were compared to determine if vulnerability scores differed by index or state listing status. We also evaluated the spatial distribution of species classified as vulnerable to habitat alteration, changes in stream temperature, and change in flow regimes. Vulnerability scores were calculated for all 133 species with the trait association index, while only 101 species were evaluated using the species response index, because 32 species lacked data to analyze for a response. Scores from the trait association index were greater than the species response index. This is likely due to the species response index's inability to evaluate many rare species, which generally had high vulnerability scores for the trait association index. The indices were consistent in classifying vulnerability to habitat alteration, but varied in their classification of vulnerability due to increases in stream temperature and alterations to flow regimes, likely because extremes in current climate may not fully capture future conditions and their influence on stream fish communities. Both indices showed higher mean vulnerability scores for listed species than unlisted species, which provided a coarse

  12. Appraisal of New Product Development Success Indicators in the Aerospace Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afrooz Moatari; Achiche, Sofiane; Hisarciklilar, Onur

    2011-01-01

    , different metrics need to be used at different phases of the product lifecycle (PLC). This paper describes the research undertaken to determine success measurement metrics for new product development (NPD) processes. The goal of this research was to ascertain an appropriate set of metrics used by aerospace...... companies for assessing success during different phases of the PLC. Furthermore, an evaluation of the differences and similarities of NPD success measurement was carried out between aerospace companies and the non-aerospace companies practicing in the business-to-business (B2B) market. Practical case......) the measurement of success of aerospace NPD practices depends on the PLC phase being measured, 2) product and process management performance are the more important indicators of success in the early PLC phases with revenue and market share indicators being important during late phases, 3) there are reasonable...

  13. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  14. Loneliness Literacy Scale: Development and Evaluation of an Early Indicator for Loneliness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigh-de Vlaming, Rianne; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Bos-Oude Groeniger, Inge; Hooft van Huysduynen, Eveline J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Van't Veer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the Loneliness Literacy Scale for the assessment of short-term outcomes of a loneliness prevention programme among Dutch elderly persons. Scale development was based on evidence from literature and experiences from local stakeholders and representatives of the target group. The scale was pre-tested among 303 elderly persons aged 65 years and over. Principal component analysis and internal consistency analysis were used to affirm the scale structure, reduce the number of items and assess the reliability of the constructs. Linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the literacy constructs and loneliness. The four constructs "motivation", "self-efficacy", "perceived social support" and "subjective norm" derived from principal component analysis captured 56 % of the original variance. Cronbach's coefficient α was above 0.7 for each construct. The constructs "self-efficacy" and "perceived social support" were positively and "subjective norm" was negatively associated with loneliness. To our knowledge this is the first study developing a short-term indicator for loneliness prevention. The indicator contributes to the need of evaluating public health interventions more close to the intervention activities.

  15. Efficient Indicators to Evaluate the Status of Software Development Effort Estimation inside the Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roliana Ibrahim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development effort is an undeniable part of the project management which considerably influences the success of project. Inaccurate and unreliable estimation of effort can easily lead to the failure of project. Due to the special specifications, accurate estimation of effort in the software projects is a vital management activity that must be carefully done to avoid from the unforeseen results. However numerouseffort estimation methods have been proposed in this field, the accuracy of estimates is not satisfying and the attempts continue to improve the performance of estimation methods. Prior researches conducted in this area have focused on numerical and quantitative approaches and there are a few research works that investigate the root problems and issues behind the inaccurate effort estimation of software development effort. In this paper, a framework is proposed to evaluate and investigate the situation of an organization in terms of effort estimation. The proposed framework includes various indicators which cover the critical issues in field of software development effort estimation. Since the capabilities and shortages of organizations for effort estimation are not the same, the proposed indicators can lead to have a systematic approach in which the strengths and weaknesses of organizations in field of effort estimation are discovered

  16. STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LACIDIPINE IN TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajavel A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating HPLC method development and validation for the determination of Lacidipine in tablets. The determination was done for an active pharmaceutical ingredient, its pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of degradation products impurities. The drug was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis (acid and base, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH prescribed stress conditions to show the stability-indicating method. Degradation was observed during acid, base hydrolysis, thermal, peroxide and light stressed sample and degradant was identified by LC–MS, FTIR and 1H/13C NMR spectral analysis. The generated samples were used for forced degradation studies. In the developed HPLC method, the resolution between Lacidipine and, its related impurities (namely impurity-A, impurity-B, impurity-C, impurity-LC1 and impurity-LC2 was found. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a phenomenex Luna C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column. The LC method employed an isocratic elution, and the detection wavelength was set at 240 nm. The stress samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 99.6 %. The developed RP-LC method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness.

  17. Development of key indicators of hospital resilience: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Hospital resilience is an emerging concept, which can be defined as 'a hospital's ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining its critical health care functions, and then recover to its original state or adapt to a new one'. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive framework of key indicators of hospital resilience. A panel of 33 Chinese experts was invited to participate in a three-round, modified Delphi study to develop a set of potential measures previously derived from a literature review. In the first round, these potential measures were modified to cover the comprehensive domains of hospital resilience. The importance of proposed measures was scored by experts on a five-point Likert scale. Subsequently, the experts reconsidered their voting in light of the previous aggregated results. Agreement on measures was defined as at least 70% of the responders agreeing or strongly agreeing to the inclusion of a measure. A large proportion of preliminary measures (89.5%) were identified as having good potential for assessing hospital resilience. These measures were categorized into eight domains, 17 subdomains, and 43 indicators. The highest rated indicators (mean score) were: equipment for on-site rescue (4.7), plan initiation (4.6), equipment for referral of patients with complex care needs (4.5), the plan execution (4.4), medication management strategies (4.4), emergency medical treatment conditions (4.4), disaster committee (4.4), stock types and quantities for essential medications (4.4), surge capacity of emergency beds (4.4), and mass-casualty triage protocols (4.4). This framework identifies a comprehensive set of indicators of hospital resilience. It can be used for hospital assessment, as well as informing priority practices to address future disasters better. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Human mucosal in vivo transcriptome responses to three lactobacilli indicate how probiotics may modulate human cellular pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarlen, van P.; Troost, F.J.; Meer, van der C.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Brummer, R.J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, specific representatives of bacterial species that are a common part of the human microbiota, are proposed to deliver health benefits to the consumer by modulation of intestinal function through largely unknown molecular mechanisms. To explore in vivo mucosal responses of healthy

  19. [Indicators of growth and development of boys from the community of Tuzla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzihalilović, Jasminka; Hadziselimović, Rifat; Mesalić, Saćira; Hamidović, Hajrija; Hadziavdić, Vesna; Adrović, Avdul

    2002-01-01

    Properties of growth and development of male children and youth were analyzed by the appropriate sample analysis, which involved total of 1.321 domiciles and refugees, on the researched region. This study included 9 successive school "generations", which were presented by chronologically ordered growths ranged from 10.5 to 19.5 years of age. They were analyzed concerning 6 standard and anthrophometrical properties. The analysis of the data gained its primarily based on the scientific elaboration of the noticed situation in the researched part of population in broader sense after one unnatural and extremely unfavourable period in growth and developing process for large majority of mentioned population. The aims of this study were: the analysis and definition of the principle indicators of growth and development of male children and youths in the Tuzla municipality, then 16 years accelerational trend in course of this period of the ontogenesis as well as the differences between domiciles and refugees. Though bad (war) living conditions had negative effects on ontogenesis of tested children and youths, it was established that growth and development of male children and youth in the region tested was going harmoniously and in limits of average European standards. It still seems that bad living conditions caused a temporary lagging behind in the growth and development, so in some growth categories (from 11 to 15 years) mean value increase could be noticed (for one number of tasted parameters) compared to the sample from 1980 year. Refugees presence caused something less mean values for most indicators. Sixteen year's acceleration trend for the most parameters was established in puberty when it was very clearly visible.

  20. [Requirements for quality indicators. The relevance of current developments in outcomes research for quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Petzold, Thomas; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria; Neugebauer, Edmund A M

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of the health state in patients and changes in their health state for the purpose of diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of treatment response plays a central role in clinical practice. Quality criteria for measurements in medicine include validity, reliability, responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility. High-quality measurement instruments are a prerequisite for evidence-based medicine. Therefore, international outcomes research groups have developed methods for quality assurance and for the standardisation of measurement instruments. Quality indicators are instruments to measure the quality of care. Due to the increasing relevance of quality assessment for all stakeholders in healthcare and due to the political intention to draw relevant conclusions from the assessment of the quality of care, quality indicators must at least meet the same high standards that are required for clinical trial end points. However, independent researchers and clinicians do not engage in the validation and standardisation of quality indicators in Germany; currently, only the AQUA institute (as assigned by the German GBA) deals with this important issue. Current activities concerning the validation of quality indicators do not meet the requirements of evidence-based healthcare. This is a critical barrier to achieving the political goals of quality medicine. Therefore, the authors propose a multi-step, multi-professional, evidence-driven and evidence-generating consensus process on the basis of established methods of outcomes research for the advancement of quality assessment with quality indicators in Germany. All relevant stakeholders should participate in this process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.