WorldWideScience

Sample records for human development fields

  1. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  2. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  3. Development of human exposure standards for radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Historical aspects of the problem of developing human exposure standards for radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields are discussed. It is shown that biological effects and health implications of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields have been a subject of scientific investigation for more than 50 years. It has become a focus of attention because of the expanded use of RF radiation in the frequency range between 300 MHz and 6 GHz for wireless communication over the past decade. Another cause for the attention is the uncertainty of some observed responses and lack of understanding of the mechanism of interaction of RF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. At present, considerable efforts are devoted to developing and revising RF exposure standards. Each of these efforts should aim to make explicit the philosophy and process by which they reason and decide guidelines for deeming exposure as safe. Furthermore, the reconciliation of philosophies of protection will definitely be an asset, in practice, to those interested in international harmonization of RF exposure standards [ru

  4. Human resources development in nuclear field in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the recent topics in the nuclear field, some investigated data on human resources development (HRD) in nuclear field in Japan and the status of HRD and strategy are presented. We have investigated the basic data on HRD in nuclear field in some Asian countries so that the data could be used to develop HRD strategy. The basic data have been investigated for Japan in the following area. (1) Numbers of graduate and undergraduate students and faculty members for each of the nuclear related departments in the universities have been investigated; (2) The information on the academic associations and societies related to nuclear field has been collected; (3) In addition to the basic data directly related to human resources, the data related to the strategy for nuclear utilization such as the data on research reactors, the data on the level of the application of RI and radiation in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment and the future plan to construct NPPs, the number of NPPs being constructed and NPPs under operation have been collected and tabulated for each country. In Japan, many of the experienced nuclear engineers and scientists who have constructed nuclear power plants and developed the application methodology of RI and radiation, are aging and retiring. Also with the decrease in the construction of nuclear power plants and decrease in the nuclear energy research expenditures, it is becoming more difficult to maintain the present level of capability in designing and manufacturing of nuclear facilities. On the other hand, the educational infrastructures in the universities such as nuclear research reactors and the facilities where handling of radioactive materials is permitted, are deteriorating due to the difficulties to meet the more strict regulatory requirements. With the decrease in the popularity of nuclear energy and maturing of nuclear technology it is becoming more difficult to attract sufficient number of promising young individuals

  5. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young Su; Son, Il Moon; Son, Byung Chang; Kwak, Hyo Yean

    2009-07-01

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  6. A Study on Human Resources Development in Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Keehwan; Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Nam, J. H.; Won, B. C.; Lee, D. S; Hwang, I. A.; Seo, M. W.

    2011-11-01

    The study encompasses 4 major parts, each results being described here under: Various policy alternatives through supply-demand analysis of domestic nuclear skilled manpower are suggested. Human resources development programs of main educational organizations in domestic and overseas are comprehensively reviewed. Establishment of 'Integrated Management Organization' which can combine and manage domestic educational organizations' educational functions is necessary to efficiently deal with the increased educational demand and the shift of educational paradigm from supply-driven to needs-driven education and to make nuclear energy export sustainable. And road map on human resource development to efficiently accomplish 'Integrated Management Organization's mission is suggested. It is provided that an overall strategies for the reasonable educational program reflecting the good practices with their implications in overseas nuclear education programs

  7. Country report on human resource development in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitsuksombut, Warapon; Noochpramool, Kovit

    2000-01-01

    The short-term plan is to promote utilization of the new research reactor in Thailand. The long-term plan is to gain public understanding and acceptance of nuclear technology. Since 1991, the office has conducted training and seminars in nuclear related field. The major training is in radiation protection, and training in nuclear reactor was at noticeably smaller portion. For ten years of training, 3,649 persons passed different radiation protection courses. Education programs in universities are outlined with the curriculums in the paper. It is clear that the manpower produced in nuclear field in Thailand is inadequate. Further more, most of them are working in limited areas in specific institutes, research laboratories, modern hospitals, and academic teaching. They seldom contact with the public. Hence communication to the public is lacking. After the training course for schoolteachers in our research reactor site, many of them appreciate new knowledge of nuclear technology. They became to realize that they had been involved with the nuclear technology before in their everyday well being. The urgent need is to arrange various suitable courses on research reactor utilization. In this effort, the exchange of information, equipment as well as teaching materials form developed institutes are necessary. The urgent need is a system of qualification for Radiation Protection Officer. By exchange of information and seminars, it may help the country to decide whether the harmonization and accreditation of training courses or the accredited examination is adopted. For long-term achievement, a regular seminar for schoolteacher should be formulated, and a program for social and economics curriculum in nuclear field should be initiated. (Tanaka, Y.)

  8. EDUCATION IN THE FIELD safety of human life AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartavykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication purpose - pedagogical design of education of bachelors in the field safety of human life in the context of ideas of a sustainable development as one of the modern and perspective directions of the higher education. Philosophical and methodological, scientific and technical and pedagogical aspects of provisions of the concept of a sustainable development are opened. It is shown that the greatest potential for realization of ideas of a sustainable development the invariant subject matter the " Safety of human life " studied by future bachelors irrespective of the direction and a profile of preparation possesses. The fundamental principles of education in the field safety of human life of future bachelors are formulated. Key functions of education of bachelors in the field of health and safety are defined: valuable and orientation, teoretiko-world outlook, it is constructive - activity, it is reflexive - estimated. The methodical tasks approaching the project to specific sociocultural and pedagogical conditions are opened: definition of target reference points, modular structuring content of education, development of procedural and technological features of creation of educational activity; diagnostics of results. The idea of a didactic cycle at development of the content of education in the field safety of human life is proved and opened. The educations of future bachelors got in the course of approbation results in the field safety of human life in the context of ideology of sustainable (safe development allow to speak about efficiency of the chosen scientific and methodological and organizational and technological bases and to project new models of practical experience in conditions of providing optimum ways of productive pedagogical interaction.

  9. Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L

    2009-11-01

    Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international human rights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a human rights obligation.

  10. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Qui Viet; Vu Dang Ninh

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  11. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Qui Viet [Department of Organization and Scientific Human Resource Development, The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Dang Ninh [Department of Administration and Personnel, The Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-12-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  12. Present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Myung; Lee, Eui-Jin

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) began training technical personnel in the field of radioisotope utilization and radiation protection during the 1960's. During the first stage of the nation's nuclear power project in the 1970's, the main effort of the Center focused on training those in nuclear power and nuclear engineering. During a stage of increased technical self-reliance in the 1980's, the Center extended its training role to implement more specific training courses on nuclear power and safety fields. Since 1983, the Center has been empowered at the request of government to provide retraining courses for nuclear-related license holders and qualified engineers. The Center has offered IAEA regional training course annually for Asia and Pacific region member states since 1988. Since 1967, the total number of trainees is up to 27,777 as of the end of 1998. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) started Nuclear Power Education Center (NPEC) in 1990. The outlines of KEPCO's in-house training programs are presented in the report. The reactor operators, and the persons engaged in nuclear fuel materials, radioisotope or radiation generating devices need particular licenses in accordance with Korean Atomic Energy Laws and Regulation. NTC/KAERI and NPEC/KEPCO should report annual retraining programs for licensed personnel to Ministry Of Science and Technology (MOST) every year. The outlines of projects, which are directly related to human resources development in nuclear field in Korea, are described in the paper. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made efforts to provide training programs for technical personnel of developing countries for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Korea has also received lots of assistance for her manpower development from the Agency. Korea is now on the verge of transforming herself from a technology recipient country in some practical and fundamental fields. The

  13. Present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young-Myung; Lee, Eui-Jin [Nuclear Training Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) began training technical personnel in the field of radioisotope utilization and radiation protection during the 1960's. During the first stage of the nation's nuclear power project in the 1970's, the main effort of the Center focused on training those in nuclear power and nuclear engineering. During a stage of increased technical self-reliance in the 1980's, the Center extended its training role to implement more specific training courses on nuclear power and safety fields. Since 1983, the Center has been empowered at the request of government to provide retraining courses for nuclear-related license holders and qualified engineers. The Center has offered IAEA regional training course annually for Asia and Pacific region member states since 1988. Since 1967, the total number of trainees is up to 27,777 as of the end of 1998. KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation) started Nuclear Power Education Center (NPEC) in 1990. The outlines of KEPCO's in-house training programs are presented in the report. The reactor operators, and the persons engaged in nuclear fuel materials, radioisotope or radiation generating devices need particular licenses in accordance with Korean Atomic Energy Laws and Regulation. NTC/KAERI and NPEC/KEPCO should report annual retraining programs for licensed personnel to Ministry Of Science and Technology (MOST) every year. The outlines of projects, which are directly related to human resources development in nuclear field in Korea, are described in the paper. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has made efforts to provide training programs for technical personnel of developing countries for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Korea has also received lots of assistance for her manpower development from the Agency. Korea is now on the verge of transforming herself from a technology recipient country in some practical and

  14. Indonesia's present status and needs of human resource development in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, Jeni; Sagala, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    BATAN, started out as a governmental committee established in 1954, has a new organizational structure, based on Presidential Decree of 1998. BATAN has developed its researches in almost practically all-nuclear fields. The situation in Indonesia has been much influenced by the economic crisis, which still being faced by Indonesia. BATAN's strategic planning is described in four areas, those are: 1. Basic human needs, 2. Energy, natural resources and environment, 3. Industry, 4. Socio-cultural and institution. Priority has been given to fulfill, as well as to promote agriculture, health and the industry related to people's welfare, which may develop and improve the immediate needs of the people. In the meantime, we have made considerable investments in manpower development in anticipation of the introduction of nuclear power. BATAN, as of September 1999, has 3889 employees, 26 % of them have bachelor degree, 6 % hold master degrees, and only 2% hold doctoral degree, a total of 34 % employees with university education. Others 11 % have either non-vocational or vocational education beyond High School. The rest of 55 % have high school education or lower, they are administrative clerks (25 %) or technicians (30 %). In the human resources development, BATAN's Education and Training Center, in collaboration with some universities and other national/international institutions, is managing education and training programs for employees. To date, there are 43 BATAN employees studying in various universities in Japan, while another 42 employees are studying in six different countries. Research and Development that have more direct impact to the community will become a priority in the coming years. Without undermining the importance of basic research in advanced fields, we will expect to have more research on application to optimize utilization of research reactors and related facilities for the benefit of both the energy and non-energy sectors. (Tanaka, Y.)

  15. A summary of the 2nd workshop on Human Resources Development (HRD) in the nuclear field in Asia. FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Human Resources Development (HRD) Project was added in 1999 as a Cooperation Activity of 'the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)' which is organized by Nuclear Committee. The HRD Project supports to solidify the foundation of nuclear development utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. The principal activity of the HRD Project is to hold the Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia once a year. The objective of the Workshop is to clarify problems and needs of the human resources development of each country and to support it mutually by exchanging information etc. The report consists of a summary of the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia held on November 27 and 28, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. (author)

  16. A summary of the 2nd workshop on Human Resources Development (HRD) in the nuclear field in Asia. FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Human Resources Development (HRD) Project was added in 1999 as a Cooperation Activity of 'the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)' which is organized by Nuclear Committee. The HRD Project supports to solidify the foundation of nuclear development utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. The principal activity of the HRD Project is to hold the Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia once a year. The objective of the Workshop is to clarify problems and needs of the human resources development of each country and to support it mutually by exchanging information etc. The report consists of a summary of the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia held on November 27 and 28, 2000 at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. (author)

  17. Study on Model for Human Resources Development Strategy in the Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eui Jin

    2005-01-01

    Qualified manpower is an essential for the successful implementation of a national long-term nuclear development program as well as the associated R and D programs. Such manpower could only be developed systematically under a well-established national model and strategy, which addresses the demand for human resources, number of personnel and timing, and the education and training. To discuss a model for human resources development, it is suggested to consider the following: approach to the Human Resources Development (HRD) Model, HRD policy targets, estimation of the manpower requirement, organizational coordination frameworks for the HRD, promotion of HRD in the action plan

  18. Survey of basic data on human resources development (HRD) in the nuclear field in FNCA countries (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    In the 3rd FNCA* (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) Coordinator Meeting held on March 2002, it was proposed to carry out 'Survey of the Basic Data on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field'. It was considered to be the first step for developing the HRD strategy by producing the quantitative data on HRD in nuclear field. The survey results were introduced by Project Leaders during the 2002 FNCA Workshop on HRD held on October 2002. The follow-up survey was conducted with the cooperation of other Project Leaders in the respective field of FNCA such as medical and agriculture applications in each member countries. The collected survey data was analyzed in 2003, and summarized as 'Summary of the Survey Data'. This report consists of the summary of 'Survey of the Basic Data on Human Resources Development in Nuclear Field'. It was reported during the 2003 FNCA Workshop on HRD held on October 2003 and updated until early 2004. (author)

  19. Skill Needs and Human Resources Development in the Emerging Field of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Robert Mayfield

    2010-01-01

    Strong societal requirements and consumer acceptance are the driving force of nanotechnology development. The necessity for qualified experts and strong demand on education in the multi-, trans- and interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology is a logical consequence of this driving force. There is the need for a comprehensive national…

  20. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Gardner, Toby A; Ferreira, Joice; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Camargo, Plínio B; Cerri, Carlos E; Durigan, Mariana; Oliveira Junior, Raimundo C; Vieira, Ima C G; Barlow, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests

  2. Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Berenguer

    Full Text Available Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH, which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85 whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor-an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human

  3. A MARKOV RANDOM FIELD-BASED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING HUMAN BRAIN DEVELOPMENT USING SPATIAL-TEMPORAL TRANSCRIPTOME DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiang; Sanders, Stephan J; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad; State, Matthew W; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-03-01

    Human neurodevelopment is a highly regulated biological process. In this article, we study the dynamic changes of neurodevelopment through the analysis of human brain microarray data, sampled from 16 brain regions in 15 time periods of neurodevelopment. We develop a two-step inferential procedure to identify expressed and unexpressed genes and to detect differentially expressed genes between adjacent time periods. Markov Random Field (MRF) models are used to efficiently utilize the information embedded in brain region similarity and temporal dependency in our approach. We develop and implement a Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM) algorithm to estimate the model parameters. Simulation studies suggest that our approach achieves lower misclassification error and potential gain in power compared with models not incorporating spatial similarity and temporal dependency.

  4. Development and Field Evaluation of a Synthetic Mosquito Lure That Is More Attractive than Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Killeen, G.F.; Ogoma, S.; Biswaro, L.; Smallegange, R.C.; Mbeyela, E.; Titus, E.; Munk, C.; Ngonyani, H.; Takken, W.; Mshinda, H.; Mukabana, W.R.; Moore, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Disease transmitting mosquitoes locate humans and other blood hosts by identifying their characteristic odor profiles. Using their olfactory organs, the mosquitoes detect compounds present in human breath, sweat and skins, and use these as cues to locate and obtain blood from the

  5. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, Corazon C.; Roceles, Pilar C. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    2000-12-01

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will

  6. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Corazon C.; Roceles, Pilar C.

    2000-01-01

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will be

  7. An Integrative Literature Review on Employee Engagement in the Field of Human Resource Development: Exploring Where We Are and Where We Should Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunsoo; Shin, Heh Youn; Park, Jiwon; Kim, Woocheol; Cho, Daeyeon

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies on employee engagement in the HRD (human resource development) field have contributed to the promotion of employee engagement in organizations, yet issues and challenges remain. The purpose of this study is to investigate how employee engagement has been discussed in four representative HRD journals: "Human Resource…

  8. Magnetic field dosimeter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation

  9. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  10. Role of International Study Experiences in the Personal and Professional Development of University Lecturers in the Humanities and Social Sciences Fields in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaowiwattanakul, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of international experience on personal and professional development of university academic staff in the Humanities and Social Sciences fields in Thailand. The participants were 23 lecturers from nine universities in Thailand. A semi-structured face-to-face interviewing method was employed. The findings reveal that…

  11. Japanese experiences in human resources development in the nuclear fields and proposal on procedure of the 1st seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Act was enforced in 1956. The law prescribed establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission (establishment of the Nuclear Safety Commission was added in 1978), definition of administrative bodies for nuclear fuel materials and reactors and radiation protection, and necessary regulatory laws. The law also prescribed establishment of a national nuclear center for R and D and human resources development, i.e. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was established in 1956. The Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) RI school was opened in 1958. Establishments of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and National Institute of Radiological Science were in 1956 and 1957, respectively. In universities, nuclear facilities were constructed for supplying young human resources based on decision by Ministry of Education after 1961. The foundation of Japan Atomic Energy Power Co. (JAPCO) was in 1957. In the NuTEC, a variety of training courses had been prepared and carried out to meet the requirements of the nuclear community. Many leaders and experts had been produced and they worked for development of nuclear infrastructure in Japan. International training programs were started in 1985 and the experiences were applied for helping Asian countries to develop the manpower for nuclear infrastructure. Japanese safety actions for nuclear technology had strongly depended on that of USA. Therefore, much efforts on safety evaluation and phenomenological understanding are necessary in Japan. Recent tendency is changed from development-minded approach to safety-minded approach and is focused more on efforts to get public consent on nuclear energy. However, Japanese experiences will be useful for developing human resources in other countries. The NuTEC of JAERI will operate the seminar once a year. The seminar will be implemented; to get mutual recognition on present status and problems of regional countries by gathering information

  12. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  13. The North Field Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Qatar Europe LNG Company's activities include gas production, gathering, treatment, liquefaction, shipping and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and by-products. The (LNG) project to be developed by the Company shall be initially capable of processing 1200 mmscfd of raw gas and associated quantities of condensate from the North Field. Hydrocarbons produced will be delivered to shore in the industrial area (Ras Laffan) via a sub sea pipeline system. Raw gas is used as a feedstock into the liquefaction plant which is initially capable of producing 6.1 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) of (LNG). The initial quantity of (LNG) will be exported from (Ras Laffan) loading terminal to a receiving terminal located on the North East coast of Italy via a dedicated fleet of (LNG) carriers. The whole project (Upstream, Downstream and Shipping) shall be executed on an integrated scheme basis under the the direct control of the Qatar Europe LNG Company and in accordance with the overall Master Schedule in order to ensure a delivery of first shipment of (LNG) in the 2 nd half of 1997. 3 figs

  14. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  17. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak, D.; Gerebizza, E.; Wasse, G.; Kochladze, M.

    2007-12-01

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  19. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  20. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  1. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.

  2. The Lack of Impact of Dissensus Inspired Analysis on Developments in the Field of Human Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, A.; Boselie, P.

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream HRM journals have largely ignored critical perspectives on HRM. This is the main finding from our study examining trends in publishing on HRM through an analysis of published work in the period 1995 to 2000. Using the ‘dissensus-consensus’ dimension of a framework developed by Deetz

  3. Modeling of Karachaganak field development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvakasov, A. A.; Shamsutdinova, G. F.; Almukhametova, E. M.; Gabdrakhmanov, N. Kh

    2018-05-01

    Management of a geological deposit includes the study and analysis of oil recovery, identification of factors influencing production performance and oil-bearing rock flooding, reserve recovery and other indicators characterizing field development in general. Regulation of oil deposits exploitation is a mere control over the fluid flow within a reservoir, which is ensured through the designed system of development via continuous improvement of production and injection wells placement, optimum performance modes, service conditions of downhole and surface oil-field equipment taking into account various changes and physical-geological properties of a field when using modern equipment to obtain the best performance indicators.

  4. Development of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-10-01

    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances in understanding how motor commands are expressed at different stages of human development. Similar commands are found in several other vertebrates, indicating that locomotion development follows common principles of organization of the control networks. Movements show a high degree of flexibility at all stages of development, which is instrumental for learning and exploration of variable interactions with the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Full-color wide field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, James R., II; LaRussa, Joseph A.

    1990-10-01

    A Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) which utilizes highly efficient trichromatic holographic elements has been designed to support pilot vechicle interface development and human factors studies at the NASA-Langley Research Center. While the optics are fully color corrected, the miniature CRT's are monochromatic. This design provides an upgrade path to full-color when miniature display technology matures to color. The optical design conforms to the helmet shape and provides a 50 degree field-of-view (FOV) to each eye. Built-in adjustments allow each ocular to be independently moved so that the overall horizontal FOV may be varied from 50 degrees to 100 degrees with a corresponding change in the stereo overlap region. The helmet design and interpupillary adjustment allow for the 5th through 95th percentile male and female wearer. Total head-borne weight is approximately 4.2 pounds. The high-resolution monochromatic CRTs are driven by a set of multisync electronics with a maximum video bandwidth of 88 Mhz and supports bith raster and stroke modes. The electronics are designed to be compatiable with the Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D graphics workstations and the ADAGE 340 stroke graphics computer. A Polhemus magnetic tracking device is used to determine the helmet line-of-sight. The helmet will be used to develop innovative new display concepts for the F- 1 8 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) which make use of the unique display properties of the HMD. Pictorial displays, which convey the appropriate information intuitively, are envisioned. Human factors studies are also planned to evaluate the utility of stereopsis and determine the FOV requirements for different tasks. Concepts proven in the simulator will be carried to flight test in 1993 with a lighter weight, "hardened" version of this HMD design.

  6. Embodiment and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development. However, as the influence of the Piagetian account waned, developmental notions of embodiment were shelved in favor of mechanical computational approaches. In this article, I argue that by reconsidering embodiment, we can address a key issue with computational accounts: how meaning is constructed by the developing person. I also suggest that the process-relational approach to developmental systems can provide a system of concepts for framing a fully embodied, integrative developmental science.

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  8. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  9. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  10. Human resource development for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the features of decommissioning work and the methods how to develop human resources. The general flow of decommissioning includes the following steps: (1) evaluation of facility characteristics, (2) planning, (3) decontamination and disassembly of equipment and structures contaminated with radioactivity, (4) radioactivity measurement, (5) treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, and (6) release from legal restrictions (termination of decommissioning). For this purpose, techniques in various fields are required. In the evaluation of facility characteristics, radiation measurement and calculation of activation amount in the core part are required. In decontamination and dismantling, cutting technology (mechanical cutting, thermal cutting, etc.), decontamination technology, and remote control technology are required. In the nuclear power education in the past, the fields related to design, construction, operation, and maintenance among the plant life cycle were the main parts. Much attention was not payed to decommissioning and the treatment/disposal of radioactive waste in the second half of life cycle. As university education, Hokkaido University and Fukui University have lectures on decommissioning. Furthermore, the education and research for students are proceeding at seven universities, with a focus on common reactors including those of Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. It is a key for promoting decommissioning, to incorporate project management, risk analysis, cost evaluation, and decision making into education, and to foster human resources heading toward challenging problems including social problems. (A.O.)

  11. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  12. AC Electric Field Communication for Human-Area Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    We have proposed a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses an AC electric field signal below the resonant frequency of the human body. This technology aims to achieve a “touch and connect” intuitive form of communication by using the electric field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body, while suppressing both the electric field radiating from the human body and mutual interference. To suppress the radiation field, the frequency of the AC signal that excites the transmitter electrode must be lowered, and the sensitivity of the receiver must be raised while reducing transmission power to its minimally required level. We describe how we are developing AC electric field communication technologies to promote the further evolution of a human-area network in support of ubiquitous services, focusing on three main characteristics, enabling-transceiver technique, application-scenario modeling, and communications quality evaluation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between electro-magnetic compatibility evaluation and regulations for extremely low-power radio stations based on Japan's Radio Law.

  13. Human exposure to static magnetic fields and basic precautions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulevic, B.

    1999-01-01

    The development of new technologies using the static magnetic fields and their application in the last several years has increased the possibility of higher human exposure to such fields what has raised an issue of potential adverse health effects. The object of this work is to point, on the basis of the past knowledge, to the significance of the problem and therefore to contribute to its popularization. (author)

  14. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS IN POLAND UNDER THE MULTIANNUAL FINANCIAL FRAMEWORK 2014–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investment in human capital is a key determinant of socio-economic development in the twenty-fi rst century. These investments in rural areas require well-planned interventions in the fi eld of education. The necessary funds for this purpose will be available under the multiannual fi nancial framework EU 2014–2020. Interventions in this area in Poland are planned mainly under the Operational Programme Knowledge Education Development POWER and the Regional Operational Programmes (RPO. It should therefore be valuable to preliminarily assess the opportunities and threats connected with the development of human capital in rural areas in Poland in the fi eld of education in 2014–2020. The aim of this article is, thus, an attempt to make such an assessment, taking into account the following aspects: scope of the EU support; procedures for obtaining fi nancial support; available funds and financial instruments. The article verifi es the following hypothesis: based on program POWER establishments and RPO 2014–2020 in the section on education potential chances of the HRD in rural areas mainly result from wide range scope of this suport; while the main threats stem from a very limited scale of prioritization in the procedure of obtaining fi nancial support and the use of non-repayable fi nancial instruments (grants. The article draws upon the analysis of regulations of the European Commission and national legislative sources, as well as literature on development of human capital in rural areas and the absorption of EU funds for social projects.

  15. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  16. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  17. Interpolation of vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F; Zhu, Y M; Rapacchi, S; Robini, M; Croisille, P; Luo, J H

    2011-01-01

    There has recently been increased interest in developing tensor data processing methods for the new medical imaging modality referred to as diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). This paper proposes a method for interpolating the primary vector fields from human cardiac DT-MRI, with the particularity of achieving interpolation and denoising simultaneously. The method consists of localizing the noise-corrupted vectors using the local statistical properties of vector fields, removing the noise-corrupted vectors and reconstructing them by using the thin plate spline (TPS) model, and finally applying global TPS interpolation to increase the resolution in the spatial domain. Experiments on 17 human hearts show that the proposed method allows us to obtain higher resolution while reducing noise, preserving details and improving direction coherence (DC) of vector fields as well as fiber tracking. Moreover, the proposed method perfectly reconstructs azimuth and elevation angle maps.

  18. Managing human resources in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, R and D organizations and educational institutions, relies heavily on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce for its sustainability. An ageing workforce, declining student enrolment and the resultant risk of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge and experience for expanding or newly established nuclear programmes are all serious challenges that influence the management of human resources (HR) in the nuclear field. The management of human resources requires particular attention in the field of nuclear energy, both because of the high standards of performance expected in this field and the considerable time needed to develop such specialists. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy were primarily developed during the second half of the twentieth century. The nuclear field is now at a mature stage of development, with those who were pioneers in the field having retired and their responsibilities handed over to subsequent generations. For those aspects of the nuclear field related to nuclear power, a great deal of effort has been devoted to managing and continuing to improve the safety and operational performance of existing facilities. However, indications are that the next decades may see considerable expansion to meet increasing energy needs, while responding to concerns about the environment, including global warming. Thus, in the nuclear field, those Member States with existing nuclear power programmes may be forced to replace a large part of their current workforce, while also attracting, recruiting and preparing a fresh workforce for the new facilities being planned. At the same time, those who will be initiating nuclear power programmes, or other peaceful applications, will be developing HR for their programmes. In the past, the development of human resources in the nuclear field has depended on considerable support from organizations in the country of origin of the technology

  19. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  20. Developments in superstring field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the structure of superstring theories is outlined. The one-loop quantum superstring gauge anomalies are then described and it is shown that their absence leads to an interesting theory with gauge group SO(32). The one-loop infinities also cancel for this gauge group. The anomaly cancellation can be understood in terms of the low-energy effective supergravity-Yang-Mills field theory, from which it is shown that E 8 x E 8 is an equally good gauge group, which suggests that there should also be an interesting E 8 x E 8 superstring theory. A new type of superstring theory, known as the 'heterotic' string theory, which only describes strings with gauge groups E 8 x E 8 or SO(32) is described. Finally some very exciting prospects for obtaining a sensible description of four-dimensional physics from a ten-dimensional superstring theory with gauge group E 8 x E 8 is outlined. (author)

  1. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  2. Creative Trade for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, international trade in creative goods and services has been expanding. But this upward march is not lifting all boats. Although many developing countries are endowed with vast cultural wealth, they still lag behind. In addition, women are not faring well. Much needs to be done to expand creative trade for human development. Suggestions here include implementing a Women Art...

  3. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  4. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  5. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  6. Human work interaction design meets international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, P.; Clemmensen, T.; Barricelli, B.R.

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  7. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  8. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate

  9. A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marco; Quaresima, Valentina

    2012-11-01

    This review is aimed at celebrating the upcoming 20th anniversary of the birth of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). After the discovery in 1992 that the functional activation of the human cerebral cortex (due to oxygenation and hemodynamic changes) can be explored by NIRS, human functional brain mapping research has gained a new dimension. fNIRS or optical topography, or near-infrared imaging or diffuse optical imaging is used mainly to detect simultaneous changes in optical properties of the human cortex from multiple measurement sites and displays the results in the form of a map or image over a specific area. In order to place current fNIRS research in its proper context, this paper presents a brief historical overview of the events that have shaped the present status of fNIRS. In particular, technological progresses of fNIRS are highlighted (i.e., from single-site to multi-site functional cortical measurements (images)), introduction of the commercial multi-channel systems, recent commercial wireless instrumentation and more advanced prototypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic Development and Development of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Černetič

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Černetič deals with certain dilemmas and problems related to employee training within companies, and discusses the complexity of the relationship between technological development and education, developmental gap between the developed and underdevdoped economies, and the goals of social development in Slovenia. Cernetič stresses that training programmes should above all provide flexibility of employment; the competitive edge of an entire state actually depends on effective use of human resources. Slovenia cannot exert any substantial influence on the global economy, it can only follow the main market trends. Knowledge is therefore of great importance, as the wealth of smaller nations is primarily based on the education level of their inhabitants.

  11. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  12. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  13. Proposed tokamak poloidal field system development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.; Vogel, H.F.; Warren, R.W.; Weldon, D.M.

    1977-05-01

    A program is proposed to develop poloidal field components for TNS and EPR size tokamak devices and to test these components in realistic circuits. Emphasis is placed upon the development of the most difficult component, the superconducting ohmic-heating coil. Switches must also be developed for testing the coils, and this switching technology is to be extended to meet the requirements for the large scale tokamaks. Test facilities are discussed; power supplies, including a homopolar to drive the coils, are considered; and poloidal field systems studies are proposed.

  14. Generation of a field development plan, North Field, North Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostock, D.R.; Adams, S.; Mercadier, C.; Milatz, H.; van der Weerd, H.; Walker, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Natih Field in North Oman which is a complex domal fractured limestone structure with a STOIIP of some 50 million m 3 . Initially subjected to a depletion drive, rapidly dropping pressures resulted in a switch to water injection and then to gas injection to promote gas oil gravity drainage. In determining which production mechanism to promote an integrated approach has been taken. Field tests used tracers to investigate the problems associated with water injection; fracture orientation and intensity has been determined using core data including palaeomagnetics, FMS logs and out-crop studies; initial oil saturations have been determined within a give range using resistivity and pulsed neutron logs as well as capillary pressure curves to overcome problems of mixed wettability; to monitor gas saturation development in the matrix recourse has been made to Borehole Gravity Meter; special core analysis on restored state cores has been utilized to characterize wettability and relative permeability as input to both monitoring the water influx and to reservoir simulation. Development of a simulator to incorporate all the necessary physics of gravity drainage, including block to block interaction, has been undertaken at the research laboratories in the Netherlands and, using the understanding of the field built up through the above studies, a successful history match was achieved

  15. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications

  16. Robot Tracking of Human Subjects in Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Future planetary exploration will involve both humans and robots. Understanding and improving their interaction is a main focus of research in the Intelligent Systems Branch at NASA's Johnson Space Center. By teaming intelligent robots with astronauts on surface extra-vehicular activities (EVAs), safety and productivity can be improved. The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project was established to study the issues of human-robot teams, to develop a testbed robot to assist space-suited humans in exploration tasks, and to experimentally determine the effectiveness of an EVA assistant robot. A companion paper discusses the ERA project in general, its history starting with ASRO (Astronaut-Rover project), and the results of recent field tests in Arizona. This paper focuses on one aspect of the research, robot tracking, in greater detail: the software architecture and algorithms. The ERA robot is capable of moving towards and/or continuously following mobile or stationary targets or sequences of targets. The contributions made by this research include how the low-level pose data is assembled, normalized and communicated, how the tracking algorithm was generalized and implemented, and qualitative performance reports from recent field tests.

  17. Development of high field superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Fujio; Takeo, Masakatsu.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, in connection with nuclear fusion research, the development of high field superconducting magnets showed rapid progress. The development of high field magnets of 15 T class by the techniques of winding after heat treatment has been continued in various places, as these techniques are suitable to make large magnets. In 1985, Kyushu University attained the record of 15.5 T. However in high field magnets, there are many problems peculiar to them, and the basic research related to those is demanded. In this report, these general problems, the experience of the design and manufacture in Kyushu University and the related problems are described. The superconducting magnet installed in the Superconducting Magnet Research Center of Kyushu University attained the record of 15.5 T for the first time in March, 1985. In superconducting magnets, very difficult problem must be solved since superconductivity, heat and mechanical force are inter related. The problems of the wire materials for high field, the scale of high field magnets, the condition limiting mean current density, and the development of high field magnets in Kyushu University are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Further Development of HS Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, Abdulmajeed; Faridani, Jacqueline; Gassem, Mahmoud

    2006-04-01

    We present a systematic treatment of the HS Field theory of the open bosonic string and discuss its relationship to other full string field theories of the open bosonic string such as Witten's theory and the CVS theory. In the development of the HS field theory we encounter infinite dimensional matrices arising from the change of representation between the two theories, i.e., the HS field theory and the full string field theory. We give a general procedure of how to invert these gigantic matrices. The inversion of these matrices involves the computation of many infinite sums. We give the values of these sums and state their generalizations arising from considering higher order vertices (i.e., more than three strings) in string field theory. Moreover, we give a general procedure, on how to evaluate the generalized sums, that can be extended to many generic sums of similar properties. We also discuss the conformal operator connecting the HS field theory to that of the CVS string field theory.

  19. Human resource development for management of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the contents of 'Human resource development for the planning and implementation of safe and reasonable nuclear power plant decommissioning' as the nuclear human resource development project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant takes 30 to 40 years for its implementation, costing tens of billions of yen. As the period of decommissioning is almost the same as the operation period, it is necessary to provide a systematic and continuous supply of engineers who understand the essence of the decommissioning project. The engineers required here should have project management ability to take charge of preparation, implementation, and termination of decommissioning, and have the ability to perform not only technology, but also factor management, cost management, and the like. As the preconditions of these abilities, it is important to develop human resources who possess qualities that can oversee decommissioning in the future. The contents of human resource education are as follows; (1) desk training (teaching materials: facilities of nuclear power plants, management of nuclear fuels, related laws, decommissioning work, decontamination, dismantling, disposal of waste, etc.), (2) field training (simulators, inspection of power station under decommissioning, etc.), (3) practical training (radiation inventory evaluation, and safety assessment), and (4) inspection of overseas decommissioning, etc. (A.O.)

  20. Development of neutron calibration field using accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A brief summary is given on the fast neutron calibration fields for 1) 8 keV to 15 MeV range, and 2) 30-80 MeV range. The field for 8 keV to 15 MeV range was developed at the Fast Neutron Laboratory (FNL) at Tohoku University using a 4.5 MV pulsed Dynamitron accelerator and neutron production reactions, {sup 45}Sc(p, n), {sup 7}Li(p, n), {sup 3}H(p, n), D(d, n) and T(d, n). The latter 30-80 MeV fields are setup at TIARA of Takasaki Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and at Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University using a 90 MeV AVF cyclotron and the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction. These fields have been applied for various calibration of neutron spectrometers and dosimeters, and for irradiation purposes. (author)

  1. Growth charts of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate score measuring global development. The relations between the indicators should be consistent with the Rasch model. If true, the D-score is a measure with interval scale properties, and allows for the calculation of meaningful differences both within and across age. The stage line diagram describes the natural development of ordinal indicators. The method models the transition probabilities between successive stages of the indicator as smoothly varying functions of age. The location of each stage is quantified by the mid-P-value. Both types of diagrams assist in identifying early and delayed development, as well as finding differences in tempo. The relevant techniques are illustrated to track global development during infancy and early childhood (0-2 years) and Tanner pubertal stages (8-21 years). New reference values for both applications are provided. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. IAEA Nuclear Security Human Resource Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunegger-Guelich, A.

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA is at the forefront of international efforts to strengthen the world's nuclear security framework. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009 was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 2005. This Plan has three main points of focus: needs assessment, prevention, detection and response. Its overall objective is to achieve improved worldwide security of nuclear and other radioactive material in use, storage and transport, and of their associated facilities. This will be achieved, in particular, through the provision of guidelines and recommendations, human resource development, nuclear security advisory services and assistance for the implementation of the framework in States, upon request. The presentation provides an overview of the IAEA nuclear security human resource development program that is divided into two parts: training and education. Whereas the training program focuses on filling gaps between the actual performance of personnel working in the area of nuclear security and the required competencies and skills needed to meet the international requirements and recommendations described in UN and IAEA documents relating to nuclear security, the Educational Program in Nuclear Security aims at developing nuclear security experts and specialists, at fostering a nuclear security culture and at establishing in this way sustainable knowledge in this field within a State. The presentation also elaborates on the nuclear security computer based learning component and provides insights into the use of human resource development as a tool in achieving the IAEA's long term goal of improving sustainable nuclear security in States. (author)

  3. Recent developments in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Petersen, J.L.; Durhuus, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second volume in a set of three containing the proceedings of 3 conferences held in Copenhagen, to mark the centennial of Niels Bohr. The purpose of this symposium was to bring together theoretical particle physicists to discuss the present status and, in particular, the latest developments in quantum field theory, in their broadest aspects. This volume contains the main 19 lectures and reflects the contemporary status of a line of development, one of whose initiators was Niels Bohr. (orig.)

  4. Human Resources Development and Career Development: Where Are We, and Where Do We Need to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; McDonald, Kim; Rocco, Tonette S.; Byrd, Marilyn; Dawes, Elliott

    2018-01-01

    At the 2017 meeting of the Academy of Human Resource Development Annual Town Hall, four scholars discussed their diverse outlooks on the research and practice of career development in the Human Resource Development field. What follows in this curated collection of voices is a look into the perspective of each person who spoke at the 2017 Town Hall…

  5. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  6. Development of field navigation system; Field navigation system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibara, S; Minode, M; Nishioka, K [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    This paper describes the following matters on a field navigation system developed for the purpose of covering a field of several kilometer square. This system consists of a center system and a vehicle system, and the center system comprises a map information computer and a communication data controlling computer; since the accuracy for a vehicle position detected by a GPS is not sufficient, an attempt of increasing the accuracy of vehicle position detection is made by means of a hybrid system; the hybrid system uses a satellite navigation method of differential system in which the error components in the GPS are transmitted from the center, and also uses a self-contained navigation method which performs an auxiliary function when the accuracy in the GPS has dropped; corrected GPS values, emergency messages to all of the vehicles and data of each vehicle position are communicated by wireless transmission in two ways between the center and vehicles; and accommodation of the map data adopted a system that can respond quickly to any change in roads and facilities. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process' components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process' usefulness

  8. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  9. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique

  10. Mind Mapping on Development of Human Resource of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Human resources in the field of education consists of students, teachers, administrative staff, university students, lecturers, structural employees, educational bureaucrats, stakeholders, parents, the society around the school, and the society around the campus. The existence of human resources need to be cultivated and developed towards the…

  11. Social touch and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J; Moore, David; McGlone, Francis

    2018-04-24

    Social touch is a powerful force in human development, shaping social reward, attachment, cognitive, communication, and emotional regulation from infancy and throughout life. In this review, we consider the question of how social touch is defined from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the former category, there is a clear role for the C-touch (CT) system, which constitutes a unique submodality that mediates affective touch and contrasts with discriminative touch. Top-down factors such as culture, personal relationships, setting, gender, and other contextual influences are also important in defining and interpreting social touch. The critical role of social touch throughout the lifespan is considered, with special attention to infancy and young childhood, a time during which social touch and its neural, behavioral, and physiological contingencies contribute to reinforcement-based learning and impact a variety of developmental trajectories. Finally, the role of social touch in an example of disordered development -autism spectrum disorder-is reviewed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program

  13. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  14. Successful talent development in track and field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Stambulova, N; Roessler, K K

    2010-01-01

    Track and field includes a number of high-intensity disciplines with many demanding practices and represents a motivational challenge for talented athletes aiming to make a successful transition to the senior elite level. Based on a holistic ecological approach, this study presents an analysis...... of a particular athletic talent development environment, the IFK Växjö track and field club, and examines key factors behind its successful history of creating top-level athletes. The research takes the form of a case study. Data were collected from multiple perspectives (in-depth interviews with administrators...... to elite athletes. A strong organizational culture, characterized by values of open co-operation, by a focus on performance process and by a whole-person approach, provided an important basis for the environment's success. The holistic ecological approach encourages practitioners to broaden their focus...

  15. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  16. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  17. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT: A STRATEGY FOR MOVING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy” but also “Knowledge economy” via human capital development. She has not been serious with her ... economy, Human capital, Strategy. Introduction. The world is now controlled by the revolution of Information and Communication.

  19. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in

  20. Strategy of Gurgyan-Deniz field development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadova, Rena A.; Gumbatov, Bahruz Y.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : It is known that during long suspension of oil-gas production process due to some reasons of technical and geological character through their further involvement into development one can observe restoration of productive characteristics of layers. it can be associated with redistribution of hydrodynamic flows, stratal pressure, segregation and other. Analysis of conducted geological, commercial-geophysical, geochemical results allowed to say about significant amount of residual reserves on the field. According to the obtained data distribution of residual oil reserves along horizons is presented in this article. In 2001 well which operates by gas lift method and gives production 25 ton/per day. In order to increase temp of selection and of course ratio of oil recovery after restoration of grid one should provide application of new methods of development.

  1. Annals of Humanities and Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Humanities and Development Studies publishes papers in all aspects of humanities and rural, social and cultural development, including peace and international cooperation activities related to societal transformation in developing countries. Papers arising from original research and case studies or forming ...

  2. Quality Communication For human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mayor Zaragoza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instruments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.”

  3. Cortico-Cortical Receptive Field Estimates in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen V Haak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.

  4. Electromagnetic Fields at the Surface of Human-Body Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization. The results show that the material assumption when modeling the human body as a homogeneous material is very important. Furthermore, it is shown that one assumption might lead to higher fields for a specific polarization, angle of incidence...

  5. Human Resources Development in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of nuclear knowledge is the result of the past and present conditions of organizations of knowledge in the field of atomic and nuclear physics in Tajikistan. It is shown, that despite today's weak material resources, with the support of IAEA and other intergovernmental contracts and the international funds, and also presence of rich intellectual fund of the republic, it is possible to reserve Nuclear Knowledge in Tajikistan. (author)

  6. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  7. Development of the field of structural physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUJIYOSHI, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Electron crystallography is especially useful for studying the structure and function of membrane proteins — key molecules with important functions in neural and other cells. Electron crystallography is now an established technique for analyzing the structures of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers that closely simulate their natural biological environment. Utilizing cryo-electron microscopes with helium-cooled specimen stages that were developed through a personal motivation to understand the functions of neural systems from a structural point of view, the structures of membrane proteins can be analyzed at a higher than 3 Å resolution. This review covers four objectives. First, I introduce the new research field of structural physiology. Second, I recount some of the struggles involved in developing cryo-electron microscopes. Third, I review the structural and functional analyses of membrane proteins mainly by electron crystallography using cryo-electron microscopes. Finally, I discuss multifunctional channels named “adhennels” based on structures analyzed using electron and X-ray crystallography. PMID:26560835

  8. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  9. Field measurements of radium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; May, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two whole body counting systems have been developed and employed for field measurements. The radium contents of nine previously unmeasured cases have been determined during three field trips. Future trips are being scheduled to make body radioactivity measurements on a specific subpopulation of CHR radium cases

  10. Artificial intelligence and human development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job and tax revenue loss through automation: With the growing use of machine .... practices that support the development of inclusive AI applications. What ..... been tested in Malaysia and in Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.25 ...... We need to develop global and local values and principles for AI that prioritize.

  11. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  12. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  13. Herding agent field application system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, Ian; Belore, Randy [SL Ross Environmental Research (Canada)], email: ian@slross.com

    2011-07-01

    Chemical herding agents can be applied to deal with an oil slick. This study investigates the key system components of application systems for herding agents and shows how application systems can also be developed for operational herder usage in drift ice. These two application systems are respectively required for small boat and a helicopter operations. The factors, including the selection of flow rates, pressures and atomizing nozzle types, which give the appropriate herder droplet size distributions for small boat and aerial application systems were investigated in the initial stage of the study. In a later stage, on commercializing herders for in situ burning, further research is expected to deal with the many problems not tackled in the initial stage, such as the mounting of the nozzles, pumps and reservoirs on various aerial platforms and the provision of heating and insulation for cold-weather use. The paper presented the experiments and simulations that have been conducted as well as the basic design parameters for field application systems.

  14. Field to fuel: developing sustainable biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robin; Alles, Carina

    2011-06-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can be used as a scientific decision support technique to quantify the environmental implications of various biorefinery process, feedstock, and integration options. The goal of DuPont's integrated corn biorefinery (ICBR) project, a cost-share project with the United States Department of Energy, was to demonstrate the feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery concept. DuPont used LCA to guide research and development to the most sustainable cellulosic ethanol biorefinery design in its ICBR project and will continue to apply LCA in support of its ongoing effort with joint venture partners. Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel which has the potential to provide a sustainable solution to the nation's growing concerns around energy supply and climate change. A successful biorefinery begins with sustainable removal of biomass from the field. Michigan State University (MSU) used LCA to estimate the environmental performance of corn grain, corn stover, and the corn cob portion of the stover, grown under various farming practices for several corn growing locations in the United States Corn Belt. In order to benchmark the future technology options for producing cellulosic ethanol with existing technologies, LCA results for fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are compared to alternative ethanol processes and conventional gasoline. Preliminary results show that the DuPont ICBR outperforms gasoline and other ethanol technologies in the life-cycle impact categories considered here.

  15. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-05-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Sustainable development, human and endogenous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Brunet Icart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the dispersion of the conceptualizations of development linked to the “Second Development Decade”. This dispersion took place within a context of knowledge-based economy, which is shaped by learning and powered by innovation. A context dominated by neoclassical economics, which marked the globalized and financial capitalism of the late twentieth century and the early twenty first century. This neoclassical hegemony results from Keynesian analysis’ discredit, the Latin-American structuralism crisis and the decadence of the critical views —de-velopment neo-Marxists.

  17. Neoliberalism, Pedagogy and Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2012-01-01

    In most Western developed countries, adult life is increasingly organized on the basis of short-term work contracts and reduced social security funds. In this context it seems that producing efficient job-seekers and employees becomes the main aim of educational programs for the next generation.

  18. Philosophy and logic as inescapable organon for human development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is intended to articulate “a fortiori” the inescapability of “lumen naturale intellectus”1 as man‟s imperative for human development. At the end of this research we shall have succeeded in presenting philosophy as the home of, and always at home with, those problems with which other fields cannot cope.

  19. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  20. Secondary Structure of Rat and Human Amylin across Force Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Quynn Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient

  1. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  2. DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Operations Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities which are located in all regions of the United States. It gives brief descriptions of resources, activities, and capabilities of each field facility (sections III through V). These represent a cumulative capital investment of $12 billion and involve a work force of approximately 12,000 government (field) employees and approximately 100,000 contractor employees.

  3. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  4. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  5. Instructor's Guide for Human Development Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This instructor's guide is designed for use with an accompanying set of 61 student learning modules on human development. Included among the topics covered in the individual modules are the following: consumer and homemaking education (health and nutrition, personal appearance and grooming, puberty, menstruation, the human reproductive system,…

  6. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  7. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD EVALUATION OF LIQUID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-26

    Feb 26, 2016 ... growth media and inoculant stabiliser solutions were evaluated. Balanced medium and ... direct human subsistence and is used in several other food products. .... controlled environment (light intensity of 200 µE m-2 second-1, ...

  9. Field Office Contact Information for Application Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA provides a web service and downloadable file for SSA Field Office locations, telephone numbers, and hours of operation. (Note: If you think an office might be...

  10. Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess Human Resources Development (HRD) programmes of librarians ... It was suggested that for effective HRD, each university library should have a written staff

  11. 67 Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context. Purissima Egbekpalu ... confronting man and his existence and the environment in which he lives. ... mind it is a very powerful medium through which necessary skills can be acquired to ...

  12. Human Resources Development in the 70s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  13. Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital development perspective and poverty challenges in developing countries. ... in Nigeria and contributed about 23.9% of the Gross National Domestic product in 2016. ... Equally, the new focus on agriculture involves training on new technologies and evolving ...

  14. Ionising radiation and the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of radiation exposure of the developing human brain. Much of the evidence has come from the prenatally exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The effects on development age, mental retardation, head size, neuromuscular performance, intelligence tests, school performance and the occurrence of convulsions are discussed. Other topics covered include the biological nature of the damage to the brain, risk estimates in human and problems in radiation protection. (UK)

  15. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  16. The development of human behaviour analysis techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Cheon, Se Woo; Shu, Sang Moon; Park, Geun Ok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Han Yeong; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Eu Jin; Lee, Seung Hee

    1994-04-01

    This project has two major areas ; one is the development of an operator task simulation software and another is the development of human error analysis and application technologies. In this year project, the second year, for the development of an operator task simulation software, we studied the followings: - analysis of the characteristics of operator tasks, - development of operator task structures : Macro Structures, - development of an operator task simulation analyzes, - analysis of performance measures. And the followings for the development of human error analysis and application technologies : - analysis of human error mechanisms, - analysis of human error characteristics in tasks, - analysis of human error occurrence in Korean Nuclear Power Plants, - establishment of an experimental environment for human error data collection with Compact Nuclear Simulator, - basic design of a Multimedia-based Human Error Representing System. (Author)

  17. Advancements in the field of personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fruyt, Filip; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2014-07-01

    A summary is provided what the fields of personality and developmental psychology had to offer each other the past decade, reflected in the eleven contributions enclosed in this special issue. Strengths and opportunities to further advance the field are identified, including the extension of general trait with maladaptive trait models, the use of alternative methods to assess personality, and the adoption of configural approaches to describe traits in individuals, beyond more traditional person-centered approaches. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  19. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1997-10-01

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  1. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilien, J.L.; Dular, P.; Sabariego, R.; Beauvois, V.; Barbier, P.P.; Lorphevre, R.

    2010-01-01

    Since the early seventies, potential health risks from ELF (Extremely Low frequency electromagnetic Fields) exposure (50 Hz) have been extensively treated in the literature (more than 1000 references registered by WHO (World Health Organisation), 2007). After 30 years of worldwide research, the major epidemiological output is the possible modest increased risk (by a factor 2) of childhood leukaemia in case of a long exposure to an ambient magnetic flux density (B-field) higher than 0.4 μT. However, this fact has not been confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover it has not been validated by any adverse health biological mechanisms neither for adults nor for children. International recommendations (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) are currently, for general public, not to exceed a B-field of 100 μT (50 Hz) and an E-field of 5 kV/m (50 Hz). Herein, a rough overview of typical values of ELF fields will be presented followed by a brief literature survey on childhood leukaemia and ELF The potential carcinogenic effect of ELF would be linked to electrical disturbances in cell behaviour. The major concern linking child-hood leukaemia and ELF is thus to determine the response of bone marrow cells under ELF fields. With that purpose, transmembrane potential will be targeted and linked to the E-field at that level. This paper is three-folded: (1) the electric interactions between ambient ELF fields and the body are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Different sources of internal E-field are analysed and classified according to their potential risk; (2) the hypothesis of contact current is detailed; (3) key actions to undertake are highlighted. Based on the current state of the art and some authors' own developments, this paper proposes simple low cost enhancements of private electrical installations in order to annihilate the major source of potential effects of ELF. (authors)

  2. Faculty development: a 'field of dreams'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter J; Boillat, Miriam; Meterissian, Sarkis; Elizov, Michelle; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Participants in faculty development workshops often comment that 'those who need faculty development the most attend the least'. The goals of this study were to explore the reasons why some clinical teachers do not participate in centralised faculty development activities and to learn how we can make faculty development programmes more relevant to teachers' needs. In 2006, we conducted focus groups with 16 clinical teachers, who had not participated in faculty development activities, to ascertain their perceptions of faculty development, reasons for non-participation and perceived barriers to involvement. Content analysis and team consensus guided the data interpretation. Focus group participants were aware of faculty development offerings and valued the goals of these activities. Important reasons for non-participation emerged: clinical reality, which included volume of work and lack of (protected) time; logistical issues, such as timing and the central location of organised activities; a perceived lack of financial reward and recognition for teaching, and a perceived lack of direction from, and connection to, the university. Clinical reality and logistical issues appeared to be greater deterrents to participation than faculty development goals, content or strategies. Moreover, when asked to discuss faculty development, teachers referred to their development as faculty members in the broadest sense, which included personal and career development. They also expressed the desire for clear guidance from the university, financial rewards and recognition for teaching, and a sense of 'belonging'. Faculty development programmes should try to address these organisational issues as well as teachers' personal and professional needs.

  3. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  4. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  5. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  6. Development of the near field geochemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, D.; Bruno, J.; Duro, L.; Grive, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the near field geochemistry as a result of the interactions between two different introducing granitic groundwaters and the FEBEX bentonite as a buffer material. The two granitic groundwaters considered are: SR-5 water, sampled in a borehole at 500 m depth in Mina Ratones, and a mean composition of different granitic groundwaters from the iberian Massif. The steel canister has also been introduced by considering the iron corrosion in anoxic conditions. (Author)

  7. Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1991-07-01

    At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level. Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies. There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. 24 refs

  8. Interrelationships between climate and human cultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolitschka, B.

    2010-03-01

    Human influence on the environment increased continuously during the late Holocene and often interferes with the reconstruction of climatic fluctuations in natural archives. However, for the first millennium BC there exist convincing evidences of a climatic deterioration determined by geological, geomorphological, paleoecological and archaeological records from Europe and beyond. A fluctuation in the -14C record from tree rings indicates that this climatic setback seems to be of a global character which would support its solar origin. Geochemical and physical data of very well-dated lacustrine sediments from a German maar (Lake Holzmaar, West Eifel Volcanic Field) records a dramatic environmental change which coincides with or follows this climatic deterioration at 800 BC. These changes are related to a conspicuous shift towards an increased erosion of the soils in the catchment area. Thus sediment yields of the lacustrine system more than quadruple from the low mean mid-Holocene (7900-800 BC) level of 1.5 t km-2 yr-1 to values of 6.3 t km-2 yr-1 for the last centuries of the first millennium BC, i.e. until the start of the Roman occupation in the West Eifel region around 50 BC. Still, this elevated sediment yield value is rather low compared to 19 t km-2 yr-1 reached during the period of the Roman Empire (50 BC-400 AD) or even to 25 t km-2 yr-1 that were gained during the Middle Ages (11th to 13th century). During the Migration Period and the early Middle Ages, however, sediment yield data decreased again to almost mid-Holocene values of 2.3 t km-2 yr-1. Whether the shift in ecosystem stability following immediately after 800 BC was triggered by a solar-induced climatic change cannot absolutely be excluded but must be cast into doubt. Intensive deforestation indicated by pollen analyses suggests that human cultural development from the late Bronze Age to the early Iron Age, accompanied by the introduction of iron tools, was the reason for this alteration. Using

  9. High field superconductor development and understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Lee, Peter J. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Tarantini, Chiara [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-09-28

    All present circular accelerators use superconducting magnets to bend and to focus the particle beams. The most powerful of these machines is the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The main ring dipole magnets of the LHC are made from Nb-Ti but, as the machine is upgraded to higher luminosity, more powerful magnets made of Nb3Sn will be required. Our work addresses how to make the Nb3Sn conductors more effective and more suitable for use in the LHC. The most important property of the superconducting conductor used for an accelerator magnet is that it must have very high critical current density, the property that allows the generation of high magnetic fields in small spaces. Nb3Sn is the original high field superconductor, the material which was discovered in 1960 to allow a high current density in the field of about 9 T. For the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, much higher current densities in fields of about 12 Tesla will be required. The critical value of the current density is of order 2600 A/mm2 in a field of 12 Tesla. But there are very important secondary factors that complicate the attainment of this critical current density. The first is that the effective filament diameter must be no larger than about 40 µm. The second factor is that 50% of the cross-section of the Nb3Sn conductor that is pure copper must be protected from any poisoning by any Sn leakage through the diffusion barrier that protects the package of niobium and tin from which the Nb3Sn is formed by a high temperature reaction. These three, somewhat conflicting requirements, mean that optimization of the conductor is complex. The work described in this contract report addresses these conflicting requirements. They show that very sophisticated characterizations can uncover the way to satisfy all 3 requirements and they also suggest that the ultimate optimization of Nb3Sn is still not yet in sight

  10. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  11. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses

  12. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses.

  13. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  14. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  15. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  16. Hallmarks of Human Small Antral Follicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Mamsen, Linn S; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of human ovarian steroidogenesis differs from other species and precise knowledge on how human small antral follicles (hSAF) develop and acquire competence for continued growth and steroid output is still incomplete. The present study has characterized almost 1,000 normal hSAF collected...... increased steroid output profoundly. Furthermore, the highly significant association between FSHR and AR mRNA gene expression enforces important functions of androgens in follicular development. Collectively, these data reintroduce the understanding of the follicular phase as two parted in which regulation...

  17. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  18. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  19. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  20. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  1. Oil and gas field development: an NOC perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, George [Halliburton Energy Services (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Every day, oil companies around the world face real-life field development and management problems like the ones described above. Making timely and well-informed field development decisions are among the most important decisions the management of any oil company can make. The field development phase of the oil and gas life cycle extends from the discovery of a hydrocarbon deposit through initial production. It also includes revitalization of mature and marginal fields. Field development projects require the greatest level of cross-disciplinary integration and the largest investment decisions in the entire oil field life cycle. The ultimate economic success or failure of most fields is set by the quality of decisions made during field development. Oil companies take many different approaches to field development based on unique business drivers, their asset portfolio mix and risk tolerance, access to data and experienced manpower, adoption of technology, availability of capital, ownership, management style and so on. This paper focuses on understanding and addressing the particular field development challenges facing NOCs today. (author)

  2. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  3. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  5. Development of a human body RMN imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Jalmes, H.

    1984-03-01

    Imaging device for human body is studied in this thesis. The section images presented are got by a projection-reconstruction method associated to a section plane selection by an oscillating gradient application. Different stages of the machine development are presented: - design and calculation of a resistive magnet for very homogeneous field imaging - design of gradient coils for imaging magnets - realization of control and acquisition interfaces - realization of imaging software in real time [fr

  6. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  7. Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Antonio; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Arias, Pablo; Panyavin, Ivan; Foffani, Guglielmo; Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate in healthy humans the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of static magnetic fields through the scalp. Static magnetic fields were obtained by using cylindrical NdFeB magnets. We performed four sets of experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded motor potentials evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex before and after 10 min of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in conscious subjects. We observed an average reduction of motor cortex excitability of up to 25%, as revealed by TMS, which lasted for several minutes after the end of tSMS, and was dose dependent (intensity of the magnetic field) but not polarity dependent. In Experiment 2, we confirmed the reduction of motor cortex excitability induced by tSMS using a double-blind sham-controlled design. In Experiment 3, we investigated the duration of tSMS that was necessary to modulate motor cortex excitability. We found that 10 min of tSMS (compared to 1 min and 5 min) were necessary to induce significant effects. In Experiment 4, we used transcranial electric stimulation (TES) to establish that the tSMS-induced reduction of motor cortex excitability was not due to corticospinal axon and/or spinal excitability, but specifically involved intracortical networks. These results suggest that tSMS using small static magnets may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, and reversible way. PMID:21807616

  8. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  9. Teaching and Technologies for Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickering, Arthur W.; Payne, Carla; Poitras, Gail

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential of emerging communication and information technologies in terms of human development. Topics include distinctions between training and education, instrumental and developmental purposes, and differentiation and integration; developmental stages theory; a leadership seminar based on developmental stages; and uses of…

  10. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  11. Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context | Egbekpalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... confronting man and his existence and the environment in which he lives. ... With philosophy, one develops a rational outlook on life that interrogates the basic ... their culture about the problems on ground and seeks to proffer humane solutions. ... To this effect, Philosophers believe that knowledge is power (scientia est ...

  12. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  13. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  14. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  15. Developing the Immunology Book for Animal and Human Physiology Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuni Mitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of the study was to develop an immunology book for Animal and Human Physiology subject. This book was developed based on the Thiagarajan development model which was modified of: Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate (4D. The data expert validation instrument was questionnaire using Likert scales, comments, and recommendation sheets. Expert appraisal was done by material expert and media and design learning expert. The developmental testing was conducted using questionnaire to test the readibility. The expert validation was conducted by material expert as well as design and media learning expert validator; meanwhile, the field test was done to measure the readability. The validity test results were: the material expert state that the material is valid (97.14%, as well as the design and learning media expert (84.88% and field test by students (88.17%.

  16. Radiation effects on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The developing human brain has been shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. Mental retardation has been observed in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan exposed in utero during sensitive periods, and clinical studies of pelvically irradiated pregnant women have demonstrated damaging effects on the fetus. In this annex the emphasis is on reviewing the results of the study of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan, although the results of other human epidemiological investigations and of pertinent experimental studies are also considered. Refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  17. Electric Field Measurement of the Living Human Body for Biomedical Applications: Phase Measurement of the Electric Field Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Hieda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors are developing a technique for conducting measurements inside the human body by applying a weak electric field at a radio frequency (RF. Low RF power is fed to a small antenna, and a similar antenna located 15–50 cm away measures the electric field intensity. Although the resolution of the method is low, it is simple, safe, cost-effective, and able to be used for biomedical applications. One of the technical issues suggested by the authors' previous studies was that the signal pattern acquired from measurement of a human body was essentially different from that acquired from a phantom. To trace the causes of this difference, the accuracy of the phase measurements was improved. This paper describes the new experimental system that can measure the signal phase and amplitude and reports the results of experiments measuring a human body and a phantom. The results were analyzed and then discussed in terms of their contribution to the phase measurement.

  18. Education positive approach: contributions to human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ROMERO PÉREZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the current theoretical perspectives underlying educational proposals aimed at promoting the positive development of the people. Firstly we show the most important characteristics of the positive approach. Then, we focus on the positive concept of the inner and its relation to eudaimonia, self-care and emotional selfgovernance. Thirdly, with reference to the contributions of Positive Psychology and Prevention Science we examine the two points of view –hedonic and eudaemonic– from which different pedagogical approaches are based and focus towards education for the welfare, social-emotional development and educational character. We conclude that, despite the lack of practical knowledge about happiness and the art of living, a positive education oriented to the human construction processes must promote both emotional and social skills such as feelings and moral responsibilities for the optimal development of human being.

  19. Overview of technology developments in probiotic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are ‘live microorganisms which, when administrated in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host’ (FAO/WHO, 2001. This requirement, i.e. that the probiotic bacteria must be in viable form at the time of consumption, poses a number of technical challenges from food processing perspectives. Environmental stresses encountered during food processing include acid exposure during food fermentations, extremes in temperatures encountered during drying processes, in addition to oxidative, osmotic, and food matrix stresses. Furthermore, the ingested bacteria must remain viable during gastric transit, to reach the site of action in viable form to exert the probiotic effects. This imposes further stresses, as the gastrointestinal tract is naturally designed to impede the passage of microorganisms with low pH encountered in the stomach and the detergent-like properties of bile encountered in the duodenum. A number of approaches have been investigated in order to minimise the damage caused by exposure to such stresses experienced by probiotics during food processing and gastric transit. Approaches for protection of probiotic viability during food processing and shelf life include manipulation of bacterial cell physiology, application of prelethal stress to the cultures during cell preparation, selection of appropriate drying conditions, and optimisation of reconstitution conditions after drying. Furthermore, probiotic viability losses can be minimised by selection of appropriate food carriers for their delivery to the intestine. In this respect, the composition and physical nature of the food matrix can have profound effects on the stability of live probiotics during gastric transit. Encapsulation of probiotics is another approach to positively affect viability of probiotics in some matrices. Furthermore, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying bacterial survival in hostile environments in order to develop efficacious

  20. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  1. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  2. Are "Human Factors" the Primary Cause of Complications in the Field of Implant Dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Franck; Amalberti, René; Renouard, Erell

    Complications in medicine and dentistry are usually analyzed from a purely technical point of view. Rarely is the role of human behavior or judgment considered as a reason for adverse outcomes. When the role of human factors is considered, these are usually described in general terms rather than specifically identifying the factors responsible for an adverse event. The impact of cognitive and behavioral factors in the explanation of adverse events has been studied in other high-stakes areas such as aviation and nuclear power. Specific protocols have been developed to reduce rates of human error, and, where human error is unavoidable, to lessen its impact. This approach has dramatically reduced the incidence of accidents in these fields. This article aims to review how a similar approach may prove valuable in the reduction of complications in implant dentistry.

  3. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  4. Methodology for oil field development; Metodologia para o desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeano, Yadira Diaz

    1998-07-01

    The main scope of this work is to study and develop a methodology which allows the elaboration of project for oil field development. There fore it is necessary to consider to consider the integration of the human, technological and economical issues that are important parameters in the engineering project. The spiral concept was applied for the project in order to coordinate, in a reasonable and logical way, the activities involved in the field development, as well as the hierarchical analysis method for the decision making process. The development of an oil field is divided in viability study, preliminary project, final project, project implementation, production and field abandonment cycles. The main components for each cycle are external aspects, environmental criteria, reservoir management, and drilling, completion and well workover, production systems, exportation systems, and risk and economical analysis. The proposed methodology establishes a general scheme for planning and it presents applicable procedures for any field. (author)

  5. Development and the evolvability of human limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  6. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  7. Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...... for girls. Given these findings, it appears that household entrepreneurship may contribute to decreasing the severe child labour problem in Tanzania, but resolving the problem of low school attendance rates will require a different strategy....

  8. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  9. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

  10. [Development of human resources and the Plan of Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C

    1984-01-01

    This article (whose first part was published in the previous issue of Educación Médica y Salud) concludes an exhaustive review of manpower development in the Americas. This part considers the specific measures in this field enunciated in the Plan of Action; these measures pertain to four main areas: planning and programming of human resources, training in priority areas, utilization of human resources, and educational technology. The author discusses the present and future possibilities and obstacles of each of these activities and the steps to be taken to bring needs into line with real situations. It is of paramount importance that the national health authorities clearly spell out their policies for the development of human resources in the health field within the framework of general development policies. Another point to be insisted upon is the multiprofessional and multidisciplinary training of the health team and the importance of the education-service-supervision function, which usually results in permanent and continuing education, which in turn optimizes the utilization of personnel. However, none of this will be possible without an appropriate education technology with which to innovate, analyze and refine the entire education process and so meet the needs of both society and the health services.

  11. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  12. Evolution of Attitudes in the Field of Human Research Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Escobar-Melo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The state of evolution of attitudes in a sample of 142 Medical Students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (at the beginning, middle and ending of their studies in the field of Human Research Ethics (HRE is analytically described. A complex scale of attitudes was used, with three components: affective, beliefs-related and behavioral, further divided into three theoretical categories taken from Bioethics: Subject-End/means- Dignity, Benefit and Justice. The relationship between the current medical education process and the attitudes regarding HRE in the sample are analyzed.A small trend towards progress in all categories and in all components of attitudes throughout medical education is described; neither the Benefit nor the Subject-End/means/Dignity categories evolve in a significant way; some significant differences were observed in the Justice category (beliefs and behavioral and in the Subject-End/means-Dignity category (beliefs component. The results allow for asking about the role of formation and evolution of those attitudes throughout the academic process. In conclusion, attitudes seem to be progressing relatively, without a decisive evolution.

  13. Development of training courses in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Young; Seo, In Seok; Lee, Eui Jin; Seo, Kyung Won; Won, Jong Yeol; Nam, Jae Yeol

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the final results of D evelopment of training courses in the field of nuclear energy . The scope and contents are as follows : 1. to develop specialized nuclear training programs. 2. to collect and analyze foreign training programs and materials. 3. to develop foreign assisted training courses. 4. to develop interregional training courses for developing country trainees. and 5. to develop text materials for the implementation of training courses. 16 refs. (Author)

  14. Contributions from assited human reproduction techniques' socio-legal research to the legislative field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s intention is to share some of the main results of two field-based research projects regarding assisted human reproduction practices in Argentina. Both projects have been developed in a dynamic legislative context involving medical coverage regulation, parentage determination and the right to know one's origins for children born with third party genetic material. Also, in this context, the Draft Civil and Commercial Code reform introduced two figures that were then removed in the parliamentary debate: post mortem fertilization and surrogate motherhood. All these issues concerning the use of assisted human reproduction challenge the legal field and are addressed in these research projects, one of them more from an explorative perspective and the other from a qualitative one. Therefore, this article aims to introduce some of the measured variables and the findings obtained to serve as relevant contributions to achieve a more appropriate legislation according with the medical and social reality.

  15. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  16. Full Human Development And School Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    The aim of this keynote address is to show how theoretical ideas from the cultural-historical tradition have been used to address issues that fall within the scope of interest for Brazilian school psychologists. The first part of the conference discusses the idea of radical-local teaching...... which explains how this perspective was used with lower secondary school boys in Denmark who had been expelled from several schools. These two parts will be used to illustrate a perspective about full human development, expressed through cultural-historical theoretical concepts, as an orientation...... for all professional approaches to school psychology....

  17. Some stochastic techniques in quantization, new developments in Markov fields and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Zegarlinski, B.

    1990-01-01

    In these lectures we intend to discuss a few recent developments in the area of interactions between quantum fields and Markow fields in which we have been involved. We stress particularly developments involving techniques of stochastic analysis and where mathematical results have been obtained. In sections 1 and 2 we discuss recent developments in the study and applications of the theory of Dirichlet forms in its relations with quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. In our opinion, this theory provides a natural setting for the study of the singular stochastic processes associated with quantum theory. In section 3 we discuss a recent rigorous construction of a convergent simplicial approximation to quantum fields. We look upon these developments as a first step towards a mathematical realization, at least in 2 space-time dimensions, of a convergent 'Regge-calculus', and as first steps to the mathematical control of more general models (like e.g. models involving actions of Chern-Simons type) in the continuum. In Sect. 4 we discuss applications of some stochastic techniques to the study of gauge fields and Higgs fields, mainly in 2 space time dimensions and certain non linear electromagnetic-type fields in 4-space-time dimensions. (orig./HSI)

  18. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  19. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-07-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Establishing operational stability--developing human infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Max A; Byers, Ernest J; Stingley, Preston; Sheridan, Robert M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-12-01

    Over the past year, Toyota has come under harsh scrutiny as a result of several recalls. These well publicized mishaps have not only done damage to Toyota's otherwise sterling reputation for quality but have also called into question the assertions from a phalanx of followers that Toyota's production system (generically referred to as TPS or Lean) is the best method by which to structure one's systems of operation. In this article, we discuss how Toyota, faced with the pressure to grow its business, did not appropriately cadence this growth with the continued development and maintenance of the process capabilities (vis a vis the development of human infrastructure) needed to adequately support that growth. We draw parallels between the pressure Toyota faced to grow its business and the pressure neurointerventional practices face to grow theirs, and offer a methodology to support that growth without sacrificing quality.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  3. Summary of the 3rd workshop on human resources development (HRD) in FNCA. FY2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The Human Resources Development (HRD) Project was added in 1999 to the Cooperation Activities of 'the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA)' which is organized by AEC of Japan. The HRD Project supports to solidify the foundation of nuclear development utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. The principal activity of the HRD Project is to hold the Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia once a year. The objective of the Workshop is to clarify problems and needs of the human resources development of each country and to support mutually by exchanging information etc. The report consists of the summary of the 3rd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field in Asia held on October 29 - November 1, 2001 at the Nuclear Training Center of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in Daejeon, Korea. (author)

  4. Human Development – Qualitative Dimensions of a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Pirtea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available “The human development” concept was born in a period characterized by an important number of events that have caused important changes of the geo-political factors as well as essential mutations at economic and social level. This period is known as the “post-war era”. In this era, the world economy has registered considerable progress. The international cooperation and economic development have permitted the significant increase of merchandise and services world-wide commerce as well as the increase of foreign investments. Both the global production structure and the labour force structure have changed. The rapid technological progress changes all activity fields as well as human lives. Unfortunately, this global economic development is doubled by the persistence of economic and social differences and by the occurrence of set-backs. In the present paper, we are trying to present the Romanian position towards the human development as well as the development perspectives of this position in the context of Romania’s integration in the European Union.

  5. Screening of Geomechanical Risks for Malaysian Development Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Najmuddin Syed Muhammad Syafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeper drilling and exploitation of difficult reservoir is the new trend in oil and gas industry. Geomechanics study has, therefore, become a new requirement particularly for oil and gas field development. However, a complete geomechanics study is limited with the number of experts, time consuming and not a straightforward task. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a quick geomechanics screening criterion to be used as a standard guideline to evaluate the high level geomechanical risks and suitable analysis can be recommended for the identified development fields. The aim of this paper is to propose a screening criterion for geomechanical risks study based on four key parameters, drilling, depletion, injection and storage and sand production. The screening approach is designed based on Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM risk screening where the likelihood is based on a set of scores developed to specific questions. The consequence for each failure scenarios is assessed based on educated estimation of the impact towards people, asset, environment and reputation. Recommendations for geomechanical study are made based on the severity of each failure category on the RAM risk matrix. Fourteen development fields in offshore Peninsular Malaysia, offshore Sarawak and offshore Sabah are selected for the assessment. Based on results, fields in offshore Sarawak and Sabah have higher potential for geomechacnical issues mainly because of their geological settings and formation characteristics. A set of geomechanical study is proposed for each individual field for prudent management of potential geomechanics risk associated with the depletion and EOR injection scheme planned for the fields.

  6. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  7. Field studies into the dynamics of product development tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, van K.E.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to describe three exploratory field studies investigating which characteristics add to later time to market and/or low product functionality of newly developed products. The studies are conducted at the level of developments tasks, or work packages. The first and second

  8. Geology and development of oil fields in Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The anthology is dedicated to the geology, geophysics, hydrodynamics, and development of oil fields in Western Siberia. The articles on geological, industrial-geophysical and theoretical mathematical studies make recommendations and suggest measures to improve procedures for calculating oil reserves, to increase development efficiency and raise oil output.

  9. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  10. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  11. Informal meeting on recent developments in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-12-01

    A topical meeting on recent developments in field theory was organized by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 21 to 23 November 1977. The publication is a compilation of the abstracts of lecture given. The mayor themes of the meeting were the problem of confinement, the quantization of Yang-Mills theories and the topological aspects of field theories in flat and curved spaces

  12. Development case histories: Tongonan and Palinpinon geothermal fields, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogena, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The background on the general scenario of energy resource development in the country is described. Highlights of the exploration history of the Tongonan and Palinpinon geothermal fields in the Philippines are then presented. This is discussed in conjunction with the strategies and policies taken in the development of each field. Finally, the common policies and contrasting development strategies are compared and evaluated. The conclusion derived is that the development strategy decisions at Tongonan are influenced by the regional power demand, topography, and the large extent of the resource. In contrast, the development at Palinpinon is less constrained by the external influence of regional power needs, but, instead, is significantly dominated by the limitations imposed by the rugged terrain and the physical characteristics of the resource area. Such comparison demonstrates the site-specific nature of geothermal development. (auth.). 8 figs.; 2 refs

  13. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  14. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  15. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  16. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  17. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  18. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Yonezo

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  20. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  1. Directions for Development of the Field of Electroactive Polymer (EAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    In last few years, the rate of development and advances in the field of EAP has accelerated significantly and it is increasingly getting closer to the point of finding them used in commercial products. Substantial development has been reported in the understanding of their drive mechanisms and the parameters that control their electro-activation behavior. Further, efforts are being made to develop mass production techniques with greatly improved actuation capability and operation durability. The recent efforts to develop energy harvesting techniques, haptic interfacing (including refreshable braille displays), and toys are further increasing the likelihood of finding niches for these materials. In this paper, the author sought to examine the potential directions for the future development of the field of EAP in relation to the state-of-the-art.

  2. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V; Teichmann, Lino L; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A Karolina; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes, macrophages and NK cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34(+) progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MITRG and MISTRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology.

  3. A study on human performance enhancement plan in maintenance field by survey on actual condition of human performance tools - 15035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Human errors in nuclear power plant are one of the important factors that may cause reactor trip. Most operating companies of nuclear power plants manage human factor systematically through tools like HPES (Human Performance Enhancement), PSR (Periodic Safety Review), OE (Operating Experience), human performance tools, safety culture assessment and CAP (Corrective Action Program). But human factors are managed passively in maintenance field, because maintenance works are carrying out by partner companies. KHNP also contracts the maintenance work to the partner companies, and advise them to use human performance tools. But the actual condition on partner companies has not been surveyed. This paper suggests some plans that can improve human performance by analyzing the opinion of partner company employees about the causes and solutions of human errors, by analyzing utilization of human performance tools and by comparing the results of the partner companies survey with the results of the operating company survey. The survey is conducted to 3 partner companies by similar contents and categories in order to compare partner company with operating company, and the main analysis fields are the following: -1) Level of understanding and utilization of the human performance tools, -2) Difficulties of applying the human performance tools, -3) Level of employee's training (or education) in the use of the human performance tools, and -4) Root causes of human errors and countermeasures. (authors)

  4. Cancer Care and Control as a Human Right: Recognizing Global Oncology as an Academic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniu, Alexandru E; Martei, Yehoda M; Trimble, Edward L; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of cancer incidence and mortality is on the rise. There are major differences in cancer fatality rates due to profound disparities in the burden and resource allocation for cancer care and control in developed compared with developing countries. The right to cancer care and control should be a human right accessible to all patients with cancer, regardless of geographic or economic region, to avoid unnecessary deaths and suffering from cancer. National cancer planning should include an integrated approach that incorporates a continuum of education, prevention, cancer diagnostics, treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Global oncology as an academic field should offer the knowledge and skills needed to efficiently assess situations and work on solutions, in close partnership. We need medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, pediatric oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists trained to think about well-tailored resource-stratified solutions to cancer care in the developing world. Moreover, the multidisciplinary fundamental team approach needed to treat most neoplastic diseases requires coordinated investment in several areas. Current innovative approaches have relied on partnerships between academic institutions in developed countries and local governments and ministries of health in developing countries to provide the expertise needed to implement effective cancer control programs. Global oncology is a viable and necessary field that needs to be emphasized because of its critical role in proposing not only solutions in developing countries, but also solutions that can be applied to similar challenges of access to cancer care and control faced by underserved populations in developed countries.

  5. Developments of saddle field ion sources and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, M.M.; Helal, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Ion sources should have different performance parameters according to the various applications for which they are used, ranging from ion beam production to high energy ion implanters. There are many kinds of ion sources, which produce different ion beams with different characteristics. This paper deals with the developments and applications of some saddle field ion sources which were designed and constructed in our lab. Theory of operation and types of saddle field ion sources are discussed in details. Some experimental results are given. The saddle field ion sources operate at low gas pressure and require neither magnetic field nor filament. This type of ion sources is used for many different applications as ion beam machining, sputtering, cleaning and profiling for surface analysis etc

  6. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-01-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  7. Development of hard X-ray dark-field microscope using full-field optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hidekazu; Azuma, Hiroaki; Shimomura, Sho; Tsuji, Takuya; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We develop a dark-field X-ray microscope using full-field optics based on a synchrotron beamline. Our setup consists of a condenser system and a microscope objective with an angular acceptance larger than that of the condenser. The condenser system is moved downstream from its regular position such that the focus of the condenser is behind the objective. The dark-field microscope optics are configured by excluding the converging beam from the condenser at the focal point. The image properties of the system are evaluated by observing and calculating a Siemens star test chart with 10 keV X-rays. Our setup allows easy switching to bright-field imaging. (author)

  8. Standard development at the Human Variome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Vihinen, Mauno

    2015-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered to be beneficial for HVP affiliated data sharing infrastructure and the broader community to adopt. The HVP also maintains a process for assessing systems, processes and tools that implement HVP Standards and Guidelines. Recommended System Status is an accreditation process designed to encourage the adoption of HVP Standards and Guidelines. Here, we describe the HVP standards development process and discuss the accepted standards, guidelines and recommended systems as well as those under acceptance. Certain HVP Standards and Guidelines are already widely adopted by the community and there are committed users for the others. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  10. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.

    1996-09-01

    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  11. The use of environmental assessments in the Brae field development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the principle environmental aspects associated with North Sea offshore oil and gas development and through the case history of Marathon Oil UK's Brae Field Development illustrates the scope and function of environmental assessments as applied to offshore developments. Details of the approach taken are described including the chronological evolution of the scope and aims of individual assessments. Examples of discharge inventory preparation, effluent and receiving environment monitoring programs, audits and inspections and procedures are described. The role of these components in the development of environmental management systems is discussed

  12. High-field proton MRS of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Costanzo, Alfonso E-mail: alfonso.dicostanzo@unina2.it; Trojsi, F.; Tosetti, M.; Giannatempo, G.M.; Nemore, F.; Piccirillo, M.; Bonavita, S.; Tedeschi, G.; Scarabino, T

    2003-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) of the brain reveals specific biochemical information about cerebral metabolites, which may support clinical diagnoses and enhance the understanding of neurological disorders. The advantages of performing {sup 1}H-MRS at higher field strengths include better signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increased spectral, spatial and temporal resolution, allowing the acquisition of high quality, easily quantifiable spectra in acceptable imaging times. In addition to improved measurement precision of N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine and myo-inositol, high-field systems allow the high-resolution measurement of other metabolites, such as glutamate, glutamine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, scyllo-inositol, aspartate, taurine, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glucose and branched amino acids, thus extending the range of metabolic information. However, these advantages may be hampered by intrinsic field-dependent technical difficulties, such as decreased T2 signal, chemical shift dispersion errors, J-modulation anomalies, increased magnetic susceptibility, eddy current artifacts, limitations in the design of homogeneous and sensitive radiofrequency (RF) coils, magnetic field instability and safety issues. Several studies demonstrated that these limitations could be overcome, suggesting that the appropriate optimization of high-field {sup 1}H-MRS would expand the application in the fields of clinical research and diagnostic routine.

  13. Health Coaching: A Developing Field within Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The health promotion and health education literature has references to health counselling. Yet, beyond the field of health, coaching has become a popular method to enhance and facilitate individual and group performance in business, sports, and personal areas of life. This paper focuses on the recent development of health coaching by practitioners…

  14. Development of a gas-phase field ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.L.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1983-01-01

    A field ionization ion source has been developed to investigate the suitability of using such a source with the Melbourne Proton Microprobe. Operating parameters have been measured, and the source has been found to be brighter than the radiofrequency ion source presently used in the Melbourne 5U Pelletron Accelerator. Improvements to the source geometry to increase the current output are planned

  15. Field development. Concept selection in deep water environment offshore Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenot, A.; Berger, J.C.; Limet, N. [TotalFinaElf, la Defense 6, Rosa-Lirio Project Group, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-10-01

    The significant oil discoveries made at the end of the 90's in the deep water environment offshore the coast of Angola, has led to a considerable amount of development activities. The first field in production was the turnkey development of the Kuito field on the Block 14 operated by Chevron. More recently the Girassol field has been put successfully in production on the Block 17, operated by TotalFinaElf. Both developments are making use of sub-sea wells connected to a moored dedicated FPSO. On the western side of the Girassol field, several discoveries have been made. They are known as the Rosa Lirio pole, from the names of two of the main channels. Values for water depth are in the same range than on Girassol (1300- 1400 m). A project group has been established in 1999 to evaluate the development of these discoveries. The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptual work which as been carried out, and in particular to show that even if many different concepts have been evaluated, the final choice has been also to make use of sub-sea trees. (authors)

  16. The development of simple field based procedures for extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to develop procedures for extracting volatiles from the vine of Adenia cissampeloides which could effect the highest yield at the lowest extraction costs and also could be produced at the cottage industry level. The participatory rural appraisal technique was used to ensure ...

  17. Educational Investments and Economic Development: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    A study examined the relationship between educational investments and economic development in the small community of Canandaigua, New York. A field study approach was used to collect data pertaining to the city's population characteristics, income characteristics, economic conditions, unemployment rates, and housing conditions. These data were…

  18. Development of cyber training system for nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Taek; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Eui Jin; Lee, Han Young; Choi, Nan Young

    2002-02-01

    This report describes on technical contents related cyber training system construct on KAERI Nuclear Training Center, and on using cases of cyber education in domestic and foreign countries. Also realtime training system through the internet and cyber training management system for atomic fields is developed. All users including trainee, course managers and lecturers can use new technical for create new paradigm

  19. Development ethics - Why? What? How? A formulation of the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper assesses the rationale, contributions, structure, and challenges of the field of development ethics. Processes of social and economic transformation involve great risks and costs and great opportunities for gain, but the benefits, costs, and risks are typically hugely unevenly

  20. Interdisciplinary Professional Development Needs of Cooperative Extension Field Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondgerath, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The study discussed in this article sought to identify cross-program professional development needs of county-based Extension professionals (field educators). The study instrument was completed by 105 county-based Extension professionals. Interdisciplinary topics, such as program evaluation and volunteer management, were identified as subjects of…

  1. Cutting risk, boosting cash flow and developing marginal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baustad, T.; Courtin, G.; Davies, T.; Kenison, R.; Turnbull, J.; Gray, B.; Jalali, Y.; Remondet, J.C.; Hjelmsmark, L.; Oldfield, T.; Romano, C.; Saier, R.; Rannestad, G.

    1996-01-01

    To minimize financial risk and accelerate return on investment, oil companies are using low-cost, reusable production systems. The scope of these development options is illustrated by looking at three offshore case studies that range from extended well test to marginal field development. In each case, production systems technology has been deployed to provide superior data, early oil or both, thus reducing economic uncertainty and delivering accelerated cash flow. 10 figs., 23 refs

  2. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  3. The human-animal relationship: a new field of socio-educational action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-María Senent

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the educational approaches towards the animal-human relationship which have been developed during the last 20 years. The article establishes a chain of states in that relationship and presents the reasons why those states are consecutive or, occasionally, simultaneous. Next, the different European profiles of social educators are reviewed to see which of these are more open towards educational action with animals, something which could be considered a new field for educators if they have adequate professional training. A series of European (and some American websites are analysed in order to determine their approach towards the human-animal relationship. Although most of them are related to animal-assisted therapy, some francophone and Italian websites show approaches that go beyond that. That could imply an extension of the social educators’ field of action. Indeed, French and Southern-European models are closer to that point than the rest of the profiles analysed, in terms of the openness and flexibility they show towards new fields.

  4. The human right to sustainable development in solidarity with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Teresa Parrilla Díaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human development as a universal right subjected to the welfare of Nature. Nature is presented as supporter of life and supplier of the essential resources needed to achieve a complete human development. In light of the global ecological crisis, the author proposes sustainable development as the central framework for a new human development that can be fairer to Nature and to mankind. The challenge of sustainable human development consists in viewing Nature from an ethical perspective of human rights and solidarity.

  5. Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II] and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale. Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2% and female (71% employed adults (N = 355 at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field. Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment. Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

  6. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Markova Natalia S.; Demyanenko Alina A.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethink...

  7. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  8. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  9. Near field communication recent developments and library implications

    CERN Document Server

    McHugh, Sheli

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication is a radio frequency technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. This report on the progress of Near Field Communication reviews the features and functionality of the technology and summarizes the broad spectrum of its current and anticipated applications. We explore the development of NFC technology in recent years, introduce the major stakeholders in the NFC ecosystem, and project its movement toward mainstream adoption. Several examples of early implementation of NFC

  10. PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    1993-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.

  11. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  12. Developing Kazakhstan's Tengiz field will be a tough task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilov, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews a new joint venture between the Chevron and Kazakh representatives to develop one of the world's largest oil fields under very challenging climatic and environmental conditions. It is proposed that a production of 700,000 barrels-of-oil per day will be reached by the year 2010. The paper reviews the historical development of this joint venture and discusses the proposed cost and profit-sharing proposed. It then discusses the geologic and environmental conditions which will cause extreme problems in the field development. These include climate extremes, probability of flooding, overpressured systems, corrosive brines and ground water, and poor soil conditions for construction of any facilities. It discusses a proposed plan to address each of these issues and the possible construction of oil and gas processing facilities, sulfur recovery facilities, and pipelines

  13. Human Exposure Model (HEM): A modular, web-based application to characterize near-field chemical exposures and releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Chemical Safety and Sustainability research program is developing the Human Exposure Model (HEM) to assess near-field exposures to chemicals that occur in various populations over the entire life cycle of a consumer product. The model will be implemented as a...

  14. Infinite conditional random fields for human behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF

  15. Indian gas field development plan aims for quick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, N.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new oil or gas field involves construction of various downstream facilities such as field flow lines, trunk lines, oil and gas collecting and processing stations, and transportation to refineries and consuming centers. This paper reports that it is essential that these facilities be built on a schedule that allows the products to be transported and processed as early as possible. Unless such an approach is initiated, the wells producing crude oil or natural gas will need to be shut-in in the absence of the other relative facilities. For quick returns on the investments, a realistic program and careful evaluation of the schedule is needed to ensure that early commissioning of the fields is possible

  16. Influence Of Globalization On Human Resource Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addressed the influence of Globalization on human resource development in Nigeria. It traced the origin of human resource development in Nigeria to the coming of the missionaries who spiritually colonized Africa and also educated their adherents. The human resource produced from the education offered were ...

  17. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  18. An Overview of Human Rights, Good Governance and Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Overview of Human Rights, Good Governance and Development. ... African Research Review ... The paper also addresses the economic and social effect of such human rights violations on national development as well as the effect of using communication to solve the problem of human rights violations and corruption.

  19. Development of high field superconducting Tokamak 'TRIAM-1M'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takao; Suzuki, Shohei; Nishi, Masatsugu; Kawasaki, Takahide.

    1984-01-01

    The tokamak nuclear fusion apparatus ''TRIAM-1M'' which is constructed in the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, has a number of distinctive features as compared with other tokamak projects, that is, the toroidal field coils are made of superconductors for the first time in Japan, and the apparatus is small and has strong magnetic field. Hitachi Ltd. designed and has forwarded the manufacture of the TRIAM-1M. In this paper, the total constitution of the apparatus and the design and manufacture of the plasma vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and others are reported. The objectives of research are the containment of strong field tokamak plasma and the establishment of the law of proportion, the development of turbulent flow heating method, the adoption of mixed wave current driving method and the practical use of Nb 3 Sn superconducting coils. The apparatus is composed of the vacuum vessel containing plasma, toroidal field coils, poloidal field coils, current transformer coils and turbulent flow heating coils for plasma heating, heat insulating vacuum vessel and supporting structures. The evacuating facility, helium liquefying refrigerator and cooling water facility are installed around the main body. (Kako, I.)

  20. The Development of Pyro Human Resource Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the current status of the development of a human resource information system. Establishing an expert information system helps readily provide the personal information of international and local pyroprocess experts who are currently conducting research at institutes. The information system offers a data processing environment in which users can easily access the necessary information online for a prompt search. Setting up this online networking enables us to easily obtain the personal information of pyro-experts, if necessary, and to provide the basic materials to seek an efficient system of technical cooperation. As pyro-technology presently falls under a high-tech field in the area of back-end fuel cycle, the research is under way at some advanced nuclear nations such as the United States, Korea, and Japan: therefore, the cooperation of experts from home and abroad is critical, helping gain maximum achievements through minimum investments and personnel. Since many efforts should be preceded to secure original technology in the field of fair technology and pyrosystem engineering, we can attain the research goal efficiently if other advanced nuclear nations have already obtained advanced technology, by efficiently realizing the goal through the benchmarking of the necessary technology. To form a cooperative system for such experts, we should know, above all, what research experts are conducting in certain fields at certain laboratories of certain countries

  1. 123 Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nollywood, the Nigerian video film industry, has ... The full definition of human development as captured still in the Human ... Additional choices include political freedom, ..... dialects and speech mannerisms of their settings portrayed through.

  2. Influence and Correction from the Human Body on the Measurement of a Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Xiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the operating specifications of existing electric field measuring instruments, measuring technicians must be located far from the instruments to eliminate the influence of the human body occupancy on a spatial electric field. Nevertheless, in order to develop a portable safety protection instrument with an effective electric field warning function for working staff in a high-voltage environment, it is necessary to study the influence of an approaching human body on the measurement of an electric field and to correct the measurement results. A single-shaft electric field measuring instrument called the Type LP-2000, which was developed by our research team, is used as the research object in this study. First, we explain the principle of electric field measurement and describe the capacitance effect produced by the human body. Through a theoretical analysis, we show that the measured electric field value decreases as a human body approaches. Their relationship is linearly proportional. Then, the ratio is identified as a correction coefficient to correct for the influence of human body proximity. The conclusion drawn from the theoretical analysis is proved via simulation. The correction coefficient kb = 1.8010 is obtained on the basis of the linear fitting of simulated data. Finally, a physical experiment is performed. When no human is present, we compare the results from the Type LP-2000 measured with Narda EFA-300 and the simulated value to verify the accuracy of the Type LP-2000. For the case of an approaching human body, the correction coefficient kb* = 1.9094 is obtained by comparing the data measured with the Type LP-2000 to the simulated value. The correction coefficient obtained from the experiment (i.e., kb* is highly consistent with that obtained from the simulation (i.e., kb. Two experimental programs are set; under these programs, the excitation voltages and distance measuring points are regulated to produce different

  3. Influence and Correction from the Human Body on the Measurement of a Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongping; Liu, Huaitong; Zhou, Qiang; Xie, Yutong; Ma, Qichao

    2016-06-10

    According to the operating specifications of existing electric field measuring instruments, measuring technicians must be located far from the instruments to eliminate the influence of the human body occupancy on a spatial electric field. Nevertheless, in order to develop a portable safety protection instrument with an effective electric field warning function for working staff in a high-voltage environment, it is necessary to study the influence of an approaching human body on the measurement of an electric field and to correct the measurement results. A single-shaft electric field measuring instrument called the Type LP-2000, which was developed by our research team, is used as the research object in this study. First, we explain the principle of electric field measurement and describe the capacitance effect produced by the human body. Through a theoretical analysis, we show that the measured electric field value decreases as a human body approaches. Their relationship is linearly proportional. Then, the ratio is identified as a correction coefficient to correct for the influence of human body proximity. The conclusion drawn from the theoretical analysis is proved via simulation. The correction coefficient kb = 1.8010 is obtained on the basis of the linear fitting of simulated data. Finally, a physical experiment is performed. When no human is present, we compare the results from the Type LP-2000 measured with Narda EFA-300 and the simulated value to verify the accuracy of the Type LP-2000. For the case of an approaching human body, the correction coefficient kb* = 1.9094 is obtained by comparing the data measured with the Type LP-2000 to the simulated value. The correction coefficient obtained from the experiment (i.e., kb*) is highly consistent with that obtained from the simulation (i.e., kb). Two experimental programs are set; under these programs, the excitation voltages and distance measuring points are regulated to produce different electric field

  4. NATIONAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND DEMANDS THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso João Ferretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to promote a reflection on the relations established between education and development, primarily from the 1990s of the last century. The reason for this is due to the inadequacy of more or less direct character assigned to that relationship, making assume that the field of education has the ability to influence the economic and social development with the emphasis assigned to it by the media and even some official speeches. The concern with this issue is even more accentuated in recent years by both the role assigned to the Federal Institutes of Education, Science and Technology in this process, as the finding of a growing process of shifting public resources to private agencies working in the educational field and also by the investee which had been observed, both in public and in private, to promote changes within the Secondary and Vocational Education in order to improper relationships mentioned above.

  5. Real options and volume uncertainty by field development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekern, S.; Stensland, G.

    1993-12-01

    The report concerns a study on the use of option methodology in field development projects. The report shows how the value of flexibility in the different decision processes is to be found by means of real option methodology. Particular attention is laid on the uncertainty concerning the volume of reserves and production capacity. The results from the study were based on the research project dubbed ''Use of real options in field development projects''. The project is partially connected to another project dubbed ''Decisive behaviour and alternative action under uncertainty in the petroleum sector''. Main topics cover as follow: Example with volume uncertainty; real options and volume uncertainty; gradual disclosure of uncertainty in the production; value of flexible production equipment. 33 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs

  6. Dynamic Control of Airport Departures: Algorithm Development and Field Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Simaiakis, Ioannis; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2012-01-01

    Surface congestion leads to significant increases in taxi times and fuel burn at major airports. In this paper, we formulate the airport surface congestion management problem as a dynamic control problem. We address two main challenges: the random delay between actuation (at the gate) and the server being controlled (the runway), and the need to develop control strategies that can be implemented in practice by human air traffic controllers. The second requirement necessitates a strategy that ...

  7. Development of a Micro-Fabricated Total-Field Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    are made with fluxgate technologies. Fluxgates have lower sensitivity than Cs magnetometers , yet they continue to be used in small wands simply...extraction process by providing the sensitivity of a Cs magnetometer with the convenience and low cost of a fluxgate wand. Extremely small and low cost...FINAL REPORT Development of a Micro-Fabricated Total-Field Magnetometer SERDP Project MR-1512 MARCH 2011 Mark Prouty Geometrics, Inc

  8. High-field Magnet Development toward the High Luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, Giorgio [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The upcoming Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on the use of Accelerator Quality Nb3Sn Magnets which have been the focus of an intense R&D effort in the last decade. This contribution will describe the R&D and results of Nb3Sn Accelerator Quality High Field Magnets development efforts, with emphasis on the activities considered for the HL-LHC upgrades.

  9. Human resource development in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    An organization, an enterprise or a movement is only as good as the people in it and these cannot be conceived without considering the people that make it, in other words its human resources (HR). The definition of HR includes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the work-force. Equally important it includes the values, attitudes and benefits of each of the individuals concerned. No development is possible without proper planning. HR planning is therefore a prerequisite for HRD in NM and no planning can be made without defining the objectives of Nuclear Medicine (NM) in developing countries (DC). It is also essential to forecast the future needs of NM in DC keeping in mind the stated objectives before laying out the strategies of the HRD. HRD in NM is best achieved when all the partners in the game play their part with commitment and sincerity of purpose. At the national level the partners are the government (ministries of health and education), professional bodies (national societies of NM) and academic bodies (colleges of NM physicians, physicists and technologists etc.). In the implementation of the HRD systems and processes, involvement of all the partners is essential for success. Creation of task forces to implement, monitor and evaluate HRD tools ensures the quality of these tools. The operation of some of these tools may have to be centralized, and others decentralized depending upon the exigencies of need, propriety and practicality. In summary, the aim of HRD should be to ensure the right people at the right time for the right job and in doing so nuclear medicine achieves its objectives and the individuals in the workforce realize their full potentials, and benefits in full

  10. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    Universality is much more than the determination by a majority at a particular moment ..... accepted human rights and not only the favourite rights of any particular .... sole breadwinners, caring for children and taking important decisions on.

  11. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... The approach is historical and descriptive in nature. .... specifically human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice, sounds expressive of thought, .... Jobs in tourism, marketing, healthcare also await people with ...

  12. Human Resources Coordinator | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Human Resources Coordinator supports the HR Business Partner in the delivery of ... of various reports for HR Business Partners and HR management. ... services and information to candidates applying on job openings in IDRC, ...

  13. HUMAN SECURITY – BUILDING THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals agenda through the human security paradigm. It suggests that the human security paradigm represents “the missing link” from the development agenda. Therefore, this analysis explains the necessity for extending the development agenda by including the human security doctrine. The first part of the article discusses the relation between human security and development. The next section analyzes the values of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. The last part evaluates the improvements that the inclusion of the human security on the post-2015 development framework may bring. The results of this analysis present illustrate the opportunity of deepening the MDGs agenda with a more realistic and ethical approach, through the inclusion of the human security paradigm within the development agenda.

  14. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  15. Pilot Implementation: Learning from Field Tests in IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a fiveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  16. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... an opportunity for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  17. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... for the notice of public meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  18. Fields of dreams[Oil field development in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, Marshall

    2001-04-01

    The steady increase in deepwater development projects in the US Gulf of Mexico is discussed, and individual field descriptions are given with details of the development, the water depth, onstream date, and location for the Typhoon (Chevron), Prince (El Paso), Brutus (Shell), Nansen/Boomvang (Kerr-McGee), Canyon Express (TotalFinaElf), Medusa (Murphy), Horn Mountain (BP), NaKika (Shell), Crazy Horse (BP), Serrano/Oregano (Shell), and Crosby (Shell) projects. Information on the production, reserves, water depths and locations of >100 projects in the area are tabulated.

  19. Development of new functional properties in traditional ceramics field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carda, J.B.; Pedra, J.M.; Nunez, I.; Peiro, N.C.; Gil, C.; Navarro, E.; Gomez, J.J.; Chiva, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present communication, several ways to obtain functional properties in ceramic tiles will be exposed, developed by the research group in Solid State Chemistry of Jaume I University from Castellon, in close collaboration with the ceramic industry set in Castellon (Spain). Then, searching for a new properties, those that involve advanced fields in ceramics, such as mechanical, electrical or optical properties have been chosen, transferring their application to traditional products, selecting for it the development of this properties in surface (as the obtaining if glass-ceramic glazes) or in the ceramic body (increasing its mechanical resistance, more dense and with less thickness of layer). Related to the surface properties interesting in traditional ceramics field, glass-ceramic glazes have been designed, presenting high resistance to abrasion and chemical agents attack, formulating systems of devitrification of α-SiO 2 crystallization (cristobalite), anoritite and zircon. Systems that reduce resistivity of glazes have been developed too, causing the discharge to the ground of the static charge, designing a semiconductor system SnO 2 -Sb 2 O 3 . o finish with surface properties, bactericidal properties glazes have been originated, working with CeO 2 -ZrO 2 and TiO 2 (anatase) systems. According to ceramic bodies, highly gressificated systems have been developed, with an open porosity lower than 0.5% of water absorption and with high mechanical resistance, aspects that open ways to develop multilayer systems allowing the reduction of body thickness without a decrease of its technical features. (author)

  20. Human resource development for uranium production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fission energy is a viable option for meeting the ever increasing demand for electricity and high quality process heat in a safe, secured and sustainable manner with minimum carbon foot print and degradation of the environment. The growth of nuclear power has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia, mostly in China and India. Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates are also in the process of launching nuclear power program. Natural uranium is the basic raw material for U-235 and Pu-239, the fuels for all operating and upcoming nuclear power reactors. The present generation of nuclear power reactors are mostly light water cooled and moderated reactor (LWR) and to a limited extent pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The LWRs and PHWRs use low enriched uranium (LEU with around 5% U-235) and natural uranium as fuel in the form of high density UO_2 pellets. The uranium production cycle starts with uranium exploration and is followed by mining and milling to produce uranium ore concentrate, commonly known as yellow cake, and ends with mine and mill reclamation and remediation. Natural uranium and its daughter products, radium and radon, are radioactive and health hazardous to varying degrees. Hence, radiological safety is of paramount importance to uranium production cycle and there is a need to review and share best practices in this area. Human Resource Development (HRD) is yet another challenge as most of the experts in this area have retired and have not been replaced by younger generation because of the continuing lull in the uranium market. Besides, uranium geology, exploration, mining and milling do not form a part of the undergraduate or post graduate curriculum in most countries. Hence, the Technical Co-operation activities of the IAEA are required to be augmented and more country specific and regional training and workshop should be conducted at different universities with the involvement of international experts

  1. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques

  2. Effect of Exposure to Non-ionizing Radiation (Electromagnetic Fields on Human System: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rubya Souza C and acirc;mara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate presence of radio base stations, which emit non-ionizing radiation (NIR, as well as the frequent use of mobile phones, can cause increased susceptibility of populations to the emergence of diseases such as cancers of the head and neck, biochemical, hematopoietic and hepatic changes, among others. Exposure to physical contamination, including NIR, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread sources of exposure to this type of radiation. This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to electromagnetic fields, such as radiofrequency transmissions, and many kinds of human diseases including cancer, as well as alerts to the current knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to NIR and the risk of development of adverse human health effects. This way, there appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 187-190

  3. Human Development in Romania: A Comparative Approach to Identifying Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert STEFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the research carried out by the economist Mahbub ul Haq, derived from the studies of Amartya Sen on human capabilities, in 1990, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP published its first Human Development Report. It introduced the notion that development of a country is not merely equal to economic growth, but has the ultimate purpose of enriching human life by expanding people’s choices. Thus, Human Development seeks to reveal the fundamental role of human life: that of reaching its full potential. Even after 28 years since the fall of communism, the political environment in Romania continues to be unsopportive of proper development. This study seeks to identify the shortcomings of the primary dimensions of Human Development in Romania and hopefully make a firm and rhetorical call to action.

  4. New developments in pulsed fields at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.; Parkin, D.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Pernambuco-Wise, P.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a member of a consortium (with Florida State University and the University of Florida) to operate the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), with funding from the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida. Los Alamos provides unique resources for its component of NHMFL in the form of a 1.4 GW inertial storage motor-generator for high field pulsed magnets and infrastructure for fields generated by flux compression. The NHMFL provides a user facility open to all qualified users, develops magnet technology in association with the private sector, and advances science and technology opportunities. The magnets in service at Los Alamos are of three types. Starting with the pre-existing explosive flux compression capability in 1991, NHMFL added capacitor-driven magnets in December, 1992, and a 20 tesla superconducting magnet in January, 1993. The capacitor-driven magnets continue to grow in diversity and accessibility, with four magnet stations now available for several different magnet types. Two magnets of unprecedented size and strength are nearing completion of assembly and design, respectively. Under final assembly is a quasi-continuous magnet that contains 90 MJ of magnetic energy at full field, and being designed is a non-destructive 100 T magnet containing 140 MJ

  5. Education and Human Capital Development through Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    There is now growing awareness in both developed and developing countries of the ... catalysts to national development, which will impact positively on the country's ... increases in allocation might be misleading in passing judgement on the.

  6. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  7. Development of Human-level Decision Making Algorithm for NPPs through Deep Neural Networks : Conceptual Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Development of operation support systems and automation systems are closely related to machine learning field. However, since it is hard to achieve human-level delicacy and flexibility for complex tasks with conventional machine learning technologies, only operation support systems with simple purposes were developed and high-level automation related studies were not actively conducted. As one of the efforts for reducing human error in NPPs and technical advance toward automation, the ultimate goal of this research is to develop human-level decision making algorithm for NPPs during emergency situations. The concepts of SL, RL, policy network, value network, and MCTS, which were applied to decision making algorithm for other fields are introduced and combined with nuclear field specifications. Since the research is currently at the conceptual stage, more research is warranted.

  8. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  9. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...

  10. Why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Md Montasir

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development. In general, these two dimensions have a strong and positive relationship, but some countries appear unable to balance this relationship. As a consequence, there are some countries with high economic growth but sluggish human development progress. This paper studies how other factors besides GDP – women labor force participation, urbanization, and inequality - are correlated to human development. I construct...

  11. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova Natalia S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethinking it as a new theory of global security. A cross-categorical analysis of the concepts of «human development» and of «human security» was carried out by the main criteria: characteristics, time frames, main purpose and objectives. As a result, the human security is complementary to the concept of human development in the part of safe variants of choice (freedom from needs; it further facilitated the security provision at the level of prosperity and progress, not at the level of survival. It has been determined that the conception of human security is at the same time an element of the conception of human development as well as of human security.

  12. QUANTUM PHYSICS and HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – DEFINING THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus TORP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that it is possible, based on the universal principles revealed by Quantum Physics, to construct an energetic profile of a human being, using the ElectroPhotonic Imaging/Gas Discharge Visualisation-camera, where different frequency domains are connected with different clusters of skills, competences, and qualities, and that the amplitude of the energy within these domains indicates how much the specific person manifests these skills, competences, and qualities. Furthermore, this measurement also indicates the persons stress and energy level. In this way it is possible to compare two or more people objectively and quantitatively, which may find use for example in a Recruitment and Selection situation.

  13. Field Sample Preparation Method Development for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibman, C.; Weisbrod, K.; Yoshida, T.

    2015-01-01

    Non-proliferation and International Security (NA-241) established a working group of researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to evaluate the utilization of in-field mass spectrometry for safeguards applications. The survey of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mass spectrometers (MS) revealed no instrumentation existed capable of meeting all the potential safeguards requirements for performance, portability, and ease of use. Additionally, fieldable instruments are unlikely to meet the International Target Values (ITVs) for accuracy and precision for isotope ratio measurements achieved with laboratory methods. The major gaps identified for in-field actinide isotope ratio analysis were in the areas of: 1. sample preparation and/or sample introduction, 2. size reduction of mass analyzers and ionization sources, 3. system automation, and 4. decreased system cost. Development work in 2 through 4, numerated above continues, in the private and public sector. LANL is focusing on developing sample preparation/sample introduction methods for use with the different sample types anticipated for safeguard applications. Addressing sample handling and sample preparation methods for MS analysis will enable use of new MS instrumentation as it becomes commercially available. As one example, we have developed a rapid, sample preparation method for dissolution of uranium and plutonium oxides using ammonium bifluoride (ABF). ABF is a significantly safer and faster alternative to digestion with boiling combinations of highly concentrated mineral acids. Actinides digested with ABF yield fluorides, which can then be analyzed directly or chemically converted and separated using established column chromatography techniques as needed prior to isotope analysis. The reagent volumes and the sample processing steps associated with ABF sample digestion lend themselves to automation and field

  14. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  15. The Field of Foucaultian Discourse Analysis: Structures, Developments and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the field of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis. The FOUCAULTian concept of discourse is introduced, and methodological positions and methodological developments are sketched. Compared to other qualitative social research approaches, the different researchers and research groups that have adopted the FOUCAULTian concept of discourse are not linked by a fully integrated common research paradigm. However, they share common methodological problems and areas of methodological research resulting from various references to FOUCAULTian positions. In the last decade, different research groups have become aware of these shared commonalities, so that one can speak of an emerging field of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis rather than an emerging paradigm. The article gives insight into the discourse analytic research in selected countries, discusses the internationalisation of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis and highlights current trends and perspectives. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702305

  16. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-02-08

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  17. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-01-01

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  18. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs. The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP, specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems

  19. 2008 Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Personnel management in libraries is an aspect of library administration that involves planning for human resource needs ... and organisation (of staff) in order to achieve the organizational goals. When the right personnel are recruited, the management puts the staff through with the operations of the library through a staff ...

  20. Lipid transport and human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-07-01

    How the human brain rapidly builds up its lipid content during brain growth and maintains its lipids in adulthood has remained elusive. Two new studies show that inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, known to be expressed specifically at the blood-brain barrier, lead to microcephaly, thereby offering a simple and surprising solution to an old enigma.

  1. Telephone based speech interfaces in the developing world, from the perspective of human-human communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, before computers systems were able to synthesize or recognize speech, speech was a capability unique to humans. The human brain has developed to differentiate between human speech and other audio occurrences. Therefore, the slowly- evolving... human brain reacts in certain ways to voice stimuli, and has certain expectations regarding communication by voice. Nass affirms that the human brain operates using the same mechanisms when interacting with speech interfaces as when conversing...

  2. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electric fields are integral to many biological events, from maintaining cellular homeostasis to embryonic development to healing. The application of electric fields offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal dosing regimens and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. Methods The purpose of this study was to track the differentiation profile and stress response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during exposure to a 20 mV/cm, 60 kHz electric field. Morphological and biochemical changes were imaged using endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and quantitatively assessed through eccentricity calculations and extraction of the redox ratio from NADH, FAD and lipofuscin contributions. Real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR were used to track osteogenic differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 1 (col1, and stress response markers, such as heat shock protein 27 (hsp27 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. Comparisons of collagen deposition between the stimulated hMSCs and controls were examined through second harmonic generation (SHG imaging. Results Quantitative differences in cell morphology, as described through an eccentricity ratio, were found on days 2 and days 5 (p Conclusions Electrical stimulation is a useful tool to improve hMSC osteogenic differentiation, while heat shock proteins may reveal underlying mechanisms, and optical non-invasive imaging may be used to monitor the induced morphological and biochemical changes.

  3. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, COGNITION AND SCHOOL EDUCATION: REFLECTIONS BELOW THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Alves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This text is fruit of studies, reflections and dialogues developed with graduate and post-graduate students inteaching and research coordinated by me, allocated in the research group: Human Development, Culture and Education, in rows : Language, Learning and Development and Imaginary Production and Creative Education. Over several years, the task of educational coordinating processes of teaching and research, allowed the construction of synthesis (always provisional, presented here. Having as a foundation the historic-cultural theory of Vygotsky and collaborators, the text reflects about human development, cognition and school education, pursuing the thesis that cognition is human development. To do this, search, in theoretical foundations of historical-cultural conception, the key elements that explain the process by which the biological becomes socio-historical, it takes up more carefully in the explicit about Vygotsky translates as plans or genetic fields of human development, increase the reflection articulating the categories: labor and language.

  4. Ultra-high field MRI: Advancing systems neuroscience towards mesoscopic human brain function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O; Fracasso, A.; Van der Zwaag, W.; Siero, Jeroen C W; Petridou, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image

  5. Effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings. Technical aspects and research results. - Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieback, D.

    1996-01-01

    The present brochure of the Professional Association for Fine Mechanics and Electrical Engineering gives a selective account on the effects of electromagnetic fields on human beings. The second part deals with regulations for safety and health protection at working places exposed to electromagnetic fields. (VHE) [de

  6. Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time.

  7. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field.

  8. THE QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES – A REQUEST FOR HOTEL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT. A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Arustei Carmen Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this issue due to the fact that, usually, when talking about tourism or hotel industry development, the literature in the field offers macro solutions like, infrastructure development, service/product development and/or improving service quality. We consider that a micro approach is also important and from t...

  9. Applying Bourdieu’s Field Theory to MLS Curricula Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wien, Charlotte; Dorch, Bertil F.

    the tasks in the library. The hypothesis is that the subject specialist previously found him or herself in the upper part of the compass, while the librarians would be placed in the lower part. Obviously, this created a field of tension between the subject specialists and the librarians. A useful tool...... for the power to decide exactly what is associated with power and what is not persist. With the upgrading of LIS the librarians have moved upwards on the vertical axis and thereby challenge the subject specialist’s position. At the same time developments within the academic world have brought about...

  10. Joint Curriculum Developments in the Field of Virtual Space Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Zupancic, Tadeja; Juvancic, Matevz

    2006-01-01

    initiates a discussion-forum to raise and discuss open questions of joint curriculum development in the field of virtual space design, especially where CVE-s take the key role within the educational process. The starting points of the discussion can be found in the ongoing endeavours of the e......The topic of joint degrees is high on the higher education policy agenda. The eCAADe 2006 theme offers the opportunity to investigate the topic from the aspect of virtual space design, especially within the second conference topic: communicating within mediated spaces (CVE-s). The paper proposed...

  11. Enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    A technique for enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field (PDSF) and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated experimentally. A smooth test wavefront impinges on a phase diffuser, forming a PDSF that is directed to a 4f setup. Two defocused speckle...... intensity measurements are recorded at the output plane corresponding to axially-propagated representations of the PDSF in the input plane. The speckle intensity measurements are then used in a conventional transport of intensity equation (TIE) to reconstruct directly the test wavefront. The PDSF in our...

  12. Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ hardiness is increasingly recognised as an aspect of their well-being and feelings of career success. Psychological well-being and feelings of subjective career success have positive implications for the motivation, satisfaction, performance and commitment of young talented staff.Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II] and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2% and female (71% employed adults (N = 355 at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field.Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment.Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

  13. Centrioles in the beginning of human development.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathananthan, A H; Kola, I; Osborne, J; Trounson, A; Ng, S C; Bongso, A; Ratnam, S S

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate the presence of centrioles in fertilized human oocytes at syngamy. Single or double centrioles within centrosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy at one pole of the first cleavage spindle in normal and dispermic embryos (25-26 hr after insemination). Sperm centrioles were also closely associated with the male pronucleus (16-20 hr after insemination) in pronuclear stage embryos. A tripolar spindle derived from a tripronuclear embryo is also demonstrated with tw...

  14. The value of flexibility in offshore oil field development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Morten Wattengaard

    1997-12-31

    Offshore oil field development projects often face substantial uncertainties and the operator`s ability to take corrective actions is very important. The main objective of this thesis was to identify the value of flexibility in such projects. Estimates obtained from exploratory wells can be dependent through common information. The effect of stochastic dependence was illustrated by an analytical model, where the dependence was expressed in terms of correlation between estimate errors. It was found that a high degree of correlation might distort the benefit of additional exploration. A prototype that covered the major phases of the project was developed to study the value of flexibility. The prototype was a Markov decision process, solved by stochastic dynamic programming. Based on discussions with Norwegian oil companies, three uncertain variables were addressed: the reservoir volume, the well rate, and the oil price. Simple descriptions were used to mimic the uncertainty. The reservoir was thus depicted as a tank model, and the well rate and oil prices were assumed to follow Markov processes. Flexibility was restricted to managerial as opposed to financial flexibility. Application of the prototype to a case study, based on an ongoing field development, showed that flexibility might be of considerable value to the project. In particular, capacity flexibility and initiation flexibility were identified as important aspects of the development. The results also emphasized the importance of a joint assessment, as the values of different flexibility types are not additive. In conclusion, the proposed model motivates further development of the decision support system presently available. Future decision making should therefore be made within a framework that gives consideration to flexibility. 129 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Offshore field development. Statfjord - a geologist's dream: an economist's nightmare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    On September 3, 1980, the water injection module was lifted on board the Statfjord A platform. That marks the completion of the platform, a giant 3,000,000 bpd capacity monster of an offshore structure, carrying a price tag of $1.5 billion. Two more such giants are scheduled to follow, each costing approximately $2 billion in the North Sea's largest and most expensive offshore field development ever. Oil wells in the Statfjord field, the largest North Sea field to date, are now producing at up to 30,000 bpd each. The reservoir proves particularly open, and the filling of it is extremely good. Wells have produced up to 40,000 bpd, but with that kind of flow, sand problems occur. Gravel packs have had to be installed in several of the wells. Mobil's Dallas facilities have uncovered the fact that now dominates the Norwegian North Sea scene, i.e., the cut off point for gas reinjection into the Statfjord sand is late 1985. After that point a possible breakthrough of gas could block the oil or even damage the reservoir if reinjection is continued.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of human pre-implantation development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preimplantation development is a crucial step in early human development. However, the molecular basis of human preimplantation development is not well known. METHODOLOGY: By applying microarray on 397 human oocytes and embryos at six developmental stages, we studied the transcription dynamics during human preimplantation development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the preimplantation development consisted of two main transitions: from metaphase-II oocyte to 4-cell embryo where mainly the maternal genes were expressed, and from 8-cell embryo to blastocyst with down-regulation of the maternal genes and up-regulation of embryonic genes. Human preimplantation development proved relatively autonomous. Genes predominantly expressed in oocytes and embryos are well conserved during evolution. SIGNIFICANCE: Our database and findings provide fundamental resources for understanding

  17. Efforts for nuclear energy human resource development by industry-government-academic sectors cooperation. Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development Council Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The report consists of eighteen sections such as the present conditions of nuclear energy, decreasing students in the department of technology and decreasing numbers of nuclear-related subjects, The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Program (HRD Program), The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Council (HRD Council), the industry-academia partnership for human resource development, the present situation of new graduates in the nuclear field, new workers of nuclear industry, the conditions of technical experts in the nuclear energy industry, long-range forecast of human resource, increasing international efforts, nuclear energy human resources development road map, three points for HRD, six basic subjects for HRD, the specific efforts of the industrial, governmental and academic sectors, promoting a better understanding of nuclear energy and supporting job hunting and employment, students to play an active part in the world, and support of the elementary and secondary schools. Change of numbers of nuclear-related subjects of seven universities, change of number of new graduates in nuclear field of various companies from 1985 to 2006, number of people employed by nuclear industries from 1998 to 2007, number of technical experts in the electric companies and the mining and manufacturing industries and forecast of number of technical experts in total nuclear industries are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Seok; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1994-04-01

    In the 2nd year of the research project for the development of human factors evaluation techniques, we first defined the experimental target systems by the comparison study of the advanced control rooms proposed by foreign countries in order to make the experiment feasible and realistic for the 10 experimental items selected in the first year of the project. Then we have decided to confine our research on the big board overview panel and operator workstations. Following the development of selection criteria for our research interest, we have identified the design variables which may influence the performance of the operator by the functional analysis. The experimental variables which will be used for the evaluation of the proposed items are then defined by the relational analysis between evaluation items and design variables and they are classified by the characteristics of the measurement data. The functional requirements of ITF are developed to accommodate the necessary functions for carrying out the 10 evaluation items. The functional requirements for each sub-system of ITF have been developed with the experimental paradigm of APTEA. Finally we have reviewed the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) at KAERI from the point of view of jyman factors guidelines/principles and proposed the two possible layouts for the experimental apparatus for the evaluation of display alternative and operational procedure. (Author)

  19. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    Aug 29, 2009 ... ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; ...

  20. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2009 ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; the ...

  1. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, and is intended ... The Sustainable Development Agenda has 17 global goals with 169 targets. .... Quality human capital has become one of the front burning issues in Nigeria today.

  2. 310 The Impact of Philosophy to Human Development Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evidence their deserved weight by the use of logical reasoning. It is also to set standard, ... thereby making appropriate conception of human development known to the ... make right decision and good judgment in the choice of development.

  3. Expressive Communication and Human Development in the New Broadband Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audiovisual media can inform the development of new educational services for human development across cultures in the emerging broadband environment.

  4. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  5. Development and field practical performance of smart array probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kotaro; Shimone, Junri; Akagawa, Junichi; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Harada, Yutaka; Sera, Takehiko; Hirano, Shinro

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, NEL developed the transmit-receive type ECT array probe for steam generator (SG) tubing, called 'X-probe', in cooperation with foreign firms. Recently NEL has developed the advanced ECT array probe, 'Smart Array Probe', characterized with a significantly improved resolution for circumferential cracks. The doubled channels in the circumferential mode have greatly improved the circumferential resolution of Smart Array Probe. With all the circumferential mode channels on the same circle, there is no need for axial position correction of inspection data. This report describes both the field practical performance and the compliance assessment to a Japanese SG-ECT guideline 'JEAG4208' of Smart Array ECT System, composed of Smart Array Probe, pusher-in-tester 'OMNI-200', and NEL's ECT Analysis System. (author)

  6. Compact toroid development: activity plan for field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the field reversed configuration (FRC). This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of FRC program planning. The first was completed in February 1983, and was reported in DOE/ER-0160; Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near term (1987 to 1990) FRC technical objectives

  7. Field Distribution of Transcranial Static Magnetic Stimulation in Realistic Human Head Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Joseph J; Goetz, Stefan M; Bernabei, John M; Peterchev, Angel V

    2017-10-10

    The objective of this work was to characterize the magnetic field (B-field) that arises in a human brain model from the application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS). The spatial distribution of the B-field magnitude and gradient of a cylindrical, 5.08 cm × 2.54 cm NdFeB magnet were simulated in air and in a human head model using the finite element method and calibrated with measurements in air. The B-field was simulated for magnet placements over prefrontal, motor, sensory, and visual cortex targets. The impact of magnetic susceptibility of head tissues on the B-field was quantified. Peak B-field magnitude and gradient respectively ranged from 179-245 mT and from 13.3-19.0 T/m across the cortical targets. B-field magnitude, focality, and gradient decreased with magnet-cortex distance. The variation in B-field strength and gradient across the anatomical targets largely arose from the magnet-cortex distance. Head magnetic susceptibilities had negligible impact on the B-field characteristics. The half-maximum focality of the tSMS B-field ranged from 7-12 cm 3 . This is the first presentation and characterization of the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the B-field generated in a human brain model by tSMS. These data can provide quantitative dosing guidance for tSMS applications across various cortical targets and subjects. The finding that the B-field gradient is high near the magnet edges should be considered in studies where neural tissue is placed close to the magnet. The observation that susceptibility has negligible effects confirms assumptions in the literature. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of…

  9. Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge people's choices to enable them live a healthy and prolonged life, acquire knowledge, and have access to resources needed to earn a decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other ...

  10. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  11. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For still others, development is a holistic project of personal social and spiritual progress. ..... One set relates to how the policy decision will affect economic output. ...... This brings up one further misunderstanding of Sen's capability approach and ...... Human development focuses on the institutional factors that violate human ...

  12. Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better Human Resource Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of human resource planning and development for organizational effectiveness, and examines how the major components of a human resource planning and development system should be coordinated for maximum effectiveness. Available from Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,…

  13. Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...

  14. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  15. Transient interaction model of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iváncsy, T; Kiss, I; Tamus, Z Á; Szücs, L

    2015-01-01

    The lightning current generates time-varying magnetic field near the down-conductor and the down-conductors are mounted on the wall of the buildings where residential places might be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields can generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body.The higher duration and gradient of the magnetic field can cause potentially life threatening cardiac stimulation. The coupling mechanism between the electromagnetic field and the human body is based on a well-known physical phenomena (e.g. Faradays law of induction). However, the calculation of the induced current is very complicated because the shape of the organs is complex and the determination of the material properties of living tissues is difficult, as well. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac stimulation is independent of the rising time of the lightning current and only the peak of the current counts.In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near down-conductor and human body. Our previous models are based on the quasi stationer field calculations, the new improved model is a transient model. This is because the magnetic field around the down-conductor and in the human body can be determined more precisely, therefore the dangerous currents in the body can be estimated. (paper)

  16. Development of Multimodal Human Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Michitaka

    About 20 years have passed since the word “Virtual Reality” became popular. During these two decades, novel human interface technology so called “multimodal interface technology” has been formed. In this paper, firstly, recent progress in realtime CG, BCI and five senses IT is quickly reviewed. Since the life cycle of the information technology is said to be 20 years or so, novel directions and paradigms of VR technology can be found in conjunction with the technologies forementioned. At the end of the paper, these futuristic directions such as ultra-realistic media are briefly introduced.

  17. A Touch Sensing Technique Using the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Fields on the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfekey, Hatem; Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Okamoto, Shogo

    2016-12-02

    Touch sensing is a fundamental approach in human-to-machine interfaces, and is currently under widespread use. Many current applications use active touch sensing technologies. Passive touch sensing technologies are, however, more adequate to implement low power or energy harvesting touch sensing interfaces. This paper presents a passive touch sensing technique based on the fact that the human body is affected by the surrounding extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, such as those of AC power lines. These external ELF fields induce electric potentials on the human body-because human tissues exhibit some conductivity at these frequencies-resulting in what is called AC hum. We therefore propose a passive touch sensing system that detects this hum noise when a human touch occurs, thus distinguishing between touch and non-touch events. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is validated by designing and implementing a flexible touch sensing keyboard.

  18. APOPTOSIS DURING HUMAN FETAL KIDNEY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Čukuranović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney morphogenesis is a complex and stepwise process. The formation of mature kidney in mammals is preceded by two primitive embryonic kidneys known as pronephros and mesonephros. Metanephros develops as a result of reciprocal inductive interactions between two primordial mesodermal derivates: ureteric bud, an epithelial outgrowth of the Wolffian duct, and metanephric blastema, a group of mesenchymal cells. The ureteric bud induces the metanephric mesenchyme to differentiate and form nephrons, whilst the metanephric mesenchyme induces the ureteric bud to grow and branch to form collecting ducts. The nephron goes through four developmental stages, which are described as: 1 vesicle, 2 comma-shaped and S-shaped stages, 3 developing capillary loop, and finally 4 maturing glomerulus. Apoptosis (programmed cell death is a predominant form of physiological cell death, by which organism eliminate unwanted or damaged cells. It is the major component of normal development and disease. Apoptosis is the result of series of biochemical processes happening in certain order in a dying cell, among which the most important is activation of enzyme families called caspases which influence different cell components. Apoptosis is characterized by membrane blebbing, shrinkage of the cell, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Organelles are preserved almost intact. Cell surface molecules change. A variety of physiological and pathological stimuli can initiate apoptosis. They act via receptor mechanisms, through biochemical agents, or cause DNA and cell membrane damage. Apoptosis is an important component of fetal development. It is thought that apoptosis is the one of the main regulatory events involved in kidney morphogenesis, considering that among great number of developed cells, only a few of them are involved in the developing program by escaping apoptosis. In any period during kidney development about 3 to 5%of cells are apoptotic. Thorough

  19. International conference on electromagnetic fields hazard protection of the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Second International conference concerning the problems of electromagnetic protection of the human being, fundamental and applied studies, normalization of the EMP: philosophy, criteria and harmonization which took place in Moscow in September 1999 is reported. The topics of reports covered both the mechanism of biological action of electromagnetic fields and aspects of impact of electromagnetic fields from various household appliances on the health of practically all modern people (television, radio, energetic, communication). The plenary section on evaluation of hazards of the mobile communication electromagnetic fields and the round table meeting dealing with evaluation of hazards of electromagnetic fields of the cellular communication base stations were conducted in the course of the conference. The plenary meetings were devoted to harmonization of the electromagnetic protection standards of Russia and western countries. The above conference constitutes one of the stages of the WHO international program concerning electromagnetic fields and the human being [ru

  20. Unifying the field: developing an integrative paradigm for behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, G H; Forsyth, J P; Schauss, S L

    1993-06-01

    The limitations of early conditioning models and treatments have led many behavior therapists to abandon conditioning principles and replace them with loosely defined cognitive theories and treatments. Systematic theory extensions to human behavior, using new concepts and processes derived from and built upon the basic principles, could have prevented the divisive debates over whether psychological dysfunctions are the results of conditioning or cognition and whether they should be treated with conditioning or cognitive techniques. Behavior therapy could also benefit from recent advances in experimental cognitive psychology that provide objective behavioral methods of studying dysfunctional processes. We suggest a unifying paradigm for explaining abnormal behavior that links and integrates different fields of study and processes that are frequently believed to be incompatible or antithetical such as biological vulnerability variables, learned behavioral repertoires, and that also links historical and current antecedents of the problem. An integrative paradigmatic behavioral approach may serve a unifying function in behavior therapy (a) by promoting an understanding of the dysfunctional processes involved in different disorders and (b) by helping clinicians conduct functional analyses that lead to theory-based, individualized, and effective treatments.

  1. Developing a strategic human resources plan for the Urban Angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare a significant portion of the budget is related to human resources. However, many healthcare organizations have yet to develop and implement a focused organizational strategy that ensures all human resources are managed in a way that best supports the successful achievement of corporate strategies. St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, recognized the benefits of a strategic human resources management plan. During an eight-month planning process, St. Michael's Hospital undertook the planning for and development of a strategic human resources management plan. Key learnings are outlined in this paper.

  2. Development and applications of NMR [nuclear magnetic resonance] in low fields and zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecki, A.

    1987-05-01

    This dissertation is about nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the absence of applied magnetic fields. NMR is usually done in large magnetic fields, often as large as can be practically attained. The motivation for going the opposite way, toward zero field, is that for certain types of materials, particularly powdered or polycrystalline solids, the NMR spectra in zero field are easier to interpret than those obtained in high field. 92 refs., 60 figs., 1 tab

  3. Development of high temperature superconductors for magnetic field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbalestier, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The key requirement for magnetic field applications of high temperature superconductor (HTS) materials is to have conductors with high transport critical current density available for magnet builders. After 3 or 4 years of being without any such object, conductor makers have had recent success in producing simple conductor prototypes. These have permitted the construction of simple HTS magnets having self fields exceeding 1 tesla at 4K. Thus the scientific feasibility of making powerful HTS magnets has been demonstrated. Attention to the technological aspects of making HTS conductors for magnets with strong flux pinning and reduced superconducting granularity is now sensible and attractive. However, extrinsic defects such as filament sausaging, cracking, misaligned grains and other perturbations to long range current flow must be controlled at a low level if the benefit of intrinsic improvements to the critical current density is to be maintained in the conductor form. Due to the great complexity of HTS materials, there is sometimes confusion as to whether a given sample has an intrinsically or extrinsically limited critical current density. Systematic microstructure variation experiments and resistive transition analysis are shown to be particularly helpful in this phase of conductor development

  4. Latin American research and development in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    This report is divided into six main sections. The first outlines the conceptual framework and methodology stressing the limitations that impede greater depth of analysis. The second, on the types and directions of research and development (R and D) activities in Latin America, is divided into three subsections, covering New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE); conventional energy (including nuclear energy); and integrated energy resource R and D (primarily energy conservation and substitution, as well as energy policy and planning studies). In each subsection, I endeavoured to describe and critically assess R and D activities, achievements, and failures within the context of the limitations. Conclusions and recommendations in each case are implicitly or explicitly made depending on the field. In the third section, the state of science and technology policy on energy resources is presented. The fourth section draws together the conclusions and recommendations on further work to be done. The fifth section is a bibliography of 64 annotated and 52 unannotated items and the sixth, an appendix, is a directory of people working in the field of energy research

  5. THE ROLE OF CHAMBER ORGANIZATIONS IN THE HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT – FUNDAMENTAL CONDITION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia GALANTON

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “sustainable development” is still a matter of discussion and is read in different ways by the specialists in the field, but all of them agree on the determinant role of the human, personal factor in sustainable development. In this work a special emphasis is made on the role of chamber organizations at different stages and in different forms of the formation and development of the human capital. Organization of the process of its formation concerns all the participants of econ...

  6. Contributions to the discussion on the determinants of long-term human capital development in today's developing regions

    OpenAIRE

    Prayon, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis makes use of the phenomenon of age-heaping as a proxy for basic numerical skills and assesses the long-term human capital development in today’s developing regions, mainly for the time period from 1880 to 1960. Although the age-heaping methodology is still quite new in the field of economic history capturing only a very basic aspect of human capital, many recent studies have demonstrated its usefulness as a proxy for basic numerical skills. This thesis contributes to this strand o...

  7. Human Resources Development Challenges for Nuclear Newcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrette, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and take away messages: • HRD solution is dependent upon country’s economical, societal, industrial situation and development strategy. • HRD to be integrated in the global HCB approach (education and training, KM, knowledge networks). • Maximum local benefit with national development. • International collaboration and partnership with competent and experienced partners is recommended (lever effect). • Anticipation is key. → HRD for a nuclear program is challenging but achievable. Countries already did it and are ready to build long term partnerships

  8. Some recent developments in the theoretical dynamics of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes recent developments in the theoretical investigation of magnetostatic equilibrium in the presence of gravity, nonequilibrium in hydromagnetics, and classical problems in hydromagnetic stability. The construction of magnetostatic dequilibria has progressed beyond geometrically idealized systems, such as the axisymmetric system, to fully three-dimensional systems capable of modelling realistic solar structures. Nonequilibrium in a magnetic field with an arbitrary interweaving of lines of force due to random footpoint motion is a novel and subtle property with important implications for the solar atmosphere. To the extent quasi-static solar structures are approximated by stable equilibrium, ideal hydromagnetic stability theory provides a first insight into how stability is achieved in the solar environment. A qualitative physical picture based on recent stability analyses is given. The article places emphasis on understanding basic principles and issues rather than detailed results which can be found in the published literature

  9. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  10. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joscelyne

    Full Text Available Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  11. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  12. Radioimmunoassay for human health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyasena, R.D.; Airey, P.L.; Ganatra, R.D.; Nofal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Since first introduced in the early 1960s, radioimmunoassay (RIA) has gained wide acceptance as an analytical method adopted by an increasing number of developing countries as an appropriate technology that can be managed within the capabilities of local infrastructures. An informed estimate would be that there are, at present, more than 500 hospitals, university, or other laboratories in the developing world engaged in RIA on some scale. In the developing world, RIA is used primarily for patient management, but research activity is also increasing as expertise and resources improve. The majority of patient samples processed are in relation to thyroid disorders. However, the technique also is used widely in the investigation of other endocrine conditions and public health problems. Some developing countries have gained the capability to perform radioisotopic microassays in areas of clinical and research importance such as steroid receptor quantification in breast tissue; diagnosis of bacterial and parasitic disorders; investigation of infertility and sterility; narcotic drug abuse; and organ transplantation. 1 fig

  13. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Shimao, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Ando, Masami

    2008-01-01

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis

  14. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki [Department of Medical Materials for Musculoskeletal Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: toshi-kunisada@umin.ac.jp; Shimao, Daisuke [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki 300-2394 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Ando, Masami [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis.

  15. Development of society and human rights and freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the direct connection between the development of human society and progress in the realization of and respect for human rights and freedoms, as well as a number of problems that stand in the way for their full realization. The Company to its characteristics should allow the free development of man to protect his rights, freedom and autonomy. On the other hand, an individual has an active role in building a society whose form is: economic development, permanent democratization of social relations, development and dissemination of human rights and freedoms, the existence of the rule of law and so on. Degree of respect for human rights and freedoms measured level of development achieved and the characteristics of democracy in a society. The main causes of their violations and neglect, as well as the social climate and miles of contributing to this are: domination of one ideology, cultural closeness, economic underdevelopment and the like. As an example, of vulnerable groups in the realization of human rights can be given: the poor, women, children, immigrants, same-sex oriented persons, etc. The paper presents the view Alain Touraine in the development of human society and, related to it, the development of human rights, who was going in the direction of the transformation of rights from abstract to concrete rights, with particular emphasis on cultural rights.

  16. Critiquing Human Resource Development's Dominant Masculine Rationality and Evaluating Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critique human resource development's (HRD) dominant philosophy, practices, and research; illustrate how they negatively affect women HRD practitioners and recipients; and recommend alternative conceptualizations of the field. This article is grounded in a critical feminist theoretical framework, draws on critical…

  17. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  18. Intervention Research and Its Influence on Nonintervention Research in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Chae, Chungil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how intervention research weighed in nonintervention research in the field of human resource development (HRD) by examining the number, citation frequency and use of experimental studies in HRD academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2014…

  19. Financing Human Development for Sectorial Growth: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobande Abdul Olatunji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role which financing human development plays in fostering the sectorial growth of an economy cannot be undermined. It is a key instrument which can be utilized to alleviate poverty, create employment and ensure the sustenance of economic growth and development. Thus financing human development for sectorial growth has taken the center stage of economic growth and development strategies in most countries. In a constructive effort to examine the in-depth relationship between the variables in the Nigerian space, this paper provides evidence on the impact of financing human development and sectorial growth in Nigeria between 1982 and 2016, using the Johansen co-integration techniques to test for co-integration among the variables and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to ascertain the speed of adjustment of the variables to their long run equilibrium position. The analysis shows that a long and short run relationship exists between financing human capital development and sectorial growth during the period reviewed. Therefore, the paper argues that for an active foundation for sustainable sectorial growth and development, financing human capital development across each unit is urgently required through increased budgetary allocation for both health and educational sectors since they are key components of human capital development in a nation.

  20. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  1. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  2. Human Resource Development's Contribution to Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Hyland, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Improvement (CI) is an approach to organizational change that requires active involvement of skilled and motivated employees, which implies an important role for HRD practitioners. The findings from a literature review and a survey of 168 Danish manufacturing companies indicate however...... that HRD is rarely integrated with CI. The paper contributes by offering a model that depicts how HR and HRD functions could be exploited to support successful CI development and implementation....

  3. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project implementers, and beginners

  4. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M. (and others)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project

  5. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  6. THE QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES – A REQUEST FOR HOTEL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT. A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruștei Carmen Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this issue due to the fact that, usually, when talking about tourism or hotel industry development, the literature in the field offers macro solutions like, infrastructure development, service/product development and/or improving service quality. We consider that a micro approach is also important and from this perspective, we emphasis the role of human resource quality for industry development. The quality of human resources, as a dimension of service quality was not detailed extensively by the literature in the field but we found it relevant for hotel industry development, as this industry it is a service industry, and as Ritz-Carlton Company’s motto say “service comes only from people”. In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this issue due to the fact that, usually, when talking about tourism or hotel industry development, the literature in the field offers macro solutions like, infrastructure development, service/product development and/or improving service quality. We consider that a micro approach is also important and from this perspective, we emphasis the role of human resource quality for industry development. The quality of human resources, as a dimension of service quality was not detailed extensively by the literature in the field but we found it relevant for hotel industry development, as this industry it is a service industry, and as Ritz-Carlton Company’s motto say “service comes only from people”. In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this

  7. Cryptopatches Are Essential for the Development of Human GALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Nochi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT in humans is associated with infectious and autoimmune diseases, which cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI tract immune system. To aid in investigating GALT pathologies in vivo, we bioengineered a human-mouse chimeric model characterized by the development of human GALT structures originating in mouse cryptopatches. This observation expands our mechanistic understanding of the role of cryptopatches in human GALT genesis and emphasizes the evolutionary conservation of this developmental process. Immunoglobulin class switching to IgA occurs in these GALT structures, leading to numerous human IgA-producing plasma cells throughout the intestinal lamina propria. CD4+ T cell depletion within GALT structures results from HIV infection, as it does in humans. This human-mouse chimeric model represents the most comprehensive experimental platform currently available for the study and for the preclinical testing of therapeutics designed to repair disease-damaged GALT.

  8. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  9. Importance of Knowledge Management in Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Human resource management and knowledge management: • In human resource management - important to identify crucial knowledge base on which competitiveness of company depends → according this ensure appropriate development of human resources. • Era of so-called knowledge economy - only individual and organizational knowledge could give competitive advantage. • From operational perspective, knowledge management - systematic processes by which an organization identifies, creates, captures, acquires, shares and increase knowledge

  10. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  11. Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS): Field Implementation & Associated Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadfi, G.; John, M.; Liguori, C.; Moeslinger, M.; Murray, J.; Rocchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The NGSS is the product of more than five years of development between the IAEA, other Inspectorates, Member State Support Programmes, and commercial vendors. The product of these efforts has now matured into the field implementation stage. This paper details the goals, achievements and challenges experienced during the implementation phase and associated developments of the project. NGSS procurement was subject to the IAEA's stringent procurement policies involving independent third party assessments to assure supplier reliability and competitive pricing controls. More than 1200 surveillance cameras currently installed in facilities worldwide will be replaced by NGSS within the next 4 to 5 years. Joint use procedures have been established taking advantage of the technical capabilities integrated within the design of the NGSS which allow for multiple inspectorates and States to securely and independently share and review data. Utilization of outdated facility infrastructure poses many challenges to implementation efforts; these were met with innovative technical solutions to take advantage of cost benefits allowed in its re-utilization. New partnerships were established with Member States, regulatory bodies and nuclear power plant operators for new nuclear facilities under construction, to address infrastructural requirements spanning the next half century. The utilization of the IAEA's well-established PKI infrastructure enhances data security features and usability with regard to data sharing, key management and joint use of the NGSS system data. Embedded inventory reporting capability aids electronic inventory verification of safeguards equipment, simplifying accountability, configuration control and troubleshooting of installed systems. Current developments ongoing within the project include the design of hardware and software components for use of the system in special applications (e.g., underwater and outdoor installations, mechanism to

  12. 50-60 Hz electric and magnetic field effects on cognitive function in humans: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasson, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time perception, as determined by electroencephalographic methods and performance measures. Overall, laboratory studies, which have investigated the acute effects of power frequency fields on cognitive functioning in humans are heterogeneous, in terms of both electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure and the experimental design and measures used. Results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret with regard to functional relevance for possible health risks. Statistically significant differences between field and control exposure, when they are found, are small, subtle, transitory, without any clear dose-response relationship and difficult to reproduce. The human performance or event related potentials (ERPs) measures that might specifically be affected by EMF exposure, as well as a possible cerebral structure or function that could be more sensitive to EMF, cannot be better determined. (author)

  13. Human Rights: Its Meaning and Practice in Social Work Field Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A; Mann, Mary; Restivo, Nichole; Mazany, Shellene; Chapple, Reshawna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study reported in this article was to explore the conceptualizations of human rights and human rights practice among students and supervisors in social work field settings. Data were collected from 35 students and 48 supervisors through an online survey system that featured two open-ended questions regarding human rights issues in their agency and human rights practice tasks. Responses suggest that participants encountered human rights issues related to poverty, discrimination, participation/self-determination/autonomy, violence, dignity/respect, privacy, and freedom/liberty. They saw human rights practice as encompassing advocacy, service provision, assessment, awareness of threats to clients' rights, and the nature of the worker-client relationship. These results have implications for the social work profession, which has an opportunity to focus more intently on change efforts that support clients' rights. The study points to the possibilities of expanding the scope of the human rights competency within social work education and addressing the key human rights issues in field education. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  14. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T.; Erickson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R ampersand D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref

  15. Organizational Ethics Development and the Human Resource Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys literature on organizational moral development and describes research methodology employed, summarizes research findings, and examines career implications for human resource professionals. Contends that institutionalizing an ethics program can impact favorably on both the organization and the career of the implementing human resource…

  16. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  17. 1 Philosophy, Human Development and National Question John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    states that “the governors have the power to make Nigerians feel the impact of ..... is, knowledge provides the free and comprehensive development of human powers .... anti-corruption organization has consistently ranked Nigeria lowest.

  18. Revitalizing Society: Practicing Human Resource Development through the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Phillip Dean

    1988-01-01

    It is time to practice sound principles of human resources development in learning environments and to promote a cooperative, creative, collaboative, and participative leadership style in education as well as in industry, business, and government. (JOW)

  19. Inclusive development as an imperative to realizing the human right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusive development as an imperative to realizing the human right to water and sanitation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... where the latter aims at ensuring that the structural causes of inequality are also addressed.

  20. European Institutional and Organisational Tools for Maritime Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dragomir Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Seafarers need to continuously develop their career, at all stages of their professional life. This paper presents some tools of institutional and organisational career development. At insitutional level there are presented vocational education and training tools provided by the European Union institutions while at organisational level are exemplified some tools used by private crewing companies for maritime human resources assessment and development.

  1. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  2. Development of a volumetric projection technique for the digital evaluation of field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Stephen; Cook, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Current regulations for field of view requirements in road vehicles are defined by 2D areas projected on the ground plane. This paper discusses the development of a new software-based volumetric field of view projection tool and its implementation within an existing digital human modelling system. In addition, the exploitation of this new tool is highlighted through its use in a UK Department for Transport funded research project exploring the current concerns with driver vision. Focusing specifically on rearwards visibility in small and medium passenger vehicles, the volumetric approach is shown to provide a number of distinct advantages. The ability to explore multiple projections of both direct vision (through windows) and indirect vision (through mirrors) provides a greater understanding of the field of view environment afforded to the driver whilst still maintaining compatibility with the 2D projections of the regulatory standards. Field of view requirements for drivers of road vehicles are defined by simplified 2D areas projected onto the ground plane. However, driver vision is a complex 3D problem. This paper presents the development of a new software-based 3D volumetric projection technique and its implementation in the evaluation of driver vision in small- and medium-sized passenger vehicles.

  3. Human capital – investing in man (intangible development factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Ziejewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue considered in the paper is a man, and his place and role in the work environment in the knowledge driven development. The author emphasises the significance of the human factor and analyses related terms against the background of the contemporary social economics. The human capital as a development factor is a modern strategy for achieving competitive advantages on the market.

  4. Social scaffolding of human amygdala-mPFCcircuit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim

    2015-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) support fundamental aspects of emotional behavior in adulthood. However, this circuitry is slow to develop in humans, exhibiting immaturity in childhood. The argument is made that the development of this circuitry in humans is intimately associated with caregiving, such that parental availability during childhood provides important and enduring scaffolding of neuroaffective processes that ultimately form of the nature of the adult phenotype.

  5. Financing Human Development in India: Strategies and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Ghazala

    2012-01-01

    India is ranked fairly high amongst the countries in terms of out of pocket expenditure by its citizens on health and education. India is ranked 134th on the Human Development Index (2011 ranking). Public expenditure on human development is given increasing emphasis but the desired results remain elusive as the expenditure on social services hardly benefits the needy because of leakages and wastage. Only well targeted expenditures coupled with sound implementation can benefit the poor. As ind...

  6. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  7. Proton and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the human brain at ultra-high field strength: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Anke

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) allows for a non-invasive and non-ionizing determination of in vivo tissue concentrations and metabolic turn-over rates of more than 20 metabolites and compounds in the central nervous system of humans. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview about the advantages, challenges and advances of ultra-high field MRS with regard to methodological development, discoveries and applications from its beginnings around 15 years ago up to the current state. The review is limited to human brain and spinal cord application at field strength of 7T and 9.4T and includes all relevant nuclei ( 1 H, 31 P, 13 C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants.

  9. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants

  10. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  11. An integrated approach to develop, validate and operate thermo-physiological human simulator for the development of protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Koelblen, Barbara; Mert, Emel; Fontana, Piero; Annaheim, Simon

    2017-12-07

    Following the growing interest in the further development of manikins to simulate human thermal behaviour more adequately, thermo-physiological human simulators have been developed by coupling a thermal sweating manikin with a thermo-physiology model. Despite their availability and obvious advantages, the number of studies involving these devices is only marginal, which plausibly results from the high complexity of the development and evaluation process and need of multi-disciplinary expertise. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach to develop, validate and operate such devices including technical challenges and limitations of thermo-physiological human simulators, their application and measurement protocol, strategy for setting test scenarios, and the comparison to standard methods and human studies including details which have not been published so far. A physical manikin controlled by a human thermoregulation model overcame the limitations of mathematical clothing models and provided a complementary method to investigate thermal interactions between the human body, protective clothing, and its environment. The opportunities of these devices include not only realistic assessment of protective clothing assemblies and equipment but also potential application in many research fields ranging from biometeorology, automotive industry, environmental engineering, and urban climate to clinical and safety applications.

  12. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  13. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  14. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  15. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  16. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  17. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  18. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  19. Measurement system for the determination of the individual exposure of low frequency electric and magnetic fields on humans (personal dosimeter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, E.

    1998-07-01

    The current doctorate introduces a free body electronic personal dosimeter for measuring the vector components of ELF-fields. In contrast to a conventional field strength meter not the undisturbed fields are used as a measure, but the inhomogeneous fields near the human body, measured over a long time (dosimetric concept). Based on an analytical and numerical 'dosimetric' model, the field signal together with the frequency information can be transformed for further evaluation in the average inner body current density. Here the current density is considered as a dose relevant measure. According to demands in industrial safety, requirements for a dosimeter are derived and developmental goals defined. These goals are realized by investigations and proficiency testings of electric and magnetic highly sensitive field sensors, the development of low-power electronics with good performance and the implementation of digital data processing on different platforms. The characterization of the influence of possible environmental variables on the realized prototype, the determination of the technical characteristics under various boundary conditions and an error analysis are further important parts of this work. The calibration of the INPEDO (individual personal dosimeter) measurement system in special calibration facilities (three axis Helmholtz coils for the magnetic and parallel plates according to the IEEE833-standard for the electric field) as well as first measurements taken under real operating conditions conclude this report. (orig.) [de

  20. Essential technologies for developing human and robot collaborative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1997-10-01

    In this study, we aim to develop a concept of new robot system, i.e., 'human and robot collaborative system', for the patrol of nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the two essential technologies developed for the system. One is the autonomous navigation program with human intervention function which is indispensable for human and robot collaboration. The other is the position estimation method by using gyroscope and TV image to make the estimation accuracy much higher for safe navigation. Feasibility of the position estimation method is evaluated by experiment and numerical simulation. (author)

  1. Studies on the influence of static magnetic fields on prenatal development of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konermann, G.; Moenig, H.

    1986-10-01

    Developmental effects were studied in pregnant albino-mice after exposures to a static homogeneous magnetic field (1T) on days 7, 10 or 13 post conception. These days correspond approximately to the 16th, 28th or 42nd day p.c. in human development and represent stages of increased sensitivity. Intrauterine effects (after exposures on days 7 or 10 p.c.) were evaluated included lethality, external malformations, disoders in the fetal skeleton and fetal weights. The evaluation of postnatal effects (after exposure on day 13 p.c.) included body-weight, brain-weight, diameter of neocortex and commissures and the alignment of cortical neurons up to day 46 p.c. According to all these criteria, no developmental effects were observed after the exposures to the magnetic field. Transient effects, either being compensatable or biologically without relevance, cannot be excluded.

  2. Recent developments in the field of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzej, G. Chmielewski

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation has been discovered more than one hundred years ago. Since than, properties of radiation to modify physico-chemical properties of materials have found many applications. Radiation technologies applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material processing are well established processes. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 electron industrial accelerators in operation worldwide. They are being widely used for sterilization, food irradiation and polymer processing. New developments in the field of radiation sources engineering are compact size gamma irradiators, high power electron accelerators (medium energy range) for environmental applications and other types (high energy range) for materials' processing, with direct e-/X conversion. Future applications of low energy, inexpensive EB processing systems are foreseen. Electron beam lithography for microelectronics is a well-established technique. The already tested e-/X system equipped in an accelerator of 700 kW power opens new horizons for this kind of application. The developments described above need introduction of new computational methods that facilitate prediction of dose distribution, even in containers filled with complex products of varying densities. This technique provides good solutions for homeland security applications which may be complemented by mobile system applications. Technologies to be developed besides environmental applications could be nano materials, structure engineered materials (sorbents, the composites, ordered polymers, etc.) and natural polymers' processing. New products based on radiation processed polysaccharides have already been commercialized in many countries of the East Asia and Pacific Region, especially in those being rich in natural polymers. Very important and promising applications concern environment protection - radiation technology being a clean and environment friendly process, helps to curb pollutants' emission as

  3. Overall management of risk in oil field development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.L.; Minty, A.M.; Gregory, C.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade, and particularly since 1988, significant effort and expenditure has been applied in the offshore sector to the reduction of risk. This risk has been measured in terms of fatalities and injuries to the workforce and the effectiveness of the investment to reduce risk has been assessed on the basis of potential lives saved or fatalities averted. Regulations, notably SI2015, have demanded that risks to personnel be reduced to levels that are 'as low as is reasonably practicable' or ALARP. The regulations state that operators must demonstrate that the risks have been reduced to ALARP levels and advise that this can be done using cost-benefit analysis. ALARP levels are achieved, they state, when the cost of further risk reduction is 'grossly disproportionate' to the benefits achieved. Although the ALARP criterion has caused confusion it has provided a sound philosophical basis for changing the nature of regulations from prescriptive to goal-setting. It could be inferred from this criterion, also, that an underlying principle for regulation could be that the goals/objectives of the regulators, operators and asset owners are entirely consistent. The authors of the paper believe that this concept can be applied to the overall management of risk of an organization. Oil field development and insurance purchase strategies can be cited as examples of how the techniques can be applied. The paper will seek to show how risk, decision-making and asset management can be integrated under an 'ALARP' style concept. (author)

  4. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Kalle, W.H.J.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Wiegant, J.C.A.G.; Raap, A.K.; Greve, Jan; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization o­n human metaphase chromosomes is detected by near-field scanning optical microscopy. This combination of cytochemical and scanning probe techniques enables the localization and identification of several fluorescently labelled genomic DNA fragments o­n a single

  6. Measuring human remains in the field: Grid technique, total station, or MicroScribe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Vladimír; Galeta, P.; Sosna, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 221, 1-3 (2012), s. 16-22 ISSN 0379-0738 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Excavation * Field anthropology * Human skeleton * Measuring error Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2012

  7. Human locomotion through a multiple obstacle environment : Strategy changes as a result of visual field limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.E.M.; Toet, A.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how human locomotion through an obstacle environment is influenced by visual field limitation. Participants were asked to walk at a comfortable pace to a target location while avoiding multiple vertical objects. During this task, they wore goggles restricting their visual

  8. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  9. Human EEG responses to controlled alterations of the Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Antonio; Graham, Charles; Cook, Mary R; Gerkovich, Mary M; Gailey, Paul

    2002-09-01

    Examine the effects of controlled changes in the Earth's magnetic field on electroencephalogram (EEG) and subjective report. Fifty volunteers were exposed double-blind to changes in field magnitude, angle of inclination, and angle of deviation. Volunteers were also exposed to magnetic field conditions found near the North and South Pole. EEG recorded over temporal and occipital sites was compared across 4s baseline, field exposure, and no-change control trials. No EEG spectral differences as a function of gender or recording site were found. Geomagnetic field alterations had no effect on total energy (0.5-42 Hz), energy within traditional EEG analysis bands, or on the 95% spectral edge. Most volunteers reported no sensations; others reported non-specific symptoms unrelated to type of field change. Three hypothesized field detection mechanisms were not supported: (1) mechanical reception through torque exerted on the ferromagnetic material magnetite; (2) movement-induced induction of an electric field in the body; and (3) enhanced sensitivity due to alterations in the rates of chemical reactions involving electron spin states. Humans have little ability to detect brief alterations in the geomagnetic field, even if these alteration are of a large magnitude.

  10. Development and Field Testing of the FootFall Planning System for the ATHLETE Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunSpiral, Vytas; Wheeler, D. W.; Chavez-Clementa, Daniel; Mittman, David

    2011-01-01

    The FootFall Planning System is a ground-based planning and decision support system designed to facilitate the control of walking activities for the ATHLETE (All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer) family of robots. ATHLETE was developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and is a large six-legged robot designed to serve multiple roles during manned and unmanned missions to the Moon; its roles include transportation, construction and exploration. Over the four years from 2006 through 2010 the FootFall Planning System was developed and adapted to two generations of the ATHLETE robots and tested at two analog field sites (the Human Robotic Systems Project's Integrated Field Test at Moses Lake, Washington, June 2008, and the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), held at Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona, September 2010). Having 42 degrees of kinematic freedom, standing to a maximum height of just over 4 meters, and having a payload capacity of 450 kg in Earth gravity, the current version of the ATHLETE robot is a uniquely complex system. A central challenge to this work was the compliance of the high-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) robot, especially the compliance of the wheels, which affected many aspects of statically-stable walking. This paper will review the history of the development of the FootFall system, sharing design decisions, field test experiences, and the lessons learned concerning compliance and self-awareness.

  11. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Precise chronology of differentiation of developing human primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuefeng; Xu, Shan; Lin, Chensheng; Zhang, Lishan; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Yanding

    2014-02-01

    While correlation of developmental stage with embryonic age of the human primary dentition has been well documented, the available information regarding the differentiation timing of the primary teeth was largely based on the observation of initial mineralization and varies significantly. In this study, we aimed to document precise differentiation timing of the developing human primary dentition. We systematically examined the expression of odontogenic differentiation markers along with the formation of mineralized tissue in each developing maxillary and mandibular teeth from human embryos with well-defined embryonic age. We show that, despite that all primary teeth initiate development at the same time, odontogenic differentiation begins in the maxillary incisors at the 15th week and in the mandibular incisors at the 16th week of gestation, followed by the canine, the first primary premolar, and the second primary premolar at a week interval sequentially. Despite that the mandibular primary incisors erupt earlier than the maxillary incisors, this distal to proximal sequential differentiation of the human primary dentition coincides in general with the sequence of tooth eruption. Our results provide an accurate chronology of odontogenic differentiation of the developing human primary dentition, which could be used as reference for future studies of human tooth development.

  13. In situ electric fields causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.; Hirata, A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a human body when touching an object such as a metal structure with a different electric potential. These currents can stimulate muscle and peripheral nerves. In this context, computational analyses of in situ electric fields caused by the contact current have been performed, while their effectiveness for transient contact currents has not well been investigated. In the present study, using an anatomically based human model, a dispersive finite-difference time-domain model was utilised to computed transient contact current and in situ electric fields from a charged human. Computed in situ electric fields were highly localised in the hand. In order to obtain an insight into the relationship between in situ electric field and electro-stimulation, cell-maximum and 5-mm averaged in situ electric fields were computed and compared with strength-duration curves. The comparison suggests that both measures could be larger than thresholds derived from the strength- duration curves with parameters used in previous studies. (authors)

  14. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  15. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of...... of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health and productivity.......The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  16. Influence of Field Trip on the Development of Students Interest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result of the study showed that; field trip increased students' interest towards studying fine and applied art theory and practicals. Male interest towards studying fine and applied art after embarking on field trip is slightly higher than their female counterpart but the difference is not significant at 0.05 alpha level under 56 ...

  17. New developments in near-field acoustic holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Geerlings, A.C.; Verhaar, B.T.; Vliegenthart, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the field of noise-control engineering, information about the individual strength, andlocation, of the most dominant sources is of vital importance. This information allows theacoustic engineer to take effective measures in his effort to reduce the emitted acoustic noiselevels. Near-field

  18. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  19. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  20. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  1. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 2, Investigators`s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique.

  2. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  3. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  4. Repeater” studies – Development of a new research field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiv S. Bakketeig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to repeat birth weight in successive birth was first published in 1977. The study was based on 81 400 mothers who had their first and second singleton birth within the study period 1967-73, based on information in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The paper was presented at a large NICHD (National Center of Child Health and Human Development, NIH seminar focusing on preterm birth. This meeting started a creative, international long lasting collaboration, a series of papers and book chapters has been published. It seemed like mothers are programmed to give birth to babies of a certain size and age. And if they depart from this norm the baby is at an increased risk of mortality. Also, the tendency to repeat gestational age and birth weight exists across generations, with the same increased risk if the pattern is departed from. This means that if a mother who herself was of low birth weight give birth to a likewise small baby, then that baby has improved survival compared to a likewise small baby where the mother was relatively heavy. This effect across generations is also present on the paternal in addition to the maternal side. Recently the medical birth registration data set has provided possibilities to examine the effect of changing partners from one pregnancy to the next one. Also, half siblings (maternal and paternal is another valuable data source to explore. Soon 3 generational repeater studies will become available as the first births in the registry by now become grandmothers and grandfathers.

  5. Development of the epaxial muscles in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Eleonore KÖhler, S.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2016-01-01

    Although the intrinsic muscles of the back are defined by their embryological origin and innervation pattern, no detailed study on their development is available. Human embryos (5-10 weeks development) were studied, using Amira3D® reconstruction and Cinema4D® remodeling software for visualization.

  6. Human Resource Development, Ethics, and the Social Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Floyd F.

    2018-01-01

    Businesses can achieve competitive advantage and better productivity and performance by attracting and developing exceptional employees, by caring for and listening to stakeholders, and by avoiding financial and reputational damage due to unethical and illegal behaviors. As a profession, human resource development (HRD) engages in practices that…

  7. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  8. Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) a relevant indicator? Jean Claude Saha. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 12(1) 2005: 1-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. The Role of Higher Education in Equitable Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-01-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's…

  10. The Development of Human Capital in Young Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…

  11. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.; Puri, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a well-structured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities. (author)

  12. Subplate in the developing cortex of mouse and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Zhi; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Oeschger, Franziska M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The subplate is a largely transient zone containing precocious neurons involved in several key steps of cortical development. The majority of subplate neurons form a compact layer in mouse, but are dispersed throughout a much larger zone in the human. In rodent, subplate neurons are among...... several genes that are specifically expressed in the subplate layer of the rodent dorsal cortex. Here we examined the human subplate for some of these markers. In the human dorsal cortex, connective tissue growth factor-positive neurons can be seen in the ventricular zone at 15-22 postconceptional weeks...... growth factor- and nuclear receptor-related 1-positive cells are two distinct cell populations of the human subplate. Furthermore, our microarray analysis in rodent suggested that subplate neurons produce plasma proteins. Here we demonstrate that the human subplate also expresses alpha2zinc...

  13. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  15. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  16. The opportunities and obstacles to collaboration between the developing and developed countries in the field of occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Suvi; Savolainen, Kai

    2004-01-01

    The 2.4 billion working people in the developing countries often have to endure employment conditions, which do not meet even basic occupational safety and health (OSH) standards. The lack of work safety, excessive work loads, and occupational physical, chemical and biological exposures result in occupational diseases, injuries and as many as 1.2 million fatalities each year. Furthermore, as little as 15% of workers in the developing countries have access to occupational health and safety services. Some collaboration between the industrialized and developing countries in the field of OSH has been practiced for 30 years but its volume has been modest compared to other sectors of development assistance. The lessons learned from 30 years of experience are that the most important OSH improving factors in developing countries include legal and policy instruments, national OSH programs, infrastructure for OSH implementation, and OSH services. The establishment of OSH expert human resources, centers serving as engines for research, training, as well as information and registration systems can also be considered as key factors in any such collaboration. A convincing government OSH policy, and close cooperation between social partners and the government are also critical factors that guarantee sustainable OSH programs in a developing country over a long-term basis

  17. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. Methods. In this paper the software “COMSOL Multiphysics” was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. Results. The second generation (2G Global System for Mobile (GSM phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear, and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head’s surface. Conclusion. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user ear.

  18. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. In this paper the software "COMSOL Multiphysics" was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. The second generation (2G) Global System for Mobile (GSM) phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G) GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G) UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz) radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear), and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head's surface. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR) and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user's ear.

  19. Priority Fields of E-learning Development in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning application by all the subjects of educational process in Russia. Hereon, the fields that allow increasing the efficient use of e-learning in educational process were shown.

  20. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  1. Development of human factors engineering guide for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dangshi; Sheng Jufang

    1997-01-01

    'THE PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TO NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT (First Draft, in Chinese)', which was developed under a research program sponsored by National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) is described briefly. It is hoped that more conscious, more systematical and more comprehensive application of Human Factors Engineering to the nuclear power projects from the preliminary feasibility studies up to the commercial operation will benefit the safe, efficient and economical operations of nuclear power plants in China

  2. High-field fMRI unveils orientation columns in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Essa; Harel, Noam; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    2008-07-29

    Functional (f)MRI has revolutionized the field of human brain research. fMRI can noninvasively map the spatial architecture of brain function via localized increases in blood flow after sensory or cognitive stimulation. Recent advances in fMRI have led to enhanced sensitivity and spatial accuracy of the measured signals, indicating the possibility of detecting small neuronal ensembles that constitute fundamental computational units in the brain, such as cortical columns. Orientation columns in visual cortex are perhaps the best known example of such a functional organization in the brain. They cannot be discerned via anatomical characteristics, as with ocular dominance columns. Instead, the elucidation of their organization requires functional imaging methods. However, because of insufficient sensitivity, spatial accuracy, and image resolution of the available mapping techniques, thus far, they have not been detected in humans. Here, we demonstrate, by using high-field (7-T) fMRI, the existence and spatial features of orientation- selective columns in humans. Striking similarities were found with the known spatial features of these columns in monkeys. In addition, we found that a larger number of orientation columns are devoted to processing orientations around 90 degrees (vertical stimuli with horizontal motion), whereas relatively similar fMRI signal changes were observed across any given active column. With the current proliferation of high-field MRI systems and constant evolution of fMRI techniques, this study heralds the exciting prospect of exploring unmapped and/or unknown columnar level functional organizations in the human brain.

  3. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-07-07

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators.

  4. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators. (paper)

  5. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women’s empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries’ performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1 we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2 we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3 we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4 we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5 finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the ‘ecological’ approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  6. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  7. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic ...

  8. Recent developments in the field of refractory fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accary, A.; Delmas, R.

    1964-01-01

    The main part of the work carried out in the field of ceramic fuels by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique during recent years, has been in the direction of uranium dioxide and the uranium-carbon alloys. Uranium dioxide is being studied with the aim of using it as a fuel in the first core of EL-4, in which an integrated thermal conductivity of 29 W/cm is expected at the hottest point for a surface temperature of about 750 C. We concentrated on developing a process for preparing a dioxide powder of suitable characteristics and for sintering this powder, and on evaluating the main properties of the material obtained in the light of the conditions under which they will be used - micro-structural aspect and pore distribution, - mechanical and thermal behaviour in cylindrical form, - control of excess oxygen in the industrial products, - behaviour of the gaseous fission products at high temperatures after or during the course of irradiation. Our aim in the case of uranium carbides has been to determine the conditions of industrial manufacturing of a suitable fuel with a composition close to This has led us to undertake a number of fundamental investigations into - the domain of existence of non-stoichiometric UC, - the influence of elements of O and N on the properties of the UC in which they are dissolved, - the compatibility of uranium-carbon alloys with the different metallic or ceramic materials used for the sheath, - the corrosion of uranium-carbon alloys by H 2 O and CO 2 , - methods of preparing high purity samples, - in-pile irradiation devices for the investigation of these materials in the region of possible operating temperatures. In parallel with these fundamental investigations, we have attempted to define a procedure for the fabrication of uranium-carbon alloys of composition very close to UC which would, in its industrial application, lead to better results than the existent methods from the technical or economical points of view (i.e. sintering or arc

  9. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danu Prasetyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the efficiency level of government expenditure in 82 countries towards the human development and peace index of the respective countries by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach during 2007-2011. We found that only few countries that always being positioned in the efficient frontier during the sample period, namely: Japan, Nigeria, and Norway.  By using Malmquist index approach, we also found that Cyprus has the largest government expenditure efficiency improvement.Keywords: Government Expenditure Efficiencies, Human Development Index, Global Peace Indexdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3 How to cite this article:Prasetyo, A.D., and Pudjono, A.N.S. (2013. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 82-91. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3

  10. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34"+/CD117"+/CD13"+multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  11. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong San; Baek, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2010-01-01

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  12. Toward Shared Working Space of Human and Robotic Agents Through Dipole Flow Field for Dependable Path Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Lan Anh; Ekström, Mikael; Cürüklü, Baran

    2018-01-01

    Recent industrial developments in autonomous systems, or agents, which assume that humans and the agents share the same space or even work in close proximity, open for new challenges in robotics, especially in motion planning and control. In these settings, the control system should be able to provide these agents a reliable path following control when they are working in a group or in collaboration with one or several humans in complex and dynamic environments. In such scenarios, these agents are not only moving to reach their goals, i.e., locations, they are also aware of the movements of other entities to find a collision-free path. Thus, this paper proposes a dependable, i.e., safe, reliable and effective, path planning algorithm for a group of agents that share their working space with humans. Firstly, the method employs the Theta * algorithm to initialize the paths from a starting point to a goal for a set of agents. As Theta * algorithm is computationally heavy, it only reruns when there is a significant change of the environment. To deal with the movements of the agents, a static flow field along the configured path is defined. This field is used by the agents to navigate and reach their goals even if the planned trajectories are changed. Secondly, a dipole field is calculated to avoid the collision of agents with other agents and human subjects. In this approach, each agent is assumed to be a source of a magnetic dipole field in which the magnetic moment is aligned with the moving direction of the agent. The magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between these agents generate repulsive forces to help them to avoid collision. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated with extensive simulations. The results show that the static flow field is able to drive agents to the goals with a small number of requirements to update the path of agents. Meanwhile, the dipole flow field plays an important role to prevent collisions. The combination of

  13. Toward Shared Working Space of Human and Robotic Agents Through Dipole Flow Field for Dependable Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Anh Trinh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent industrial developments in autonomous systems, or agents, which assume that humans and the agents share the same space or even work in close proximity, open for new challenges in robotics, especially in motion planning and control. In these settings, the control system should be able to provide these agents a reliable path following control when they are working in a group or in collaboration with one or several humans in complex and dynamic environments. In such scenarios, these agents are not only moving to reach their goals, i.e., locations, they are also aware of the movements of other entities to find a collision-free path. Thus, this paper proposes a dependable, i.e., safe, reliable and effective, path planning algorithm for a group of agents that share their working space with humans. Firstly, the method employs the Theta* algorithm to initialize the paths from a starting point to a goal for a set of agents. As Theta* algorithm is computationally heavy, it only reruns when there is a significant change of the environment. To deal with the movements of the agents, a static flow field along the configured path is defined. This field is used by the agents to navigate and reach their goals even if the planned trajectories are changed. Secondly, a dipole field is calculated to avoid the collision of agents with other agents and human subjects. In this approach, each agent is assumed to be a source of a magnetic dipole field in which the magnetic moment is aligned with the moving direction of the agent. The magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between these agents generate repulsive forces to help them to avoid collision. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated with extensive simulations. The results show that the static flow field is able to drive agents to the goals with a small number of requirements to update the path of agents. Meanwhile, the dipole flow field plays an important role to prevent collisions. The

  14. Xenotransplantation as a model for human testicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Marsida; Smith, Lee B; Mitchell, Rod T

    The developing male reproductive system may be sensitive to disruption by a wide range of exogenous 'endocrine disruptors'. In-utero exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been hypothesized to have an impact in the increasing incidence of male reproductive disorders. The vulnerability to adverse effects as a consequence of such exposures is elevated during a specific 'window of susceptibility' in fetal life referred to as the masculinisation programing window (MPW). Exposures that occur during prepuberty, such as chemotherapy treatment for cancer during childhood, may also affect future fertility. Much of our current knowledge about fetal and early postnatal human testicular development derives from studies conducted in animal models predictive for humans. Therefore, over recent years, testicular transplantation has been employed as a 'direct' approach to understand the development of human fetal and prepubertal testis in health and disease. In this review we describe the potential use of human testis xenotransplantation to study testicular development and its application for (i) assessing the effects of environmental exposures in humans, and (ii) establishing fertility preservation options for prepubertal boys with cancer. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  16. Qualitative and quantitative estimations of the effect of geomagnetic field variations on human brain functional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belisheva, N.K.; Popov, A.N.; Petukhova, N.V.; Pavlova, L.P.; Osipov, K.S.; Tkachenko, S.Eh.; Baranova, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of functional dynamics of human brain with reference to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of local geomagnetic field (GMF) variations was conducted. Steady and unsteady states of human brain can be determined: by geomagnetic disturbances before the observation period; by structure and doses of GMF variations; by different combinations of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of GMF variations. Decrease of optimal GMF activity level and the appearance of aperiodic disturbances of GMF can be a reason of unsteady brain's state. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  17. High-field magnetic resonance imaging of the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Colon-Perez

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Fresh ex vivo MR imaging, along with tractography, revealed complex intra-temporal structural variation corresponding to neuronal cell body layers, dendritic fields, and axonal projection systems evident histologically. This is the first study to describe in detail the human temporal lobe structural organization using high-field MR imaging and tractography. By preserving the 3-dimensional structures of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, specific changes in anatomy may inform us about the changes that occur in TLE in relation to the disease process and structural underpinnings in epilepsy-related memory dysfunction.

  18. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  19. The 2001 activities and the 3rd workshop of the human resources development project in FNCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project are two kinds of activity; In-workshop activity and Outside-of-workshop activity. The 3rd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on October 29 to November 1, at the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Project is provided by the Nuclear Training Center of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop as In-Workshop Activity, a document of project review on Human Resources Development for the fourth Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March, 2002, a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries, and training materials of participating countries as Outside-Workshop Activity. (author)

  20. Toshiba's activity concerning technology succession and human resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Hoshide, Akehiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, from the viewpoint of the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission that cause global warming and the energy security, the importance of nuclear power generation is recognized again as an effective approach for solving the problems, and many nuclear power plants are planed to be constructed worldwide. On the other hand, the experienced engineers will face the time of the retirement in the near future and technology succession and human resource development has become important problems. In this paper, Toshiba's Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Division's activity concerning technology succession and human resource development will be introduced. (author)

  1. Multicultural development in human services agencies: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive multicultural organizational development (MCOD) is increasingly necessary in human services agencies. This article presents results from an exploratory study that identified challenges and solutions to MCOD, against the backdrop of daily realities of agency life. The author conducted interviews with 20 consultants and 20 practitioners experienced in MCOD. Qualitative analysis revealed four challenges--socioeconomic environment, organizational dynamics, conceptualization of the change effort, and consultant competence; and four solutions--collaborative environmental relations, leadership development, assessment and planning, and consultant selection. Results suggest the complexities of MCOD and ways that human services agencies can sustain such efforts.

  2. SUPPORTING THE INDUSTRY BY DEVELOPING A DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR COMPUTER-BASED PROCEDURES FOR FIELD WORKERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; LeBlanc, Katya

    2017-06-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human interacts with the procedures, which can be achieved through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools and dynamic step presentation. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the possibility and feasibility of replacing current paper-based procedures with CBPs. The main purpose of the CBP research conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory was to provide design guidance to the nuclear industry to be used by both utilities and vendors. After studying existing design guidance for CBP systems, the researchers concluded that the majority of the existing guidance is intended for control room CBP systems, and does not necessarily address the challenges of designing CBP systems for instructions carried out in the field. Further, the guidance is often presented on a high level, which leaves the designer to interpret what is meant by the guidance and how to specifically implement it. The authors developed a design guidance to provide guidance specifically tailored to instructions that are carried out in the field based.

  3. In vivo high resolution human corneal imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlin, Viacheslav; Xiao, Peng; Dalimier, Eugénie; Grieve, Kate; Irsch, Kristina; Sahel, José-Alain; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A Claude

    2018-02-01

    We present the first full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) device capable of in vivo imaging of the human cornea. We obtained images of the epithelial structures, Bowman's layer, sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP), anterior and posterior stromal keratocytes, stromal nerves, Descemet's membrane and endothelial cells with visible nuclei. Images were acquired with a high lateral resolution of 1.7 µm and relatively large field-of-view of 1.26 mm x 1.26 mm - a combination, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been possible with other in vivo human eye imaging methods. The latter together with a contactless operation, make FFOCT a promising candidate for becoming a new tool in ophthalmic diagnostics.

  4. The discrepancy between human peripheral nerve chronaxie times as measured using magnetic and electric field stimuli: the relevance to MRI gradient coil safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recoskie, Bryan J; Chronik, Blaine A; Scholl, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) resulting from electric fields induced from the rapidly changing magnetic fields of gradient coils is a concern in MRI. Nerves exposed to either electric fields or changing magnetic fields would be expected to display consistent threshold characteristics, motivating the direct application of electric field exposure criteria from the literature to guide the development of gradient magnetic field exposure criteria for MRI. The consistency of electric and magnetic field exposures was tested by comparing chronaxie times for electric and magnetic PNS curves for 22 healthy human subjects. Electric and magnetic stimulation thresholds were measured for exposure of the forearm using both surface electrodes and a figure-eight magnetic coil, respectively. The average chronaxie times for the electric and magnetic field conditions were 109 ± 11 μs and 651 ± 53 μs (±SE), respectively. We do not propose that these results call into question the basic mechanism, namely that rapidly switched gradient magnetic fields induce electric fields in human tissues, resulting in PNS. However, this result does motivate us to suggest that special care must be taken when using electric field exposure data from the literature to set gradient coil PNS safety standards in MRI.

  5. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  6. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  7. Leveraging intellectual capital through Lewin's Force Field Analysis: The case of software development companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Capatina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an original conceptual framework for the strategic management of intellectual capital assets in software development companies. The framework is based on Lewin's Force Field Analysis. The framework makes it possible to assess software company managers’ opinions regarding the way driving and restraining forces affect the pillars of intellectual capital. The capacity to adapt to change is vital for companies in knowledge-intensive industries. Accordingly, this study examined a sample of 74 Romanian software development companies. The aim was to help companies benefit from managing the driving and restraining forces acting upon the pillars of intellectual capital (human, structural, and relational. The effects of the driving forces, quantified by PathMaker software's Force Field Tool, were observed to be greater than the restraining forces for each pillar of intellectual capital. This paper contributes by showing the explanatory power of this framework. The framework thus offers a tool that helps managers drive change in their organizations through effective intellectual capital management. Furthermore, this article describes how to encourage the implementation of changes that create value for software development companies.

  8. Sampling atmospheric pesticides with SPME: Laboratory developments and field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junxia; Tuduri, Ludovic; Mercury, Maud; Millet, Maurice; Briand, Olivier; Montury, Michel

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the atmospheric exposure of the greenhouse workers to pesticides, solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used under non-equilibrium conditions. Using Fick's law of diffusion, the concentrations of pesticides in the greenhouse can be calculated using pre-determined sampling rates (SRs). Thus the sampling rates (SRs) of two modes of SPME in the lab and in the field were determined and compared. The SRs for six pesticides in the lab were 20.4-48.3 mL min -1 for the exposed fiber and 0.166-0.929 mL min -1 for the retracted fiber. In field sampling, two pesticides, dichlorvos and cyprodinil were detected with exposed SPME. SR with exposed SPME for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). SR for dichlorvos in the field (32.4 mL min -1 ) was consistent with that in the lab (34.5 mL min -1 ). The trends of temporal concentration and the inhalation exposure were also obtained. - SPME was proved to be a powerful and simple tool for determining pesticides' atmospheric concentration

  9. Development of Field-Emission Electron Gun from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hozumi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to use a narrow energy-spread electron beam easily and low costly on injector electron guns, we have been tested field emission cathodes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Experiments for these three years brought us important suggestions and a few rules of thumb. Now at last, anode current of 3.0 [A/cm2

  10. The supervisions in the field develop nuclear professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez de la Casa, M.; Buedo, J. L.; Gonzalez, F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants began a training program for improving the supervision of managers in the field: the effort done not only has improved the quality of supervisions but also has defined a way to reinforce behavior expectations of Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. (Author)

  11. Skills for development of nuclear professional for field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gutierrez, N.; Buedo, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of commanders in the field is a growing need in the nuclear sector. The education, training and monitoring of the leaders involved in monitoring programs, allow have a group of nuclear professionals that offer specific and useful feedback and helps improve plant safety.

  12. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  13. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; McHale, Timothy S; Carré, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review field studies of human male hormones and reproductive behavior. We first discuss life history theory and related conceptual considerations. As illustrations, distinctive features of human male life histories such as coalitional aggression, long-term partnering and paternal care are noted, along with their relevance to overall reproductive effort and developmental plasticity. We address broad questions about what constitutes a human male field study of hormones and behavior, including the kinds of hormone and behavioral measures employed in existing studies. Turning to several sections of empirical review, we present and discuss evidence for links between prenatal and juvenile androgens and sexual attraction and aggression. This includes the proposal that adrenal androgens-DHEA and androstenedione-may play functional roles during juvenility as part of a life-stage specific system. We next review studies of adult male testosterone responses to competition, with these studies emphasizing men's involvement in individual and team sports. These studies show that men's testosterone responses differ with respect to variables such as playing home/away, winning/losing, and motivation. Field studies of human male hormones and sexual behavior also focus on testosterone, showing some evidence of patterned changes in men's testosterone to sexual activity. Moreover, life stage-specific changes in male androgens may structure age-related differences in sexual behavior, including decreases in sexual behavior with senescence. We overview the considerable body of research on male testosterone, partnerships and paternal care, noting the variation in social context and refinements in research design. A few field studies provide insight into relationships between partnering and paternal behavior and prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In the third section of the review, we discuss patterns, limitations and directions for future research. This

  14. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, A A; Rudnev, S G; V Vassilevski, Yu; Kramarenko, V K; Nikolaev, D V; Smirnov, A V; Salamatova, V Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  15. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  16. Application of equivalent electrodes method to analysis of interaction between ELF-LF electric fields and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceselkoska, Vesna C.; Velickovic, Dragutin M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the use of equivalent electrodes method, numerical method, based on surface-charge equation to quantify the interaction of low frequencies electric fields with various models of human body. The evaluation of the electric field intensity on the body surface is performed for a realistic model of the human body. Several examples for different postures of the model are given. (Author)

  17. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  18. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  19. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  20. REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS IN А FIELD OF HUMAN MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION OF PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Starovoitova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern huge and world-wide known projects concerning studying of human microbial ecology and construction of probiotics, particularly: Society for Microbial Ecology and Disease, Probiotics & Health Targeted Initiative of International Science and Technology Center (TI PROBIO ISTC, Human Microbiome Project of National Institutes of Health, MetaHIT Project (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract of European Commission, Human Metabolome Project of Canadian University of Alberta and some more else were characterized in the article. Brief historical information and reference to official sites of every discussed project were given. Main goals and tasks of every project were described. Short characteristic of discussed projects and also modern accessible results of researches were given. Importance of every examined project for widening scientific knowledge in the field of human microbial ecology and also for improvement and/or for construction of modern effective probiotics on basis of human normal intestinal microflora were paid attention. Close interaction of scientific data received by realization of every discussed project was shown.

  1. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than 10 yr ago, considerably prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline

  2. Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development Objective Neuroeconomic game trials have detected a present-bias in human decision making which represents a serious shortcoming facing the long termed nature of complex problems in a globalized economy i.e. regional residual poverty, ecological...... threats and personal stress. So far, the evidence-based findings on human resource development (HRD) seem not to match these huge challenges. The aim of this study is to identify cost-effective means of mental training to recover sufficiently from the present bias to enable more sustainable decisions...... Pragmatic de-stressing by medical meditation adds extra years to a normal life and saves health care expenses for a moderate meditation course fee. So, medical meditation prevails as a dominant de-stressing intervention serving a wider goal of more long termed decision making. An international monitoring...

  3. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRS) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operators overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline, hereafter referred to as the ''Guideline.''

  4. Development of an integrated system for estimating human error probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Morzinski, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project had as its main objective the development of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), knowledge-based expert system that would provide probabilistic estimates for potential human errors within various risk assessments, safety analysis reports, and hazard assessments. HRA identifies where human errors are most likely, estimates the error rate for individual tasks, and highlights the most beneficial areas for system improvements. This project accomplished three major tasks. First, several prominent HRA techniques and associated databases were collected and translated into an electronic format. Next, the project started a knowledge engineering phase where the expertise, i.e., the procedural rules and data, were extracted from those techniques and compiled into various modules. Finally, these modules, rules, and data were combined into a nearly complete HRA expert system.

  5. Extract from IAEA's Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine - Part 2. - Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency is now engaged in finalizing a reference manual in nuclear medicine, entitled, 'Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine'. Several renowned professionals from all over the world, from virtually all fields of nuclear medicine have contributed to this manual. The World Journal of Nuclear Medicine will publish a series of extracts from this manual as previews. This is the second extract from the Resources Manual, Part-2 of the chapter on Human Resources Development. (author)

  6. Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.

  7. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  8. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: kuehn@itis.ethz.ch

    2009-02-21

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  9. Timing, timing, timing: Fast decoding of object information from intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Agam, Yigal; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Summary The difficulty of visual recognition stems from the need to achieve high selectivity while maintaining robustness to object transformations within hundreds of milliseconds. Theories of visual recognition differ in whether the neuronal circuits invoke recurrent feedback connections or not. The timing of neurophysiological responses in visual cortex plays a key role in distinguishing between bottom-up and top-down theories. Here we quantified at millisecond resolution the amount of visual information conveyed by intracranial field potentials from 912 electrodes in 11 human subjects. We could decode object category information from human visual cortex in single trials as early as 100 ms post-stimulus. Decoding performance was robust to depth rotation and scale changes. The results suggest that physiological activity in the temporal lobe can account for key properties of visual recognition. The fast decoding in single trials is compatible with feed-forward theories and provides strong constraints for computational models of human vision. PMID:19409272

  10. A joint-constraint model for human joints using signed distance-fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    We present a local joint-constraint model for a single joint which is based on distance fields. Our model is fast, general, and well suited for modeling human joints. In this work, we take a geometric approach and model the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region, i.e., the boundary of all...... allowed poses. A region of feasible poses can be built by embedding motion captured data points in a signed distance field. The only assumption is that the feasible poses form a single connected set of angular values. We show how signed distance fields can be used to generate fast and general joint......-joint dependencies, or joints with more than three degrees of freedom. The resolution of the joint-constraints can be tweaked individually for each degree of freedom, which can be used to optimize memory usage. We perform a comparative study of the key-properties of various joint-constraint models, as well...

  11. Human-Centred Design: sustainable ideas and scenarios for the development of projects and products based on knowledge and human abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sbordone, Maria Antonietta

    2008-01-01

    Human-Centred Design is defined as the discipline relating to products and services that, in different ways, takes into account the psycho-physical wellness of human beings, and is formulated according to an approach based on User-Centred Design (UCD). The User-Centred Design approach considers the relationships and the interactions users have with products while using them, and is developed within disciplines not properly belonging to the field of design. At the beginning of last century, wi...

  12. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  13. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  14. Development in the Learning Factory: Training Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Harry; Delbridge, Rick

    2001-01-01

    A study of human resource practices in 18 automobile factories in the United States and Britain showed that manufacturing innovations are placing greater demands on line managers and workers. Training is being refocused to develop their interpersonal, team, and leadership skills. However, lack of time and suitable training facilities are barriers.…

  15. Analysis Of Human Capital Development In Technical Colleges In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the human capital development in Technical Colleges in Imo State of Nigeria. All the Technical Colleges in the State participated in the study. Results showed low enrollment in the Colleges. There was gender inequity in the enrollment as only 59 females (1.97%) enrolled in the Technical Colleges.

  16. AFRA-NEST: A Tool for Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanor, Edison; Akaho, E.H.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: • Regional Networks could serve as a common platform to meet the needs for human resource development. • With AFRA-NEST, International cooperation would be strengthened. • Systematic integration and sharing of available nuclear training resources. • Cost of training future nuclear experts could drastically be reduced

  17. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  18. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  19. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  20. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…