WorldWideScience

Sample records for human development chapter

  1. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  2. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  3. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  4. Chapter 8. Ionisation radiation and human organism. Radioactivity of human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with ionisation radiation and human organism as well as with radioactivity of human tissues. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Radiation stress of human organism; (2) Radioactivity of human tissues and the factors influencing radioactive contamination; (3) Possibilities of decreasing of radiation stress

  5. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  6. Changes in channel morphology over human time scales [Chapter 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Buffington

    2012-01-01

    Rivers are exposed to changing environmental conditions over multiple spatial and temporal scales, with the imposed environmental conditions and response potential of the river modulated to varying degrees by human activity and our exploitation of natural resources. Watershed features that control river morphology include topography (valley slope and channel...

  7. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  8. Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E.; Herring, Stephanie C.; Jantarasami, Lesley; Adrianopoli, Carl; Benedict, Kaitlin; Conlon, Kathryn; Escobar, Vanessa; Hess, Jeremy; Luvall, Jeffrey; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; hide

    2016-01-01

    Increased Exposure to Extreme Events Key Finding 1: Health impacts associated with climate-related changes in exposure to extreme events include death, injury, or illness; exacerbation of underlying medical conditions; and adverse effects on mental health[High Confidence]. Climate change will increase exposure risk in some regions of the United States due to projected increases in the frequency and/or intensity of drought, wildfires, and flooding related to extreme precipitation and hurricanes [Medium Confidence].Disruption of Essential Infrastructure Key Finding 2: Many types of extreme events related to climate change cause disruption of infrastructure, including power, water, transportation, and communication systems, that are essential to maintaining access to health care and emergency response services and safeguarding human health [High Confidence].Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding Key Finding 3: Coastal populations with greater vulnerability to health impacts from coastal flooding include persons with disabilities or other access and functional needs, certain populations of color, older adults, pregnant women and children, low-income populations, and some occupational groups [High Confidence].Climate change will increase exposure risk to coastal flooding due to increases in extreme precipitation and in hurricane intensity and rainfall rates, as well as sea level rise and the resulting increases in storm surge.

  9. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 3: Chapters 5 through 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 5--7 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments

  10. Fast reactors and problems in their development. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1980-01-01

    The main differences between fast reactors, in particular the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and thermal reactors are discussed. The view is taken, based on the intrinsic physics of the systems, that fast reactors should be considered as a different genus from thermal reactors. Some conclusions are drawn for fast reactor development generally and for the British programme in particular. Physics, economics and safety aspects are covered. (U.K.)

  11. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 4: Chapters 8 through 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 8--13 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the following: effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments; effects of noise on the biological and human environments; cumulative effects on the environment; and comparison of project alternatives and their impacts

  12. 38 CFR 21.382 - Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training and staff....382 Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. (a) General. VA shall provide a program of ongoing professional training and development for staff of the VR&E...

  13. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  14. Chi Sigma Iota Chapter Leadership and Professional Identity Development in Early Career Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2010-01-01

    As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…

  15. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  16. Success Stories in Radiotherapy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Radiotherapy Development Projects. Chapter 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems found to be common in the process of setting up, running or expanding radiotherapy facilities. The establishment of radiotherapy services is essential to consolidate any national cancer control plan. In other words, such a plan cannot exist without radiotherapy. The IAEA guidance on setting up a radiotherapy programme covering the clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects gives an estimate of one teletherapy machine needed per million population]. The IAEA’s Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) shows that the number of megavoltage (MV) machines per million population varies from 8.2 in the United States of America to 5.5 in western Europe. There are still many countries without a single radiotherapy department, especially in Africa, and many others have very low coverage, e.g. up to one external beam radiotherapy machine to cover a population of 35 million, which is close to having no coverage. There are many possible reasons for this situation. In many low income countries, the combination of lower life expectancy, low income taxes, a small budget for public health, and unmet basic needs such as housing, prevention and/or treatment of infectious diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diarrhoea), drinkable water and sewerage makes the cancer control problem a lower priority. The indicators shown illustrate these points. Establishing a radiotherapy programme requires careful planning, including the requirement for successive phases. Resources should be available for designing, building, purchasing, maintaining and replacing equipment, and for providing training in its use. In the case of a first radiotherapy facility with basic staffing levels, there is not likely to be enough expertise to guide and oversee the process in many or all of these areas.

  17. Virtual reality/ augmented reality technology : the next chapter of human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    No matter how many different size and shape the computer has, the basic components of computers are still the same. If we use the user perspective to look for the development of computer history, we can surprisingly find that it is the input output device that leads the development of the industry development, in one word, human-computer interaction changes the development of computer history. Human computer interaction has been gone through three stages, the first stage relies on the inpu...

  18. Global nuclear markets in the context of climate change and sustainable development. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Two) focuses on the global nuclear markets in the context of policies regarding climate change and sustainable development. The global market realities and the export potential of the canadian nuclear industry are becoming crucial features of the nuclear political economy. The article examines the role of exports in the evolution of nuclear policy in Canada, and looks more closely at nuclear power and CANDU projects in the specific context of global competitive markets. It examines the trends in electricity and nuclear energy in the market for nuclear reactors. Finally, this article locates these changes in the context of the issues that are inherent in climate change and sustainable development

  19. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs

  2. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  4. Human interactions with the environment through time in southern Nevada [Chapter 8] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada is rich in irreplaceable cultural resources that include archeological remains, historic sites, cultural landscapes, and other areas of significance to Native Americans and other cultural groups. This chapter provides information related to Goal 2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to “Provide for responsible use of Southern Nevada’s lands...

  5. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  6. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  7. CHAPTER ONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN PC

    causes of job related stress to all library staff in Polytechnics in Nigeria, ... imperative for librarians and library support staff to develop new technical skills to promote ..... Continuing professional development and workplace learning: human.

  8. National Mexican Tourism Policy and North American Second Homeowners In Mexico: Local Tourism Development and Mexican Identity (Chapter 6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev

    2018-01-01

    . Still the Mexican state does not seize the second home owners as a resource and ‘producers’ rather only as consumers of different Mexican objects, food etc. The chapter addresses this research gap and proposes rather than only perceive North American second home owners as part of tourism development...... participate in reshaping and reconfigure public policy and Mexican culture/identity construction. The purpose of the chapter is to explore the role of the North American second home owners and their impact on the planning and regulation of Mexican state policies, and how they might reconfigure practices and...

  9. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  10. Development of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-10-01

    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances in understanding how motor commands are expressed at different stages of human development. Similar commands are found in several other vertebrates, indicating that locomotion development follows common principles of organization of the control networks. Movements show a high degree of flexibility at all stages of development, which is instrumental for learning and exploration of variable interactions with the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Land uses, fire, and invasion: Exotic annual Bromus and human dimensions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Matthew L. Brooks; Brian A. Mealor

    2016-01-01

    Human land uses are the primary cause of the introduction and spread of exotic annual Bromus species. Initial introductions were likely linked to contaminated seeds used by homesteading farmers in the late 1880s and early 1900s. Transportation routes aided their spread. Unrestricted livestock grazing from the 1800s through the mid-1900s reduced native plant competitors...

  12. Chapter 6. Modeling human impacts to the Borderlands environment from a fire ecology perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne K. Fish

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and topical orientations in current archaeology address the interaction between past human populations and their environment. These themes reflect ecological frameworks that were incorporated into the social sciences by the 1950s, as exemplified by the influential publication, Man?s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth (Thomas 1956). Cultural practices...

  13. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF METRICS FOR TECHNICAL PRODUCTION: QUALIS BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Ribas, Carmen A P Marcondes; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes

    2015-01-01

    To propose metrics to qualify the publication in books and chapters, and from there, establish guidance for the evaluation of the Medicine III programs. Analysis of some of the 2013 area documents focusing this issue. Were analyzed the following areas: Computer Science; Biotechnology; Biological Sciences I; Public Health; Medicine I. Except for the Medicine I, which has not adopted the metric for books and chapters, all other programs established metrics within the intellectual production, although with unequal percentages. It´s desirable to include metrics for books and book chapters in the intellectual production of post-graduate programs in Area Document with percentage-value of 5% in publications of Medicine III programs. Propor a métrica para qualificar a produção veiculada através de livros e capítulos e, a partir daí, estabelecer orientação para a avaliação dos programas de pós-graduação da Medicina III. Análise dos documentos de área de 2013 dos programas de pós-graduação senso estrito das áreas: Ciência da Computação; Biotecnologia; Ciências Biológicas I; Saúde Coletiva; Medicina I. Excetuando-se o programa da Medicina I, que não adotou a métrica para classificação de livros e capítulos, todos os demais estabeleceram-na dentro da sua produção intelectual, embora com percentuais desiguais. É desejável inserir a métrica de livros e capitulos de livros na produção intelectual do Documento de Área dos programas, ortorgando a ela percentual de 5% das publicações qualificadas dos programas da Medicina III.

  15. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  16. mtDNA variation predicts population size in humans and reveals a major Southern Asian chapter in human prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Gray, Russell D; Drummond, Alexei J

    2008-02-01

    The relative timing and size of regional human population growth following our expansion from Africa remain unknown. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity carries a legacy of our population history. Given a set of sequences, we can use coalescent theory to estimate past population size through time and draw inferences about human population history. However, recent work has challenged the validity of using mtDNA diversity to infer species population sizes. Here we use Bayesian coalescent inference methods, together with a global data set of 357 human mtDNA coding-region sequences, to infer human population sizes through time across 8 major geographic regions. Our estimates of relative population sizes show remarkable concordance with the contemporary regional distribution of humans across Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, indicating that mtDNA diversity is a good predictor of population size in humans. Plots of population size through time show slow growth in sub-Saharan Africa beginning 143-193 kya, followed by a rapid expansion into Eurasia after the emergence of the first non-African mtDNA lineages 50-70 kya. Outside Africa, the earliest and fastest growth is inferred in Southern Asia approximately 52 kya, followed by a succession of growth phases in Northern and Central Asia (approximately 49 kya), Australia (approximately 48 kya), Europe (approximately 42 kya), the Middle East and North Africa (approximately 40 kya), New Guinea (approximately 39 kya), the Americas (approximately 18 kya), and a second expansion in Europe (approximately 10-15 kya). Comparisons of relative regional population sizes through time suggest that between approximately 45 and 20 kya most of humanity lived in Southern Asia. These findings not only support the use of mtDNA data for estimating human population size but also provide a unique picture of human prehistory and demonstrate the importance of Southern Asia to our recent evolutionary past.

  17. Human Activity Behavior and Gesture Generation in Virtual Worlds for Long- Duration Space Missions. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Damer, Bruce; Brodsky, Boris; vanHoff, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A virtual worlds presentation technique with embodied, intelligent agents is being developed as an instructional medium suitable to present in situ training on long term space flight. The system combines a behavioral element based on finite state automata, a behavior based reactive architecture also described as subsumption architecture, and a belief-desire-intention agent structure. These three features are being integrated to describe a Brahms virtual environment model of extravehicular crew activity which could become a basis for procedure training during extended space flight.

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  19. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  20. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  1. KEPCO‧s Activity to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Kazushi

    While business environment changes a lot, in order to aim at realization of “what we want the Group to look like in 2030” , it is necessary to cultivate human resources with a strong sense of mission. We need to prepare an opportunity to teach and to be taught, in order to cultivate resources and a measure for connecting every person‧s growth to growth of a company. In chapter one, we show Five Trends for attaining what KANSAI Electric Power Corporation wants to be and explain the importance of human resource development under the changing environment. In chapter two, we explain the fundamental policy of human resource cultivation and describe the development plan and the facilities for training based on the policy in chapter two. In chapter three, we express the specific efforts in the field of maintenance, construction, and operation at the department of Engineering and Operation.

  2. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs

  6. Chapter Nine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Communication Barriers and the Second Language Learner. The ability to interact among human beings is made possible by communication. Human language has a ... individuals and groups for better understanding and relationships. (qtd in ...

  7. Chapter 7: Developing climate-informed state-and-transition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles A. Hemstrom; Jessica E. Halofsky; David R. Conklin; Joshua S. Halofsky; Dominique Bachelet; Becky K. Kerns

    2014-01-01

    Land managers and others need ways to understand the potential effects of climate change on local vegetation types and how management activities might be impacted by climate change. To date, climate change impact models have not included localized vegetation communities or the integrated effects of vegetation development dynamics, natural disturbances, and management...

  8. CHAPTER 14: FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the concepts of emergy and transformity established a medium (emergy) for accounting that made it possible to express economic and environmental work of all kinds on a common basis as solar emjoules. Environmental accounting using emdollars, a combined emergy-monet...

  9. Chapter 2: Development of instrumentation for safety analyses in fuel reprocessing and treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Development and provision of methods allowing for safety-related statements on non-appropriate operation of intermediate storage, reprocessing and waste conditioning on the basis of probabilities. By applying the methods and models to the courses of events considered, activity releases at the chimney and their probable frequency were determined. For accidents known to be radiologically relevant, expected values for exposure were computed by means of complex distribution and exposure models. (DG) [de

  10. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  11. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    survey and were asked to fill a questionnaire that had questions on various aspects of the teaching ... Results: The module on computer skills. (80%) and Human behavioural sciences (75%) were identified as the least enjoyable subjects.

  12. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  13. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  14. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  15. Embodiment and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    We are recognizing increasingly that the study of cognitive, social, and emotional processes must account for their embodiment in living, acting beings. The related field of embodied cognition (EC) has coalesced around dissatisfaction with the lack of attention to the body in cognitive science. For developmental scientists, the emphasis in the literature on adult EC on the role of the body in cognition may not seem particularly novel, given that bodily action was central to Piaget's theory of cognitive development. However, as the influence of the Piagetian account waned, developmental notions of embodiment were shelved in favor of mechanical computational approaches. In this article, I argue that by reconsidering embodiment, we can address a key issue with computational accounts: how meaning is constructed by the developing person. I also suggest that the process-relational approach to developmental systems can provide a system of concepts for framing a fully embodied, integrative developmental science.

  16. Development of New Advanced Coating and Packaging with Irradiation Treatment. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Salmieri, S.; Vu, K.; Huq, T.; Khanh, A.; Takala, P.; Sharmin, N. [Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Centre, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Qc (Canada); Khan, R. [Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry Division, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Senna, M. M. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, H. M.M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr city, Cairo (Egypt); Safrany, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    This research has demonstrated that cellulose derivatives and alginate are promising polymers for the development of natural edible coatings. The use of irradiation to crosslink these polymers have beneficial effects to improve the shelf life and to preserve the overall quality of ready to eat coated vegetables and fruits i.e. coated pre-cut broccoli and strawberries, and to preserve the bioactivity of active compounds immobilized in the polymers during storage. The addition of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) in the polymer formulations has a synergistic effect with irradiation in order to improve the physicochemical properties of the polymers and gave promising results with regards to the control release of active compounds but also on the protection of the bioactivity of natural compounds during storage. A synergistic effect between the presence of natural antimicrobial compounds and irradiation was also observed in order to eliminate pathogens and on the shelf life extension of ready to eat food. Mechanism of action of both treatments on bacterial radiosensitization is undergoing and important information has already been discovered. Similar results have been obtained with biodegradable packaging. Chitosan, methylcellulose, polycaprolactone, zein, caseinate and alginate are promising natural polymers witch could apply as food packaging. The incorporation of NCC and the microfluidization treatment of film formulations improve significantly the mechanical and barrier properties of the bio-based films. The irradiation treatment for crosslinking or grafting of monomers on natural films induced a significant improvement of the physico-chemical properties of films, can improve the compatibility of the polymer network and improve the water resistance. (author)

  17. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  18. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    abnormality observed was rudimentary tail and secondary abnormalities included bent mid-piece, curved mid-piece, bent tail, curved tail, tail-less head, ... become more beneficial to humans and animals, toxicity assessment of these plants is .... of spermatozoa with rudimentary tails in the Wistar rats administered with the.

  19. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  20. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bouis, Howarth (HarvestPlus)

    Key words: Biofortification, Micronutrient deficiency, Agriculture, Nutrition,. Micronutrient targets ... development and thus low educational attainment, and decreased work capacity and earning potential ..... Hb: Hemoglobin. ID: iron deficiency.

  1. New Humanism and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han d'Orville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The call for a new humanism in the 21st century roots in the conviction that the moral, intellectual and political foundations of globalization and international cooperation have to be rethought. Whilst the historic humanism was set out to resolve tensions between tradition and modernity and to reconcile individual rights with newly emerging duties of citizenship, the new humanism approach goes beyond the level of the nation state in seeking to unite the process of globalization with its complex and sometimes contradictory manifestations. The new humanism therefore advocates the social inclusion of every human being at all levels of society and underlines the transformative power of education, sciences, culture and communications. Therefore, humanism today needs to be perceived as a collective effort that holds governments, civil society, the private sector and human individuals equally responsible to realize its values and to design creatively and implement a humanist approach to a sustainable society, based on economic, social and environmental development. New humanism describes the only way forward for a world that accounts for the diversity of identities and the heterogeneity of interests and which is based on inclusive, democratic, and, indeed, humanist values. Humanism did evolve into the grand movement of human spiritual and creative liberation, which enabled an unparalleled acceleration of prosperity and transformation of civilizations. In line with humanist ethics, the material growth was understood as a collective good, which was to serve all participants of a community and meant to enable the socio-economic progress of society. The exact definition of humanism has historically fluctuated in accordance with successive and diverse strands of intellectual thought. The underlying concept rests on the universal ideas of human emancipation, independence and social justice. Humanism can hence be understood as a moral inspiration for

  2. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    diet experienced an age-dependent loss of glucose tolerance. ... developed insulin resistance and severe diabetes. Oleic acid is a ... ability to reduce blood pressure, regulation of insulin ..... a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.

  3. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    2012-02-13

    Feb 13, 2012 ... economic development in his fourth Reith Lecture from his series entitled 'The ... Bioline International, African Journals online (AJOL), Index. Copernicus ... a seeming incapacity to transform itself using its own scientific and ...

  4. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette. Smoke on Humoral ... hypothesised the development of auto-immune disease in long term alcohol- and cigarette-users. Key Words: ... high parasite densities, abnormal liver functions,.

  5. CHAPTER 8

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... vitamin A maize varieties can be developed without compromising yield levels and that these varieties can ... maize varieties, the delivery efforts in Zambia and impact measurement. It also synthesizes ..... However,the gap will narrow with ...

  6. CHAPTER 9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bouis, Howarth (HarvestPlus)

    biofortified vitamin A cassava varieties in Nigeria, progress in monitoring and ..... development of food market in 2014 to absorb production in excess of .... communication tools like jingles, radio talk shows, movies, interviews, feature articles,.

  7. Chapter Four

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The child acquires knowledge of this language from his immediate family ... Many programs also seek to develop literacy in the native language. ..... be a growing movement to stabilize and revitalize indigenous languages and cultures. As.

  8. Creative Trade for Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, international trade in creative goods and services has been expanding. But this upward march is not lifting all boats. Although many developing countries are endowed with vast cultural wealth, they still lag behind. In addition, women are not faring well. Much needs to be done to expand creative trade for human development. Suggestions here include implementing a Women Art...

  9. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    known as tic douloureux. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is the drug of choice,but some patients develop adverse effects and some others may become .... Trigeminal neuralgia is an idiopathic disorder, but it is suggested that unrelieved vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve entry zone initiates a focal demyelination that ...

  10. CHAPTER 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these ... consumer background, crop development, release, and delivery of iron bean varieties and ... Consuming biofortified beans results in increased iron .... iron, and zinc biofortification interventions based on their production and consumption.

  11. Chapter One

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Learning theorists and language teachers want to know the answers to certain questions. ... defines it as an emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second ... Selinker identifies the following as the learning strategies through which a learner's ... From the learner's processing of these materials.

  12. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and air pouch models. No death was recorded when WAP .... treatment. A single high dose as recommended by the. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ... The visual observations included changes in the skin and fur, locomotor ...

  13. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    while 53.2% engaged in moderate physical fitness 1-2 days a week but less than 30 minutes per day. Only few (26.1%) received .... physical activity such as brisk walking and cycling lasting for at least 30 min/day, to be observed at ..... (2011): Exposing women to workplace stress factors as a risk factor for developing arterial ...

  14. CHAPTER TWO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    made more efficient with the development of solid-phase peptide synthetic methods. (SPPS).3,4. Side-chain amide protection of asparagine (Asn) or glutamine (Gln) has been considered optional.5 These amide side-chains are liable to undergo dehydration during the coupling steps.6–8 This side reaction does not occur ...

  15. CHAPTER 15

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evidence they have generated, and indicate what lessons and innovations can ... version of TSNI meant to test the cost-effectiveness of two models of scaling up an ... method was adapted from an interactive, multiple-pass method developed ...

  16. CHAPTER 11

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uchitelle-Pierce, Benjamin (HarvestPlus)

    children by improving the access, availability and utilization of biofortified crops that ... partners, the HarvestPlus program is working to further develop and widely ..... celebrities to create a movie titled “The Yellow Cassava,” which was ...

  17. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  18. Development and validation of an ICP-OES method for quantitation of elemental impurities in tablets according to coming US pharmacopeia chapters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Celina Støving; Jensen, Henrik; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    for quantitation of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Os, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, V and Zn in tablets according to the new USP chapters was developed. Sample preparation was performed by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 65% HNO3 and 37% HCl (3:1, v/v). Limits of detection and quantitation...

  19. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  20. Human development recruiting and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Marijana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of trends towards internationalization and globalization, human resource management and, especially, international human resource management, attracted overall theoretical and practical interest. International environment is complex, made of numerous elements like social organization, laws, education, values and attitudes, religion language, politics, material and technological culture. In multicultural environment, strategic activities could be multiplied through economical political, cultural, social and technological spheres of action, making the recruitment, selection and successful resource allocation in the international human resource management a real challenge for top management. In international human resource management practice, several approaches to the recruitment have differentiated, playing the key roles in hiring talented individuals and retaining efficient workforce KW resources, labor force, recruiting, managers, education

  1. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  2. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate

  3. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 2: Chapters 1 through 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska (Corps) to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. The Corps determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significant affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), upon review of BPXA's permit application, determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternatives, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  4. Economic Development and Development of Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Černetič

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Černetič deals with certain dilemmas and problems related to employee training within companies, and discusses the complexity of the relationship between technological development and education, developmental gap between the developed and underdevdoped economies, and the goals of social development in Slovenia. Cernetič stresses that training programmes should above all provide flexibility of employment; the competitive edge of an entire state actually depends on effective use of human resources. Slovenia cannot exert any substantial influence on the global economy, it can only follow the main market trends. Knowledge is therefore of great importance, as the wealth of smaller nations is primarily based on the education level of their inhabitants.

  5. The Philosophy of Cosmos: the Place of Human at the Scale of Earth and Cosmos. Chapter One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bazaluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first chapter of the monograph the subject of the author’s research is Dasein. On the one hand, reminiscence of Heidegger’s ideas allowed the author to use a reputable research of famous philosopher of the twentieth century, as well as a large cohort of researchers’ his work and followers, on the other hand, avoided direct reference to Heidegger’s texts and his theorists. The author investi- gated the research question as “What is Dasein in the philosophy of the cosmos?” which is not based on Heidegger’s ideas, but only on the appeal to them. The author suggested that the philosophy of the cosmos as he created a methodological structure for the penetration and opening of Dasein to its maximum extent. The author used the dialectical, system-structural, structural-functional method, as well as methods of comparison, analysis and synthesis. The author’s main contribution to the re- search of the topic was a response to the following questions: 1. “What is philosophy?”, namely, phi- losophy is: a a certain kind of action which causes historical events (Marx’s understanding of philosophy? or b questioning i.e. asking questions about Dasein and being and the search for answers to them (Heidegger’s understanding of philosophy? 2. “What methodological apparatus should be involved for the disclosure of the manifold meanings of Dasein?” 3. “What is Dasein?”

  6. Educational Solutions for Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Kisil Miskalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge for education in Brazil is not only to popularize school access, but also to provide conditions for students to remain at school successfully. Therefore, it is necessary to invest in teachers qualification and in the adoption of efficient and effective public policies based on managerial patterns designed to cater to human resources articulations, equipment, finance and, mainly, to methodologies focused on results. Quality reorganization of public policy will only be possible through a triplet effort involving political will from public government, cooperation from the private sector and contribution from civil society. These partnerships assure public sphere the development of essential projects to enable the country to grow. They also allow Education to occupy the important place it deserves in the national agenda as a tool to foster human development. It is essential to guarantee to people knowledge and abilities that enable them to make sensible choices, have their health improved and thus, take part in the society actively. This essay intends to provide information on Instituto Ayrton Senna´s mission to boost quality education for new Brazilian generations as a precondition for human development. Its education programs supply managerial praxes to state and municipal public school systems that warrant conceptual changes and alter the school failure vicious cycle.

  7. Aspects of Mono- and Multiple Dominant Follicle Development in the Human Ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P. Hohmann (Femke)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1 The introduction of this thesis starts with general information on reproduction, sub­fertility and reproductive medicine. It continues with a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the function of the human ovary, describing ovarian development and early and advanced

  8. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  9. Chapter 10 the primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present...... an overview of the function of primary cilia and the centrosome in the signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle control and migration with focus on ciliary signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). We also consider how the primary cilium and the centrosome interact...... with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration....

  10. Chapter 2. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, María Adela; Bargues, María Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re-launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re-emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre-domestication times and the livestock post-domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola

  11. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  12. Growth charts of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate score measuring global development. The relations between the indicators should be consistent with the Rasch model. If true, the D-score is a measure with interval scale properties, and allows for the calculation of meaningful differences both within and across age. The stage line diagram describes the natural development of ordinal indicators. The method models the transition probabilities between successive stages of the indicator as smoothly varying functions of age. The location of each stage is quantified by the mid-P-value. Both types of diagrams assist in identifying early and delayed development, as well as finding differences in tempo. The relevant techniques are illustrated to track global development during infancy and early childhood (0-2 years) and Tanner pubertal stages (8-21 years). New reference values for both applications are provided. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  14. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  15. Human resource development for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the features of decommissioning work and the methods how to develop human resources. The general flow of decommissioning includes the following steps: (1) evaluation of facility characteristics, (2) planning, (3) decontamination and disassembly of equipment and structures contaminated with radioactivity, (4) radioactivity measurement, (5) treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, and (6) release from legal restrictions (termination of decommissioning). For this purpose, techniques in various fields are required. In the evaluation of facility characteristics, radiation measurement and calculation of activation amount in the core part are required. In decontamination and dismantling, cutting technology (mechanical cutting, thermal cutting, etc.), decontamination technology, and remote control technology are required. In the nuclear power education in the past, the fields related to design, construction, operation, and maintenance among the plant life cycle were the main parts. Much attention was not payed to decommissioning and the treatment/disposal of radioactive waste in the second half of life cycle. As university education, Hokkaido University and Fukui University have lectures on decommissioning. Furthermore, the education and research for students are proceeding at seven universities, with a focus on common reactors including those of Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. It is a key for promoting decommissioning, to incorporate project management, risk analysis, cost evaluation, and decision making into education, and to foster human resources heading toward challenging problems including social problems. (A.O.)

  16. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  17. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  18. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  19. The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babosov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

  20. Macroeconomics and Human Development, by Deepak Nayyar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ioana ŞERBĂNEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microeconomics and Human Development pursue to tackle both negative and positive effects of macroeconomics on human development and vice-versa through a series of external and internal factors. The book consists in a series of articles published in a prestigious publication: Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. The authors have a perennial echo in the economic field.

  1. Social touch and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J; Moore, David; McGlone, Francis

    2018-04-24

    Social touch is a powerful force in human development, shaping social reward, attachment, cognitive, communication, and emotional regulation from infancy and throughout life. In this review, we consider the question of how social touch is defined from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the former category, there is a clear role for the C-touch (CT) system, which constitutes a unique submodality that mediates affective touch and contrasts with discriminative touch. Top-down factors such as culture, personal relationships, setting, gender, and other contextual influences are also important in defining and interpreting social touch. The critical role of social touch throughout the lifespan is considered, with special attention to infancy and young childhood, a time during which social touch and its neural, behavioral, and physiological contingencies contribute to reinforcement-based learning and impact a variety of developmental trajectories. Finally, the role of social touch in an example of disordered development -autism spectrum disorder-is reviewed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Challenge theme 5: Current and future needs of energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands and the effects of their development: Chapter 7 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and extraction activities related to energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands—such as coal-fired power plants, offshore drilling, and mining—can create issues that have potentially major economic and environmental implications. Resource assessments and development projects, environmental studies, and other related evaluations help to understand some of these issues, such as power plant emissions and the erosion/denudation of abandoned mine lands. Information from predictive modeling, monitoring, and environmental assessments are necessary to understand the full effects of energy and mineral exploration, development, and utilization. The exploitation of these resources can negatively affect human health and the environment, its natural resources, and its ecological services (air, water, soil, recreation, wildlife, etc.). This chapter describes the major energy and mineral issues of the Borderlands and how geologic frameworks, integrated interdisciplinary (geobiologic) investigations, and other related studies can address the anticipated increases in demands on natural resources in the region.

  3. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  4. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  5. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  6. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  7. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  8. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  9. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  10. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  11. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  12. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  13. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT: A STRATEGY FOR MOVING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy” but also “Knowledge economy” via human capital development. She has not been serious with her ... economy, Human capital, Strategy. Introduction. The world is now controlled by the revolution of Information and Communication.

  14. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 6, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.2 through 8.3.4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 35 figs., 70 tabs

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  2. Annals of Humanities and Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Humanities and Development Studies publishes papers in all aspects of humanities and rural, social and cultural development, including peace and international cooperation activities related to societal transformation in developing countries. Papers arising from original research and case studies or forming ...

  3. Policy Writing as Dialogue: Drafting an Aboriginal Chapter for Canada's Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Reading

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing policy that applies to First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples in Canada has become more interactive as communities and their representative organizations press for practical recognition of an Aboriginal right of self-determination. When the policy in development is aimed at supporting “respect for human dignity” as it is in the case of ethics of research involving humans, the necessity of engaging the affected population becomes central to the undertaking.

  4. Quality Communication For human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mayor Zaragoza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the digital age, the Media are today, fortunately, affordable instruments that progressively allow all human beings –up to now confined and silent– to know what is happening anywhere in the world, being able, in addition, to express their own views and opinions. This article insists on the value of Communication to achieve the equality of the human being in all the senses. “The same dignity –writes the author– as the foundation of the world we long for.”

  5. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  6. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  7. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  8. Human Resource Development and New Technology in the Automobile Industry: A Case Study of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant. The Development and Utilization of Human Resources in the Context of Technological Change and Industrial Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; And Others

    This report centers around a plant-level study of the development and utilization of human resources in the context of technological change and industrial restructuring in the crankshaft production area of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant (DEP). The introductory chapter describes how the study was conducted, provides an introduction to…

  9. Extract from IAEA's Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine - Part 2. - Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency is now engaged in finalizing a reference manual in nuclear medicine, entitled, 'Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine'. Several renowned professionals from all over the world, from virtually all fields of nuclear medicine have contributed to this manual. The World Journal of Nuclear Medicine will publish a series of extracts from this manual as previews. This is the second extract from the Resources Manual, Part-2 of the chapter on Human Resources Development. (author)

  10. [Chapter 2. Transitions in drug-discovery technology and drug-development in Japan (1980-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Noriko; Yoshioka, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    In 1970s, the material patent system was introduced in Japan. Since then, many Japanese pharmaceutical companies have endeavored to create original in-house products. From 1980s, many of the innovative products were small molecular drugs and were developed using powerful medicinal-chemical technologies. Among them were antibiotics and effective remedies for the digestive organs and circulatory organs. During this period, Japanese companies were able to launch some blockbuster drugs. At the same time, the pharmaceutical market, which had grown rapidly for two decades, was beginning to level off. From the late 1990s, drug development was slowing down due to the lack of expertise in biotechnology such as genetic engineering. In response to the circumstances, the research and development on biotechnology-based drugs such as antibody drugs have become more dynamic and popular at companies than small molecule drugs. In this paper, the writers reviewed in detail the transitions in drug discovery and development between 1980 and 2010.

  11. Learning Human Aspects of Collaborative Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Irit; Sherman, Sofia; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration has become increasingly widespread in the software industry as systems have become larger and more complex, adding human complexity to the technological complexity already involved in developing software systems. To deal with this complexity, human-centric software development methods, such as Extreme Programming and other agile…

  12. Artificial intelligence and human development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job and tax revenue loss through automation: With the growing use of machine .... practices that support the development of inclusive AI applications. What ..... been tested in Malaysia and in Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.25 ...... We need to develop global and local values and principles for AI that prioritize.

  13. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  14. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-05-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Sustainable development, human and endogenous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Brunet Icart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the dispersion of the conceptualizations of development linked to the “Second Development Decade”. This dispersion took place within a context of knowledge-based economy, which is shaped by learning and powered by innovation. A context dominated by neoclassical economics, which marked the globalized and financial capitalism of the late twentieth century and the early twenty first century. This neoclassical hegemony results from Keynesian analysis’ discredit, the Latin-American structuralism crisis and the decadence of the critical views —de-velopment neo-Marxists.

  16. Developing the necessary infrastructure. Chapter 1; IAEA activities in support of countries considering embarking on Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira, O.

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA supports in a variety of ways in establishing an appropriate infra-structure necessary to secure safe and reliable operation and still maintaining the international safeguards regime, especially in developing countries which are considering introduction of nuclear power programme. The TC projects to support introduction of nuclear power has been formulated and its number increased significantly recently. Various guidance documents have been published by the IAEA recently to enable progressive development of national infrastructure. The IAEA guidance documents constitute a basis of advises to newcomer countries. The recently formulated important mission is INIR mission to review the status of national infrastructure in the context of measuring the distance to the expected milestone. Finally, it is expected that the newcomers would make informed decision-making on going to nuclear power by fully understanding the necessary obligations and national long-term commitment, by confirming viability of nuclear power options in the country's energy plan through Energy Planning and long-term strategic assessment using IAEA guidance and tools

  17. Neoliberalism, Pedagogy and Human Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2012-01-01

    In most Western developed countries, adult life is increasingly organized on the basis of short-term work contracts and reduced social security funds. In this context it seems that producing efficient job-seekers and employees becomes the main aim of educational programs for the next generation.

  18. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  19. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  20. Instructor's Guide for Human Development Student Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This instructor's guide is designed for use with an accompanying set of 61 student learning modules on human development. Included among the topics covered in the individual modules are the following: consumer and homemaking education (health and nutrition, personal appearance and grooming, puberty, menstruation, the human reproductive system,…

  1. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  2. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  3. Chapter 1 Historical Background on Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jaffar; AlHarbi, Naif H; Ali, Nafisa

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of various species including human. It attempts to record in brief the main contributions of workers in their attempts to cryopreserve gametes and embryos. The initial difficulties faced and subsequent developments and triumphs leading to present-day state of the art are given in a concise manner. The main players and their contributions are mentioned and the authors' aim is to do justice to them. This work also attempts to ensure that credit is correctly attributed for significant advances in gamete and embryo cryopreservation. In general this chapter has tried to describe the historical development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos as accurately as possible without bias or partiality.

  4. Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess Human Resources Development (HRD) programmes of librarians ... It was suggested that for effective HRD, each university library should have a written staff

  5. 67 Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context. Purissima Egbekpalu ... confronting man and his existence and the environment in which he lives. ... mind it is a very powerful medium through which necessary skills can be acquired to ...

  6. Human Resources Development in the 70s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Bart L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses five major objectives (put forth by the behavioral scientist, Dr. Gordon Lippitt) for human resource development which focus on the need for teamwork among future leaders, company management, and top educators. (LAS)

  7. Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource efficiency in agricultural development: human capital development perspective and poverty challenges in developing countries. ... in Nigeria and contributed about 23.9% of the Gross National Domestic product in 2016. ... Equally, the new focus on agriculture involves training on new technologies and evolving ...

  8. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  9. Forestry [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger

    1997-01-01

    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  10. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  11. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  12. Chapter 5: Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  13. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  14. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  15. Ionising radiation and the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of radiation exposure of the developing human brain. Much of the evidence has come from the prenatally exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The effects on development age, mental retardation, head size, neuromuscular performance, intelligence tests, school performance and the occurrence of convulsions are discussed. Other topics covered include the biological nature of the damage to the brain, risk estimates in human and problems in radiation protection. (UK)

  16. The development of human behaviour analysis techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Cheon, Se Woo; Shu, Sang Moon; Park, Geun Ok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Han Yeong; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Eu Jin; Lee, Seung Hee

    1994-04-01

    This project has two major areas ; one is the development of an operator task simulation software and another is the development of human error analysis and application technologies. In this year project, the second year, for the development of an operator task simulation software, we studied the followings: - analysis of the characteristics of operator tasks, - development of operator task structures : Macro Structures, - development of an operator task simulation analyzes, - analysis of performance measures. And the followings for the development of human error analysis and application technologies : - analysis of human error mechanisms, - analysis of human error characteristics in tasks, - analysis of human error occurrence in Korean Nuclear Power Plants, - establishment of an experimental environment for human error data collection with Compact Nuclear Simulator, - basic design of a Multimedia-based Human Error Representing System. (Author)

  17. Rethinking Teacher Workforce Development: A Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Miretzky, Debra; Konkol, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors focus on teacher development as a collective and organizational issue. They begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to teacher workforce development and management, including current critiques of these efforts, their possible consequences, and an overview of the recent calls for more comprehensive,…

  18. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  19. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1997-10-01

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  1. DNA Methylation Landscapes of Human Fetal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker, Roderick C.; Roost, Matthias S.; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Tobi, Elmar W.; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodelling the methylome is a hallmark of mammalian development and cell differentiation. However, current knowledge of DNA methylation dynamics in human tissue specification and organ development largely stems from the extrapolation of studies in vitro and animal models. Here, we report on the DNA

  2. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  3. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  4. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  5. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  6. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  7. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  8. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  9. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  10. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  11. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  12. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  13. Hallmarks of Human Small Antral Follicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine G; Mamsen, Linn S; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of human ovarian steroidogenesis differs from other species and precise knowledge on how human small antral follicles (hSAF) develop and acquire competence for continued growth and steroid output is still incomplete. The present study has characterized almost 1,000 normal hSAF collected...... increased steroid output profoundly. Furthermore, the highly significant association between FSHR and AR mRNA gene expression enforces important functions of androgens in follicular development. Collectively, these data reintroduce the understanding of the follicular phase as two parted in which regulation...

  14. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  15. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  17. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  18. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  19. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  20. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  1. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  2. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Development and the evolvability of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Wagner, Günter P; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-02-23

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primates and demonstrate that both humans and apes exhibit significantly reduced integration between limbs when compared to quadrupedal monkeys. This result indicates that fossil hominins likely escaped constraints on independent limb variation via reductions to genetic pleiotropy in an ape-like last common ancestor (LCA). This critical change in integration among hominoids, which is reflected in macroevolutionary differences in the disparity between limb lengths, facilitated selection for modern human limb proportions and demonstrates how development helps shape evolutionary change.

  4. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  5. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  6. Teaching and Technologies for Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickering, Arthur W.; Payne, Carla; Poitras, Gail

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the potential of emerging communication and information technologies in terms of human development. Topics include distinctions between training and education, instrumental and developmental purposes, and differentiation and integration; developmental stages theory; a leadership seminar based on developmental stages; and uses of…

  7. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  8. Philosophy and Human Development: Nigerian Context | Egbekpalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... confronting man and his existence and the environment in which he lives. ... With philosophy, one develops a rational outlook on life that interrogates the basic ... their culture about the problems on ground and seeks to proffer humane solutions. ... To this effect, Philosophers believe that knowledge is power (scientia est ...

  9. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  10. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  11. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  12. Human work interaction design meets international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, P.; Clemmensen, T.; Barricelli, B.R.

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  13. Radiation effects on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The developing human brain has been shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. Mental retardation has been observed in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan exposed in utero during sensitive periods, and clinical studies of pelvically irradiated pregnant women have demonstrated damaging effects on the fetus. In this annex the emphasis is on reviewing the results of the study of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan, although the results of other human epidemiological investigations and of pertinent experimental studies are also considered. Refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  14. Human resource development for management of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the contents of 'Human resource development for the planning and implementation of safe and reasonable nuclear power plant decommissioning' as the nuclear human resource development project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant takes 30 to 40 years for its implementation, costing tens of billions of yen. As the period of decommissioning is almost the same as the operation period, it is necessary to provide a systematic and continuous supply of engineers who understand the essence of the decommissioning project. The engineers required here should have project management ability to take charge of preparation, implementation, and termination of decommissioning, and have the ability to perform not only technology, but also factor management, cost management, and the like. As the preconditions of these abilities, it is important to develop human resources who possess qualities that can oversee decommissioning in the future. The contents of human resource education are as follows; (1) desk training (teaching materials: facilities of nuclear power plants, management of nuclear fuels, related laws, decommissioning work, decontamination, dismantling, disposal of waste, etc.), (2) field training (simulators, inspection of power station under decommissioning, etc.), (3) practical training (radiation inventory evaluation, and safety assessment), and (4) inspection of overseas decommissioning, etc. (A.O.)

  15. Education positive approach: contributions to human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ROMERO PÉREZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the current theoretical perspectives underlying educational proposals aimed at promoting the positive development of the people. Firstly we show the most important characteristics of the positive approach. Then, we focus on the positive concept of the inner and its relation to eudaimonia, self-care and emotional selfgovernance. Thirdly, with reference to the contributions of Positive Psychology and Prevention Science we examine the two points of view –hedonic and eudaemonic– from which different pedagogical approaches are based and focus towards education for the welfare, social-emotional development and educational character. We conclude that, despite the lack of practical knowledge about happiness and the art of living, a positive education oriented to the human construction processes must promote both emotional and social skills such as feelings and moral responsibilities for the optimal development of human being.

  16. Radiation Protection. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, S. T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla (Sweden); Le Heron, J. C. [Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    Medical exposure is the largest human-made source of radiation exposure, accounting for more than 95% of radiation exposure. Furthermore, the use of radiation in medicine continues to increase worldwide — more machines are accessible to more people, the continual development of new technologies and new techniques adds to the range of procedures available in the practice of medicine, and the role of imaging is becoming increasingly important in day to day clinical practice. The introduction of hybrid imaging technologies, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, means that the boundaries between traditional nuclear medicine procedures and X ray technologies are becoming blurred. Worldwide, the total number of nuclear medicine examinations is estimated to be about 35 million per year.

  17. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  18. IAEA Nuclear Security Human Resource Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunegger-Guelich, A.

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA is at the forefront of international efforts to strengthen the world's nuclear security framework. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009 was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 2005. This Plan has three main points of focus: needs assessment, prevention, detection and response. Its overall objective is to achieve improved worldwide security of nuclear and other radioactive material in use, storage and transport, and of their associated facilities. This will be achieved, in particular, through the provision of guidelines and recommendations, human resource development, nuclear security advisory services and assistance for the implementation of the framework in States, upon request. The presentation provides an overview of the IAEA nuclear security human resource development program that is divided into two parts: training and education. Whereas the training program focuses on filling gaps between the actual performance of personnel working in the area of nuclear security and the required competencies and skills needed to meet the international requirements and recommendations described in UN and IAEA documents relating to nuclear security, the Educational Program in Nuclear Security aims at developing nuclear security experts and specialists, at fostering a nuclear security culture and at establishing in this way sustainable knowledge in this field within a State. The presentation also elaborates on the nuclear security computer based learning component and provides insights into the use of human resource development as a tool in achieving the IAEA's long term goal of improving sustainable nuclear security in States. (author)

  19. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  20. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: development of SACOM> (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. development of human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  1. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  2. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  3. Chapter 15. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  4. Development and the evolvability of human limbs

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Nathan M.; Wagner, Günter P.; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    The long legs and short arms of humans are distinctive for a primate, the result of selection acting in opposite directions on each limb at different points in our evolutionary history. This mosaic pattern challenges our understanding of the relationship of development and evolvability because limbs are serially homologous and genetic correlations should act as a significant constraint on their independent evolution. Here we test a developmental model of limb covariation in anthropoid primate...

  5. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  6. Entrepreneurship and human capital development in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Kasper; Rutasitara, Longinus; Selejio, Onesmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the link between entrepreneurship and child human capital development. We specifically examine how operating a non-farm enterprise (NFE) as opposed to working in agriculture relates to child labour and schooling outcomes. Accounting for timeinvariant unobservable characteristics...... for girls. Given these findings, it appears that household entrepreneurship may contribute to decreasing the severe child labour problem in Tanzania, but resolving the problem of low school attendance rates will require a different strategy....

  7. Credit Market Development and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wai-Hong

    2008-01-01

    In a two period overlapping generations economy with asymmetric information, we investigate the interaction between credit market development and human capital accumulation. As is typical, young borrowers supply their endowed unit of labor time to earn wage income which is used as internal funds. In contrast to conventional setups, young lenders distribute theirs between acquiring education and working for earnings. Through identifying the risk types of borrowers by a costly screening tech...

  8. Combat Development Study. Close Support Study Group 2 (CSSG 2). Volume 3. Main Report. Chapters 8-14 and Appendices A-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    I’T.J4 ~,/.’~tr- ,. __ .. FINAL RE. / .... V OLUME ýAIN REPORT . •.CHAPTERS 8-14 SAND / PPENDICES 64 1LIJ FeblI11IM80 DLAI RB UT I QN W 938 U.S...problems could become major problems. Personnel actions, such as pay, promotion, mail, etc., become acute when the FIST is located anywhere in the

  9. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  10. Chapter 9: Curating xylaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2014-01-01

    Wood is perhaps the quintessential material used in most human cultures. In prehistoric times, it was employed, either directly or indirectly, to provide most human needs: warmth, shelter, and nearly all manner of tools suitable for procuring food, water and security (Beeckman, 2003). In modern times it continues to play important roles in human cultures (Radkau, 2012...

  11. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  13. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  14. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  15. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  16. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  17. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  18. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  19. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  20. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Safety Review Procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE program management, human factors analyses, human factors design, and HFE verification and validation, based on section 15.1 'human factors engineering design process' and 15.2 'control room human factors engineering' of KNGR specific safety requirements and chapter 15 'human factors engineering' of KNGR safety regulatory guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system

  1. Full Human Development And School Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    The aim of this keynote address is to show how theoretical ideas from the cultural-historical tradition have been used to address issues that fall within the scope of interest for Brazilian school psychologists. The first part of the conference discusses the idea of radical-local teaching...... which explains how this perspective was used with lower secondary school boys in Denmark who had been expelled from several schools. These two parts will be used to illustrate a perspective about full human development, expressed through cultural-historical theoretical concepts, as an orientation...... for all professional approaches to school psychology....

  2. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  3. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  4. Cortical Thought Theory: A Working Model of the Human Gestalt Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    2. The Artificial Inteligence Perspective • -° 2.1 Introduction: Chapter Overview This chapter addresses the development of a...6 . . 2. The Artificial Intelligence Perspective ... .......... 9 2.1 Introduction: Chapter Overview .... ........... 9 2.2 The Problem 9...new unified theory of human brain function called Cortical Thought Theory (CTT). The analysis integrates the disciplines of Artificial Intelligence

  5. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-07-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Establishing operational stability--developing human infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Max A; Byers, Ernest J; Stingley, Preston; Sheridan, Robert M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-12-01

    Over the past year, Toyota has come under harsh scrutiny as a result of several recalls. These well publicized mishaps have not only done damage to Toyota's otherwise sterling reputation for quality but have also called into question the assertions from a phalanx of followers that Toyota's production system (generically referred to as TPS or Lean) is the best method by which to structure one's systems of operation. In this article, we discuss how Toyota, faced with the pressure to grow its business, did not appropriately cadence this growth with the continued development and maintenance of the process capabilities (vis a vis the development of human infrastructure) needed to adequately support that growth. We draw parallels between the pressure Toyota faced to grow its business and the pressure neurointerventional practices face to grow theirs, and offer a methodology to support that growth without sacrificing quality.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT IN HUMAN MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢÂMPU DIANA LARISA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world were manner of use of information is crucial in determining the level of performance. Each country around the globe uses a proper way of spreading information and communication. Studies present the Information and Communication Technology (ICT indicator the proper tool to provide an objective evaluation of the countries performance. The question that this research wants to answer is what are the main ways of motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic in countries where ICT Development Index reaches the highest values in the last 2 years. In this way, we want to verify if ICT has different predictors and different possible consequence that depend on human motivation. Thus relying on calculations made by the International Telecommunication Union for ICT and key factors of motivation this paper will present if there is any relationship between citizens motivation and ICT. This hypothesized model will be illustrated with data from thirty developed countries.

  9. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  10. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.

    2018-03-01

    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  11. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  12. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  13. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, I. [University of Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models.

  14. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  15. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  16. Activities of nuclear human resource development in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Yonezo

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007, the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) had established the nuclear energy human resource development council to make analysis of the issue on nuclear human resource development. The author mainly contributed to develop its road map as a chairman of working group. Questionnaire survey to relevant parties on issues of nuclear human resource development had been conducted and the council identified the six relevant issues and ten recommendations. Both aspects for career design and skill-up program are necessary to develop nuclear human resource at each developing step and four respective central coordinating hubs should be linked to each sector participating in human resource development. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V; Teichmann, Lino L; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A Karolina; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes, macrophages and NK cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34(+) progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MITRG and MISTRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology.

  18. 1. Dimensions of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)

  19. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-01-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  20. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  1. Standard development at the Human Variome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Vihinen, Mauno

    2015-01-01

    The Human Variome Project (HVP) is a world organization working towards facilitating the collection, curation, interpretation and free and open sharing of genetic variation information. A key component of HVP activities is the development of standards and guidelines. HVP Standards are systems, procedures and technologies that the HVP Consortium has determined must be used by HVP-affiliated data sharing infrastructure and should be used by the broader community. HVP guidelines are considered to be beneficial for HVP affiliated data sharing infrastructure and the broader community to adopt. The HVP also maintains a process for assessing systems, processes and tools that implement HVP Standards and Guidelines. Recommended System Status is an accreditation process designed to encourage the adoption of HVP Standards and Guidelines. Here, we describe the HVP standards development process and discuss the accepted standards, guidelines and recommended systems as well as those under acceptance. Certain HVP Standards and Guidelines are already widely adopted by the community and there are committed users for the others. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Development of a realistic human airway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Elcner, Jakub; Hopke, Philip K; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Numerous models of human lungs with various levels of idealization have been reported in the literature; consequently, results acquired using these models are difficult to compare to in vivo measurements. We have developed a set of model components based on realistic geometries, which permits the analysis of the effects of subsequent model simplification. A realistic digital upper airway geometry except for the lack of an oral cavity has been created which proved suitable both for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and for the fabrication of physical models. Subsequently, an oral cavity was added to the tracheobronchial geometry. The airway geometry including the oral cavity was adjusted to enable fabrication of a semi-realistic model. Five physical models were created based on these three digital geometries. Two optically transparent models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for flow velocity measurements, two realistic segmented models, one with and one without the oral cavity, were constructed for particle deposition measurements, and a semi-realistic model with glass cylindrical airways was developed for optical measurements of flow velocity and in situ particle size measurements. One-dimensional phase doppler anemometry measurements were made and compared to the CFD calculations for this model and good agreement was obtained.

  3. Dalit humanization: A Quest based on M.M. Thomas' theology of salvation and humanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaiah, J.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter one states the central quest of this thesis: to develop a Dalit theology on the basis of the concepts salvation and humanization of M.M. Thomas. Chapter two elucidates the socio- political and religious milieu which influenced his theology. Thomas’ theology has evolved and developed in

  4. Challenge theme 3: Protecting the environment and safeguarding human health: Chapter 5 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the diverse, fragile ecosystems of the United States–Mexican border region are reaching unsustainable levels because of rapid population growth and changes in land use. Water shortages and pollution, poor air quality, increased soil salinities, and pesticides and heavy metal contaminants are some of the many stressors that are degrading the quality of life in the Borderlands. Lack of water treatment and wastewater infrastructure on both sides of the United States–Mexican border contributes to elevated rates of various communicable diseases most commonly found in developing countries: tuberculosis, intestinal infections, and hepatitis. Chronic diseases (diabetes, cancer, and heart disease) also prevail at high rates along the border, resembling trends observed in developed countries. In addition, the subtropical climate of the Borderlands is particularly suited for vectors of tropical diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever.

  5. Introduction. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere. Besides we exposed to it every day. It found in our food, body, places we live, workplaces and in product we used. NORM elements such as uranium, radium and radon are dissolved in very low concentrations during normal reaction which is between water and rock. Uncontrolled work activitities involving NORM can lead to unwanted exposure and also risk to environment and human health. The general principles of protection against the hazard or ionizing radiation are by improved the best working practices at NORM working areas.

  6. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  7. The human right to sustainable development in solidarity with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Teresa Parrilla Díaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human development as a universal right subjected to the welfare of Nature. Nature is presented as supporter of life and supplier of the essential resources needed to achieve a complete human development. In light of the global ecological crisis, the author proposes sustainable development as the central framework for a new human development that can be fairer to Nature and to mankind. The challenge of sustainable human development consists in viewing Nature from an ethical perspective of human rights and solidarity.

  8. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Markova Natalia S.; Demyanenko Alina A.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethink...

  9. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  10. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  11. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  12. Conclusions [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne J. Ho; David L. Peterson; Natalie J. Little

    2018-01-01

    The Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) provided significant contributions to assist climate change response in national forests and national parks of the region. The effort synthesized the best available scientific information to assess climate change vulnerability, develop adaptation options, and catalyze a collaboration of land management agencies and...

  13. Conclusions [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Karen Dante-Wood; Linh Hoang

    2018-01-01

    The Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnership (NRAP) provided significant contributions to assist climate change response in national forests and national parks of the Northern Rockies region. The effort synthesized the best available scientific information to assess climate change vulnerability, develop adaptation options, and catalyze a collaboration of land management...

  14. Risk assessment [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis S. Ojima; Louis R. Iverson; Brent L. Sohngen; James M. Vose; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; David L. Peterson; Jeremy S. Littell; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters; Gary W. Yohe; Megan M. Friggens

    2014-01-01

    What is "risk" in the context of climate change? How can a "risk-based framework" help assess the effects of climate change and develop adaptation priorities? Risk can be described by the likelihood of an impact occurring and the magnitude of the consequences of the impact (Yohe 2010) (Fig. 9.1). High-magnitude impacts are always...

  15. Early variability in the conceptualisation of "sustainable development and human factors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The sub-discipline of "sustainable development and human factors" is relatively new, first being used in 2006 with a Technical Committee of the IEA being established only in 2009 and a similar special interest group on "green ergonomics" at the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors being established in 2010. In general though, the definitions and practice of "sustainable development" is highly contentious and ambiguous across a range of disciplines. This paper examines the diversity of definitions and approaches to sustainable development and human factors in the early papers in this sub-discipline. An examination of 45 chapters and papers (from 2008 to 2011) reveals a surprising consistency in the definitions used for sustainable development but also a large proportion of the papers where no definitions are given at all. The majority of papers were, however, biased towards an economic capital and social capital emphasis, which is to be expected of work traditionally in the ergonomics paradigm. Further, most papers were theoretical in nature demonstrating a great opportunity for empirical work. The variability in definitions is discussed in relation to the future challenges facing the growth of this emergent sub-discipline and opportunities for further theoretical and empirical work.

  16. Influence Of Globalization On Human Resource Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper addressed the influence of Globalization on human resource development in Nigeria. It traced the origin of human resource development in Nigeria to the coming of the missionaries who spiritually colonized Africa and also educated their adherents. The human resource produced from the education offered were ...

  17. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  18. An Overview of Human Rights, Good Governance and Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Overview of Human Rights, Good Governance and Development. ... African Research Review ... The paper also addresses the economic and social effect of such human rights violations on national development as well as the effect of using communication to solve the problem of human rights violations and corruption.

  19. Interrelationships between climate and human cultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolitschka, B.

    2010-03-01

    Human influence on the environment increased continuously during the late Holocene and often interferes with the reconstruction of climatic fluctuations in natural archives. However, for the first millennium BC there exist convincing evidences of a climatic deterioration determined by geological, geomorphological, paleoecological and archaeological records from Europe and beyond. A fluctuation in the -14C record from tree rings indicates that this climatic setback seems to be of a global character which would support its solar origin. Geochemical and physical data of very well-dated lacustrine sediments from a German maar (Lake Holzmaar, West Eifel Volcanic Field) records a dramatic environmental change which coincides with or follows this climatic deterioration at 800 BC. These changes are related to a conspicuous shift towards an increased erosion of the soils in the catchment area. Thus sediment yields of the lacustrine system more than quadruple from the low mean mid-Holocene (7900-800 BC) level of 1.5 t km-2 yr-1 to values of 6.3 t km-2 yr-1 for the last centuries of the first millennium BC, i.e. until the start of the Roman occupation in the West Eifel region around 50 BC. Still, this elevated sediment yield value is rather low compared to 19 t km-2 yr-1 reached during the period of the Roman Empire (50 BC-400 AD) or even to 25 t km-2 yr-1 that were gained during the Middle Ages (11th to 13th century). During the Migration Period and the early Middle Ages, however, sediment yield data decreased again to almost mid-Holocene values of 2.3 t km-2 yr-1. Whether the shift in ecosystem stability following immediately after 800 BC was triggered by a solar-induced climatic change cannot absolutely be excluded but must be cast into doubt. Intensive deforestation indicated by pollen analyses suggests that human cultural development from the late Bronze Age to the early Iron Age, accompanied by the introduction of iron tools, was the reason for this alteration. Using

  20. Accident risk. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical introduction in which WASH-740, WASH-1400, Swedish, Finnish, Scandinavian, Netherlands and West German analyses are briefly presented, the concept of risk itself is discussed, distinguishing between objective and subjective aspects, and between voluntary and involuntary risk. Risk analysis is briefly described and an attempt made to define acceptable risk. In treating the safety philosophy of nuclear power plants the engineered safety precautions are presented. The numerical results of the analysis made for Norwegian conditions are presented and discussed. Underground siting, which has been much discussed in Norway is also treated, and emergency planning briefly discussed. The probability and consequences of core meltdown in a light water reactor are then discussed, and the possible faults leading to this, both internal, human errors and external impacts are analysed. The failure mechanisms in the containment building which could lead to the release of activity are discussed, followed by the dispersion of the activity and the health and economic consequences. The accidents at Wuergassen and Brown's Ferry are briefly described as examples. A brief discussion of nuclear insurance and nuclear law in Norway form the concluding sections. (JIW)

  1. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young Su; Son, Il Moon; Son, Byung Chang; Kwak, Hyo Yean

    2009-07-01

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  2. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleijns, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors.

  3. Chapter 1: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Danubian lowland between Bratislava and Komarno is an inland delta formed in the past by river sediments form the Danube. Human influence has gradually changed the hydrological regime in the area. Construction of dams upstream of Bratislava together with exploitation of river sediments has significantly deepened the river bed and lowered the the water level in the river. The objective of the project is to provide technical/scientific based management tools for the Slovakian authorities and through interaction with decision makers to apply these tools for addressing selected problems. Thus, on the one hand, the role of the project is not to define management objectives nor to establish a management decision framework for water resources. On the other hand, the project shall in accordance with the Terms of Reference prepare expert suggestion for the government to be used for technical decisions as well as for policy making. The project deals with the water resources problems in the entire Danubian Lowland area. The Gabcikovo is only one, although at present the largest, of the man induced impacts which has to be studied. The project deals with modelling of the water resources on the Slovakian side of the Danube. No recent data is available to the project from the Hungarian side, and the project can therefore only make predictions dealing with the effects of the Gabcikovo scheme for Slovakian areas. Thus, the project cannot address questions regarding e.g. the ecological consequences of the Gabcikovo scheme for Hungarian areas. Due to the very significant water resources problems in the area comprehensive activities are currently being carried out both with regard to monitoring and to studies. Thus many professional organizations are involved in various aspects of water resources activities in the project area. The purpose of the project is to cooperate with all these activities in order to avoid duplication of work and to ensure maximum dissemination of project

  4. Chapter 8: Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The main efforts of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) have been focused on inspection of quality assurance programmes of Slovak Power Stations, plc. and its daughter companies at Bohunice and Mochovce. Two quality assurance inspections in the area of periodical in service inspections (V-2 units) and tests of selected equipment (NPP V-2 units) and operation control (V-1 units) has been performed at NPPs Bohunice. One violation of decree on quality assurance of selected equipment has been found in the area of documentation archiving. The inspection concerning the implementation of quality assurance programme for operation of NPP Mochovce in the area of operation control has been performed focused on safety aspects of operation, operational procedures, control of operational events and feedback from operational experience. The results of this inspection were positive. Inspection of implementation of quality assurance programme for operation of radioactive waste repository (RU RAW) at the Mochovce location has been performed focused on receiving of containers, with radioactive wastes, containers handling, radiation monitoring, activities of documentation control and radiation protection at the repository site. No serious deficiencies have been found out. Also one inspection of experimental nuclear installations of VUJE Trnava at Jaslovske Bohunice site has been performed focused on procurement control, quality audits, documentation and quality records control when performing activities at experimental nuclear installations. The activity on development of internal quality assurance system continued. The implementation of this system will assure quality and effective fulfilment enlarged tasks of UJD with limited resources for its activity. The analyses of possible use of existing internal administrative control documentation as a basis for future quality system procedures was performed in co-operation with an external specialised organisation. The

  5. 123 Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nollywood, the Nigerian video film industry, has ... The full definition of human development as captured still in the Human ... Additional choices include political freedom, ..... dialects and speech mannerisms of their settings portrayed through.

  6. Human resource development in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    An organization, an enterprise or a movement is only as good as the people in it and these cannot be conceived without considering the people that make it, in other words its human resources (HR). The definition of HR includes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the work-force. Equally important it includes the values, attitudes and benefits of each of the individuals concerned. No development is possible without proper planning. HR planning is therefore a prerequisite for HRD in NM and no planning can be made without defining the objectives of Nuclear Medicine (NM) in developing countries (DC). It is also essential to forecast the future needs of NM in DC keeping in mind the stated objectives before laying out the strategies of the HRD. HRD in NM is best achieved when all the partners in the game play their part with commitment and sincerity of purpose. At the national level the partners are the government (ministries of health and education), professional bodies (national societies of NM) and academic bodies (colleges of NM physicians, physicists and technologists etc.). In the implementation of the HRD systems and processes, involvement of all the partners is essential for success. Creation of task forces to implement, monitor and evaluate HRD tools ensures the quality of these tools. The operation of some of these tools may have to be centralized, and others decentralized depending upon the exigencies of need, propriety and practicality. In summary, the aim of HRD should be to ensure the right people at the right time for the right job and in doing so nuclear medicine achieves its objectives and the individuals in the workforce realize their full potentials, and benefits in full

  7. Oriental Culture and Human Rights Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leon Wessels

    Universality is much more than the determination by a majority at a particular moment ..... accepted human rights and not only the favourite rights of any particular .... sole breadwinners, caring for children and taking important decisions on.

  8. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... The approach is historical and descriptive in nature. .... specifically human speech, the expression of ideas by the voice, sounds expressive of thought, .... Jobs in tourism, marketing, healthcare also await people with ...

  9. Human Resources Coordinator | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Human Resources Coordinator supports the HR Business Partner in the delivery of ... of various reports for HR Business Partners and HR management. ... services and information to candidates applying on job openings in IDRC, ...

  10. HUMAN SECURITY – BUILDING THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea IANCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals agenda through the human security paradigm. It suggests that the human security paradigm represents “the missing link” from the development agenda. Therefore, this analysis explains the necessity for extending the development agenda by including the human security doctrine. The first part of the article discusses the relation between human security and development. The next section analyzes the values of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. The last part evaluates the improvements that the inclusion of the human security on the post-2015 development framework may bring. The results of this analysis present illustrate the opportunity of deepening the MDGs agenda with a more realistic and ethical approach, through the inclusion of the human security paradigm within the development agenda.

  11. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  12. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  13. Human Performance and Acute Hypoxia. Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    with which the hemoglobin is saturated- with oxygen. Blood temperature, blood pH, PaC02, and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) can all affect the...Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 56:10G4-1008, 33. Greene, R. Mental performance in chronic anoxia . Brit Med J. 1 (5026):1028-1031, 1957. 34. Grover, R.F

  14. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... an opportunity for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  15. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... for the notice of public meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  16. Chapter 11: Civic Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a…

  17. Chapter 7. Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernejoul, P. de; Fauchet, M.; Barritault, L.

    1975-01-01

    Owing to the great technological progress of the last few years, combined with the possibility of using short-lived radioisotopes, nuclear medicine has made new strides in cardiology from both the morphological and kinetic viewpoints. Kinetic studies are described first: cardiac output measurements, radiocardiography, coronary output measurements. This is followed by a study of morphological tests: static using scintigraphic methods, then dynamic with stationary detectors. It is shown that the addition of a data processing unit to the stationary detectors allows the development of analytical methods similar to conventional kinetic tests and opens up vast possibilities for the future. For the analysis of these methods the techniques considered are as far as possible based on the external detection of radiation emitted by a radioactive tracer after simple intraveinous injection, without catheterization. In this field the use of radioisotopes in cardiology offers the means of performing simple investigations which, being harmless for the patient, incur no loss of blood and can be repeated easily and often [fr

  18. Human resource development for uranium production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fission energy is a viable option for meeting the ever increasing demand for electricity and high quality process heat in a safe, secured and sustainable manner with minimum carbon foot print and degradation of the environment. The growth of nuclear power has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia, mostly in China and India. Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates are also in the process of launching nuclear power program. Natural uranium is the basic raw material for U-235 and Pu-239, the fuels for all operating and upcoming nuclear power reactors. The present generation of nuclear power reactors are mostly light water cooled and moderated reactor (LWR) and to a limited extent pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The LWRs and PHWRs use low enriched uranium (LEU with around 5% U-235) and natural uranium as fuel in the form of high density UO_2 pellets. The uranium production cycle starts with uranium exploration and is followed by mining and milling to produce uranium ore concentrate, commonly known as yellow cake, and ends with mine and mill reclamation and remediation. Natural uranium and its daughter products, radium and radon, are radioactive and health hazardous to varying degrees. Hence, radiological safety is of paramount importance to uranium production cycle and there is a need to review and share best practices in this area. Human Resource Development (HRD) is yet another challenge as most of the experts in this area have retired and have not been replaced by younger generation because of the continuing lull in the uranium market. Besides, uranium geology, exploration, mining and milling do not form a part of the undergraduate or post graduate curriculum in most countries. Hence, the Technical Co-operation activities of the IAEA are required to be augmented and more country specific and regional training and workshop should be conducted at different universities with the involvement of international experts

  19. Human Development in Romania: A Comparative Approach to Identifying Shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert STEFAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the research carried out by the economist Mahbub ul Haq, derived from the studies of Amartya Sen on human capabilities, in 1990, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP published its first Human Development Report. It introduced the notion that development of a country is not merely equal to economic growth, but has the ultimate purpose of enriching human life by expanding people’s choices. Thus, Human Development seeks to reveal the fundamental role of human life: that of reaching its full potential. Even after 28 years since the fall of communism, the political environment in Romania continues to be unsopportive of proper development. This study seeks to identify the shortcomings of the primary dimensions of Human Development in Romania and hopefully make a firm and rhetorical call to action.

  20. Education and Human Capital Development through Appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    There is now growing awareness in both developed and developing countries of the ... catalysts to national development, which will impact positively on the country's ... increases in allocation might be misleading in passing judgement on the.

  1. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  2. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  3. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    produced through exploratory drilling programs; (2) the tools for gas hydrate detection and characterisation from remote sensing data; (3) the details of gas hydrate reservoir production behaviour through additional, well-monitored and longer duration field tests and (4) the understanding of the potential environmental impacts of gas hydrate resource development. The results of future production tests, in the context of varying market and energy supply conditions around the globe, will be the key to determine the ultimate timing and scale of the commercial production of natural gas from gas hydrates.

  4. Parenting Style as an Investment in Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zhu, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We propose a household production function approach to human development in which the role of parenting style in child rearing is explicitly considered. Specifically, we model parenting style as an investment in human development that depends not only on inputs of time and market goods, but also on attention, i.e. cognitive effort. Socioeconomic disadvantage is linked to parenting style and human development through the constraints that it places on cognitive capacity. Our model finds empiric...

  5. Why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Md Montasir

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development. In general, these two dimensions have a strong and positive relationship, but some countries appear unable to balance this relationship. As a consequence, there are some countries with high economic growth but sluggish human development progress. This paper studies how other factors besides GDP – women labor force participation, urbanization, and inequality - are correlated to human development. I construct...

  6. The Theoretical Aspects of the Security of Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova Natalia S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the basic categories of the conception of security of human development and formation of a definition of the concept of «security of human development» that would provide the most comprehensive understanding of the nature of this process. The main approaches to researching the phenomenon of «security» were analyzed. Characteristics of the formation of human security as part of a holistic paradigm of human development were considered together with rethinking it as a new theory of global security. A cross-categorical analysis of the concepts of «human development» and of «human security» was carried out by the main criteria: characteristics, time frames, main purpose and objectives. As a result, the human security is complementary to the concept of human development in the part of safe variants of choice (freedom from needs; it further facilitated the security provision at the level of prosperity and progress, not at the level of survival. It has been determined that the conception of human security is at the same time an element of the conception of human development as well as of human security.

  7. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  8. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  9. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  10. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  11. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  12. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  13. 2008 Human Resources Development Programmes in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Personnel management in libraries is an aspect of library administration that involves planning for human resource needs ... and organisation (of staff) in order to achieve the organizational goals. When the right personnel are recruited, the management puts the staff through with the operations of the library through a staff ...

  14. Lipid transport and human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-07-01

    How the human brain rapidly builds up its lipid content during brain growth and maintains its lipids in adulthood has remained elusive. Two new studies show that inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, known to be expressed specifically at the blood-brain barrier, lead to microcephaly, thereby offering a simple and surprising solution to an old enigma.

  15. Telephone based speech interfaces in the developing world, from the perspective of human-human communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, before computers systems were able to synthesize or recognize speech, speech was a capability unique to humans. The human brain has developed to differentiate between human speech and other audio occurrences. Therefore, the slowly- evolving... human brain reacts in certain ways to voice stimuli, and has certain expectations regarding communication by voice. Nass affirms that the human brain operates using the same mechanisms when interacting with speech interfaces as when conversing...

  16. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  17. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  18. Centrioles in the beginning of human development.

    OpenAIRE

    Sathananthan, A H; Kola, I; Osborne, J; Trounson, A; Ng, S C; Bongso, A; Ratnam, S S

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate the presence of centrioles in fertilized human oocytes at syngamy. Single or double centrioles within centrosomes were detected by transmission electron microscopy at one pole of the first cleavage spindle in normal and dispermic embryos (25-26 hr after insemination). Sperm centrioles were also closely associated with the male pronucleus (16-20 hr after insemination) in pronuclear stage embryos. A tripolar spindle derived from a tripronuclear embryo is also demonstrated with tw...

  19. Transcriptome profiling of human pre-implantation development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preimplantation development is a crucial step in early human development. However, the molecular basis of human preimplantation development is not well known. METHODOLOGY: By applying microarray on 397 human oocytes and embryos at six developmental stages, we studied the transcription dynamics during human preimplantation development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the preimplantation development consisted of two main transitions: from metaphase-II oocyte to 4-cell embryo where mainly the maternal genes were expressed, and from 8-cell embryo to blastocyst with down-regulation of the maternal genes and up-regulation of embryonic genes. Human preimplantation development proved relatively autonomous. Genes predominantly expressed in oocytes and embryos are well conserved during evolution. SIGNIFICANCE: Our database and findings provide fundamental resources for understanding

  20. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Seok; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1994-04-01

    In the 2nd year of the research project for the development of human factors evaluation techniques, we first defined the experimental target systems by the comparison study of the advanced control rooms proposed by foreign countries in order to make the experiment feasible and realistic for the 10 experimental items selected in the first year of the project. Then we have decided to confine our research on the big board overview panel and operator workstations. Following the development of selection criteria for our research interest, we have identified the design variables which may influence the performance of the operator by the functional analysis. The experimental variables which will be used for the evaluation of the proposed items are then defined by the relational analysis between evaluation items and design variables and they are classified by the characteristics of the measurement data. The functional requirements of ITF are developed to accommodate the necessary functions for carrying out the 10 evaluation items. The functional requirements for each sub-system of ITF have been developed with the experimental paradigm of APTEA. Finally we have reviewed the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) at KAERI from the point of view of jyman factors guidelines/principles and proposed the two possible layouts for the experimental apparatus for the evaluation of display alternative and operational procedure. (Author)

  1. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    Aug 29, 2009 ... ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; ...

  2. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2009 ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; the ...

  3. Human Capital Development as a Strategy for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals, and is intended ... The Sustainable Development Agenda has 17 global goals with 169 targets. .... Quality human capital has become one of the front burning issues in Nigeria today.

  4. 310 The Impact of Philosophy to Human Development Henry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evidence their deserved weight by the use of logical reasoning. It is also to set standard, ... thereby making appropriate conception of human development known to the ... make right decision and good judgment in the choice of development.

  5. Expressive Communication and Human Development in the New Broadband Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audiovisual media can inform the development of new educational services for human development across cultures in the emerging broadband environment.

  6. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  7. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  8. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of…

  9. Relevant Education for Sustainable Human Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human development, conscious efforts are made to enlarge people's choices to enable them live a healthy and prolonged life, acquire knowledge, and have access to resources needed to earn a decent living. Obviously, sustained improvement in African human development still falls short of those experienced in other ...

  10. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential

  11. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For still others, development is a holistic project of personal social and spiritual progress. ..... One set relates to how the policy decision will affect economic output. ...... This brings up one further misunderstanding of Sen's capability approach and ...... Human development focuses on the institutional factors that violate human ...

  12. Increasing Organizational Effectiveness through Better Human Resource Planning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of human resource planning and development for organizational effectiveness, and examines how the major components of a human resource planning and development system should be coordinated for maximum effectiveness. Available from Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,…

  13. Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...

  14. Chapter 24: the coming of molecular biology and its impact on clinical neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    Although the chemical study of the nervous system dates back well into the 19th century, molecular biology and especially molecular neurobiology only began to be established in the second half of the 20th century. This chapter reviews their impact on clinical neuroscience during the 50 years since Watson and Crick published their seminal paper. After a short review of the part played by F.O. Schmitt in establishing molecular neuroscience the chapter outlines work that led to a detailed understanding of the biochemical structure and function of nerve cell membranes and their embedded channel proteins, receptors, and other molecules. The chapter then turns to the numerous pathologies that result from disorders of these elements: the various channel and gap-junction pathologies. The chapter continues with a discussion of some of the diseases caused by defective DNA, especially the trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases (TREDs) and ends with a short account of the development of molecular approaches to prion diseases, myasthenia gravis, and the neurodegenerative diseases of old age. Francis Bacon said long ago that "knowledge is power." The hope is that increasing molecular knowledge will help cure some of the human suffering seen in the neurological ward and clinic.

  15. Development of Multimodal Human Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Michitaka

    About 20 years have passed since the word “Virtual Reality” became popular. During these two decades, novel human interface technology so called “multimodal interface technology” has been formed. In this paper, firstly, recent progress in realtime CG, BCI and five senses IT is quickly reviewed. Since the life cycle of the information technology is said to be 20 years or so, novel directions and paradigms of VR technology can be found in conjunction with the technologies forementioned. At the end of the paper, these futuristic directions such as ultra-realistic media are briefly introduced.

  16. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process' components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process' usefulness

  17. APOPTOSIS DURING HUMAN FETAL KIDNEY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Čukuranović

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney morphogenesis is a complex and stepwise process. The formation of mature kidney in mammals is preceded by two primitive embryonic kidneys known as pronephros and mesonephros. Metanephros develops as a result of reciprocal inductive interactions between two primordial mesodermal derivates: ureteric bud, an epithelial outgrowth of the Wolffian duct, and metanephric blastema, a group of mesenchymal cells. The ureteric bud induces the metanephric mesenchyme to differentiate and form nephrons, whilst the metanephric mesenchyme induces the ureteric bud to grow and branch to form collecting ducts. The nephron goes through four developmental stages, which are described as: 1 vesicle, 2 comma-shaped and S-shaped stages, 3 developing capillary loop, and finally 4 maturing glomerulus. Apoptosis (programmed cell death is a predominant form of physiological cell death, by which organism eliminate unwanted or damaged cells. It is the major component of normal development and disease. Apoptosis is the result of series of biochemical processes happening in certain order in a dying cell, among which the most important is activation of enzyme families called caspases which influence different cell components. Apoptosis is characterized by membrane blebbing, shrinkage of the cell, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Organelles are preserved almost intact. Cell surface molecules change. A variety of physiological and pathological stimuli can initiate apoptosis. They act via receptor mechanisms, through biochemical agents, or cause DNA and cell membrane damage. Apoptosis is an important component of fetal development. It is thought that apoptosis is the one of the main regulatory events involved in kidney morphogenesis, considering that among great number of developed cells, only a few of them are involved in the developing program by escaping apoptosis. In any period during kidney development about 3 to 5%of cells are apoptotic. Thorough

  18. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  19. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  20. OCP TECD Report - TARDEC Blast Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Michigan (MI) Chapter Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Standard, MIL-STD-3058, Occupant-Centric Protection for Military Ground Vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Occupant Centric Platform Technology-Enabled...Capability Demonstration (OCP TECD), Occupant-centric, Occupant Protection , Underbody Blast, National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA...Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  1. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  2. Exploiting Nanotechnology and Radiation Technologies to Develop New Eco-Sustainable Nanomaterials for Food Packaging Suitable for Sterilization by Irradiation. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, C.; Pezzuto, M.; Duraccio, D.; Marra, A.; Cimmino, S. [Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerhe, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The objective of the study is to develop new food packaging nanomaterials based on biopolymers (PLA) to be used in prepackaged foods intended for radiation. The processing conditions were optimized, and the properties of the systems before irradiation were studied. From these studies, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) The final properties of polymer nanocomposites depend on their structure and morphology, and 2) Improved properties can be achieved only if a good dispersion and distribution are realized in the polymer nanomaterials. The team at Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerhe (ICTP/CNR) participated in the IAEA CRP on “Application of Radiation Processing Technology in the Development of Advanced Packaging Materials for Food Products”. (author)

  3. Sequential development of platform to off-platform facies of the great American carbonate bank in the central Appalachians: chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, David K.; Taylor, John F.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In the central Appalachians, carbonate deposition of the great American carbonate bank began during the Early Cambrian with the creation of initial ramp facies of the Vintage Formation and lower members of the Tomstown Formation. Vertical stacking of bioturbated subtidal ramp deposits (Bolivar Heights Member) and dolomitized microbial boundtsone (Fort Duncan Member) preceded the initiation of platform sedimentation and creation of sand shoal facies (Benevola Member) that was followed by the development of peritidal cyclicity (Daragan Member). Initiation of peritidal deposition coincided with the development of a rimmed platform that would persist throughout much of the Cambrian and Early Odrovician. At the end of deposition of the Waynesboro Formation, the platform became subaerially exposed because of the Hawke Bay regression, bringing the Sauk I supersequence to and end. In the Conestoga Valley of eastern Pennsylvania, Early Cambrian ramp deposition was succeeded by deposition of platform-margin and periplatfrom facies of the Kinzers Formation.

  4. Development of 90Sr/90Y Generator Systems Based on SLM Techniques for Radiolabelling of Therapeutic Biomolecules with 90Y. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu, N.T.; Van Dong, D.; Van Cuong, B.; Van Khoa, C.; Cam Hoa, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium-90 is one of the most useful radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications, especially for labelling peptides and antibodies. Studies were carried out to develop a 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator system based on the SLM technique. Two stages of 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator systems were developed at different activity levels of 5, 20, 50 and 100 mCi and operated with semiautomation in sequential mode. In the first stage of the system, PC88A based SLM was used, which transported 90 Y from a nitric acid medium containing 0.01–4M HNO 3 . In the second stage, the 90 Y from the first stage was transferred to the first compartment of the second stage using carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) based SLM where 1M acetic acid was used as the receiving phase for 90 Y. Quality control was carried out for the products of 90 Y using EPC with paper chromatography and Tec control chromatography. Peptides and antibodies were labelled using the 90 Y product obtained from the generator developed in house. (author)

  5. Developing a strategic human resources plan for the Urban Angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare a significant portion of the budget is related to human resources. However, many healthcare organizations have yet to develop and implement a focused organizational strategy that ensures all human resources are managed in a way that best supports the successful achievement of corporate strategies. St. Michael's Hospital, in Toronto, Ontario, recognized the benefits of a strategic human resources management plan. During an eight-month planning process, St. Michael's Hospital undertook the planning for and development of a strategic human resources management plan. Key learnings are outlined in this paper.

  6. Human Resources Development Challenges for Nuclear Newcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrette, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and take away messages: • HRD solution is dependent upon country’s economical, societal, industrial situation and development strategy. • HRD to be integrated in the global HCB approach (education and training, KM, knowledge networks). • Maximum local benefit with national development. • International collaboration and partnership with competent and experienced partners is recommended (lever effect). • Anticipation is key. → HRD for a nuclear program is challenging but achievable. Countries already did it and are ready to build long term partnerships

  7. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 9. Education and continuous professional development: shaping the future of PRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with the education of PRM physicians in Europe. To acquire the wide field of competence needed, specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine have to undergo a well organised and appropriately structured training of adequate duration. In fact they are required to develop not only medical knowledge, but also competence in patient care, specific procedural skills, and attitudes towards interpersonal relationship and communication, profound understanding of the main principles of medical ethics and public health, ability to apply policies of care and prevention for disabled people, capacity to master strategies for reintegration of disabled people into society, apply principles of quality assurance and promote a practice-based continuous professional development. This paper provides updated detailed information about the education and training of specialists, delivers recommendations concerning the standards required at a European level, in agreement with the UEMS rules of creating a Common Training Framework, that consists of a common set of knowledge, skills and competencies for postgraduate training. The role of the European PRM Board is highlighted as a body aimed at ensuring the highest standards of medical training and health care across Europe and the harmonization of PRM physicians' qualifications. To this scope, the theoretical knowledge necessary for the practice of PRM specialty and the core competencies (training outcomes) to be achieved at the end of training have been established and the postgraduate PRM core curriculum has been added. Undergraduate training of medical students is also focused, being considered a mandatory element for the growth of both PRM specialty and the medical community as a whole, mainly in front of the future challenges of the ageing population and the increase of disability in our continent. Finally, the problems of continuing

  8. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  9. Radioimmunoassay for human health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyasena, R.D.; Airey, P.L.; Ganatra, R.D.; Nofal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Since first introduced in the early 1960s, radioimmunoassay (RIA) has gained wide acceptance as an analytical method adopted by an increasing number of developing countries as an appropriate technology that can be managed within the capabilities of local infrastructures. An informed estimate would be that there are, at present, more than 500 hospitals, university, or other laboratories in the developing world engaged in RIA on some scale. In the developing world, RIA is used primarily for patient management, but research activity is also increasing as expertise and resources improve. The majority of patient samples processed are in relation to thyroid disorders. However, the technique also is used widely in the investigation of other endocrine conditions and public health problems. Some developing countries have gained the capability to perform radioisotopic microassays in areas of clinical and research importance such as steroid receptor quantification in breast tissue; diagnosis of bacterial and parasitic disorders; investigation of infertility and sterility; narcotic drug abuse; and organ transplantation. 1 fig

  10. Development of society and human rights and freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the direct connection between the development of human society and progress in the realization of and respect for human rights and freedoms, as well as a number of problems that stand in the way for their full realization. The Company to its characteristics should allow the free development of man to protect his rights, freedom and autonomy. On the other hand, an individual has an active role in building a society whose form is: economic development, permanent democratization of social relations, development and dissemination of human rights and freedoms, the existence of the rule of law and so on. Degree of respect for human rights and freedoms measured level of development achieved and the characteristics of democracy in a society. The main causes of their violations and neglect, as well as the social climate and miles of contributing to this are: domination of one ideology, cultural closeness, economic underdevelopment and the like. As an example, of vulnerable groups in the realization of human rights can be given: the poor, women, children, immigrants, same-sex oriented persons, etc. The paper presents the view Alain Touraine in the development of human society and, related to it, the development of human rights, who was going in the direction of the transformation of rights from abstract to concrete rights, with particular emphasis on cultural rights.

  11. Financing Human Development for Sectorial Growth: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobande Abdul Olatunji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role which financing human development plays in fostering the sectorial growth of an economy cannot be undermined. It is a key instrument which can be utilized to alleviate poverty, create employment and ensure the sustenance of economic growth and development. Thus financing human development for sectorial growth has taken the center stage of economic growth and development strategies in most countries. In a constructive effort to examine the in-depth relationship between the variables in the Nigerian space, this paper provides evidence on the impact of financing human development and sectorial growth in Nigeria between 1982 and 2016, using the Johansen co-integration techniques to test for co-integration among the variables and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to ascertain the speed of adjustment of the variables to their long run equilibrium position. The analysis shows that a long and short run relationship exists between financing human capital development and sectorial growth during the period reviewed. Therefore, the paper argues that for an active foundation for sustainable sectorial growth and development, financing human capital development across each unit is urgently required through increased budgetary allocation for both health and educational sectors since they are key components of human capital development in a nation.

  12. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  13. Human Resource Development Issues in the Implementation of the Western China Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper systematically illustrates the value and role of human resource development in the implementation of the Western China development strategy. It analyzes in details some current human resource issues constraining the implementation of the Western China development strategy and those on the sustainable development process of economic…

  14. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program

  15. Human Resource Development's Contribution to Continuous Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Hyland, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Improvement (CI) is an approach to organizational change that requires active involvement of skilled and motivated employees, which implies an important role for HRD practitioners. The findings from a literature review and a survey of 168 Danish manufacturing companies indicate however...... that HRD is rarely integrated with CI. The paper contributes by offering a model that depicts how HR and HRD functions could be exploited to support successful CI development and implementation....

  16. Structural Connectivity of the Developing Human Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Zeynep M.; Osher, David E.; Koldewyn, Kami; Martin, Rebecca E.; Finn, Amy; Saxe, Rebecca; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of research suggests that there are changes in the manner and degree to which the amygdala supports cognitive and emotional function across development. One possible basis for these developmental differences could be the maturation of amygdalar connections with the rest of the brain. Recent functional connectivity studies support this conclusion, but the structural connectivity of the developing amygdala and its different nuclei remains largely unstudied. We examined age related changes in the DWI connectivity fingerprints of the amygdala to the rest of the brain in 166 individuals of ages 5-30. We also developed a model to predict age based on individual-subject amygdala connectivity, and identified the connections that were most predictive of age. Finally, we segmented the amygdala into its four main nucleus groups, and examined the developmental changes in connectivity for each nucleus. We observed that with age, amygdalar connectivity becomes increasingly sparse and localized. Age related changes were largely localized to the subregions of the amygdala that are implicated in social inference and contextual memory (the basal and lateral nuclei). The central nucleus’ connectivity also showed differences with age but these differences affected fewer target regions than the basal and lateral nuclei. The medial nucleus did not exhibit any age related changes. These findings demonstrate increasing specificity in the connectivity patterns of amygdalar nuclei across age. PMID:25875758

  17. Cryptopatches Are Essential for the Development of Human GALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Nochi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT in humans is associated with infectious and autoimmune diseases, which cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI tract immune system. To aid in investigating GALT pathologies in vivo, we bioengineered a human-mouse chimeric model characterized by the development of human GALT structures originating in mouse cryptopatches. This observation expands our mechanistic understanding of the role of cryptopatches in human GALT genesis and emphasizes the evolutionary conservation of this developmental process. Immunoglobulin class switching to IgA occurs in these GALT structures, leading to numerous human IgA-producing plasma cells throughout the intestinal lamina propria. CD4+ T cell depletion within GALT structures results from HIV infection, as it does in humans. This human-mouse chimeric model represents the most comprehensive experimental platform currently available for the study and for the preclinical testing of therapeutics designed to repair disease-damaged GALT.

  18. Impacts on integrated spatial and infrastructure planning (Chapter18)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, Elsona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the implications of shale gas development (SGD) in the Karoo are explored in the context of 1) local development realities, 2) legal requirements and associated development pressures related to land development and land-use change, 3...

  19. Molecular and functional definition of the developing human striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Biasci, Daniele; Cesana, Elisabetta; Menon, Ramesh; Vuono, Romina; Talpo, Francesca; Laguna Goya, Rocio; Lyons, Paul A; Bulfamante, Gaetano P; Muzio, Luca; Martino, Gianvito; Toselli, Mauro; Farina, Cinthia; Barker, Roger A; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of the human brain derives from the intricate interplay of molecular instructions during development. Here we systematically investigated gene expression changes in the prenatal human striatum and cerebral cortex during development from post-conception weeks 2 to 20. We identified tissue-specific gene coexpression networks, differentially expressed genes and a minimal set of bimodal genes, including those encoding transcription factors, that distinguished striatal from neocortical identities. Unexpected differences from mouse striatal development were discovered. We monitored 36 determinants at the protein level, revealing regional domains of expression and their refinement, during striatal development. We electrophysiologically profiled human striatal neurons differentiated in vitro and determined their refined molecular and functional properties. These results provide a resource and opportunity to gain global understanding of how transcriptional and functional processes converge to specify human striatal and neocortical neurons during development.

  20. Importance of Knowledge Management in Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Human resource management and knowledge management: • In human resource management - important to identify crucial knowledge base on which competitiveness of company depends → according this ensure appropriate development of human resources. • Era of so-called knowledge economy - only individual and organizational knowledge could give competitive advantage. • From operational perspective, knowledge management - systematic processes by which an organization identifies, creates, captures, acquires, shares and increase knowledge

  1. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  2. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  3. Fire history, effects and management in southern Nevada [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Randy A. McKinley

    2013-01-01

    Fire can be both an ecosystem stressor (Chapter 2) and a critical ecosystem process, depending on when, where, and under what conditions it occurs on the southern Nevada landscape. Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). The challenge faced by land managers is to prevent fires from occurring where they...

  4. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbances [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielle M. Malesky; Barbara J. Bentz; Gary R. Brown; Andrea R. Brunelle; John M. Buffington; Linda M. Chappell; R. Justin DeRose; John C. Guyon; Carl L. Jorgensen; Rachel A. Loehman; Laura L. Lowrey; Ann M. Lynch; Marek Matyjasik; Joel D. McMillin; Javier E. Mercado; Jesse L. Morris; Jose F. Negron; Wayne G. Padgett; Robert A. Progar; Carol B. Randall

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes disturbance regimes in the Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term "disturbance regime" describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent (e.g., insects, disease, fire, weather, human...

  5. Mind Mapping on Development of Human Resource of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Human resources in the field of education consists of students, teachers, administrative staff, university students, lecturers, structural employees, educational bureaucrats, stakeholders, parents, the society around the school, and the society around the campus. The existence of human resources need to be cultivated and developed towards the…

  6. Organizational Ethics Development and the Human Resource Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys literature on organizational moral development and describes research methodology employed, summarizes research findings, and examines career implications for human resource professionals. Contends that institutionalizing an ethics program can impact favorably on both the organization and the career of the implementing human resource…

  7. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human

  8. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  9. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  10. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  11. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  12. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  13. 1 Philosophy, Human Development and National Question John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    states that “the governors have the power to make Nigerians feel the impact of ..... is, knowledge provides the free and comprehensive development of human powers .... anti-corruption organization has consistently ranked Nigeria lowest.

  14. Revitalizing Society: Practicing Human Resource Development through the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Phillip Dean

    1988-01-01

    It is time to practice sound principles of human resources development in learning environments and to promote a cooperative, creative, collaboative, and participative leadership style in education as well as in industry, business, and government. (JOW)

  15. Inclusive development as an imperative to realizing the human right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusive development as an imperative to realizing the human right to water and sanitation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... where the latter aims at ensuring that the structural causes of inequality are also addressed.

  16. European Institutional and Organisational Tools for Maritime Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dragomir Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Seafarers need to continuously develop their career, at all stages of their professional life. This paper presents some tools of institutional and organisational career development. At insitutional level there are presented vocational education and training tools provided by the European Union institutions while at organisational level are exemplified some tools used by private crewing companies for maritime human resources assessment and development.

  17. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  18. The role of human resource development in organizational change : Professional development strategies of employees, managers and HRD practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; van der Krogt, F.J.; Billett, S.; Harteis, C.; Gruber, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to present, and provide empirical evidence for, a theory that gives central stage to actors operating strategically in the context of professional development. The learning-network theory (based on the seminal work of Ferd van der Krogt) deals with the organization of HRD

  19. Human capital – investing in man (intangible development factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Ziejewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue considered in the paper is a man, and his place and role in the work environment in the knowledge driven development. The author emphasises the significance of the human factor and analyses related terms against the background of the contemporary social economics. The human capital as a development factor is a modern strategy for achieving competitive advantages on the market.

  20. Social scaffolding of human amygdala-mPFCcircuit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim

    2015-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) support fundamental aspects of emotional behavior in adulthood. However, this circuitry is slow to develop in humans, exhibiting immaturity in childhood. The argument is made that the development of this circuitry in humans is intimately associated with caregiving, such that parental availability during childhood provides important and enduring scaffolding of neuroaffective processes that ultimately form of the nature of the adult phenotype.

  1. Financing Human Development in India: Strategies and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Ghazala

    2012-01-01

    India is ranked fairly high amongst the countries in terms of out of pocket expenditure by its citizens on health and education. India is ranked 134th on the Human Development Index (2011 ranking). Public expenditure on human development is given increasing emphasis but the desired results remain elusive as the expenditure on social services hardly benefits the needy because of leakages and wastage. Only well targeted expenditures coupled with sound implementation can benefit the poor. As ind...

  2. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  3. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants.

  4. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants

  5. Human Resources Development and Career Development: Where Are We, and Where Do We Need to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; McDonald, Kim; Rocco, Tonette S.; Byrd, Marilyn; Dawes, Elliott

    2018-01-01

    At the 2017 meeting of the Academy of Human Resource Development Annual Town Hall, four scholars discussed their diverse outlooks on the research and practice of career development in the Human Resource Development field. What follows in this curated collection of voices is a look into the perspective of each person who spoke at the 2017 Town Hall…

  6. A Development Dilemma for Secondary Vocational Education: Instrumentalist Tendencies in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development is one of the theories guiding China's development of secondary vocational education. Secondary vocational education has always played a role in human resource training and development from the nation's founding to the present. In Chinese society today, however, there is a clear instrumentalist tendency in secondary…

  7. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  8. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  9. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  10. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  11. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  12. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique

  13. Development of the human potential in Russian and foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Ivanovich Maslennikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, theoretical and methodical approaches to human development in Russia and foreign countries are analyzed. The contribution of the various countries to its formation and development is revealed. The indicators showing a level of development of human potential and components forming it in the creation of gross domestic product are analyzed. The alternative options of development of education, health care and science, expenses and benefit from their commercialization are revealed. The role of the state, federal regions and local authorities in management and development of health care, education, science during periods of crises, depressions and increases of economic activity is investigated. The interrelation of levels of development of the economy and human potential, with the levels and the population living conditions are revealed. The reasons of close attention of the governments of the developed countries to human development, and also the measures undertaken on minimization of interregional disproportions in its development become clear. Mechanisms and tools of development of health care, education, science in various regions of the world, a way of use of transfers, subsidies and grants on their development are investigated

  14. Essential technologies for developing human and robot collaborative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo

    1997-10-01

    In this study, we aim to develop a concept of new robot system, i.e., 'human and robot collaborative system', for the patrol of nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the two essential technologies developed for the system. One is the autonomous navigation program with human intervention function which is indispensable for human and robot collaboration. The other is the position estimation method by using gyroscope and TV image to make the estimation accuracy much higher for safe navigation. Feasibility of the position estimation method is evaluated by experiment and numerical simulation. (author)

  15. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  16. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  17. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Precise chronology of differentiation of developing human primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuefeng; Xu, Shan; Lin, Chensheng; Zhang, Lishan; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Yanding

    2014-02-01

    While correlation of developmental stage with embryonic age of the human primary dentition has been well documented, the available information regarding the differentiation timing of the primary teeth was largely based on the observation of initial mineralization and varies significantly. In this study, we aimed to document precise differentiation timing of the developing human primary dentition. We systematically examined the expression of odontogenic differentiation markers along with the formation of mineralized tissue in each developing maxillary and mandibular teeth from human embryos with well-defined embryonic age. We show that, despite that all primary teeth initiate development at the same time, odontogenic differentiation begins in the maxillary incisors at the 15th week and in the mandibular incisors at the 16th week of gestation, followed by the canine, the first primary premolar, and the second primary premolar at a week interval sequentially. Despite that the mandibular primary incisors erupt earlier than the maxillary incisors, this distal to proximal sequential differentiation of the human primary dentition coincides in general with the sequence of tooth eruption. Our results provide an accurate chronology of odontogenic differentiation of the developing human primary dentition, which could be used as reference for future studies of human tooth development.

  19. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  20. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  1. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  2. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  3. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  4. 21 CFR 812.47 - Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. 812.47 Section 812.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....47 Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. (a) The sponsor shall monitor the progress of...

  5. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  6. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  7. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  8. Development of the epaxial muscles in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Eleonore KÖhler, S.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2016-01-01

    Although the intrinsic muscles of the back are defined by their embryological origin and innervation pattern, no detailed study on their development is available. Human embryos (5-10 weeks development) were studied, using Amira3D® reconstruction and Cinema4D® remodeling software for visualization.

  9. Human Resource Development, Ethics, and the Social Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Floyd F.

    2018-01-01

    Businesses can achieve competitive advantage and better productivity and performance by attracting and developing exceptional employees, by caring for and listening to stakeholders, and by avoiding financial and reputational damage due to unethical and illegal behaviors. As a profession, human resource development (HRD) engages in practices that…

  10. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  11. Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) a relevant indicator? Jean Claude Saha. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 12(1) 2005: 1-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. The Role of Higher Education in Equitable Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peercy, Chavanne; Svenson, Nanette

    2016-01-01

    As developing countries continue to battle poverty despite strong economic growth, understanding the relationship between equity and human development becomes increasingly important. In this context, equity is not equivalent to equality for any specific outcome such as health status, education or income. It is an objective ideal whereby people's…

  13. The Development of Human Capital in Young Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickie, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the human capital development of a group of young entrepreneurs, all of whom have built growth businesses with turnovers of between 1M British Pounds and 90M British Pounds. Their development of knowledge and skills was investigated before and during the creation of their first main ventures. This is significant…

  14. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  15. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  16. Development of human resources for Indian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.; Puri, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The continuing research and development on nuclear technology by research establishments in the country and maturing of Indian industry have brought the nuclear energy programme in India to a stage where it is poised to take a quantum leap forward. The vision of expansion of nuclear power also requires a well-structured specialized human resource development programme. This paper discusses the requirements of the human resource development programme for nuclear energy, the challenges in the way of its realization, its national and international status and traces the history of nuclear education in the country. It brings out the linkage of human resource development programme with the nuclear energy programme in the country. It also describes the initiatives by the university system in the area of nuclear education and support provided by the Department of Atomic Energy to the university system by way of extra-mural funding and by providing access to research facilities. (author)

  17. Subplate in the developing cortex of mouse and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Zhi; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Oeschger, Franziska M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The subplate is a largely transient zone containing precocious neurons involved in several key steps of cortical development. The majority of subplate neurons form a compact layer in mouse, but are dispersed throughout a much larger zone in the human. In rodent, subplate neurons are among...... several genes that are specifically expressed in the subplate layer of the rodent dorsal cortex. Here we examined the human subplate for some of these markers. In the human dorsal cortex, connective tissue growth factor-positive neurons can be seen in the ventricular zone at 15-22 postconceptional weeks...... growth factor- and nuclear receptor-related 1-positive cells are two distinct cell populations of the human subplate. Furthermore, our microarray analysis in rodent suggested that subplate neurons produce plasma proteins. Here we demonstrate that the human subplate also expresses alpha2zinc...

  18. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  19. Development of human factors engineering guide for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dangshi; Sheng Jufang

    1997-01-01

    'THE PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TO NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT (First Draft, in Chinese)', which was developed under a research program sponsored by National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) is described briefly. It is hoped that more conscious, more systematical and more comprehensive application of Human Factors Engineering to the nuclear power projects from the preliminary feasibility studies up to the commercial operation will benefit the safe, efficient and economical operations of nuclear power plants in China

  20. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women’s empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries’ performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1 we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2 we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3 we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4 we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5 finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the ‘ecological’ approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  1. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  2. Paediatric Radiation Oncology. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Y.; Zaghloul, M.; Laskar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer is a typical disease of ageing adults, it can be seen at any age and cancer diagnosis in a child is not a rare situation. Every day around the world, many teenagers, young children and even infants are diagnosed with cancer. Cancer in children is an important health care problem, not only for the individual patient and medical staff, but also for families, teachers, friends and society as a whole. In every culture, children are considered innocent human beings and the diagnosis of such an ‘evil’ disease in a young child always induces feelings of unfairness and anguish. Most childhood cancers are curable; using the best treatment options, more than 80% of children with cancer may survive to adulthood. However, cure alone is not the ultimate goal for paediatric cancer treatment; late effects of treatment impact the quality of life of patients. Cure from cancer in a child means adding at least 50–60 years to his or her life, which is long enough to develop serious late effects of the treatment and the induction of secondary cancers. Thus, treatment should be tailored to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues to chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Cancer treatment can be a painful process, often involving surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and requiring very long treatment periods, which impair the motor and mental development of the child, and his or her educational activities and relations with society. Childhood cancer survivors sometimes have modest to severe sequelae of the disease itself and the treatment used, which may disrupt their development to a healthy adulthood. These cancer survivors should be fully integrated into society and be allowed to live productive lives even when lifelong rehabilitation is required to keep them active.

  3. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic ...

  4. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkevich, P. A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them.

  5. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danu Prasetyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the efficiency level of government expenditure in 82 countries towards the human development and peace index of the respective countries by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach during 2007-2011. We found that only few countries that always being positioned in the efficient frontier during the sample period, namely: Japan, Nigeria, and Norway.  By using Malmquist index approach, we also found that Cyprus has the largest government expenditure efficiency improvement.Keywords: Government Expenditure Efficiencies, Human Development Index, Global Peace Indexdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3 How to cite this article:Prasetyo, A.D., and Pudjono, A.N.S. (2013. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 82-91. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3

  6. The development of human mast cells. An historical reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of mast cell (MC) differentiation is derived mainly from in vitro studies of different stages of stem and progenitor cells. The hematopoietic lineage development of human MCs is unique compared to other myeloid-derived cells. Human MCs originate from CD34"+/CD117"+/CD13"+multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which undergo transendothelial recruitment into peripheral tissues, where they complete differentiation. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major chemotactic factor for MCs and their progenitors. SCF also elicits cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion, facilitates the proliferation, and sustains the survival, differentiation, and maturation, of MCs. Because MC maturation is influenced by local microenvironmental factors, different MC phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs. - Highlights: • Human mast cells originate from CD34/CD117/CD13 positive multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. • Stem cell factor is a major chemotactic factor for mast cells and their progenitors. • Different mast cell phenotypes can develop in different tissues and organs.

  7. Xenotransplantation as a model for human testicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Marsida; Smith, Lee B; Mitchell, Rod T

    The developing male reproductive system may be sensitive to disruption by a wide range of exogenous 'endocrine disruptors'. In-utero exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been hypothesized to have an impact in the increasing incidence of male reproductive disorders. The vulnerability to adverse effects as a consequence of such exposures is elevated during a specific 'window of susceptibility' in fetal life referred to as the masculinisation programing window (MPW). Exposures that occur during prepuberty, such as chemotherapy treatment for cancer during childhood, may also affect future fertility. Much of our current knowledge about fetal and early postnatal human testicular development derives from studies conducted in animal models predictive for humans. Therefore, over recent years, testicular transplantation has been employed as a 'direct' approach to understand the development of human fetal and prepubertal testis in health and disease. In this review we describe the potential use of human testis xenotransplantation to study testicular development and its application for (i) assessing the effects of environmental exposures in humans, and (ii) establishing fertility preservation options for prepubertal boys with cancer. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  9. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  10. Toshiba's activity concerning technology succession and human resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Hoshide, Akehiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, from the viewpoint of the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission that cause global warming and the energy security, the importance of nuclear power generation is recognized again as an effective approach for solving the problems, and many nuclear power plants are planed to be constructed worldwide. On the other hand, the experienced engineers will face the time of the retirement in the near future and technology succession and human resource development has become important problems. In this paper, Toshiba's Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Division's activity concerning technology succession and human resource development will be introduced. (author)

  11. Multicultural development in human services agencies: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive multicultural organizational development (MCOD) is increasingly necessary in human services agencies. This article presents results from an exploratory study that identified challenges and solutions to MCOD, against the backdrop of daily realities of agency life. The author conducted interviews with 20 consultants and 20 practitioners experienced in MCOD. Qualitative analysis revealed four challenges--socioeconomic environment, organizational dynamics, conceptualization of the change effort, and consultant competence; and four solutions--collaborative environmental relations, leadership development, assessment and planning, and consultant selection. Results suggest the complexities of MCOD and ways that human services agencies can sustain such efforts.

  12. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  13. Physics of Ultrasound. Chapter 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modality, accounting for approximately 25% of all imaging examinations performed worldwide at the beginning of the 21st century. The success of ultrasound may be attributed to a number of attractive characteristics, including the relatively low cost and portability of an ultrasound scanner, the non-ionizing nature of ultrasound waves, the ability to produce real time images of blood flow and moving structures such as the beating heart, and the intrinsic contrast among soft tissue structures that is achieved without the need for an injected contrast agent. The latter characteristic enables ultrasound to be used for a wide range of medical applications, which historically have primarily included cardiac and vascular imaging, imaging of the abdominal organs and, most famously, in utero imaging of the developing fetus. Ongoing technological improvements continue to expand the use of ultrasound for many applications, including cancer imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, ophthalmology and others. The term ultrasound refers specifically to acoustic waves at frequencies greater than the maximum frequency audible to humans, which is nominally 20 kHz. Diagnostic imaging is generally performed using ultrasound in the frequency range of 2–15 MHz. The choice of frequency is dictated by a trade off between spatial resolution and penetration depth, since higher frequency waves can be focused more tightly but are attenuated more rapidly by tissue. The information contained in an ultrasonic image is influenced by the physical processes underlying propagation, reflection and attenuation of ultrasound waves in tissue.

  14. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  15. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  16. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  17. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  18. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  19. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  20. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  1. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  2. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than 10 yr ago, considerably prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline

  3. Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Neuroeconomics and Human Resource Development Objective Neuroeconomic game trials have detected a present-bias in human decision making which represents a serious shortcoming facing the long termed nature of complex problems in a globalized economy i.e. regional residual poverty, ecological...... threats and personal stress. So far, the evidence-based findings on human resource development (HRD) seem not to match these huge challenges. The aim of this study is to identify cost-effective means of mental training to recover sufficiently from the present bias to enable more sustainable decisions...... Pragmatic de-stressing by medical meditation adds extra years to a normal life and saves health care expenses for a moderate meditation course fee. So, medical meditation prevails as a dominant de-stressing intervention serving a wider goal of more long termed decision making. An international monitoring...

  4. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRS) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operators overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline, hereafter referred to as the ''Guideline.''

  5. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  6. Development of an integrated system for estimating human error probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Morzinski, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project had as its main objective the development of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), knowledge-based expert system that would provide probabilistic estimates for potential human errors within various risk assessments, safety analysis reports, and hazard assessments. HRA identifies where human errors are most likely, estimates the error rate for individual tasks, and highlights the most beneficial areas for system improvements. This project accomplished three major tasks. First, several prominent HRA techniques and associated databases were collected and translated into an electronic format. Next, the project started a knowledge engineering phase where the expertise, i.e., the procedural rules and data, were extracted from those techniques and compiled into various modules. Finally, these modules, rules, and data were combined into a nearly complete HRA expert system.

  7. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  8. Milestones of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation – From First Human Studies to Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mateja Kralj; Ghimire, Sakhila; Ogonek, Justyna; Weissinger, Eva M.; Holler, Ernst; van Rood, Jon J.; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Dickinson, Anne; Greinix, Hildegard T.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft. Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system allowed improved donor selection, including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow, other stem cell sources like granulocyte-colony stimulating-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. Use of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning regimens has been associated with a marked reduction of non-hematological toxicities and eventually, non-relapse mortality allowing older patients and individuals with comorbidities to undergo allogeneic HSCT and to benefit from GvL or antitumor effects. Whereas in the early years, malignant disease eradication by high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy was the ultimate goal; nowadays, allogeneic HSCT has been recognized as cellular immunotherapy relying prominently on immune mechanisms and to a lesser extent on non-specific direct cellular toxicity. This chapter will summarize the key milestones of HSCT and introduce current developments. PMID:27881982

  9. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  10. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  11. Development in the Learning Factory: Training Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Harry; Delbridge, Rick

    2001-01-01

    A study of human resource practices in 18 automobile factories in the United States and Britain showed that manufacturing innovations are placing greater demands on line managers and workers. Training is being refocused to develop their interpersonal, team, and leadership skills. However, lack of time and suitable training facilities are barriers.…

  12. Analysis Of Human Capital Development In Technical Colleges In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the human capital development in Technical Colleges in Imo State of Nigeria. All the Technical Colleges in the State participated in the study. Results showed low enrollment in the Colleges. There was gender inequity in the enrollment as only 59 females (1.97%) enrolled in the Technical Colleges.

  13. AFRA-NEST: A Tool for Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanor, Edison; Akaho, E.H.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: • Regional Networks could serve as a common platform to meet the needs for human resource development. • With AFRA-NEST, International cooperation would be strengthened. • Systematic integration and sharing of available nuclear training resources. • Cost of training future nuclear experts could drastically be reduced

  14. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  15. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  16. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  17. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  18. Philosophy and logic as inescapable organon for human development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is intended to articulate “a fortiori” the inescapability of “lumen naturale intellectus”1 as man‟s imperative for human development. At the end of this research we shall have succeeded in presenting philosophy as the home of, and always at home with, those problems with which other fields cannot cope.

  19. Human Capital Development: A Strategy for Moving Nigeria into the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The driving force for a nation's development and growth has shifted from natural endowment to knowledge economy. Countries without abundant resources have been excelling because of the emphasis on human capital that propels knowledge economy. This paper therefore, has emphasized the need for Nigeria to move ...

  20. Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Crespo, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    By applying Amartya Sen's capability approach, this article questions the functionalist idea that suggests that education can precipitate economic growth and development. It will be argued that the freedom-centred perspective advances the concept of human capital and that it allows a deeper understanding of the relationship between higher…

  1. Role of Philosophy in Human Development in Nigeria | Asike | UJAH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is indeed absurd to talk about development or impose on a human race a civilization without reference to Philosophy. Philosophy is a living subject which embraces all dialectical interpretations of life changes in society. It gives the hermeneutics understanding of reality by acting as a means to an end, through the ...

  2. Social networks and human development / Redes sociales y desarrollo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gallego Trijueque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is a brief introduction to the concept of social networks and their importance in society. Social networks have been responsible over the centuries to preserve community values, in addition to being facilitators of social interaction in human development processes, through communication and relationships between individuals.

  3. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  4. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  5. Continuous Creation: Developing a Scientific and Humane Personal Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styers, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    Human beings must develop both a rational acceptance of unfolding scientific knowledge and an attitude of caring and tolerance for all lives. Supernatural conceptions are almost always exclusive concerning some aspects of reality and have often been the basis for inhumane conduct. Everyday we create our lives. (CS)

  6. The Ecology of Human Development in Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    In attempting to define the "ecology" of human development, the term's history and connotations are discussed. The ecological approach requires that the person, the environment, and the relations between them be conceptualized in terms of systems, and subsystems within systems. The experimental situation is not limited to being…

  7. Peace, Human Security and Sustainable Development in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peace, Human Security and Sustainable Development in Africa ... into a sustainable livelihood for some of the poorest communities in Africa. ... Project status ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows ... titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from ...

  8. Human Factors in Software Development Processes: Measuring System Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahão, Silvia; Baldassarre, Maria Teresa; Caivano, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction look at the development process from different perspectives. They apparently use very different approaches, are inspired by different principles and address different needs. But, they definitively have the same goal: develop high quality software...... in the most effective way. The second edition of the workshop puts particular attention on efforts of the two communities in enhancing system quality. The research question discussed is: who, what, where, when, why, and how should we evaluate?...

  9. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS; ANNA KOURTESOPOULOU

    2008-01-01

    In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD). For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development ...

  10. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  11. Human Sustainable Development in the Context of Europa 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human development is a constant concern at European level. Thus, various programs have been proposed with the main objective of developing skills of citizens and informing them about training courses as part of lifelong learning and of employment in the labour market. The article highlights the evolution of European Union through the investments in human capital. The objective of this paper is represented by the analysis of the impact of sustainable human development through trans-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education in the context of the European Union strategy proposed for the following period up to 2020. Europe 2020 represents a strategic plan for European Union development until 2020, having as main objective raising the standard of living and the quality of life for European citizens. Europe 2020 strategy promotes a new vision for the economy of European Union. For the following period until 2020 there is a major concern for creating favourable conditions for development of a sustainable intelligent economy that promotes inclusion. Some of the main activities with a major impact on creating such conditions are investments in education, research and innovation. The article analyses the current and recent past years’ situation in terms of sustainable development from educational and economic perspectives at European Union level. The analysis was done based on Eurostat data, using specific statistical methods.

  12. Company Development Through the Employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvenegaard, Hans; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter four documents the the proces and results...

  13. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  14. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  15. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  16. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  17. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  18. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  19. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marijne Heeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception. Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development.

  20. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  1. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  2. Techniques for discrimination-free predictive models (Chapter 12)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we give an overview of the techniques developed ourselves for constructing discrimination-free classifiers. In discrimination-free classification the goal is to learn a predictive model that classifies future data objects as accurately as possible, yet the predicted labels should be

  3. Chapter 4: Establishment of the integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter summarizes how the Integrated Modelling System has been established. The Danubian Lowland Information System (DLIS) has been developed, providing a central database and Geographical Information System (GIS) with facilities for data storage, maintenance, processing and presentation. In addition, data can be imported and exported in the file formats readable for the applied modelling system

  4. Chapter 4: Lateral design of cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...

  5. Chapter 7. Assessing soil factors in wildland improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Carlos F. Lopez

    2004-01-01

    Soil factors are an important consideration for successful wildland range development or improvement programs. Even though many soil improvement and amelioration practices are not realistic for wildlands, their evaluation is an important step in selection of adapted plant materials for revegetation. This chapter presents information for wildland managers on: the...

  6. FDI spillovers, absorptive capacities and human capital development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh; Marin, Anabel

    2003-01-01

    spillovers accrue from MNE activity, and provide apreliminary understanding of why MNE spillovers remain somewhat ambiguous,particularly in developing countries, paying particular attention to human capitaldevelopment. Our analysis is supported by data from the Innovation Survey in Argentina.On the whole......It is nowadays generally accepted that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is crucialas a source of technological spillovers. One of the objectives of this paper is to review theevidence on the quantity and quality of human capital employed by domestic and foreignfirms. We examine whether...

  7. On culture and human development: Interview with Barbara Rogoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2011-01-01

    In this interview Professor Barbara Rogoff explores the many ways in which culture shapes the course of human development, and illustrates this with several findings from her past as well as most recent work. These reveal the vital importance of growing up in a family and a community for the human...... child and participating, from early on, in their various rituals and practices. Building on and enriching cultural psychological sources, Professor Rogoff offers us a comprehensive framework with which to understand both cultural and developmental phenomena and, above all, their multiple intersections...

  8. Some developments in human reliability analysis approaches and tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannaman, G W; Worledge, D H

    1988-01-01

    Since human actions have been recognized as an important contributor to safety of operating plants in most industries, research has been performed to better understand and account for the way operators interact during accidents through the control room and equipment interface. This paper describes the integration of a series of research projects sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to strengthen the methods for performing the human reliability analysis portion of the probabilistic safety studies. It focuses on the analytical framework used to guide the analysis, the development of the models for quantifying time-dependent actions, and simulator experiments used to validate the models.

  9. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  10. Research and development studies on human factors: new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Larchier-Boulanger, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing where the research work on human factors undertaken at EDF stands in relation to this European trend and to define the problematics of cognitive phenomena in relation to all (non cognitive) human phenomena, on the one hand, and to individual aspects as compared to collective and organizational aspects, on the other. Some important trends in the research and development studies will thus be examined one lay one: - analysis of operators' activity; - analysis of the activity cognitive aspects; - problem of the impact of non-cognitive aspects

  11. The development of human visual cortex and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu CR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Caitlin R Siu,1 Kathryn M Murphy1,2 1McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study (MiNDS Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The primary visual cortex (V1 is the first cortical area that processes visual information. Normal development of V1 depends on binocular vision during the critical period, and age-related losses of vision are linked with neurobiological changes in V1. Animal studies have provided important details about the neurobiological mechanisms in V1 that support normal vision or are changed by visual diseases. There is very little information, however, about those neurobiological mechanisms in human V1. That lack of information has hampered the translation of biologically inspired treatments from preclinical models to effective clinical treatments. We have studied human V1 to characterize the expression of neurobiological mechanisms that regulate visual perception and neuroplasticity. We have identified five stages of development for human V1 that start in infancy and continue across the life span. Here, we describe these stages, compare them with visual and anatomical milestones, and discuss implications for translating treatments for visual disorders that depend on neuroplasticity of V1 function. Keywords: development, human visual cortex, amblyopia, synaptic plasticity, glutamatergic, GABAergic, receptors

  12. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2018-01-01

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  14. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  15. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  16. Impact of Human Resources Management on Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasan Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decisive role played by Human Resources Management (HRM in the emergence and sustenance of entrepreneurship development in an organisation cannot be misplaced as it ensures optimum deployment and development of personnel towards the actualization of set organisational objectives. Using a primary data sourced through a well-structured and self- administered questionnaires served to sixty HR managers and supervisors, and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, this study investigates the role of (HRM in entrepreneurship development. The tested hypotheses revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.44 which indicate the existence of a moderate positive relationship between Human Resources Management (HRM and entrepreneurship development. This indicates that HRM can facilitate entrepreneurship development in an organization. Hence HR managers must seek as much as possible measures that will ensure that their human resource are adequately compensated, rewarded and motivated to enhance their performance which will translate to improved performance that will influence the overall performance of the organisation.

  17. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  18. The Contribution of the Human Development Index Literacy Theory to the Debate on Literacy and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biao, Idowu; Mogotsi, Kebadire; Maruatona, Tonic; Raditloaneng, Wapula; Tladi, Flora; Chawawa, Morgan; Kheru, Obakeng

    2014-01-01

    The Human Development Index Literacy (HDIL) theory was developed in 2011 to eliminate or minimise the negative impact of issues underlying the failure of previous literacy programmes in promoting socio-economic development. This theory was tested for the first time between July 2013 and February 2014 in two rural communities of Botswana. A…

  19. Concept development of the human reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories initiated a three-phased research program in 1981 to develop a plan for a human reliability data bank. This research initiative was in response to the data needs of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community. The three phases are: (1) develop the data bank concept; (2) develop an implementation plan and conduct a feasibility test; and (3) assist the sponsor in implementing the data bank. This paper briefly describes some of the results of the work performed during Phase A and outlines the program elements schedules for Phase B

  20. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  1. Human Resource Development for Nuclear Power Programme in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ovona

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite the effort by the Government to ensure reliable and available access to electricity which is crucial to the socio – economic development, the use of hydro power, biomass and oil, geothermal and peat alone would not meet the target of the vision 2040. There is need to identifies nuclear energy as a potential option for meeting the energy deficit. Development of nuclear energy for power generation needs decision making, preparation and preparatory work which involve human resource development process, strengthening the legislation and regulatory framework, stakeholders’ involvement and public acceptance campaign

  2. Impact of human development on safety consciousness in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradan, Selim; Dikmen, Seyyit Umit; Akboga Kale, Ozge

    2018-05-03

    The International Labour Organization (ILO) reports that the risk of fatal occupational injuries in developing countries is almost twice as high as in developed countries, indicating a potential relationship between the fatality rates and the development level. The human development index (HDI), based on life expectancy, knowledge level and purchasing power parity, endorsed by the United Nations Development Programme, is a widely accepted measure of the development level. This study investigates the relationship between the HDI and the fatality rates reported by the ILO. A 23-country data set is used to demonstrate the general trend of the relationship followed by country-specific analyses for Australia, Spain, Hungary and Turkey. The study conducted is limited to fatal occupational injuries in construction, where the accidents are notoriously high. The results demonstrate a statistically significant inverse relationship between the fatality rates and the HDI.

  3. Human Exploration and Development in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    2017-05-01

    Emergence of ballistic missile technology after the Second World War enabled human flight into Earth's orbit, fueling the imagination of those fascinated with science, technology, exploration, and adventure. The performance of astronauts in the early flights assuaged concerns about the functioning of "the human system" in the absence of normal gravity. However, researchers in space medicine have observed degradation of crews after longer exposure to the space environment and have developed countermeasures for most of them, although significant challenges remain. With the dawn of the 21st century, well-financed and technically competent commercial entities began to provide more affordable alternatives to historically expensive and risk-averse government-funded programs. Space's growing accessibility has encouraged entrepreneurs to pursue plans for potentially autarkic communities beyond Earth, exploiting natural resources on other worlds. Should such dreams prove to be technically and economically feasible, a new era will open for humanity with concomitant societal issues of a revolutionary nature.

  4. A human development framework for CO2 reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Costa

    Full Text Available Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI and per capita CO(2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2 emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8. In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2 budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2. These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C.

  5. A human development framework for CO2 reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luís; Rybski, Diego; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2011-01-01

    Although developing countries are called to participate in CO(2) emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO(2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Employing this empirical relation, extrapolating the HDI, and using three population scenarios, the cumulative CO(2) emissions necessary for developing countries to achieve particular HDI thresholds are assessed following a Development As Usual approach (DAU). If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8). In particular, 300 Gt of cumulative CO(2) emissions between 2000 and 2050 are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO(2) budgets limiting global warming to 2 °C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO(2) reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2 °C target after a particular development threshold is reached. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with an HDI of 0.9 by 33 %. Under this approach, global cumulative emissions by 2050 are estimated to range from 850 up to 1100 Gt of CO(2). These values are within the uncertainty range of emissions to limit global temperatures to 2 °C. © 2011 Costa et al.

  6. Human Development – Qualitative Dimensions of a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Pirtea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available “The human development” concept was born in a period characterized by an important number of events that have caused important changes of the geo-political factors as well as essential mutations at economic and social level. This period is known as the “post-war era”. In this era, the world economy has registered considerable progress. The international cooperation and economic development have permitted the significant increase of merchandise and services world-wide commerce as well as the increase of foreign investments. Both the global production structure and the labour force structure have changed. The rapid technological progress changes all activity fields as well as human lives. Unfortunately, this global economic development is doubled by the persistence of economic and social differences and by the occurrence of set-backs. In the present paper, we are trying to present the Romanian position towards the human development as well as the development perspectives of this position in the context of Romania’s integration in the European Union.

  7. Genetic regulation of pituitary gland development in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelberman, Daniel; Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Robinson, Iain C A F; Dattani, Mehul T

    2009-12-01

    Normal hypothalamopituitary development is closely related to that of the forebrain and is dependent upon a complex genetic cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules that may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the developing Rathke's pouch. These factors dictate organ commitment, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation within the anterior pituitary. Abnormalities in these processes are associated with congenital hypopituitarism, a spectrum of disorders that includes syndromic disorders such as septo-optic dysplasia, combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, and isolated hormone deficiencies, of which the commonest is GH deficiency. The highly variable clinical phenotypes can now in part be explained due to research performed over the last 20 yr, based mainly on naturally occurring and transgenic animal models. Mutations in genes encoding both signaling molecules and transcription factors have been implicated in the etiology of hypopituitarism, with or without other syndromic features, in mice and humans. To date, mutations in known genes account for a small proportion of cases of hypopituitarism in humans. However, these mutations have led to a greater understanding of the genetic interactions that lead to normal pituitary development. This review attempts to describe the complexity of pituitary development in the rodent, with particular emphasis on those factors that, when mutated, are associated with hypopituitarism in humans.

  8. Concept of environment, sustainable development and respect for human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana ÇURI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the definition of environmental protection is an aspiration which has served as prerequisites to the implementation of human rights in a global economic crises. European Regional System has traditionally been focused on the protection of civil and political rights. In the wake of environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights, the emphasis has been placed more on the social, economic and cultural. Collective mechanisms to appeal to the United Nations and the European Court of Human Rights, gave a number of decisions on matters implicating environmental laws and policies. What is to be noted, is the evolution of the guarantees provided under the European Convention on Human Rights, which refers to a substantial understanding of environmental protection, and also including procedural aspects related to the protection of the right to life, privacy, property, information and effective means of appeal. This evolution has been launched by the growing need for states to take preventive measures and policies to the requirements for a balanced sustainable economic development, avoiding environmental risks that imply the violation of human rights. Proportionality in the protection of the interests in this respect creates a context for a fair trial, but also promotes an open and constructive dialogue between judges and lawmakers to protect the public interest.

  9. Human leukocytic pyrogen: purification and development of a radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A; Renfer, L; Wolff, S M

    1977-10-01

    Leukocytic pyrogen is a small endogenous protein that mediates fever. Because of the limitations of bioassays, circulating leukocytic pyrogen has not been demonstrated during fever in humans. The pyrogen was produced in vitro after phagocytosis of staphylococci by blood monocytes. Antibody against the pyrogen was obtained from rabbits immunized with leukocytic pyrogen and the antiserum was purified by solid-phase immunoadsorbants. Purified antibody to the pyrogen was attached to activated Sepharose 4B and used in conjunction with gel filtration to purify the pyrogen. The pyrogen was labeled with 125I and further purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The final preparation of 125I-labeled pyrogen demonstrated a homogeneous band during isoelectric focusing and other separation procedures. With antibody to pyrogen attached to Sepharose, less than 0.1 of a rabbit pyrogenic dose of human leukocytic pyrogen inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled pyrogen to this immunoadsorbant, and this inhibition was not affected by the presence of human serum. Thus, a radioimmunoassay for human leukocytic pyrogen has been developed that may be used to detect circulating pyrogen during fever in humans.

  10. Development of a finite element model of the human abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J B; Yang, K H

    2001-11-01

    Currently, three-dimensional finite element models of the human body have been developed for frequently injured anatomical regions such as the brain, chest, extremities and pelvis. While a few models of the human body include the abdomen, these models have tended to oversimplify the complexity of the abdominal region. As the first step in understanding abdominal injuries via numerical methods, a 3D finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male human abdomen (WSUHAM) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of side impact tests and a series of frontal impact tests. The model includes a detailed representation of the liver, spleen, kidneys, spine, skin and major blood vessels. Hollow organs, such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, bile ducts, ureters, rectum and adrenal glands are grouped into three bodybags in order to provide realistic inertial properties and to maintain the position of the solid organs in their appropriate locations. Using direct connections, the model was joined superiorly to a partial model of the human thorax, and inferiorly to models of the human pelvis and the lower extremities that have been previously developed. Material properties for various tissues of the abdomen were derived from the literature. Data obtained in a series of cadaveric pendulum impact tests conducted at Wayne State University (WSU), a series of lateral drop tests conducted at Association Peugeot-Renault (APR) and a series of cadaveric lower abdomen frontal impact tests conducted at WSU were used to validate the model. Results predicted by the model match these experimental data for various impact speeds, impactor masses and drop heights. Further study is still needed in order to fully validate WSUHAM before it can be used to assess various impact loading conditions associated with vehicular crashes.

  11. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  12. Human behavioral biology: commentary on Lerner and von Eye's sociobiology and human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Burgess, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that in their examination of arguments forwarded by sociobiologists to account for key features of human development, R. M. Lerner and A. von Eye (see record 1992-23071-001) misunderstand the role of general theory in science. They also fail to characterize the work of sociobiologists

  13. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  14. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  15. Inspiration from heart development: Biomimetic development of functional human cardiac organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan J; Coyle, Robert C; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Wong, Kerri; Toomer, Katelynn; Menick, Donald R; Mei, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in human organoids has provided 3D tissue systems to model human development, diseases, as well as develop cell delivery systems for regenerative therapies. While direct differentiation of human embryoid bodies holds great promise for cardiac organoid production, intramyocardial cell organization during heart development provides biological foundation to fabricate human cardiac organoids with defined cell types. Inspired by the intramyocardial organization events in coronary vasculogenesis, where a diverse, yet defined, mixture of cardiac cell types self-organizes into functional myocardium in the absence of blood flow, we have developed a defined method to produce scaffold-free human cardiac organoids that structurally and functionally resembled the lumenized vascular network in the developing myocardium, supported hiPSC-CM development and possessed fundamental cardiac tissue-level functions. In particular, this development-driven strategy offers a robust, tunable system to examine the contributions of individual cell types, matrix materials and additional factors for developmental insight, biomimetic matrix composition to advance biomaterial design, tissue/organ-level drug screening, and cell therapy for heart repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Development report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21. Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country - however wealthy or powerful - will be immune to the impact of global warming. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren. There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most damaging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world has less than a decade to change course. Actions taken - or not taken - in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of human development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is a sense of urgency, human solidarity and collective interest. As the Human Development Report 2007/2008 argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we manage the environment of the one thing that we share in common: planet Earth. It challenges us to reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and

  17. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  18. A Study on Human Resources Development in Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Keehwan; Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Nam, J. H.; Won, B. C.; Lee, D. S; Hwang, I. A.; Seo, M. W.

    2011-11-01

    The study encompasses 4 major parts, each results being described here under: Various policy alternatives through supply-demand analysis of domestic nuclear skilled manpower are suggested. Human resources development programs of main educational organizations in domestic and overseas are comprehensively reviewed. Establishment of 'Integrated Management Organization' which can combine and manage domestic educational organizations' educational functions is necessary to efficiently deal with the increased educational demand and the shift of educational paradigm from supply-driven to needs-driven education and to make nuclear energy export sustainable. And road map on human resource development to efficiently accomplish 'Integrated Management Organization's mission is suggested. It is provided that an overall strategies for the reasonable educational program reflecting the good practices with their implications in overseas nuclear education programs

  19. A human-oriented framework for developing assistive service robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Conor; Cullinan, Michael F; Culleton, Mark; Kelly, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Multipurpose robots that can perform a range of useful tasks have the potential to increase the quality of life for many people living with disabilities. Owing to factors such as high system complexity, as-yet unresolved research questions and current technology limitations, there is a need for effective strategies to coordinate the development process. Integrating established methodologies based on human-centred design and universal design, a framework was formulated to coordinate the robot design process over successive iterations of prototype development. An account is given of how the framework was practically applied to the problem of developing a personal service robot. Application of the framework led to the formation of several design goals which addressed a wide range of identified user needs. The resultant prototype solution, which consisted of several component elements, succeeded in demonstrating the performance stipulated by all of the proposed metrics. Application of the framework resulted in the development of a complex prototype that addressed many aspects of the functional and usability requirements of a personal service robot. Following the process led to several important insights which directly benefit the development of subsequent prototypes. Implications for Rehabilitation This research shows how universal design might be used to formulate usability requirements for assistive service robots. A framework is presented that guides the process of designing service robots in a human-centred way. Through practical application of the framework, a prototype robot system that addressed a range of identified user needs was developed.

  20. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.